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3/5/2017 ASP Flashcards | Quizlet

ASP
Siderosis is associated with what
two types of work?

Quizlet
474 terms mikaedwardsl213

Welding and iron ore mining.


It is the inhalation of iron
oxides.


In pneumatic fire detection, the The air pressure will go up and eventually the
pneumatic detectors have air at diaphragm will be deflected.
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which will cause the diaphragm to do what?



Below the recommended values for the mixture. Because
Nephrotoxins
Cl/Tl + C2/T2 is < 1. Example 500/75 + 50/200 < 1.
Chemicals that attack the kidney upon
If the air contains 500 PPM of acetone
entry into the body are called?
(TLV, 750PPM) and 50 PPM of MEK
(TLV, 200PPM), the concentration of

What are 3 examples
the mixture is what? of Nephrotoxins? Uranium, halogenated hydrocarbons, and vinyl chloride.
Byssinosis
What is the occupational disease
Neutralization
The reaction
caused between
as a result an acid
of over and a
- exposure
base is BEST
to cotton dust?described by which of
the following terms? The amount of energy received by the material.


When
When an acid
using and base react
luminescent in the
detectors Salt and Water. Both the acid and the base have been
stoichiometric ratios,with
collision of neutrons the result is
the solid neutralized.
what?
material in the detector generates
excess energy operate
which is aemitted
When workers power in the It is always in place except for maintance and or die
form of light.
presses, This is
the fixed proportional
enclosure to is
guard changing.
what?
always in place expect for what two

tasks? Density = Mass/Volume. 70 = 2100/volume. Volume =
2100/70 = 30ft3. However, the above value is only half
Define the LD
A spherical 50?
tank is half filled with a
Lethal Dose 50 indicated the amount of chemic, which
the total volumne of the tank. Total volume of tank =
liquid that has a density of 70 lbs/ft3. If can produce death in 50% of tested animals in a given
30*2=60ft3
the mass of liquid in the tank is 2100 period of time.
lbs. The volume of the tank is equal to:
Carbon Monoxide is a what? Chemical Asphyxiant

Hearing loss due to aging is known as? Presbycusis

Prevalence - 2/1000 = 0.002

In an epidemiological study 2 out of


1,000 people were found to have a
disease. The prevalence for this study
is what?

Invasion and destruction of cells, production of toxic
A bacteria can cause injury to the materials, and producing damaging hypersensitivity
human body by what 3 examples? reactions.

Laser radiation is what type of


Non - ionizing radiation
raditation?

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What is ionizing radiation? It is any electromagnetic or particulate radiation
3/5/2017 ASP Flashcards | Quizlet

capable of producing ions either directly or indirectly as a result of interaction with matter.
In oxgyen cutting of metals?
The base metal is cut as a result of a chemical reaction
with oxygen and a fuel gas or arc maintains the elevated
temperature.
20%

Approximately what percent of


musculosketal injuries are caused by
pushing or pulling objects?

In welding operations, the primary
To prevent entry of air to the arc and to minimize
purpose of an inert gas shield is what
formation of nitrides and oxides in the weld.
two things?

What is the main reason for guarding
Prevent one's hand from getting caught between the
block and tackles used in confined
pulley and the rope.
spaces?
Fixed enclosure guard

What is the best type of protection for


workers who operate a power press?

A Ground Fault Interrupter? Detects the flow of electricity to the ground and opens the
circuit.

The two main categories of circuit


Magnetic and thermal
breakers are?

What does the thermal type circuit It opens the circuit based on temperature rise resulting
breaker do? from current flow.

Work on the basis of the amount of current flowing


What do magnetic circuit breakers do? through the device.
Magenta on yellow background

The universal color used for displaying


radiation hazards signs and labels is?

Seriousness of the hazard, means to avoid the hazard,
An effective product hazard warning
and words such as caution and warning.
must include what 3 main things?

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Behavior safety sampling involves Safe or Unsafe. This observation is usually conducted at random
observation of worker's work habits intervals.
which is usually classified as what two
things?
It means that everyone should participate either ^
What is leveling according to Argyris?
directly or indirectly in the decision making
process.
Interlocked.

What are machine gaurds that shut off


or disengage power and prevent the
machine from starting when the guard
is opened?
Interlocked.

What are self adjusting guards which


provide barriers that move according to
the size of the stock entering the
danger area.
THERP

Which analytical technique deals with


human error prediction?

What isTHERP? An acronym for Technique for Human Error Rate lir
Prediction.

What is FTA? FAult Tree Analysis

What is FMECA? Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis

What is PH A? Preliminary Hazard Analysis &

Name five characteritics of leadership 1. Build responsibility ^


role in maintaining a quality safety 2. Focus on the process
program? 3. Educate

4 Inspire by example 5. Set expectations.

In defining an effective safety 1. Identification of the hazards associated with each &
task.
training program, validity refers to what
two things?
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2. The required knowledge and skills to preform those tasks in a safe manner.

Name three characteristics of a 1. A narrow excavation 'it


trench?
2. Deeper than it is wide
heat and fainting?
Name a chemical that is not 3. Never wider
Calcium than 15 feet
carbide ^

1. Easy to grade 'it


Mulitple
suitable choice exams are whatwith
3
for being extinguished
2. Easy to statically analyze
things?
water?
3. Can be objectively graded.
What are the six major types of 1. Pre action
Gamma Rays 'it
Luminescent
sprinkler radiation detectors are 2. Deluge
systems?
suitable for measuring which type of 3. Limited Water Supply systems 4 Combined
ionizing radiation? 5. Wet pipe
6. Dry pipe
What are luminescent detectors Measuring the flow of neutrons. 'it
effective at?
An outside automatic
Pre-action trainer cansprinkler effective1. Damage to piping or sprinkler heads
be very systems ^
1. The supervisors have relatively low skills 'it
for what three situations? 2. The property is sensitive to water.
designed to control the fire when their
2. There is not adequate communication across different
is a possibility of what two things?
management levels
3. Different departments within the organization are reluctant to
The term hypergolic refers to what? cooperate
The ignition of awith
fuel each
whenother.
it comes into contact &
Increase in air pressure. 'it
with an oxidizer without presence of an outside source of ignition.

The pneumatic fire detection systems


work principally
According on the
to NFPA, basis
there what? 1. Flow method
areoftwo
2. Capacity
Determination
method.
of whether training is required. 'it
methods of calculating exit width which
are as follows:
What is the first step in developing a
safety
An training program?
extinguisher with an 8-A rating can U-A rating
By the process of "Absorption" 'it
put out more fire than an extinguisher
with what rating?
How do air purifying respirators
remove the contaminants from the air?
Define uniform
What does illumination?
bonding do?
Bonding does NOT eliminate the static charges. However, it
Uniform illumination is the distribution of light such 'it
prevents the flow of accumulated static charges (spark) by
that the maximum or minimum illumination at any given point within the
making the potential difference between the two containers equal.
area is not more than 1/6 th above or below the average value in the
The same phenomeenon is observed with lighting that makes the
area.
potential difference between two clouds or a cloud and ground
What term best describes the Heat equal.
Syncope is associate with fainting as a result 'it
symptoms of over-exposure to of over-exposure to heat.

Class II hazardous locations are Combustible dust may be present.


those in which what?
Class 1C

regards to Matrix
A liquid with Management?
a flash point greater than columns. 2. The horizontal and the vertical intersects into a grid.
or equal to 73 degrees but less than or 3. A matrix interface is where the focus of authority and
equal to 100 degrees F and a boiling responsiblity comes into play.
point less than 100 degrees F is
classified by the NFPA as?
What is the major objective of safety To measure the safety performance within an ^
Class 1A Liquid
audits? organization with the major goal of improving safety performance.
NFPA classification for a liquid with a
boiling point of 90 degrees F and flash Defining the objectives and goals.
What is the most critical step towards a
point of 60 degree F is
behavioral approach for improving
safety?
Heat transfer by radiation is the fourth power of temperature
proportional to? Profit oriented ^
Stock insurance companies are what?
Attainable
What best describes a tangible and
verifiable safety goal in manufacturing
What is the ultimate goal of safety Injury reduction. The coaching must treat this process as an
facility?
coaching? achievement oriented proactive process.
JHA
The technique of applying problem
assessment to safetyofand
What is an example healthdata?
counted Inspection of a control device for missing parts is an example of
training is called what? counted data. Counted data is called "attributes" and are
presented as whole numbers.

What two aspects of the workplace are Root Historical and statistical information on accidents and
Cause Analysis
What is the most powerful for an
generally reviewed for aJHA? illnesses and the tasks, which make a worker's job.
accident/incident investigation?

What are two disadvantages to
When compared to true/false and matching, multiple
multiple choice questions?
choice items can be more challenging to write and they
ISO 14000 family is primarly Environmental management. The means minimization of harmful
require the creation of plausible incorrect answer
concerned with what? effects on the environment caused by the organization's activities
options.
and achievement of continual improvement of its environmental

Each individual is different and find a way to recognize
performacne.
these differences.

One of theBonds
Covalent most are
important
formedfunctions
by? of as a result of atoms sharing electrons &
a supervisor is his or her ability to work
What is the recommended 35 mph. Ash can damage engine and metal parts fa
with people effectively. What is one of
speed forcritical
the most a volcano eruption?
factors to consider in so evacuation must only be done if directed by authroities.
order to work with people effectively?
What are other names for Arc Welder's Disease or Metal Fume Fever. This is
Name three true statements in 1. It can be demonstrated in the forms of rows and
siderosis? caused by inhalation of dust fumes or containing
iron particles.
Hypothermic injury
Body cell exposure to extremely low
what? force.
temperature causes?

The probability of tipping over an Grasping point moves above the object's center of

object by pushing it increases as the? gravity.
As the temperature goes down and the
Go down to maintain the equality in the ideal gas law
volume is kept constant, the pressure
equation.
has to do One Rem
A does of what?
one roentgen of ionizing
radiation due to X-rays
Simple asphyxiants canorcause
gamma rays
Reducing oxygen concentration.
is the equivalent
suffocation of what?
as a result of what?

Name two good examples of simple Nitrogen


Opening and Methane circuit
the electrical
GFCI detect the flow of electrical
ashphyxiants?
current to ground in approximately 2 Epidemiology
hundreths (0.02)
The study of of a second.between
the relationship The
GFCIs protect
excessive the
noise personnel
and hearing by?
loss fall
within the domain of?
No
Can
Doeselectricity
thresholdflow through
refers an open
to what?
The minimum dosage of a chemical which can produce a
circuit?
measurable adverse effect.

Once the GFCI detects the flow of Opens the circuit and the electrical flow to ground stops.
electrical current That at very low dosage a chemical may produce no
In toxicology, the to ground,
concept of itdose
does
what? adverse effect and may even be beneficial to human
response indicates what?
health.
Section VIII, division 1 and 2
Unfired pressure vessels such as air
Below the critical
tanks, steam pressure
jacketed andetc.
kettles,
temperature, we can
must follow ASM convert
E code what?liquid to Heating and vapor to liquid by cooling. However, at the
vapor by? critical point, the two phases become indistinguishable.

Withstand an internal explosion
Oneexplosion
An of the causes
proof of
electrical
leukemia is
Ionizing radiation - which as been proven to contribute to
what?
equipment will do what?
leukemia especially in young children.
Safely vent the resulting explosive gases.
The enclosures for explosion proof
electrical equipment
Specifc gravity is themust
rationbe
ofdesigned
what? The density of a substance to the density of water.
in such a way to do what?
Grounding.
Portable electric tools that are double
thermal energy
In acetylene
insulated do welding, thewhat?
not require energy
released by the acetylene gas is in the
form of what>
Objects tip over as a result of The moment which is generated by the pushing

What chemical can produce a Acetylene


higher flame temperature upon combustion than any other gas?

How many different classes has laser Four


The Blake - Mouton Management Grid
The management
radiation technique
been place into? that
graphically demonstrates management
Class
styles Iby
laser
assigning values to the
does not have enough power to cause severe injury
manager's concern for people and
production is known as? Infrared radiation and ultraviolet radiation
Flame detectors respond to what?

The infrared hazard


radiation portion of light generated by the
Under OSHA's HAZCOM, there is no Appropriate warnings, chemical name, and the
standard format for chemical labels flame.
name and address of the chemical manufacturer,
Some flame detectors are designed to
and MSDSs. However, every label on a importer, or other responsible party.
respond to ultraviolet light, but most
container of a hazardous chemical
respond to what>
must contain what? Neutrons
Luminescent detectors are effective
measuring instruments for the flow of
TLV-C (Ceiling)
What
what?is the concentration that cannot
be exceeded even momentarily.
How do luminescent detectors work?

The collision of neutrons with the solid material in the



Name three statement associated with 1. Poor maintenance program. 2. Lack of fail safe
detector generates excess energy which emitted is
equipment failure? instrumentation. 3. Metal fatigue
emitted in the form of light which is proportional to the
amount of energy recieved by the material.
to se goals and objectives
Product warning labels must address 1. What the hazard is. 2. How to avoid the hazard. 3. The
what three things? severity of the hazard. An effective warning label must
What is the most important element of
also address the likelihood of harm, and the
a safety training program?
consequences.
Gamma, beta and alpha rays
A Geiger - Muller radiation measuring

What does actual injury data do? It actually gets more employee attention. However,
instrument is suitable for measuring
because of its nature, it creates a reactive rather than a
what?
proactive response to preventing injuries and accidents.
A Geiger - Muller is a tube which is A gas that is capable of undergoing ionization.
filled by what?

What is the most correct statement for Adequate
An electriceye protection
current which and a face shield must be worn.
is measured.
With
eye anda Geiger - Muller interaction
face protection of
when working
ionizing
with handradiation with the gas
held grinders?
produces ions which in turn produce
what?

A face shield is primarily designed for Primary face protection, and by itself doe snot provide
what? adequate eye protection.

OSHA regulations mandate that The A scale.


sound levels in the workplace
for evaluation of employee noise expsoure be measured on what?

Integrating Sound Level Meters The average sound levels over a period of time.
(ISLMs) measure what?

As the number of complete cycles in one second.
Frequency of sound wave expressed in
building code has been mainly used where? 360,000 cycles/hr * 1 hr/3600 seconds
Hertz is defined as what?
The correct definition of flash point is? The minimum temperature at which enough vapor is
The products of the chemical reaction generated to supporta combustion in presence of an
Calcium hydroxide, highly corrosive compound, and
between calcium carbide and water are ignition source.
acetylene which is a flammable gas.
what? Hydrohalogenic Acids
The main decomposition of halons in Air or nitrogen under pressure.
Regular
fire dry pipe
situaitons is ?sprinkler systems
have sprinkler heads that are Attitudes, preferences, and subjective reactions.
A Likert Scale is used to measure
connected to piping which contains
what?
what?
LD 50
When thesystems
Wet pipe route of have
entry water
of the in the
chemicals is by ingestion or skin
piping to where?
The sprinkler head. In fire situations, the flow of water
absorption, lethal doses are expressed
continues until the main water supply valve is manually
as?
closed. This can cause severe water damage to the area.
LC 50
When the route of entry of the
HAzardous locations are classified Class 1, II, III only
chemical into an animal's body is byas?
inhalation, lethal doses are expressed
One
as? unit of exit in the flow method is 60 seconds per minute per 22 inces of exit width.
defined as what>
LD 50 is expressed in units of? Chemical weight per body weight

The maximum amount of class 1A
The inert gas shield minimizes what? 1200
Entry gallons. Onlyarc
of air to the NFPA
and 65 approvedofamounts
formations of
nitrides and
flammable liquids that can be stored in
flammable liquids
oxides in the weld.shall be stored in laboratory units
a laboratory unit with sprinkler system
outside of flammable liquid storage rooms.
Define Isotopes
is what> Isotopes are defined as atoms having the same atomic
number but different atomic mass.
Fire point is always what? A few degrees higher than flash point.

Sensitizers are chemicals that usually? Do not produce a sensitizing effect on the first exposure,
The Uniform Building Code Western part of US.
but can produce an allergic reaction in living tissue after
(UBC) was first published by International Conference of Building Officals (ICBO). This
repeated or extended exposures. They may cause
sensitization in some people but not others.

What is the name of the F tornado


Fujita Pearson
scale?

Winds in the range of 40 to 72 F-0


mph can damage chimney and
break tree branches is which category?
F-l
Winds in the range of 73 to 112 mph
can demolish mobile homes are what
cateorgry?
F-2

Winds in the range of 113 to 157 can


demolish mobile homes and uproot
trees and considered what category?
F-3

Winds in the range of 158 to 205 can


tear roof and wall and throw cars are
considered what category?

Winds in the range of 207 to 260 are F-4


what category?

Winds in the range of 261 to 318 are F-5


what category?
Prevention
The major emphasis of the science of
epidemiology as relates to diesease
is?

Why are ionic bonds stronger than
Due to the nature of electrical force developed among
covalent bonds?
atoms, ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds.

Thermal Energy

In acetylene welding, the energy


released by the acetylene gas is in the
form of what?

The abbreviation CTD stands for? Cumulative Trama Disorders (occupational ergonomics)

Octave band analyzers are used to
measure what? The actual sound energy over a range of frequencies.

Velometers can do what three Measures air velocity, useful in conducting energy
3/5/2017 ASP Flashcards | Quizlet

things?
audits, and useful in hood and spray booth monitoring.


1. Peer Pressure.
Name three concepts according to 2. Whether the job is important and meaningful to the
Frederick Herzbergs theories in employee and his degree of involvement in aspects of
motivating influence on an employee to the job.
conduct a job safely? 3. How good of performance is recognized within the
organization.
Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)

Levels of illumination for industiral work


areas are recommended by?

PH can vary between what levels? 1 to 1A

A PH value greater than 7 indicates? Base

A PH less than 7 indicates? Acid (1.5 is a strong acid)

A hydro carbon is any chemical which Only carbon and hydrogen atoms in its molecule
contains? (example CH4 which is methane)

What type of chemicals cause liver Hepatoxins


damage?

Are ionic bonds stronger or weaker
Due to the nature of electrical force developed among
than covalent bonds?
atoms, ionic bonds are stronger than covalent bonds
Analytic studies

In epidemiology, the studies that focus


on proving or disproving a hypotheses
regarding the relationship between
expsosure and disease are called?

The electrical switch and fuse Orange - the door must be kept locked.

cabinet may be painted which color on the inside of the door


to attract attention when the door is open?

employee exposure what? Displays should generally move in the same direction as
In designing a piece of equipment, More or less light
Smoke detectors generally respondthe
to movement of controls. (Control and display movement
controls
combustionandparticles
displays generated
must conform
as ato must be compatible)
which of fire
result of the and
following principles?
can be triggered by
Velocity
what? x times = what? Distance
Concrete (Lead however is a more effective shield.


Smoke detectors
The preferred generally
method respond to
for sheilding during the second phase of fire as compared to thermal
when?
gamma ray sources is what? detectors that respond during the first stage of a fire.

Paper

Validity of a testcannot
Alpha particles determines
shieldwhat?
through? Whether the test actually measures what it is supposed
to measure.
Properly discharge the electrical energy through a
discharge resistor.
Reliablity
Capacitorsofstore
a testelectrical
determines what?
energy and The consistency of scores between different sections of

can pose a hazard even when the the examination.

circuit is deenergized. The bestfollow


way to
The scores of a test generally A bell shape curve as they are normally distributed.
protect
what? agains this hazard is to do
what?
A test can be and should be? Both valid and reliable.
Class II, division 1.
The electrical equipment in an area
Self-adjusting, adjustable, fixed and interlocked.
What are the four basic types of
where metal dusts are present should
machine guards?
be what class?
Radioisotopes
24 A
What is the important number to
remember when converting PPM to
What are isotopes of a given element
mg/m3 or vice versa?
that do not have enough nuclear
Density equals to
binding energy what?
hold the nucleus M/V

particles together, and as a result, part


What is carpal tunnel syndrome The pressure on the median nerve at the point where it
of the nucleus is lost in the form of
caused by? goes through the carpal tunnel of the wrist resulting in
ionizing radiation?
tenderness, soreness, and weakness of muscles of the
What is used to measure the actual thumb.
Octave Band Analyzers. The data in turn is used to
sound energy over a range of TAking
A virus can adversely affect the human calcuateover
the the metabolic
noise function
exposures of the cells.
to employees.
frequencies?
body by?
A pocket
Heat dosimeter
fusion refers toiswhat?
a device Radiation

that is used to measure The amount of heat required to melt a solid without
changing its temperature.

What are the classic symptoms of Numbness and tingling in the thumb and first two
carpal tunnel syndrome? fingers, and the thumb side and tip of the fourth
finger.

When is carpal tunnel syndrome more During sleep.


pronounced?

How can carpal tunnel syndrome be By surgical relief of tension or by therapy.


treated?
Narcosis
What is a condition resulting from over-
exposure to solvents?

Narcosis
Any stage of disorientation or
unconsciouness due to over exposure
to chemicals?
DNA

Ionizing radiation causes injury within


the cell by attacking and altering the?

The biggest danger associate with
alpha radiation is what?
When it is ingested. This type of radiation does not have
a very high penetrating power in contrast to X-rays. Once
in the body however, it is capable of producing ions.
A static load on hand and shoulder.

The presence of what has been found


to cause or aggravate disorders such
as tendonitis, bursitis, or carpal tunnel
syndrome?
Light meter
THe instrument that is used to
measure the quantity of illumination is
called?
Illuminating Engineering Society

Levels of illumination for industrial work


areas are recommendd by?
Equipment Maintenance

Ensuring that the equipment energy is


zero is very significant for which of the
following operations?
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3/5/2017
responsible Coefficient of expansion
ASP Flashcards | Quizlet
Some fixedparty for assuming
temperature total control of decision making on site is?
thermal
learning curve
detectors are made from seconds?
a bimetallic 3600 seconds
One hour has how many
element
The levelThese detectorsgained
of proficiency work based
is Ossicles
What
on? are the bones in the human ear
directly proportional with the amount of
called? Increase in resistance to electric current
The
time combustible gas indicator
devoted to learning but eventually
operates based Ossicles
tends are
What to reach aon?
limit isbones
the smallest knownin as?
the

human body? Automatic and manual
Fire alarm systems fall into two broad
Eliminate unwanted behavior, educate employees on desired
categories. What are they?of ossicles?
What is
What are three
the valid
major approaches
function in To transmit and
the sound
providewave to the innerpraise
ear for
fortransmission to
responses, reward and/or working
safety programs that primarily focus on the brain by the inner ear nerve cells.
safely.
behavior modification? Continuous line type of fire detector.
This statement describes what "two
conductors
What are theseparated by and
three adverse electrical
effects of 1. Conductive
Cognitive, impairment
affective and psychomotor.
insulator
Name
noise on thatdomains
three melts
hearing canatbe
a fixed
of learning?
categorized 2. Sensorineural
temperature in categories?
the surrounding air? 144
into what three 3. Mixed and sentral impariment
I square foot equals how many
squared inches?
Objectives gases increase the electrical resistance of

Combustible
Once gas indicators
determined safetyoperate
thatcommonlytrainingon Combustible
Centrifugal fans are used is
in
what principle? Ventilation Systems.
a heated element.q=
required,
what? what must be clearly defined.
Smoke detectors react to what? Products of combustion
Centrifugal fans commonly follow
Affinity laws also known as fan laws.

The last
which step in a good training
law? Techniques togas
Combusitble evaluate
meter the effectivenss of the program.
What type of device uses a
program is to develop? Hypoxia
Wheatstone bridge?

Air purifying respirators remove the One or incident
Critical more componets ofbehavior
and safety a gaseous mixture on a solid
sampling.
What
What are thename
is the two sampling techniques
for cellular injury due
contaimnents from the air through the bed.
used
to lacktoofevaluate the
sufficient potential accident
oxygen?
process of absorption which is the Metabolic reactions
predicting behavior?
removal of what?
The human body converts food into
Responsiblity
What isby
energy anusing
example
whatofwhich
motivation
also
Calcium hydroxide and acetylene.
You should not mix calcium carbide
factor according
produces heat into Herzberg's
the human body?
with water because the products of the
Motivation Hygiene theory?
Frequency
chemical of sound
reaction wave isthe
between expressed
two Hertz
in what? create what what two
chemicals
The number of complete cycles

Name three true statements in regard Corrective action based oninanaylsis
one second
of behavorial data
chemicals.
Frequency
to the use ofofbehavioral
sound wave expressed
data analysis in can prevent accidents; behavioral data analysis can
Hertz is defined
for improving as what?
safety? suggest actions to prevent injury and behavioral data
A highly corrosive
Calcium hydroxide is what type of analysis is essential in improving safety because it
compound? closes the improvement loop.
Acetylene is which type of gas? Flammable.
In an emergency situation, the Depends on organization's operating procedure.

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60 people per minute per 22 inches.
One unit of exit in the flow method is
defined as how many persons per
minute per how many inches of exit
width.
Conductive and Sensineural
Two forms of Noise Induced Hearing
Loss are?
Amplitude refers to what? The maximum value of a sinusoidal wave.
Integrating sound level
What instrument measures the
average sound levels over a period of
time?
Sound absorption

What indicates the amount of sound


energy which is absorbed and the
remainder is reflected by the material?
Noise Reduction Coefficent
What refers to the arthmetic average of
sound absorption coefficient at
frequencies of 250, 500,1000 and 200
Hz.
Sensorienural

The primary type of hearing loss which


is caused as a result of over-exposure
to excessive noise is known as?
Carbon Dioxide and Water

A closed loop SCBA removes what two


things from the exhaled air and after
adding make up oxygen and sends it to
the user?

1. Recycles the exhaled air.
What are two benefits of a closed loop
2. Lasts for longer periods of time compared to an open
SCBA?
loop SCBA.

When working with corrosive
Goggles with indirect ventilation ports because they do
chemicals what type of goggles should not allow entry of liquids.
be used and why?

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Cryogenic liquids are those liquids that 1. Generate a large volume of gas above their boiling
have which two characterists? points.
2. Are liquids stored at very low temperatures.

One proper step in treating cold
contract burns?
To immerse the affected area in warm water (no less
than 105 degrees F no more than 115 degrees F.
Mimimize the blood flow to the affected areas.
In all burns caused as a result of
elevated temperatures, every effort
must be made to do what?

LFL value increases and the UFL value decreases


When pressure or temperature is
decreased the LFL does what and the
UFL does what?

In fire situations, fresh air is at the low Fire gases have a vapor density of less than 1, and
spots because? therefore rise in air.
At low spots

Most flammable vapors have a vapor


density which is greater than 1.
Ventilation ports for flammable liquid
storage areas should be placed where?
Water would spread the fire.
If a container of flammable liquid which
is insoluble in water and has a specific
gravity of less than one is on fire?

Decrease
The boiling point of a liquid will doe
what when their is a decrease in
ambient pressure.
Decrease

Under constant temperature conditions,


the volume of a gas will do what with an
increase in air pressure?
Carbon dioxide which is a Reduces oxygen concentration.
product of combustion is not a

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toxic gas in confined spaces but does what?

Dry powder fire extinguishing agents Class D fires


are used on what?
hydrocarbon?
1. Sodium hydroxide
Name
Rate oftwo type
fireofdetectors
nonflammable
Rise operate on
2. Rate of rise of temperature (not absolute value).
Caustic
solids?
the basis of what?
Thermal
Class B detectors

Flammable liquids, gases and greases
Rate of Rise fire detection systems
are types of what class of fire?
have a faster response than what?

1. Hourly
Midwestrating

Fire doors are classified by what?
Building Officials and Code 2. North Eastern
Administrators (BOCA) building codes
have been
Explain theused mainly
storage in which two
requirements for Should not be stored in buildings that are designed for
areas Iofand
class theIIUSA?
flammable liquids in public assembly unless in approved containers, approved
Air or nitrogen under pressure.
public assembly areas? cabinets or approved storage areas.
Regular dry pipe sprinkler systems
have sprinkler heads that are
connected Combustible metal fires (Class D)
Dry powdertoispiping which
suitable contains
for what type of
what?
materials?

In delugeofsprinkler systems, the


Bonding a steel container involves Electrically
Always open conductive. An example is connecting a steel
sprinkler
connectingheads are what?
the steel container to container to another conductive container.

another object which is what?
The temperature rating and has nothing to do with the
The color coding on deluge sprinkler
type of sprinkler system.
systems depends on what? Closed water supply valves.
About 30% of sprinkler system failures
are caused
Bonding andby?
grounding techniques are Danger of static sparks.
used why? 704
What is the number of the NFPA

hazard diamond which is used in fixed
Flame Spread Rating of materials are Areas where the different materials can be used for
installations or facilities to warn of
used in NFPA101 to indicate what? finishing purposes.
hazards durning fire fighting?
A.J. Steiner at Underwriters Laboratories.
The Flame Spread Rating concept was
The specific heat of a substances is The energy absorbed per unit mass per degree of
developed by who at where?
determined by what? temperature increase.

What type of hydrocarbon is Halogenated hydrocarbon


less flammable thanbrigade
the parent Positive Pressure
Members of a fire are required
to wear what type of SCBA according
to 1910.157?

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In areas with freezing Wet pipe because the water in the pipes will freeze
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and cannot flow.

temperatures, what type of sprinkler


system should not be used and why?
conduction is called?
term Boiling Liquid- Expanding LFL - Lower Flammability Limit
The lowest concentration of a vapor in
A container failure holding a liquid above its boiling point.
Vapor (BLEVE)inreferes
air expressed volumetopercent
what? which
can support combustion is called?

Corrosion and mechanical damage are direct factors.
Temperature is an indirect factor.
What are two factors that directly
Autoignition
The lowest temperature that will
contribute to container failures with
produce combustion in the absence of
BLEVEs and a factor that contributes
an ignition source is called?
indirectly?

75 feet
OSHA requires that a maximum travel A fire hazard. Example - a vapor with LFL = 1% and a
The wider the range between the LFL
distance for Class A fire extinguisher UFL = 16% is more likely to be a severe fire hazard.
and the UFL, the more of what type of
not exceed?
hazard is this material?
50 feet.
Flammable vapors and gases may be present
Class I hazardous locations are those
The travel distance for a class B fire
in which?
extinguisher must not exceed what?
Ignitable fibers may be present
Class III hazardous locations are those

in which?
The maximum amount of heat generated in a given area
A
In fire proofdesign
building buildingand
is one that?
construction, fire
The
as a content
result ofofa the
fire.building may burn but the building
loading refers to what? will not collapse.

Carbon dioxide extinguishing agents NFPA


What organizaiton sets forth standards
extinguish
for a fireflammables
exits where by? are stored. Diluting the mixture of air and vapors to below its LFL.
Hydrohalogenic Acids
The main decomposition product of
Heat
Hypergolic reactions
halons in fire generate
situations is?
tremendous amounts of what as they

progress? The amount of heat generated as a result of combustion

Heat reactions.
Exothermic
What combustion is that
are reactions an important
generate heat,
property in calculation
but heat removal can beof controlled?
fire loading
for buildings. Heat of combustion is?

Nitric Acid and Gasoline


Name two compounds that fall within
the definition of a
An indication hypergolic
the ease withreaction? Thermal Conductivity
which heat is tranferred by

What is the max amount of a


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flammable liquid that can be
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stored int a lab unit with a sprinkler system?


120
destroy? the virus.
Not more than how many gallons of
Neutralization of toxins
When antibodies react with antigens,
Class I, Class II, and Class IIIA liquids
one of the major results is?
shall be stored in an approved
flammable storage?

Agglutination of bacteria and Neutralization of toxins which is one of the major results
Not more than how many gallons of the
precipitation of soluble antigens are when
60 antibodies react with antigens.
total shall be Class I and Class II
other outcomes of what reaction?
liquids?
Ammonium phosphate
RNA is composed of what? Organic compounds
Name a suitable agent for
Are protozoa multi
extinguishing celled? water?
fires besides Yes

Instantaneous Protons
Atomic numberdamage
refers tocaused by a of
the number Acoustic trama
loud
what noise is called?
in an atom?
Descriptive studies.
Atomic Mass
The number of protons plus the
Epidemiological studies
number of neutrons in anthat attempt
atom is theto
note
what?the number of cases of a specific
disease in a specific time period are protons plus neutrons
Atomic mass refers to the number of?
generally known as?
Analytic studies

Isotops are defined as atoms have the Same the same protons but different protons plus
same atomic number but different neutrons.
In epidemiology, the studies that focus
atomic mass which means what?
on proving or disproving a hypotheses
regarding the relationship between
Ionic bond are formed by?
exposure and disease are called? a result of complete transfer of electrons from one atom
to another.
Does a virus have its own nucleus? No
Specific heat refers to the what?
Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a
unit mass by one degree.
Does a virus have its own cell
No
structure? Reynolds number
What measures the degree of
How does ainvirus
turbulance survive?
a flow system?
As intracellular parasites that can take over the
metabolic functions
How is reynolds number calculated? By mulplying densityofby
host
flowcells.
velocity and pipe or conduit
diameter and dividing the result by the visocsity of the
Why are viruses difficult to Because one must kill the host cell in order to kill
fluid.

A Reynolds number of less than Laminar flow


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2100 indicates what type of
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flow?
Run from indoors to outdoors as bricks and other lir
A Reynolds number of greater than flyingflow
debris could pose a greater hazard than that faced indoors.
Turbulent
2100 indicates what?
Turbulent
Why should you avoid showing or Because bathroom plumbing and fixtures can conduct electricity.
The higher the value of the Reynolds
bathing during a thunderstorms
number, the more what the flow is?

Name six stimuli which can 1. Chemical agents


A toxic chemical is one that can create
A relatively small dosage
cause effect
an adverse cellular
in?injury? 2. Lack of sufficient oxygen
3. Infectious agents
In toxicology, corrosivity information is Conducting skin tests on laboratory animals.
4 Physical and mechanical factors
obtained by?
5. Genetic factors
Chemical asphyxiants are those Have a higher affinity for binding with hemoglobin
6. Nutritional imbalances
chemicals Hypoxia
Whatthat?
is the most common type of than oxygen.
The blood stream
cellular injury?
Target organ chemicals attack specific
Hypoxia
organs canenter?
once they be caused by what four 1. Reduced concentration of oxygen in air.
things? 2. Loss of hemoglobin or hemoglobin function.
The amount of chemical.
The effect of a target organ chemical 3. Decreased production of red blood cells.

produces in the body primarily 4 Disease of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems.

depends on?

Chemical injury is initated by what? The interaction between a toxic chemical agent and the cell's
What type of toxins affect the liver? Hepatotoxins
plasma membrane.
What can alter the DNA within a Genetic factors &
Nephrotoxins
What cell's
type of toxins and
nucleus affect thethe
thus kidney?
Contact with animals
plasma membrane?
Brucellosis is an occupational disease
In order to function normally, cells 1. Minerals
which can be caused by a result of?
require adequate amounts of nutrients2. Carbohydrates
such as what three 3. Proteins
Brucellosis is an infectious 1. Cattle
things?
disease that primarily affects 2. Swine
Name 6 physical agents that can 1. Temperature extremes
what three types of animals? 3. Goats
cause cellular injuries? 2. Pressure changes
In humans, brucellosis causes? Undulant fever or Malta fever
3. Radiation
Dermatitis
4 Mechanical factors
The most common occupational
5. Nose
disease in the workplace is what?
6. Vibration

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Hypothermic
Extremely low temperatures cause
what type of injury?
Exposure to high temperatures causes Hyperthermic
what tyep of injury?
Full thickness burn

What is the type of burn that is an open


wound involving all skin layers; cellular
regeneration is not possible and skin
must be grafted to site from a donor?
A partial thickness burn

What type of burn causes reddening of


the area as a result of dilation of small
blood vessels and increased
permeability of cellular membranes with
loss of protein rich fluid, resulting in the
typical blister burn?
Blast injury
What type of injury to the body cells
can be caused as a result of sudden
increase or decrease in atompheric
pressure?
Ionizing radiation
What type of radiation refers to any
type of radiation capable of removing
orbital electrons from the atom and
thereby forming ions?


Name four typical forms of ionizing
radiation?
1. x-rays
2. Beta particals
3. Alpha particles 4 Gamma rays

1. Directly
Ionizing radiation can affect the cellular 2. Indirectly
structure in which two ways?

What is the type of effect of Direct


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ionizing radiation on cells which is
by attacking and ionizing the
macromolecules within the cell and
in particular the DNA
molecule?
Indirect

What is the effect of ionizing radiation


on the cellular structure that is
ultimately ionization of the DNA
molecule?

Mechanical injury is caused by? Physical impact or irritation

Noise is defined as? A sound wave that has the potential for causing bodily
harm.
Occupational
The response of tissue to mechanical
stress is the focus of what type of
biomechanics?
NIHL (Noise Inducted Hearing Loss)
What results from the prolonged
exposure to intense sound?

Acoustic tramaand NIHL


What are the two types of hearing
losses associated with noise?

Acoustic trama
What can rupture the ear drum,
displace the small bones in the middle
of the ear called ossicles and damage
the inner ear?
Temporary Threshold Shift.
When the sound has not been too loud
and the hearing returns to normal, the
hearing loss is called a?

Permanent Threshold Shift


When the hearing does not return to
normal, the hearing loss is called?
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Epidemiology
What is the study of occurance of
disease in human populations?

The word Epi is derived from the Greek


upon
work?

The work demo in epidemiology is


People (Disease upon people)
derived from?
Descriptive Epidemiological Studies
What is the study that focuses on the
number of cases of a disease in a time
period?
Descriptive epidemological studies

What type of study provides information


on the distribution of disease as well as
the risk factors for an individual to
contract the disease?

What is the difference between Descriptive studies in epidemiology are helpful in


descriptive studies in epidemiology and formation of hypotheses regarding the relationship
analytic studies? between exposure and disease. Analytic studies are
studies seeking to prove or disprove specific hypotheses.
Prevalence
What refers to the number of cases
with a disease to the total number in
the study?
Incidence rate

What rate refers to the number of new


cases of disease during a time period
divided by the total number of risk?

The ratio of density of a gas or vapor to Vapor density


density of air is called?
All matter is made up of? Atoms

What contains a central nucleus An atom


made up of positively charged
particles, the protons, and
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electrically neutral particles called neutrons?

Almost all of the mass of an atom is In the nucleus


contained where?

The nucleus is surrounded by what? Negatively charged particles.

Electrons
Negatively charged particles
surrounding the nucleus of an atom are
known as?
Neutral
The number of electrons and protons
in any atom are equal so that the atom
in its normal state is?

The molecular weight of that compound


What is the sum of atomic weight of
different atoms making a compound
called?
Stoichiometric coefficients
The numbers in front of each reactant
and product molecule are called?

The electrons in the outer orbit of an


Valence electrons
atom are called?
Chemical reactions
Valence electrons are responsible for
what?
Chemical reactions

What occurs either as a result of


complete transfer of one or more
valence electrons from one atom to
another or as a result of sharing
valence electrons among different
atoms?

When one or more valence Positive ion

electrons are transferred from one atom to


another, the atom

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that has lost the electrons becomes positively charged which is called what type of ion?
Negative ion

An ionic bond
Large differences in electronegativity
The atom that has gained the electrons
result in complete transfer of electrons
becomes becomes negatively charged
from one atom to another and
and is called what?
formation of what? Ionic bound
The strong electrical force that
develops between positive and Endothermic
Chemical reactions that consume
negative ions which form a new
energy are called?
compound is called?
Chemical reactions that produce
Exothermic
Covalent bonding
energy are called?
Some chemical reactions take place
Isomers of each other
Substances
when atoms that
sharehave
theirthe same
valance
number
electronsoftoatoms of each
complete the element
electron per
molecule butindiffer
requirement in spatialshell of
the valance
arrangement of the
each atom. This atoms
type are known
of bonding
as?
among atoms is known as?
Crystalline substance
What is an of
type ordered
bond isarray of itsionic or
weaker,
Covalent
component
covalent? atoms, ions or molecules?
Atomic absorption

Oxidation
What is the loss
An analytical of electrons
technique whichbytakes
an
atom involved
advantage in acharacteristic
of the chemical reaction?

absorption by metals of certain


wavelength of light> Reduction
What is the gain of electrons by an
Electronegativity
atom involved in a chemical reaction?

What is a property associated with


certain atomsaccompanies
which causesreduction?
unequal Oxidation
What always
sharing of electrons during bonding?
Electronegativity
Redox Reactions
Oxidation reduction
What results reactions
in shared are more
electrons
commonlymore
spending known as?
time with one atom and
less time with the
Vapor pressure of other known
a liquid as?
is defined The pressure exerted by the vapor when the liquid and
as? vapor phases have reached equilibrium.

Heat
What is energy in transfer called?

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The amount of heat expressed Specific heat
in calories which is required to
raise the temperature of 1 gram of
substance by one degree Celsius
or the amount of heat expressed in
BTU which is required to raise the
temperature of one pound of
substance by one degree
Fahreheit?

Heat of fusion

The amount of heat required to melt 1


unit mass of the solid at its melting
point without changing its temperature.
Heat of vaporization
The amount of heat required to
vaporize 1 unit mass of liquid at its
boiling point without changing its
temperature.
Heat of sublimation

The amount of heat required to convert


1 unit mass of a solid to vapor without
changing its temperature?

What is the heat of sublimation


Heat of fusion + Heat of vaporization
formula?
Compressible fluid

What is the fluid in which the volume


changes significantly with changes in
pressure or temperature. For example,
by pressurizing a gas, we can reduce
its volume substantially.

What is the fluid when the Incompressible Fluid

volume does not change


signifcantly with changes in
pressure or temperature. For
example, if we increase the
pressure on a liquid, its volume does not change substantially.

The route of entry of toxic chemical
into the body can be through what five
ways?
1. Ingestion
2. Inhalation
3. Skin absorption 4 Eye absorption 5. Injection
Dosage

What is the amount of chemical


administered per unit of body weight?
Dose Threshold
What is the minimum dosage of a
chemical that can produce a
measurable adverse effect?
Corrosives

WHate are chemicals that can cause


irreversible alteration of living tissue?
Chemical corrosivity

What is determined by conducting skin


tests on laboratory animals or in
studies using synthetic skin?
Asphyxiants
What are substances that can cause
suffocation by preventing oxygen from
reaching tissues?

What are the two categories that 1. Simple


asphyxiants are classified? 2. Chemical
Simple

What are the asphyixants that are


gases or vapors which are not toxic by
themselves but can cause suffocation
as a result of reducing the oxygen
concentration?
What are the asphyxiants that Chemical
interfere with body's capability
permanent changes
to absorb oxygen intotothe
genetic
bloodmaterial
stream?(DNA), such that the changes will propagate through generational lines?
1. Teratogens
Carbon monoxide
What are
Name twochemicals
examplesthat cause
of chemical
2. Hydrogen Cyanide
damage to developing fetus, but the
ashyixants?
damage
Name two does not propagate
examples across
of simple 1. Hydrogen
generational lines?
asphxiants? 2. Nitrogen
Target organs
What are chemicals that attack specific Electrical force
WHat is the force between two bodies
organs regardless of the route of entry
when repulsive when they are similarly
into the body?
charged and attractive when they are
dissimilarly charged?
Hematopoietic System Hazards
WHat are chemicals that can stop or
decrease the hemoglobin function, Electric current
The rate at which charge moves past a
resulting in body tissues being
point in the conductor is called what?
deprived of oxygen?

Grounding
What involves maintaining an Benzene
What is an example of a chemical that
electrically conducting path to the earth
reduces hemoglobin availiability by
for the flow of excess electrons that
damaging the hemapoietic cells of the
have been generated through a fault
bone marrow, even through it does not
system of the equipment?
act directly on the hemoglobin?

Isotopes
In some elements, atoms that have the
same atomic number can have a Sensitizers
WHat are chemcials that can cause an
different atomic mass; that is the
allergic reaction in teh body after
number of protons is the same in all
repeated exposures?
the atoms, but the number of neutrons
Irritants
What
varies.are chemicals
These that
different can cause
species of the
inflammation of living tissue as a result
element are called?
of a chemical reaction?

Sometimes, the amount ofinterferes in Reproductivenuclear


Radioactive Toxins binding

What is any chemical that
any way with the reproductive
nuclear binding energy within the nucleus of an isotope is not
process?
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What are chemcials that cause Mutagens


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enough to hold the nuclear particles (protons


and neutrons) together, and as a result pat of
the nucleus is lost in a process
of nuclear disintegration called?
stream
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Radioisotopes

Those isotopes of a given element that X-rays
do notare
have Keratitis and conjuctivitis
What theenough
names nuclear binding
of condition when
energy
their to hold theof
is expsosure particles together
the unprotected
When
eye electrons
are unstable
which are ejected
canspecies
cause called?from tehof
inflamamation
inner
the orbits, the electrons from outer
cornea?
shells fall to the lower orbits to fill their
Alpha particles
What particles have a helium nucleus Cataracts
Over-expsosure
place. As a resultofofunprotected
this energy eyes to
and have a relatively low penetrative
infrared radiation
transformation, could
what is give rise to?
produced?
power and a rather high ionization Neutrons
power?
Microvave
What
What type of radiation
can be wavelengths can
emitted spontaneously by
Beta particles
What particles can be either negatively
vary from
certain 10 meters
radioactve to about and
materials, 1 mm?
can
charged (negatrons) or postiviely
be produced by bombarding the
charged electrons (positrons) produced
nucleus
What of certain
is the NRC? isotopes of Nuclear Regulatory Commission
by radioactive decay?
hydrogen?
NRC regulations
When were revised in 1991 to reduce
What is a measure of the activity of the
allowable exposure to employees? Curie (Ci)
Beta particles

What particles
radioactive are more penetrative
material?
than alpha particles and have a Rad
moderate OSHA, DOE and RC
What threepower of ionization?
agencies require radiation
What is the measure of the dose of
caution signs and labels (purple on
ionizing radiation to the body in terms
yellow background) in radiation areas? Gamma Rays
What is similar to X-rays but of shorter
of energy absorbed per unit of tissue?
wavelength? Roentgen
What isoraradiation
special unit for measuring Rems
Doses for employee Gamma Rays
What is emitted when radioactive
exposure in
exposure to the
radiation?
workplace are typcially
transformations take place and
measured in?
originate in the nucleus of the atom
One
ratherRoentgen
than fromequals
violentwhat?
electron 2.58 * 1- to the -A coulomb per kilogram of air.
Rem
acitivity? One Rem
A dose of one Roentgen due to X-ray or
gamma
What radiation is equivalent to? Gamma Rays
What is a measure
generally of the dosealpha
accompanies of any
ionizing
and betaradiation
decay? to the body tissue of
its estimated biological effect relative to OSHA within 2A hours of the incident
Radiation exposures
What is most often a that exceed
result of X-rays
a dose of one roentgen?
prescribed regulatory limits must be
the ionization of matter by a Erythema (sunburn)
reported to?
Over expsosure of unprotected skin to
ultraviolet radiation may give rise to a 30 Days
A written report of radiation expsoure
condition called?
must be submitted no later than how
many days from the occurrence of the
incident?
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What law does radiation follow? Inverse Square Law &

Name three typical shielding Heat of combustion


materials 1. Paper ^
What is the amount of heat generated
for
as alpha of the combustion of a fuel?2. Aluminum sheets
rays?
a result
3. Ordinary clothing
Units of energy per mass of fuel.
Heat of combustion is usually
What are three examples of 1. Lead
expressed
effective in what for
shielding units?
beta 2. Aluminum
radiation? 3. Water
Heat transfer by radiation
What is the electromagnetic
mechanism of heat transfer which is
What are three examples of 1. Concrete ^
proportional
effective to thefor
shielding fourth power of
gamma 2. Water
temperature?
rays? 3. Lead

4 IronConvection
Heat transfer by what takes place as a
result of fluid motion?
Alpha particles
Least penetrating ionizing radiation?
Thermal energy
When cold fluid comes into contact
Gamma rays ^
with a hot surface, the film adjacent to
Most penetrating ionizing radiation?
the hot surface picks up what?
The Half Life for a radioactive material The length of time required for that material to lir
is defined as? loose 50 percent of its original activity.
1. The movement of air
In a fire situation, convective heat
Several 2. The combustion products
transfer instruments
takes place and
as a devices
result ofare
what1. Film badges &
designed for measuring the
two things? 2. Ionization chambers
3. Geiger Mueller radiation detectors
The direction in which a fire will spread.
THe movement of air in the previous
amount of radiation emitted from a
questions is a critical factor as it
given source. Name three types?
determines what?
The advantage is that it can be used to measure various types of
1. Temperature difference
The rate of convective heat transfer is
What is the advantage of GM detectors ionizing radiation (alpha, beta, gamma and x-rays) for which it is
2. Area of heat transfer
proprotional to what two things?
for measuring radiation? calibrated.
Combustion ^
Heat transfer coefficent
What is the function of the physical
What is defined as the rapid chemcial
properties of the fluid?
reaction of oxygen with a fuel?
Carbon Dioxide or Carbon Monixde
Conduction
What is the mechanism of thermal
energy transfer from one molecule to
When fuel is burned, the carbon in the
another usually in one phase called?
fuel reacts with oxygen to form either
what two chemicals?
Different material have different Metal

thermal conductivites; for


example what type of material has high thermal conductivity and are good conductors of heat?
Plastic
What material generally has low
thermal conductivity and are poor
conductors of heat?
Thermal conductivity

The rate of heat transfer can be


assumed to be proportional to the
temperature gradient per unit thickenss
of the wall and the transfer area. The
proportionality constant K in the above
equation is called?

What are the four elements required
1. Oxygen
for combustion?
2. Fuel
3. Source of ignition
4 Chemical chain reaction
Fire Tetraedron
The four elements in the previous
question make up what?

Fuels
What is a necessary component of all
combustion reactions?

Fuels can be present in which four 1. Solid
states? 2. Liquid
3. Vapor
4 Gaseous

Examples of solid fuels that can
support combustion are what? 1. wood
2. coal
3. textiles 4 paper
5. plastics
6. Some metals such as magnesium
7. Metals such as cesium