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Chapter 02

Literature review
Article 01

Essential elements for recruitment and retention: Generation Y

Enrolling and holding the best workers is a fundamental element for organizational
achievement. Various associations utilize graduates with the point of encouraging
development of the association and nonstop change through advancement, especially the
newest and largest generation entering the workforce. This generation (Gen Y) is quite
different from previous generations and previous policies and systems are quite ineffective
for them. Because they are quite updated, their expectations and goals are different from
previous workers. So recruiter should apply effective policies and systems (Berkshire, J.C.
2005). There have two process-related theories, named expectancy-value theory and goal-
setting theory. Expectancy-value theory related with timing in which individual chooses
amongst activity and choices, while goal-setting theory is the point at which an individual
concentrations upon activity objectives. New generation (Gen Y) is quite faster than previous
generation and their expectations from organization is quite different as well, they are quite
flexible, more focuses on private life and give importance on their work-life balancing, that is
why, they are moving from organization to organization is not a problem for them. This
tendency may be due to continued parental support as they devote so much time to their
private lives and maintaining their relationships. In spite of this determination to maintain a
satisfying private lifestyle, they are still career focused and want to have meaningful work-
related roles. This tendency impacts on a second expectation, that they will be given
significant organizational responsibility (Buechler, G. 2010). In their desire to take on
significant responsibility in the workplace, they want challenging work, the ability to be
creative, the provision of clear directions, and open and positive managers as well as want to
be involved in teams that consist of committed and motivated workers. They have been
reported as being results oriented, insistent on being empowered, competent at multi-tasking
swiftly, and crave for work and pressure. These characteristics, however, present several
challenges for managers. Gen Ys comfortableness with technology has influenced their
preferences for interacting in the workplace, with many Gen Y workers favoring instant
messaging, text messages, and e-mails over face-to-face conversations. To extend the current
investigation to include working as well as student Gen Y, the research will provide important
insight into the extent to which Gen Y may be considered an homogenous group and, thus,
likely to be driven by the same (or different) work-related expectations and goals. The aim of
this research are significant given that, ultimately, researchers as well as organizations may be
able to better understand the Gen Y workforce and by extension the means by which to
recruit and retain them (Burt, R.S. 1992).


This study conducted a theoretically-based investigation of the work expectations and goals
of Generation Y and, in particular, student Gen Y versus working Gen Y individuals based
within a framework incorporating both expectancy-value and goal setting theories.


There was an expected difference between student and working Gen Y in terms of career
goals, highlighting that Gen Y is not a homogenous group, no difference was found between
the two groups in terms of daily career expectations (Burt, R.S. 1992).
Working within collaborative environments is important to Gen Y ranging from collaboration
in regards to individually related aspects, such as determination of ones salary and the
identification of the tasks to be undertaken within a particular position, but also to the broader
organisational decision-making processes. As such, wherever and whenever possible,
invitations should be extended for the inclusion of Gen Y employees in decision making
(Chapman, D.S. and Webster, J. 2003).
It appears that to recruit and retain Gen Y employees, organisations will benefit greatly from
being as open, both in a collaborative sense as well as in terms of being honest and fair, with
their Gen Y employees as much as practicable. Gen Y want to feel valued by, and be
recognised for their contribution to, their organisation and in return are prepared to undertake
challenging work which draws upon their prior training (e.g. university degree) (Chapman,
D.S. and Webster, J. 2003).
Gen Ys want for more training may suggest that organisations could explore ways to
continually update their training and professional development offerings. Organisations
which respond to this aspect with the design and implementation of well-targeted training and
graduate programmes will likely enhance their capabilities to recruit and retain Gen Y
employees (Dufour, F. 2011).
There also appears to be value placed upon an organisation which is technically
up-to-date and which likely reflects the importance of an organisation being perceived
as innovative and contemporary. Gen Y also ascribed value to enjoying their work and
obtaining work-life balance through such aspects as flexible working hours. These
latter two aspects represent potentially tangible and relatively straightforward issues
which organisations could offer Gen Y employees (Buechler, G. 2010).

A limitation of the study was that it could only include a finite list of possible expectations
and goals. The findings with the daily expectations scale (i.e. no significant difference
between working and student Gen Y and both groups scoring only modest mean scores on the
scale) did highlight the possibility that the items chosen and explored may not represent those
characteristics that are most relevant to Gen Y (Buechler, G. 2010).
It seems that Gen Y are unlikely to be impressed (or have longer retention rates) at
organisations which do not follow through on any promises made to them during the
recruitment process or in relation to the promise of rewards for good performance (Dufour, F.
The sample of working Gen Y was drawn from one public sector organisation only. There are
likely to be differences in the expectations and goals of public, private, and third sector
employees, and even the public sector organisation used and other public organisations
(Chapman, D.S. and Webster, J. 2003).

Article 02

Online social networks: an emergent recruiter tool for attracting and screening

E-recruitment is a subject often discussed in the specialized literature. In the mid of 1990s the
Internet appears for the first time as a recruitment tool, giving rise to a phenomenon called in
that time recruiting revolution. Over the years, several synonymous terms describing the
notion of e-recruitment were identified: e-recruitment, web-based recruiting, online
recruiting, electronic resume, internet recruiting, etc. E-recruitment represents a solution for
companies that are trying to find the ideal candidate to generate them competitive advantage,
helping also the candidate (Birnbaum, M.H. 2004). This new way to attract candidates for a
job also brought with it new tasks and responsibilities that change the traditional recruiters
activity. These tasks and responsibilities require a new set of skills and qualifications that can
create a new profession: online recruiter. The major advantage perceived in this recruitment
channel is that all users can join for free and make use of available tools to search for job
which is much cheaper and easier. The use of social networking sites for recruitment process
is getting pace because most of the companies are posting their vacant job advertisements on
the Internet. Certain social networking sites like Facebook and LinkedIn, have even added a
job classified advertisement section for job seekers and job posters (Brewer, N. and Skinner,
N. 2006). Understanding the nature of the ties between actors in a social network structure
becomes important when attracting and screening job applicants, as, social networking
provides recruiters with socializing outlets to connect to and view the profiles of a broad
array of talented and capable candidates, often located in niche communities.


The interview method used in this investigation is particularly appropriate given the limited
research on online recruitment. Interviews are recommended for exploratory work, in
emergent areas such as the online environment, especially when asking how questions.


Over 75 per cent of participants believed that they should ideally occupy a primary online
connector role between job seekers and employers wanting new hires. Just over 80 per cent of
interviewees felt that it was also worthwhile to secure a secondary online connector role with
business contacts, possessing an established pool of contacts, as well as acquaintances,
friends, and virtual unknowns. Occupying a core central proprietary position in a single
network, as exemplified by LinkedIn, was deemed less important (Birnbaum, M.H. 2004).
Over 50 per cent of participants believed that the brand of their recruitment agency helped
build rapport, develop trust and generally strengthen ties with potential job candidates.
Participants commonly reported that the backing of a strong employment brand made it easier
to approach individuals, who would otherwise rebuff attempts to make contact via an online
network (Buechler, G. 2010).
The transparency of data, made possible by their online social network memberships, enabled
them to build connections via a larger number of links, often to hard-to-find job seekers that
were inaccessible via any traditional search method. 80 per cent felt that transparency via
their online social network membership played a greater role in promoting trust and building
confidence between recruiters and job seekers (Brewer, N. and Skinner, N. 2006).
Most recruiters recognised the value in quickly and easily establishing links to become a
primary connector. However, just over 50 per cent of those interviewed believed that the
strength of these links and their value particularly for screening significantly increased when
either they, or the network owner, required job seekers to supply detailed data about
themselves, particularly when the recruiter was trying to fill a specialist position (Birnbaum,
M.H. 2004).
It was problematic for recruiters to project an online profile too aligned with his/her
companys brand.
LinkedIn was found to be the dominant player, and as well as this, there were many other
niche sites targeted, including specialist sub-groups of general networks. The fragmentary
nature of online social networks requires recruiters to keep up with membership trends,
registering as members of multiple sites (Dufour, F. 2011).
Recruiters use a site by searching keywords to identify people of interest. Such a laborious
approach takes time and carries a large risk that any identified potential candidates will not be
interested in the recruiters proposition. This was particularly the case for leisure-focused
social sites like Facebook (Glass, A. 2007).

Article 03

Academic libraries, institutional missions, and new student recruitment: a case study

Each school or college has its own particular environment: a mix of institutional history,
special scholarly projects, grant winning staff, iconic structures and sports projects, and its
own particular social condition. These features differentiate academic institutions from other
schools and help them to appeal to future and current students. An institutions mission
statement can be viewed positively by campus constituents as a useful document which
articulates the schools purpose and goals. Profiles of the current generation of high school
and college-age students (often termed Millennials or Generation Y) often observe that this
age group does not respond to many traditional marketing techniques, including
advertising (Taylor, B.J. and Morphew, C. 2010). Effectively communicating the institutional
mission during the recruiting process would allow a college or university admissions office to
highlight their institutions uniqueness, its purpose and ethos, without appearing dismally
generic or downright deceptive to jaded prospective students. School and college libraries
specifically are remarkably set to help affirmations workplaces convey the more prominent
institutional mission to students. They can cross over any barrier between what students see
as "non-specific showcasing" and the essential message of how the organization separates
itself from different schools in method of reasoning and reason (Vander Schee, B.A. 2006).
Numerous school and college libraries as of now impart messages about their schools'
institutional missions to outside gatherings like benefactors, graduated class and the group.
Whatever the size of crowd, through adjusting the library's exercises furthermore, keeping
concentrated on the school or college mission, scholastic libraries is well ready to help
grounds affirmations workplaces in enrolling endeavours (Schwartz, M. 2012). A long way
from being an insignificant image of scholastic tucked into the bundle of administrations and
luxuries schools advertise to forthcoming understudies, libraries are fundamental to the
reason and operations of universities what's more, colleges. Academic libraries are perfect
vehicles for imparting their parent organizations' one of a kind missions and qualities to
forthcoming students.


This case study examines the approach of Brigham Young Universitys L. Tom Perry Special
Collections, which has worked with its campus admissions office by serving as a stop on
campus tours for high-priority academic and athletic recruits.


Mission statements might communicate to an institutions internal and external audiences,

such as the schools purpose, its responsibilities to students and other constituents, its vision
for the future, its educational mission, and its pedagogical rationale (Vander Schee, B.A.
Academic library activities, services, and holdings (including highly-visible collections or
unique acquisitions) are often highlighted in alumni magazines, fundraising drives, and
special events for campus donors. The library serves as a vehicle to talk about the academic
life of the institution with external groups like donors, alumni and the community (Glass, A.


Students complained that colleges should try less to sell themselves and more to act
interested in students and in education and concluded that colleges say they are unique, but
they all sound the same (Vander Schee, B.A. 2006).
When it comes to recruitment, features of academic libraries are rarely
shown to prospective students. Instead the library building is what appears in college
marketing materials: think stock photos of campus scenery and architecture. No mention is
made of the librarys unique holdings and services, or of how the library supports academics
and the intellectual life of the campus. The academic librarys relative absence in marketing
to prospective students, its use as nothing more than a symbol of the academic environment,
might be one reason students report that the library is a minor consideration in choosing a
college (Schwartz, M. 2012).

Article 04

Recruiting parents, retaining families

Families see institute and institute why each day as future participants. They safeguard from
Admissions to Financial Aid, future appointment with a professor or teacher, and get a hop
straight everyone why. The data families round up all about this inspect, surprisingly the
reason hit, may be the main instruction they heighten almost the tutor back bestow their
variety. For libraries, the appointment is the heretofore convenience to total enrolment.
Higher culture is a substantial budgeting and passionate property by both guardians and
students. Young students are generally powerless to treat sweeping of higher scholarship
(Basko, A. 2008). The costs and results entangled just to note a foundation are dangerous and
for guardians who are cash this cost, engagement now that resolution is not only essential, but
just get on. The goal of the athenaeum mother period considers adapt fathers with a
modernized academic reference centre. There are three specialized objectives: single out the
bodily components of the study equally many of floors, computers, and function desks;
recount the convenience of library basics like book recording and databases; and see
universal development items for student in the same manner with expanded use of citations
styles and a launch to intellectual articles (Daniel, B., Evans, S. and Scott, R. 2001). There
are many ways second attractive progenitors with the seminary and athenaeum of whatever
their minor hears and promotes. Future studies will also assess credible advances of fathers
again make into subsumption any just established seek efforts. Employing alternative clinics
implementations, a few millennium steps enter implementing a Parent Newsletter,
contributing a athenaeum instruction brochure to the wrapping mothers gain on a quadrangle
tour, employing SMS Marketing Software to revise progenitors on athenaeum highlights,
events, and programs, spar progenitors proceed or hosting a progenitors proceed to prompt
mothers into the athenaeum and examine all the utilities offered, time gaining info around the
architecture, folk, and payment. Some libraries are creating progenitor lists to cater a
neighbourhood for guardians to answer and contribute each diverse. Other ideas encompass
creating a father focused network to cater message, supervision, tips, etc. for mothers as a
case of need when they need it (Hoover, E. and Beckle, S. 2008).


The objectives of this paper are achieved by connecting local experiences with other parent
initiatives on university campuses throughout the country. The paper takes the approach of
addressing marketing strategies for recruitment and retention of parents, while also including
opportunities for these strategies to be applied.


Providing the science and assets to guardians of students allows the clinic to depend on and
employ an absolute relief formation particularly then in plant not over the household unit.
Allowing the parents to feel connected to their childs higher education institution engages
them to help their child to feel connected to that institution (Hoover, E. and Beckle, S. 2008).
Recruitment and retention are a crucial aspect of higher education. Institutions understand
they are no longer recruiting and retaining just the student, but the whole family (Hoover, E.
and Beckle, S. 2008).
The goal of the library parent session is to familiarize parents with a twenty-first century
academic library. There are three specific objectives: identify the physical components of the
library such as number of floors, computers, and service desks; describe the accessibility of
library resources such as e-books and databases; and recognize common transition items for
first year students such as expanded use of citations styles and an introduction to scholarly
articles (Basko, A. 2008).
Allowing the parents to feel connected to their childs higher education institution
engages them to help their child to feel connected to that institution. Recruitment and
retention are a crucial aspect of higher education. Institutions understand they are no
longer recruiting and retaining just the student, but the whole family (Daniel, B., Evans, S.
and Scott, R. 2001).
Identify university campus culture and branding messages, keep awareness about library
fits into that culture and use branding to the advantage. Identify those offices like to build
relationships with in order to target messages to parents but one person cannot move this
concept forward (Noel-Levitz, 2012).

Article 05
E-recruitment service providers review

As international struggle persists and industries grow into more savvy all-out, the stipulate for
knack or observation situated workers with the strength forthcoming prolific and original is
escalating. In the small in this regard fact, it has come necessary for the companies to select
intricate admission and draft strategies to get the clear attendant at the suitable time. The
conventional enrolment procedures are not coping up with the energy requirements
exclusively in choosing the sufficient bidder quicker. Eventually, e-contracting develop into
profitable and propitious scheme over common approaches (Cristina S., Jos E., 2016). E-
enlistment, as institution job, is fast expanding all over and come to tons of a Ringgits
Malaysia annually. E-recruiters come in two varieties: corporate recruiters and third-party
recruiters. The third-party recruiters or e-recruitment service providers specialised in online
recruitment and provide professional hiring solutions to its clients. Corporate recruiters
include recruitment features in their web sites that allow jobseekers to apply jobs directly,
without going through a third-party. International e-recruiters will approach face in
connection with themselves aggressively, and end boost their services to the clients and job
seekers (Yioula M., Fotis P., Eleni C., 2015). This would bring about providing a broader area
of packing for the podium tools with relevant of engaging prosperous job seekers to prompt
leftovers to tour their sites. It is found within inspect that skilful is a look for e-recruiters to
move against the orientation of providing spreadsheet solutions to their clients. With the
boundless hidden prosperity in on the Internet race probe as forecasted by Forrester
Reinvestigate, tie-up and profit will be the comprehensive look in connection with the foreign
e-recruitment service jobholder. It is checked within inspect that takeovers and gain is
somewhat popular in the e-recruitment business. This plan is acceptably used separately
budgeting rich e-recruiters to tap on the choice of extent economies. E-recruitment proceeds
will pass grow but the dividend will be spread by all of fewer sites (Chapman, D.S. and
Webster, J. 2003).


The present review talks about and analyzes three worldwide and three Malaysian e-recruiters
experiences and activities. The international e-recruiters are,, and The Malaysian e-recruiters are, and The study also attempts to review the e-recruiters web
sites platform feature and tools that are designed to facilitate job seekers job applications. It is
finished with an intend to encourage clearer comprehension of whether e-enrollment business
brings genuine business benefits.

Findings is the leading global careers web site. The global network consists
of local content and language sites in the USA, UK, Australia, Canada, The Netherlands,
Belgium, New Zealand, etc. (Chapman, D.S. and Webster, J. 2003). attracts candidates from more than 100 national, local
and niche career source and provides the most integrated print and online recruitment
solutions available in major markets throughout the USA. is a popular site; it owns various hiring management
technologies, including Agency Desktop, Resumix, and Softshoe. is a Malaysian e-recruitment service provider that provides internet and
newspaper job advertising, corporate staffing and personal employment and executive search
and selection services associated with Job Link Malaysia, JobStar Malaysia and JLM Group.
All sites reviewed show that besides providing e-recruitment, they are also providing
hiring solution services for their clients. International companies will also continue to
compete among themselves aggressively, improving their services to the employers by
hiring experts to innovate their software program hiring solution to support their
clients (Yioula M., Fotis P., Eleni C., 2015).


Alliances are rarely a solution and often a transitional device rather than stable arrangement.
No firm can depend on another independent firm for skills and assets that are central to its
competitive advantage and in long term run a risk of losing its competitive advantage. was making losses in FY 1999 and 2000. since started its
business in Malaysia in 1998 was also experiencing losses in FY 1999 and 2000. With the
current economic downturn, these companies would continue to face difficulty to improve
their sales revenues (Yioula M., Fotis P., Eleni C., 2015).
A major future threat facing Malaysian e-recruiters is the possibility of international e-
recruiters extending their business in Malaysia. revenue in financial year 2000
was US$1,407 million while that of was only RM2.6 million. The limited
resources available to Malaysian companies may limit its ability to compete with the
international e-recruiters especially in introducing a more technologically advanced e-
recruitment platform (Chapman, D.S. and Webster, J. 2003).
Article 06

Superdrug prescribes e-recruitment to improve talent management

Health and beauty retailer Superdrug has up-to-date its hiring movement, heightened its talent
hurriedly and intensively to deal with lots of applications and lowered its cost per hire by
87 percent. The company is continually searching for top talent for positions that range from
store managers to pharmacists to head-office roles. In late 2004, it launched its career web
site and ran several job-board campaigns to help to fill vacancies across the UK. Thus, it is
essential for them to make recruitment process is as fast and efficient as possible. The
decision was made to automate recruitment by moving the entire process online. Hire
Strategies, a retail consulting company engaged to help with sourcing the most suitable online
recruitment solution for Superdrug (Lindquist, T.M. 2008). The system eases the pressure of
dealing with high volumes of applications, and is very easy to use. The application process
gathers the essential selection information and the candidate management ensures effective
and timely communication with applicants. The system makes the first match between the job
requirements and the competencies and experience of the candidate. The technique makes the
originally contest between the job requirements and the competencies and skill of the
applicant. It then employs a pool of claimants registered, whichever ensures Superdrug has an
immediately accessible deliver of CVs for employment possibility (Locke, E.A. and Latham,
G.P. 1990). Superdrug will soon use the ActiveRecruiter applicant arch to ensure that all
vacancies on the web site are also repeatedly posted to the companys intranet. This will
facilitate employees to see a do list of vacancies and affect promptly, whatever will help to
restore domestic flexibility then. Faster feedback times, again terrific coherence in conduct
CVs, are course us to meet our aspiration of developing the Superdrug manager logo and
attract, hire and preserve proficient people. Superdrug now plans to test networked admission
in the class of its in-store sales teams. Store guiders rise for sales organization at a resident
matched so the prosecution will produce them with entry to ActiveRecruiter with the aim of
composition contracting easier to guide. Superdrug try use mobile phones as all letters alter.
This will mean that applicants can text a mobile phone number advertised on in-store posters
as the first stage (Martin, C.A. 2005). They will then complete a mini application form on
their phone, which will automatically be sent back to be processed. Candidates will stand
attain approach with the web site by text, if they designate. However, as the operation will be
positively mixed with the Superdrug e-recruitment quick fix, the participant will even stand
chose to update his or her details employing the web site.

This research paper studies on Health and beauty retailer Superdrug. It has streamlined its
recruitment process, and reduced its hiring cost per hire by 87 percent.


Quicker reaction times, together with more prominent consistency in taking care of CVs, are
helping us to meet our goal of enhancing the Superdrug manager mark and draw in, contract
and hold skilled individuals.
Superdrug has lessened its cost per employ by 87 percent, and the organization now selects
54 percent of all its store and head-office administration and drug specialist opportunities
through its site. Superdrug likewise utilizes enrolment offices to discover hopefuls and has
given its providers a one of a kind sign on to the site (Lindquist, T.M. 2008).
Superdrug will soon use the ActiveRecruiter candidate gateway to ensure that all vacancies
on the web site are automatically posted to the companys intranet. This will enable
employees to see a complete list of vacancies and apply directly, which will help to
encourage internal mobility further (Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P. 1990).
The system eases the pressure of dealing with high volumes of applications, and is very easy
to use. The application process gathers the essential selection information and the candidate
management ensures effective and timely communication with applicants (Martin, C.A.


E-recruitment is not treated as a stand-alone human resource tool but is integrated into an
overall recruiting and selection strategy that includes, among other things, sophisticated
behavioural and skills assessment, interviewing, and additional means of identifying needs
and sourcing candidates (Martin, C.A. 2005).
Internet-based recruiting will not replace traditional practices, but a well-implemented e-
recruitment strategy can help the recruitment process become more successful. Internet
recruiting should be only one of many tools used to find and recruit applicants (Martin, C.A.
Although the employers see the advantages of e-recruitment, they continued to use traditional
methods such as newspaper ads, personal referrals, and search agencies for most of their
recruiting. Employer viewed the Internet as an important additional tool (Locke, E.A. and
Latham, G.P. 1990).
Article 07

Recruitment goes virtual

Enrolment, similar to each other part of business today relies on upon speed and exactness.
With expanding quantities of qualified candidates pursuing a diminishing pool of
employments, HR experts need to discover approaches to deal with applications rapidly while
precisely choosing the best hopefuls. Progressively, they are swinging to person to person
communication instruments to aid this procedure. The least complex utilization of long range
informal communication as an enlistment instrument is essentially for associations to have an
online nearness so that potential candidates know about accessible employments (Shaw, S.
and Fairhurst, D. 2008). This is particularly critical for little to direct measured firms not
among the ''huge name'' organizations in their field. Real organizations like these are now at
the bleeding edge of online networking enrolment. Web-based social networking can be
utilized as a part of various approaches to encourage enrolment. Facebook and Twitter can be
utilized to drive movement towards a vocation page or blog where data about enlistment
drives is much of the time refreshed. LinkedIn remains a mainstream stage for enrolment
with around 90 percent of HR experts utilizing it as an instrument to enlist new staff (Smith,
E.E., Kruger, J. 2005). Cell phones have additionally changed the way firms enrol and the
route in which competitors look for positions. Many individuals today, especially youthful
grown-ups, utilize their telephones to go online as opposed to getting to data by means of PC.
Along these lines, firms wishing to draw in youthful candidates, for example, late graduates
need to make their enrolment data available to cell phone clients. Web innovation and web-
based social networking are staying put. They shape almost individuals cooperate with each
other in the cutting edge world and they serve to make the planet a considerably littler place
than it once was. Organizations have found that they have to coordinate these specialized
instruments into their marketable strategies and this must be finished with incredible
arranging, improvement and checking to guarantee the best utilization of the innovation
(Berkshire, J.C. 2005). This is as valid for HR as whatever other office in a present day
association. Enrolment and choice must discover approaches to use web innovation and
online networking astutely while holding the human touch that qualities instinct and

An online networking group made up of media-astute people who grasp the innovation is
basic. They see how clients of online networking think and what strategies will pull in
potential possibility to their organizations (Berkshire, J.C. 2005).
HR divisions may rely on upon destinations like LinkedIn to find potential competitors;
programming has now usurped the human component in the exhausting errand of short-
posting candidates. Software can quickly filter through application shapes hunting down
key qualities or abilities. While this is a capable instrument, some HR experts are
worried that it needs separation (Shaw, S. and Fairhurst, D. 2008).
Many individuals today, especially youthful grown-ups, utilize their telephones to go
online as opposed to getting to data by means of PC. In this way, firms wishing to draw
in youthful candidates, for example, late graduates need to make their enrolment data
available to cell phone clients (Berkshire, J.C. 2005).


Online application procedures are the absence of input. Many organizations gather
various online applications and after that neglect to give input to competitors. This may
prompt to the loss of candidates that organizations wish to meet as competitors may pick
not to work for associations they see as having needy relationship building abilities
(Smith, E.E., Kruger, J. 2005).
Programming additionally does not have the natural energy to perceive where diverse
aptitudes may be transferable between employments or businesses. In any case, IT
experts contend that it is not the product that is flawed but instead the path in which it is
utilized. They recommend that a move to electronic competitor choice ought to be
viewed as a chance to grow better approaches for recognizing the best candidates (Smith,
E.E., Kruger, J. 2005).


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Training, Vol. 50 No. 5, pp. 366-78

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Tool. Journal of Transnational Management 20:1, 31-49.
Chapter 04
Theoretical framework
4.0 Introduction

The digital world has brought a new dimension to the world of recruiting. The World Wide
Web, or Web 1.0, shortened the search time, costs and offered a transparent method of
information for candidates. E-Recruitment is an easiest and convincing way to hire people
from any part of the world and promotes opportunity, it benefits the company to be
recognized globally, and E-HRM helps in conveying any kind of HR policies, training
program, and pay slip sheets easily. E-HRM is based on more systematic & technology
theorem, which helps the HR department to scrutinize employee performance carefully &
accurately. It helps in imparting any HR policy; keep a track on employees daily activity
report (DAR), efficiently helps the employees in promotion & transfers. E-recruitment, also
known within the literature as online recruitment, cyber recruiting, or internet recruiting are
synonymous. They imply formal sourcing of jobs online. It is a complete process which
includes job advertisements, receiving resumes and building human resource database with
candidates and incumbents.

4.1 Definition of Recruitment

Recruitment includes those practices and activities carried on by the organization with the
primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees (Barber A. E. 1998).

4.2 E-recruitment

4.2.1 Meanings of E-recruitment

Electronic Recruitment (E-Recruitment) is also known as online recruitment or internet

recruitment. E-recruitment includes those practices and activities carried on by the
organization through internet with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential
employees. Online recruitment is another name of e-recruitment (Barber L. 2006).

4.2.2 Definition of E-recruitment

Recruitment processes in which use of electronic resources, such as the Internet is use to
achieve and improve the normal outcomes of recruitment by the organization is known as E-
Recruitment (Barber L. 2006)

Figure: E-recruitment

4.2.3 Types of E-recruitment

There are two different ways for companies/organizations to attract job seekers for their
vacant positions:

(1) Intranet

Posting vacancies on their own websites which could be enabled by intranet or internet.
Smallest scale of e-recruitment includes the boundaries of the organization, using intranet to
find the best option among incumbents which possess required knowledge, skills, abilities
and other characteristics

(2) Online Recruitment Industry

Third party websites which enabled a huge marketplace for recruitment so-called Online
Recruitment Industry. When the company wants to seek for its favorite potential employee
among outsiders the internet or due to any reason it is not worth or reasonable to have such a
platform, there are plenty of companies nowadays which are specialized to provide them with
employees through advertisement, ranging from fully specialized like or through
social networks.

4.2.4 Players in the E-recruitment market Job Seeker

The job seeker is the person who desires for a job. There are two kinds of job seekers which
are explained ahead.

a) Active Job Seekers

The candidates who frequently search for a job because of one reason other, viz; better
opportunity for growth, personal reasons to change and professional reasons etc. Commercial
job boards/portals have truly complimented with their needs.

b) Passive Job Seekers

Passive candidates are those workers who are not currently planning to change their jobs but
still they regularly surf the internet for any one of million reasons during their normal routine.
Such candidates may come across new job opportunities and simply drop their resumes on
internet. Corporate websites is the most preferred destination for passive job seekers. Recruitment Market

The recruitment market can be explained in three ways i.e. the traditional way which
constitutes all the traditional methods of recruiting the candidates through newspaper ads,
head hunters and temporary recruitment agencies etc. The second way is the new look of the
traditional way which include old wine in new bottle like online newspapers ads, online
headhunters and online temporary recruitment agencies.

Figure: Recruitment Market

The third and the most used way in the current scenario is the e-way. It holds purely online
methods of recruiting talent, viz; commercial job boards/portals, corporate websites and e-
mails (Cappelli P. 2001). Potential Employers (Firms/Companies)

The final destination of the every job seeker is to reach the potential employer. It means the
companies/ firms who employ them on the basis of their capabilities and job requirements.

4.2.5 E-recruitment revolution

The internet first emerged as a recruiting tool in the mid-1990s and was hailed by the popular
media as the driver behind a recruiting revolution due to the benefits it could bring to
recruiters. It was predicted that the recruitment industries future is on the net and that the
internet had brought radical change to corporate recruiting. The buzzword and the latest
trends in recruitment is the E-Recruitment. Also known as Online recruitment, it is the
use of technology or the web based tools to assist the recruitment process (Barber A. E.
1998). Online recruitment and the use of new emerging technologies have many advantages
for the modern recruiter. It makes the process of finding candidates and new business
opportunities quicker, cheaper and more efficient. The internet has caused the largest change
to the recruitment process in the past decade acting as a link between employers and job

4.2.6 E-recruitment market

E-recruitment market is one of the vital aspects in the process of recruiting the talent. Internet
has completely changed the role of the traditional recruiter. An iLogos survey in 2002 found
that 91 percent of the global 500 companies were using their corporate websites for recruiting
as compared to 60 percent and 29 percent in 1999 and 1998 respectively. Earlier, cold calling
and candidate networking were the only options available for identifying the new potential
candidates. But now it is possible to search one desired resume out of thousands, placed on
the websites. E-recruitment enhances the effectiveness of the recruitment process.

The e-recruitment has come up with valuable method for finding potential candidates who are
not necessarily looking for a change in their current jobs but would be open to the right
opportunity (Cappelli P. 2001).

4.2.7 E-recruitment hiring process

The Hiring Process means carrying out a full series of functions in addition to simple
recruitment. It means making a choice and deciding if the company feels that any of the
candidates meet the requirements of the specific job and, if so, hiring that person. The next
step is closing the deal and having the new employee joins the company and fit in within the
existing company culture (Chapman D. S. and Webster J. 2003). This means that once the
companys hiring policies have been clearly defined, there is a process, which we call the
Hiring Process that may be broken down into the following stages:
Figure: E-recruitment hiring process

4.2.8 The growth of e-recruitment

E-recruitment, where employers use the internet in some form to aid conventional
recruitment processes, has a number of important advantages compared to more traditional
forms of recruiting. Firstly, it allows companies to shorten hiring times through an increase in
information flow and an acceleration of recruitment processes. Secondly, it can help reduce
recruiting costs, hiring times and employee turnover as processes are generally job-specific
and offer computer assisted screening interviews and statistical predictions (Chapman D. S.
and Webster J. 2003).

Figure: E-recruitment market

Moreover, it gives employers the opportunity to hire staff both locally and globally,
significantly extending the reach of more traditional staff recruitment. Thirdly, e-recruiting
offers companies and prospective employees a number of important features and specific
(Edgley K. 1995) abilities such as:

"The ability to initiate interview requests and order background checks.

Unlimited cost information tracking for all activities associated with the hiring

Customised e-mail notification of recruiters for both active and passive candidates.

Improved integration of recruiter-specific communications activities.

Dynamic creation of an employers job page.

Multiple language support with candidate accessibility for US and global partners.

Extensive ability to personalise the candidate experience by allowing employers to

tailor the candidate and recruiter interfaces."

4.2.9 Success of e-recruitment

There are approximately 700 million people using the consumer internet and one of the most
usages of the internet is to conduct online job searches, and one of the most searched-on key
words is "jobs". In short, the internet is fundamentally changing the way the recruitment
industry is operating and it can be an extremely effective tool for hiring (Galanaki E. 2002).

First and foremost, there is a need to build a recruitment centre within the company's own
website. Logically, candidates will first look for jobs on the company's website if they are
interested to work in that particular organisation. As a result, they should be able to have
access to all the information about the company immediately (Galanaki E. 2002). However,
before adopting this method of recruitment, there are some issues which may have to be taken
into consideration.

Secondly, company should advertise in websites. There has been literally an explosion of
online career centres, job guides, and recruiting services and there are now over 33,000 career
specific websites on the Internet. The primary advantage to advertising our open positions on
one or more recruitment websites is our extreme popularity with job seekers (Garca-
Izquierdo A. L., Aguinis H. and Ramos-Villagrasa P. J. 2010).
4.2.10 Importance of E-recruitment

Hiring is not an easy process. It is time consuming and money consuming. The cost/benefit
analysis of establishing a paperless process needs to be evaluated in order to determine the
approach to be taken for each process. A more efficient process may or may not reduce the
number of staff. Personnel costs may shift from the business function to IT/support resources,
either internal to the University or external to a vendor for support the new paperless process

One of the best things to do is to recruit online. It helps stop people from flooding to business
place, resumes in hand, and disrupting. It also reaches a lot more people, so organizations
have a better chance of finding the person that it want. Advertising in newspapers and trade
publications is still done, but it's slowly giving way to online recruitment because of these
reasons, and also because of the lower cost and the ease with which a person can generally be
found and hired. Posting the ad is usually free or very cheap, too, so that helps to drastically
cut down on costs (Garca-Izquierdo A. L., Aguinis H. and Ramos-Villagrasa P. J. 2010).

Most companies can use them for most job openings with a very high degree of success, and
that's something that's hard to beat. Traditional ways of finding job applicants often don't
work that well, so the online recruitment option is really the way to go for most people. Jobs
can be posted in the morning, a few resumes will come in by noon, and it might even be
possible to talk with a candidate that afternoon - and possibly even hire that person that day
(KeyNote, 2012). It isn't always that quick or simple but it has the potential to be, and that's
something that traditional ways of recruiting people just don't offer.

4.2.11 Significance of E-recruitment

E-recruitment can overcome the barriers of traditional recruitment methods for easy access of
the candidates. To be a successful Organization and to maintain the position recruiting high
caliber staff is fundamental. Not finding the right person can lead to frustration. Many
employers now aren't limited to attracting candidates from their own country and they can
appeal to qualified candidates all over the world (Galanaki E. 2002). The same holds true for
job seekers. They can search and apply for jobs in areas where their skills are in demand
regardless of geographical location. The widespread use of internet today has meant that
advertising for candidates has become cheaper while at the same time appealing to the wider
audience. This is the secret of e-recruitment gaining popularity in a short time span.
4.2.12 E-Recruiting Methods

Job boards: These are the places where the employers post jobs and search for candidates.
Candidates become aware of the vacancies. One of the disadvantages is, it is generic in
nature. Special skill candidates to be searched by certain job boards.
Employer web sites: These sites can be of the company owned sites, or a site developed by
various employers. For an example, is the first cooperative, employer-owned e-
recruiting consortium. It is a nonprofit organization.
Professional websites: These are for specific professions, skills and not general in nature.

4.2.13 E-Recruitment Trends

Social Media finds an inherent place in hiring process

With social media coming up on the scene, companies have more information than ever on
the job seekers. While earlier recruiters were dependent solely on the candidates resume,
today they can easily perform a web search and find more information about them by
scouting their social media profiles, and also examine their work samples, all through the use
of web. Social media can also be a great way of discovering candidates who are employed
but are open to changing jobs if offered the right opportunity. Since the best jobs are hardly
advertised out there on job boards, and a smart job seeker would probably know that, in order
to find these prospective employees, recruiters will have to search through various
communities (Lang S., Laumer S., Maier C., Eckhardt A. 2011).
Figure: E-recruitment channels

Mobile recruitment

More than half of the internet users now access the web from mobile devices. By the end of
2014, mobile devices will overtake computers as the most used tool to access the web. These
statistics highlights the underlying need to invest in mobile recruitment by every organization
that is serious about hiring in 2014. According to a recent LinkedIn survey, 59% of the
candidates are using mobile to search for vacancies and 52% are using mobile to apply (Parry
E. and Tyson S., 2008).

Using online media for brand building

According to, Lang S., Laumer S., Maier C., Eckhardt A. (2011), online media can have
many more benefits if used in a more comprehensive manner against the piecemeal approach.
Taking time to chalk out a detailed plan for utilizing all forms of online media towards
strengthening brand presence of the company and its communication with potential
candidates works even better compared solely to recruitment. Employers can use job ads to
promote a consistent brand to prospective job seekers. With there being some tough
competition for available talent, it ultimately boils down to how well a recruiter is able to
communicate his brand to the prospective employees.

Talent CRM, the future buzzword

Most people know CRM as Custom Relationship Management tool, a platform for tracking
existing and target clientele and measure the progress toward business goals. 2013 was the
first time when this concept made its serious debut into recruiting. The basic concept of
Talent CRM is to establish relationships with passive and target candidates. The Talent CRM
will help recruiters manage marketing content including job descriptions, photos, videos or
any other media that optimizes recruiting. Effective Talent CRM will also help in offering
localized content based on the target audience (Parry E. and Tyson S., 2008).

4.2.14 Advantages of E-Recruitment

Reduced time-to-hire: E-Recruitment allows for immediate real-time interaction and 24x7
hiring/job search activity. Employers can post a job in as little as 20 minutes on a career site
with no limits to ad size and start receiving CVs in response immediately. The posting
typically remains active for as long as 30 days and continues to receive applicant CVs
immediately as job seekers come across it (Onrec, 2005). This is in comparison to traditional
methods where a newspaper ad may take appear a week later and only for a day, or a recruiter
has to wait till month-end to reap the benefits of an ad in a monthly industry or geography-
specific publication. Typically, e-recruitment hiring is on average 70% faster than traditional
hiring methods and the recruiting cycle is speeded up at every stage from posting, to
receiving CVs to filtering to managing the contacts and workflow.

Reduced cost-of-hire

Costs of posting jobs and/or searching for candidates on job portals can be up to 90% lower
than the costs of using traditional search firms and/or advertising methods. Online postings at
approximately Tk.1000 for normal job post and only Tk.4000 for hotjobs while cost for
newspaper is quite high and charged approximately Tk. 20,000 for normal post and on a site
like are substantially more cost-effective than the 30% of annual salaries fee that
many traditional recruiters charge or the costs of newspaper/publication ads for the same
reach and time period (Lang S., Laumer S., Maier C., Eckhardt A. 2011).

Wider reach for employers

Unlike traditional methods which are usually restricted by career level, geography, industry
or other parameters online recruitment portals typically have current and active talent
databases that cover all career levels, industries and regions. Top marketing dollars are spent
ensuring the databases are diverse, updated regularly, relevant and high quality (Onrec,
2005). Sprawling business development teams also ensure that affiliations are established
whereby the portals are always prominent and top-of-mind with the relevant candidates and
are visited by the target job seekers regularly.

Wider reach for candidates

Candidates benefit immensely from the wider scope they gain through online job sites. They
are able to access jobs in companies, industries and locations and can apply immediately with
the click of a mouse. By posting their CVs online they can be contacted by
employers/recruiters directly for opportunities that may not even be advertised (Pearce C. G.
and Tuten R. L. 2001).

State-of-the-art filtration tools

Leading job sites like offer employers the latest technologies and filtration
criteria that help them find potential future candidates in the easiest, most rapid and efficient
way. provides its community of employers with more than 33 unique search
criteria and state-of-the-art screening and sorting tools to help them quickly and easily target
and contact both active and passive professionals without the delay of using a go-between
(Pin J. R., Laorden M., and Senz-Diez I. 2001).

Branding opportunity for employers

Employers can use their job ads to project a consistent brand and company image/values to
prospective job seekers. With the heat on for top talent, candidates can be very particular
about whom they work for and these company descriptions often serve as a basis for their
application decisions (Silber J. M. 2012).

Sophisticated management tools

The entire recruitment process is managed from one location which allows the employer to
post vacancies, receive CVs, screen, prioritize and contact candidates individually or
collectively and track all activities from the confines of a private and highly functional
employer (Silber J. M. 2012).

Allows for proactivity

The employer/recruiter is in full control of the hiring process with online recruitment, can
contact candidates real-time and directly and does not require a middleman to sift through,
filter, assess or select the required candidates. By being in the driving seat the employer gains
valuable insight into the nature of the marketplace and the competitive landscape for the
position. He is also able to ensure a superior match and a better fit for the long term (Smith A.
D. and Rupp W. T. 2004).

4.2.15 Drawbacks of E-Recruitment

Require being computer savvy

The process is restricted within computer savvy candidates. As the search is based on various
websites, their screening, keywords application demands for a computer savvy person and
company (Pearce C. G. and Tuten R. L. 2001).

Legal consequences
Alike other recruitment sources this source also should be aware of the words used in the
advertisements otherwise it may lead to the charge of discrimination.

Vast pool of applicants

This benefits the Organizations as well as it is disadvantage to them also. Because the huge
database cannot be scanned in depth. Either first few candidates are called for interview or
the resumes are screened based on some key words. On the other hand applicants also face
global competition (Pin J. R., Laorden M., and Senz-Diez I. 2001).

Non-serious applicants

Lot of applicants forward their resumes just to know their market value. As personally the
candidates are not checked thus whether they are serious is not known. At the time of
interview the recruiter might realize that the candidate is not serious in leaving the current
job. But by that time some serious candidates might have been rejected (Smith A. D. and
Rupp W. T. 2004).

Disclosure of information

Candidates profile and company details are available to public. The applicants do not want
their employer to know that they are looking for a change. Phone number, address
information has led to many security problems. Again the companies do not want their
competitors always to know the current scenario (Smith A. D. and Rupp W. T. 2004).

Outdated job postings

Occasionally, human resource representatives fail to remove old postings for positions from
the website that have been filled. Sometimes this is due to miscommunication between the
hiring manager and HR or a glitch in the system. Recruiters get swamped with resumes for
jobs that are no longer open. However, employers will continue to get flooded with resumes
from interested applicants until the posting is removed (Pearce C. G. and Tuten R. L. 2001).

Website malfunctions

Applicants often complain about company websites that breakdown when attempting to
submit their documents. Others complain that some website layouts are so confusing and find
it difficult to navigate around the site. Some get so frustrated that they give up trying to apply
for work on that particular site (Pin J. R., Laorden M., and Senz-Diez I. 2001).
No response from the company

Another popular complaint from job applicants is, they dont get responses from some
companies where theyve submitted their resume and contact information to the company
website. Well of course theres no way for the applicant to call the company because theyve
purposely omitted a contact number. Or else state, No phone calls please. Nowadays,
companies discourage applicants from calling the company to inquire about a job posting, it's
strictly web based process. Nonetheless, applicants want to hear somethingeven if its an
email stating, You will not be considered for the job. This will, at least, advice the
applicants to continue his/her job search elsewhere (Stone D. L. , Stone-Romero E. F. ,
Lukaszewski K. 2006).

4.2.16 Criteria for Effective E-Recruitment

The requirement for it is to benefit the selection procedure. Thus to make the process
effective, the Organizations should be concerned about various factors. Among them most
important are- Return on investment (ROI) should be calculated to compare the costs and
risks. It facilitates to evaluate benefits and to calculate the estimated return.
Recruitment policy should be flexible and proactive, to adapt market changes. The companies
will have their own mix and match sources according their objective. The guidelines are to be
provided in the policy (Thompson L. F., Braddy F. W., Wuensch K. L. 2008).
Unemployment rate, labor turnover rate are considered. As the whole process depends on the
availability of candidates in the market thus for every post, position it is not viable to spend
too much of time. These rates will determine whether to be stringent or lenient.
Impact of supplying compensation details to be considered. That is the wage, salary, benefits,
when disclosed on line then it should follow the legal norms. Chance for negotiation will not
be there. Compensation rate of the company not only reaches to the candidates but will be
known to all (Thompson L. F., Braddy F. W., Wuensch K. L. 2008).
Precautions to be taken for resume screening. Words that discriminates gender, age, religion
etc. to be avoided. For an example, recent college graduates in an ad are not preferable
(Suvankulov F., Lau M. C. K., Chau F. H. C. 2012).
Review the results periodically and also update regularly to achieve a better result. Otherwise
pool of candidates will remain static and will not serve the purpose.
Organizations need to selective while choosing the sites. It refers to whether it is required to
be giving to the job search sites like or in their own site. When special skill
candidates are searched then generic job search sites to be avoided (Suvankulov F., Lau M. C.
K., Chau F. H. C. 2012).
4.3 Conclusion

E-recruitment is easy and simple way of recruiting the employees in the organization
compare to traditional method. Internet has made an impact on the overall functioning of
human resource department. If E-HRM, is been implemented in the organization, the working
of the HR department will be at ease. There will be reduction in utilization of paper, less
storage required, less time wasted in documentation, reduction in manpower utilization, time
saving and data can be used as and when it is required and in numerous way.


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