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Proceedings of the Twenty-sixth (2016) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference www.isope.

Rhodes, Greece, June 26-July 1, 2016
Copyright 2016 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)
ISBN 978-1-880653-88-3; ISSN 1098-6189

Application of Flexible Risers in South China Sea

Jing Cao,
CNOOC Research Institute, Beijing, China;

Tuanjie Li), Wei Ye
OffshoreTech LLC, Houston, USA

ABSTRACT compatible with the exposed environment

The material used for the flexible riser shall withstand the
Oil and gas exploration in South China Sea is entering into medium and corrosive environment to which it will be exposed
deep water depth where flexible riser is becoming economically The flexible riser shall provide a tight conduit to prevent fluid
competitive and technically accessible for floating production. An 8 leakage
inch production riser has been designed for one of the existing field in
the targeted area. This paper presents all aspects of the design of the 8 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
inch production riser from design requirements and material selection,
layer design, cross-section validation to physical properties including Design Requirements
axial, rotational and bending stiffness.
Main design requirements are given below:
Theoretical methodology for design of layers and cross sections is Design water depth: 300 m
presented and compared with available numerical tools. The design of Internal content: crude oil
the polymer layers focuses on chemical and physical properties, the Internal diameter: 8" (203.2 mm)
design of the carcass layers considers the crushing capacity by taking Design pressure: 20 MPa
into initial deflection into account. The design of the tensile and Design temperature: 90 C/-20C

pressure armor wires considers both capacity and fatigue.
Overall heat transfer coefficient: < 3W/m2C
Design life: 15 years
KEY WORDS: Flexible riser; production; South China Sea;
capacity; fatigue Standards and Codes
INTRODUCTION Design of the Flexible Pipe will comply with the requirements set by
the Peoples Republic of China Regulations, with API standards,
CNOOC Research Institute (CNOOC RI) intends to develop offshore Specifications and recommended practices. For the cross section
flexible riser technology with targeting application area in South China design, the following API standards and DNV rule are complied with:
Sea where the water depth ranging from several hundred meters to a API Specification 17J, "Specification for Unbonded Flexible
couple of thousand meters. This paper demonstrates the design Pipe"
methodology for all layers which are essential for a typical production API RP 17B, "Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe"
riser. Design of flexible riser cross section is based on the requirements API Specification 17D, "Specifications for Subsea Wellhead
of the anticipated application of the riser considering as a minimum the and Christmas Tree Equipment"

following factors: water depth, service life, pressure/temperature and
ASTM A370, "Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical
internal fluid contents and environmental operational conditions.
Testing of Steep Products"
ASTM D638, "Test Methods for Tensile Properties of
The design follows primarily the requirements set by API 17J. The

flexible riser is expected to meet at least the following overall
requirements according to the Specifications: API Specification 6A, "Specifications for Wellhead and

Christmas Tree Equipment"

The flexible riser shall be capable of withstanding all design
loads and load combinations NACE MR-01-75, "Sulphide Stress Cracking Resistant

Metallic Material for Oil Field Engineering"

The flexible riser shall have sufficient service life to perform
its function, particularly the load bearing metallic layers DNV-RP-C203, "Fatigue Design of Offshore Steel

The material used for manufacturing the flexible riser shall be

provides the first barrier to the sea water. Its thickness should be
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS sufficient to prevent sufficient integrity against sea water intrusion. It
should be determined by considering the contribution of this layer to
General Rules riser cross section mechanical properties including bending, axial and
torsional stiffness. Other factors such as resistance to mechanical
Flexible riser consists of multi-layers with each layer designed for a abrasion during fabrication and installation, manufacturing capacity,
special purpose. In general, the following layers should as a minimum internal/external pressure should be considered as well.
be included in order to provide demanded functionalities for a flexible
riser. The layers are specified herein starting from external layer to The outer sheath is exposed to sun light and therefore the resistance to
inner layer of the cross section: UV exposure should also be a factor in design.
Outer sheath
Insulation layer The outer sheath is extruded onto the insulation layer. API
Tensile armor layer(s) Specification 17J allows to join the outer sheath by welding while a
Pressure armor layer continuous extrusion is preferred to ensure the best tightness of this
Inner sheath layer.
Carcass layer
According to API Specification 17J, the maximum allowable strain due
to bending load should not exceed 7.7 per cent.
The following sections will specify the main function of each layer
together with selection of material for each layer. The general rule for
The outer sheath layer shall also be considered in the determination of
selection of material is to ensure the specific function is achieved. Main
the overall heat transfer coefficient of the flexible riser.
design considerations for the choice of the material are listed below:
Internal/external pressure

Insulation Layer
Chemical ingredients in contended fluids

The main purpose of the insulation layer is to provide necessary
Dynamic behavior in operation thermal performance of the flexible riser to ensure a stable temperature
when it is exposed to the external environment.
For thermal plastic layers, thickness is the main design parameter.
Firstly, it has to be ensured that the thickness is feasible for the The maximum/minimum design temperature for the current riser is
manufacturing process. Secondly, the material will creep at a certain 90C/-20C. It shall be demonstrated by Fourier heat transfer law
level of temperature when the flexible riser is pressurized. There will showing that the overall heat transfer coefficient does not exceed 3.0
be a reduction of the thickness once creep happens when the material W/m2C.
will be squeezed into neighboring armor layers where there are gaps
between the armor tendons. The reduction of the thickness will be Tensile Armor Layers
affected by the temperature, pressure and material properties. The
maximum allowable thickness reduction ratio, according to API Flexible risers connected to the floaters will experience largest tension
Specification 17J, is 30% below the design value under the worst load due its own weight as well as the load induced by the movement of the
combinations. floater. They are often helically wounded with a moderate lay angle.
An even number of layers (2 or 4 layers) should be present so that the
Loads cross section will be torsion balanced. The tensile armor wire often has
a rectangular geometry. Its thickness and width are the main design
Three groups of load are defined in the Specifications which are termed parameters. The tensile layers are designed to take the following loads:
as functional, environmental and accidental loads. The table below axial forces, end cap forces due to internal/external pressure
summarizes the load types for each group. torque during load out, installation and floater movement
provide a support to the pressure layer
Table 1. Loads applied to flexible risers
Functional Environmental Accidental The number of armor tendons in each tensile layer will be optimized to
Weight and buoyancy Water depth Anchor line failure meet the requirements of operation.
Internal pressure Waves Unintended flooding
External pressure Current Failure of turret system The material used for the tensile armor is medium strength carbon steel.
Installation loads Wind Dropped objects Resistance to cyclical loads under chemical ingredient (CO2) should be
Support loads Marine growth Trawling considered when considering the service life in design.
Thermal expansion Temperature Fire and explosion
Testing pressure Ice loads The tensile armor layer will be main functional components to take
Soil data both the axis-symmetrical loads and bending loads. Utilization factor
under different load combinations shall be demonstrated to show that
Outer Sheath the requirements set by API Specification 17J are satisfied.

This layer is an interface between the riser and the external Fatigue life the tensile layers should be examined as well. The
environment. It is normally extruded from polymer to resist mechanical calculation should show that a minimum service life of 15 years is
external damage. It also prevents the sea water from intruding into the guaranteed.
cross section.
Anti-wear Layers
The main parameter for this layer is the layer thickness because it

The flexible riser will experience cyclic dynamic loading during is filled with the inner sheath material when the riser is pressurized.
operation, a direct contact between metallic layers such as tensile armor Inner Sheath
wire against tensile armor wire, or tensile armor wire against pressure
armor wire will have two effects: wearing of the material and Inner sheath prevents the internal fluid proof from leaking into the
significant friction stress which is detrimental for fatigue behavior of outward layers so that a dry annulus can be guaranteed. The internal
the flexible riser. It is therefore necessary to prevent direct contact pressure is transmitted to the outward layers by the inner sheath layer.
between these metallic layers. This is can be achieved by coating the
armor wire with an additional thin anti-wear film. A more practical and Carcass
widely used method is to lay an additional layer between two metallic
layers. Carcass layer is made of profiled steel sheet. It is wounded at a steep
lay angle as for the pressure armors. Each strip of the profiled steel
This layer is often made of PA which has been proved to have excellent sheet is interlocked with the adjacent strips.
resistance to wearing and the friction coefficient between the PA and
steel is smaller than that of the steel/steel interface. The main function of this layer is to avoid the collapse of the inner
sheath. The collapse can be caused by the following reasons:
Two cross wound layers will be used with a thickness of 1 mm for each External pressure
layer. Contact pressure from the tensile layers under axial tension
The contribution to overall properties of the flexible riser such as Contact pressure due to external contact such as bend
bending stiffness shall not be considered for this layer. stiffener, bell mouth, bend restrictor, load out operation, and
The calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient does not consider
this layer. The material for this layer needs to be resistant to chemical ingredients
contained in the transported content. Stainless steel is often used for
Fabrication Tapes this purpose.

Since there are many armor tendons in each tensile armor layer, Design Criteria
fabrication tape is often needed to prevent the disorder of the armor
tendons during the fabrication process. Design criteria for armor layers
In order to prevent the tensile armor tendon from significant radial Acceptance criteria for all metallic layers, i.e. tensile layers and
movement, high strength glass filament tape will be applied upon outer pressure layers are given in API Specification 17J as termed as
tensile armor layer. utilization ratio which is the ratio of the stress against the specified
minimum yield strength (SMYS)
The contribution to overall properties of the flexible riser such as
bending stiffness shall not be considered for this layer. Bursting and collapse
The calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient does not consider The maximum allowable internal pressure (bursting pressure) is
this layer. calculated by applying pressure until the material reaching its SMYS
with no tensile loads applied
Pressure Armor Layer
Fabrication tolerance
The pressure armor layer is wounded around the cross section at a high
lay angle close to 90 degrees to provide sufficient hoop resistance to The change of the utilization factor of the armor wires should be within
the loads listed below:

the upper limit of 3% by considering the fabrication tolerances related
Internal/external pressure

to thickness, lay angle and overall diameter.
Contact pressure from the tensile layer when the riser is

Service life
Contact load from external contact between the riser and
external contact surfaces such as bend stiffener, bend A safety factor of 10 will be applied in the service life evaluation.
restrictor Given the design service life of 15 years, the minimum calculated
Contact load from load out operation and installation service life should be no less than 150 years.

The geometrical profile of the pressure armor tendon should provide an DESIGN MEHTODS
interlocking mechanism so that there is flexible movement between
adjacent strips. Physical Properties

The material for this layer is selected to ensure sufficient strength with When a pipe is under tensile load, the helically wounded tensile armor
regard to hoop strength, fatigue re resistance and should be compatible will be the main component to withstand the load. The polymer layers
to the chemicals contended in the internal fluid. High strength carbon such as the inner sheath, intermediate sheath and outer sheath will only
steel is often used for this layer. have insignificant contribution to the tensile load and therefore will be
not counted when evaluating the tensile capacity of the flexible riser.
The gap between adjacent strips should be minimized so that it will not
cause significant thickness reduction in the inner sheath when the gap The equilibrium in the axial direction can be expressed as, according to

de Oliveira et al. (1985):

Stress in Tensile Armor Wires
T nEAs cos cos 2 sin 2 xx (1)
Stress calculation in the tensile armor layers is complicate due to many
Where n is the total number of tensile armor wires, E is the Young's factors among which the interaction with adjacent layers is a main
modules of the material, As is the cross section area of the armor wire, consideration. For axis-symmetrical loads such as axial tension,
internal/external pressure and tension, the equilibrium equation is more

ratio, xx is the axial strain.

is the lay angle of the tensile armor layer, is the apparent Poisson's convenient to handle while for bending load, the formulation becomes
more complicate due to the complexity of the cross section. Some
general assumptions must be observed when the stresses in the tensile
The axial stiffness of the flexible riser will be expressed as: armor layers are calculated according to Custdio and Vaz (2002):

EA nEAs cos cos 2 sin 2
Regularity of initial geometry: (a) the homogenous layers are
(2) long and uniform cylinders; (b) the wires are wound on a
perfectly cylindrical helix; (c) the wires are equally spaced;
(d) the wires of an armor are numerous, hence the forces they
It should be noted that the analytical expression of the axial stiffness is
exert on the adjacent layers may be replaced by uniform
based on small geometric deformation assumptions and the layers are
pressure;(e) the structure is straight.

assumed to be in contact during deformation.
Reduction to simple plane analysis: (f) there are no field
When there are several layers of tensile armor wires, the expression can loads such as self-weight; (g) end effects may be neglected;
be rewritten as: (h) the material points from any layer have the same
longitudinal displacement and twist; (i) all wires of an armor

EA ni Ei Asi cos i cos 2 i sin 2 i

N present the same stress state; (j) the wires maintain a helical
(3) configuration when strained; (k) the angle between the wire
i 1 cross-section principal inertia axis and a radial vector linking
the center of structures cross-section and the center of wires
The torsional stiffness can be derived in a similar way as: cross-section is constant; (l) there is no over-penetration or
gap spanning.

GI t ni Ei Asi ri 2 sin 2 cos i

N the effects of shear and internal friction are neglected: (m) the
wires are so slender that the movements of the material points
i 1
are governed only by their tangent strain and not by the
change in curvature.
Where ri is the mean radius of the i th tensile armor layer. Linearity of the response: (n) the materials have linear elastic
behavior; (o) the changes in armor radii and pitch angles are
Equation (5) is the expression for pipe nominal bending stiffness linearly small; (p) the wires in one armor never touch
calculation. laterally or are always in contact; (q) there are no voids

between layers; (r) the homogeneous layers are thin and made

of soft material so they simply transfer pressure; (s) the
d i4
4 (5) pipes corresponds linearly to axisymmetric loading; (t) both
i 1 64
loading and response are not time-dependent.

Where Di and d i represent the outer and inner diameter of the Stress due to axis-symmetrical load
polymer layers. Usually local deformation of tensile armors may also Assuming the lay angle and geometry for the tensile armor wire is
affect the pipe bending stiffness (de Oliveira et al., 1985). For simplicity identical and the tensile load will be evenly shared by each armor wire,
and conservativeness, only thermal plastic layers are considered in the stress due to the axial load can be calculated from the formula:
determining the nominal bending stiffness.
Te pi Ai po Ao
nAs cos
Strain in Polymer Layers (7)

According to API Specification 17J, maximum allowable strain will be

the design criteria for the polymer layers. There are primarily two Where, Te is the effective tension, pi is the internal pressure, Ai
components in the polymer layers which are a result of the axial
deformation and bending deformation. Since the axial load is mainly is the internal area, po is the external pressure and Ao is the
overtaken by the helically wounded tensile armor layers, the main external area of the cross section.
strain in the polymer layers is caused by bending as expressed by the
expression: Stress due to bending load

It is more complicate to calculate the stress due to bending because the
r (6)
tensile armor wire behaves like a thin rod in a three dimensional space.
Bending stress amplitude about the strong axis is given by the equation:
Where r is the outer radius of the polymer layer and is the bending
bt E cos (1 sin 2 )
b (8)
radius. 2

It is noted that the wire will also be bent about the weak axis. The Miner's rule will be used, mean stress correction must be
normal curvature bending stress amplitude is given by: applied if it is relevant

bn E cos4
t (9) Overall heat transfer coefficient
The overall heat transfer coefficient, U, depends on the conductivity
Where, is the global curvature of the flexible riser, b and t are
through the heat transfer wall separating the two fluids, and the
convection coefficients on both sides of the heat transfer wall. For a
width and thickness of the tensile armor wire. cylindrical shell such as polymer layers or insulation layers, there
would be an inside convective coefficient for the tube side fluid such as
Stress due to friction, slip curvature oil and an outside convective coefficient for the outside fluid such as
sea water.
Since the axial stress component is governed by the friction effect,
hysteresis will occur. If the wire is in the stick regime with respect to The flexible riser consists of several cylinder layers and the overall heat
slip, then the axial stress increment due to an increment in global transfer coefficient can be expressed as:

1 N lnd oj d ij d o d o
bending will be, according to Fret and Bournazel (1987):

a E cos 2 r R fo R fi
1 (13)
U ho j 1 2k j hi d i


Where, N is the number of layers of the flexible riser, hi and ho are
EAs cos sin 2
f (11)
2 inside and outside heat transfer coefficient, dij and d oj are internal and
external diameter of layer j of the flexible riser, R fi and R fo are
If full slip occurs, determined by the internal pressure and tension in
thermal resistance due to fouling with unit m2K/W. Typical material
the riser as well as the friction coefficient, a plateau value for the
heat transfer coefficients are found on
friction stress is reached and the axial stress will be given by:


f r
As sin
(12) Prototype Cross Section

The production riser for 300 m water depth consists of sixteen (16)
Where, f is the friction stress capacity per mm wire in the inner layer. layers including one pressure armor layer and two tensile armor layers.
All sheath layers consist of two extrusions to ensure that the failure of
The friction stress will be a constant term once the curvature exceeds any single extrusion will not bring the failure of another extrusion.
the slip curvature, hence it is in many cases a determining factor Two insulation layer are included to ensure the overall heat loss satisfy
affecting the fatigue damage of the tensile armor layers. the design requirement.

Fatigue Minimum Bending Radius (MBR) for Storage

Uni-axial stress has been used as the fatigue design parameter for the Several factors need to be considered when addressing the minimum
tensile layers in the flexible risers because the axial stress is the bending radius of the flexible riser. These factors include the maximum
dominating stress components. When addressing the fatigue of the strain in all sheath layers, locking effect in the metallic layers including
pressure armors, the fatigue design parameter is not clearly mentioned carcass, pressure and tensile armor layers, and stresses in pressure and
in the literature, however, it is believed that the von-Mises method is tensile armor wires.
used for fatigue evaluation.
Table 2. Minimum bending radius by layers for storage
The following steps will be followed to perform fatigue analysis of the Layer Criteria MBR (m)
tensile and pressure armor wires: Carcass Locking 2.19
Selection of sea states, the selection must ensure that the Inner sheath Strain 1.77
selected sea states are representative and conservative. Pressure layer Locking 2.74
Definition of environmental condition classes which the riser Tensile layer Locking 2.35
is expected to experience during the whole service life Tensile layer FAT 2.14
Building of finite element model by means of available Intermediate sheath Strain 2.04
computer programs, and perform dynamic analysis based on Outer sheath Strain 2.72
the above defined load cases
Screening of critical locations such as hang-off, sag/hog and The MBR under storage condition of the flexible riser will be the
touch down area, extract tension and curvature range at these maximum of the values as listed in the table 2 which is 2.74 m. The
locations storage bending radius will be 3.01 m according to the API
Building of finite element model to calculate the stresses in Specification. If not otherwise specified by detail calculation, the MBR
the tensile and pressure armor wires using the tension and under operational condition will be increased by a factor of 0.5 which
curvature results from the step above results in 4.52 m.
Calculation of the fatigue life based on the design SN curve,

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient Table 3. Utilization factor for inner tensile armor layer
Max Curvature Tension Utilization factor
All layers will contribute to the calculation of the overall heat transfer (1/m) (kN) (-)
coefficient of the flexible riser. However, the insulation layer as well as 0.133 595.8 0.476
all continuously extruded polymer layers which are the inner sheath, 0.135 544.7 0.452
intermediate sheath and out sheath are the main layer which affect 0.125 491.0 0.453
mostly on the overall transfer coefficient. 0.135 541.0 0.448
0.123 534.5 0.456
The overall heat transfer coefficient is about 1.95W/m2K if the
calculation does not consider the effect of the convection on the The utilization factors as shown in Table 3 are evaluated for the
internal and external surface and fouling which of course is a following global cases:

conservative estimation. The overall heat transfer coefficient is equal to
Recurrent operation

1.91 if those factors are taken into account and this is well below the
Extreme operation, normal Tp including a) Tp 20% less, b) Tp
design requirements 3.0 W/m2K.
20% more
Abnormal operation including a) one mooring line failure, b)
Bursting Pressure and Collapse
compartment damage or unintended flooding, c) failure of
The maximum pressure to reach the yield limit of the metallic armor turret drive system
layers with no tension applied is obtained by pressurizing the flexible
riser so that that either the yield stress of pressure armor or the tensile FAT and Field Acceptance Test
armor is reached. The figure below shows the relation of pressure and
stress in both the pressure and tensile armor wires. The maximum allowable utilization factor for the tensile armor is 0.91
according API Specification 17J.

Assuming the FAT pressure is 50% higher than the design pressure,
including 4 per cent over pressure, i.e. 31.2 MPa, the maximum
utilization factor is equal 0.73 which satisfies the requirements by API
Specification 17J which is 0.91. The curvature is assumed to be the
reversal of the minimum storage radius 3.01 m. No tension is applied
for this case.

The pressure for the field is 1.1 times the design pressure which will be
equal to 22 MPa. Maximum tension 669.5 kN and curvature 0.179 1/m
for extreme cases is used. The utilization factor is 0.60 which is below
0.91 required by the API Specification 17J.


Critical location
Fig. 1 Relation of pressure and stress in pressure and tensile armor wire
layers under pressure load
Stress range is a result of the variation of the tension and curvature. The
variation of the tension and curvature at hang-off and end of bend
The pressure in the plot is normalized based on the operation pressure
stiffener is much more significant than the other three locations.
20 MPa. The yield stresses of the pressure armor wire and tensile armor
Therefore, the most critical fatigue location will be either at hang-off or
wire are plotted as well. It can be seen that pressure armor wire will
end of bend stiffener. However, by comparing the tension and
yield before the yield of the tensile armor wire. The normalized
curvature variation for the hang-off and end of bend stiffener location,
pressure for the yield point is equal to 2.12 which corresponds to a
it can be found that the tension variation for both locations are similar,
pressure of 42.4 MPa.
but the curvature variation at hang-off is much larger than the end of
bend stiffener location. Based on the above findings, the most critical
Utilization Factors for Tensile Armor Layers
fatigue location will be the hang-off position. Full fatigue analysis will
be carried out for this location.
Utilization factor is calculated by dividing the maximum stress by the
yield strength of the material. An example of the utilization factor for
SN Curve
one extreme case is shown in Table 3.
Fatigue curve will be selected according to DNV-RP-C203 "Fatigue
The global analysis corresponds to operation condition occurrence
Design of Offshore Steel Structures". The design SN curves for this
probability of 10-2. The pressure will be the design pressure which is 20
document are based on the mean-minus-two-standard-deviation curves
MPa. The maximum allowable utilization factor for the tensile armor is
for relevant experimental data. The SN curves are thus associated with
0.85 according Table 6 of API Specification 17J.
a 97.7% probability of survival as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Stress range v.s. yearly damage

Fig. 2. SN curve for fatigue analysis

Mean stress correction will be included when the service life is

calculated. Gerber algorithm is applied.

Fatigue load

Tension and curvature variations will be used as inputs to calculate the

stress ranges in tensile and pressure armor wires. Fig. 3 is an example
showing curvature range vs. number of cycles in one year.

Fig. 5. Stress range v.s. accumulated damage

The accumulated fatigue damage in one year is 6.11E-3. During a

design service life of 15 years, the accumulated damage will be 9.17E-2
which is below the maximum damage 0.1 as requested by API
Specification 17J.


Application of flexible riser to South China Sea is demonstrated in the

paper through the design of an 8" production insulation flexible riser.
Design methodology is briefly presented and the application of the
methodology to the prototype is demonstrated according to the
requirements by the API Specification 17J. The results show that the
Fig. 3. Curvature range v.s. number of cycles per year design satisfies all design requirements and the insulation flexible riser
can be applied for a typical area of the South China Sea.
Fatigue damage
Fig. 4. shows the contribution of stress range to the fatigue damage and
it indicates that the stress range between 40 and 200 MPa contributes Fret, J.J. and Bournazel, C.L. (1987). "Calculation of Stresses and Slip
mainly to the fatigue damage. in Structural Layers of Unbonded Flexcible Pipes", Journal of
Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. 109(3), pp. 263-269.
Fig. 5 shows the relation between the accumulated damage and stress de Oliveira, J.G., Goto, Y., and Okamoto, T. (1985). "Theoretical and
range. It shows that the stress below 200 MPa dominates the fatigue Methodological Approaches to Flexible Pipe Design and Application",
damage. Larger stress ranges only have marginal effect in accumulated Proc. 17th Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, OTC
fatigue damage. 5021, Vol. 3, pp. 517-526.
Custdio A.B., Vaz M.A. (2002). "A Nonlinear Formulation for the
Axisymmetric Response of Umbilical Cables and Flexible Pipes",
Journal of Applied Ocean Research, 24:219.,
typical heat transfer coefficients