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2.2.1 Kinematics

1.1 Purpose of this syllabus

Velocity and acceleration of a point particle as the deriva-

This syllabus lists topics which may be used for the IPhO.

tives of its displacement vector. Linear speed; centripetal

Guidance about the level of each topic within the syl-

and tangential acceleration. Motion of a point particle

labus is to be found from past IPhO questions.

with a constant acceleration. Addition of velocities and

angular velocities; addition of accelerations without the

1.2 Character of the problems Coriolis term; recognition of the cases when the Coriolis

acceleration is zero. Motion of a rigid body as a rota-

Problems should focus on testing creativity and under-

tion around an instantaneous centre of rotation; veloci-

standing of physics rather than testing mathematical vir-

ties and accelerations of the material points of rigid ro-

tuosity or speed of working. The proportion of marks al-

tating bodies.

located for mathematical manipulations should be kept

small. In the case of mathematically challenging tasks,

2.2.2 Statics

alternative approximate solutions should receive partial

credit. Problem texts should be concise; the theoreti- Finding the centre of mass of a system via summation

cal and the experimental examination texts should each or via integration. Equilibrium conditions: force balance

contain fewer than 12000 characters (including white (vectorially or in terms of projections), and torque bal-

spaces, but excluding cover sheets and answer sheets). ance (only for one- and two-dimensional geometry). Nor-

mal force, tension force, static and kinetic friction force;

Hookes law, stress, strain, and Young modulus. Stable

1.3 Exceptions

and unstable equilibria.

Questions may contain concepts and phenomena not

mentioned in the Syllabus providing that sucient in- 2.2.3 Dynamics

formation is given in the problem text so that students

Newtons second law (in vector form and via projections

without previous knowledge of these topics would not

(components)); kinetic energy for translational and rota-

be at a noticeable disadvantage. Such new concepts must

tional motions. Potential energy for simple force fields

be closely related to the topics included in the syllabus.

(also as a line integral of the force field). Momentum,

Such new concepts should be explained in terms of top-

angular momentum, energy and their conservation laws.

ics in the Syllabus.

Mechanical work and power; dissipation due to friction.

Inertial and non-inertial frames of reference: inertial

1.4 Units force, centrifugal force, potential energy in a rotating

frame. Moment of inertia for simple bodies (ring, disk,

Numerical values are to be given using SI units, or units

sphere, hollow sphere, rod), parallel axis theorem; find-

ocially accepted for use with the SI.

ing a moment of inertia via integration.

It is assumed that the contestants are familiar with

the phenomena, concepts, and methods listed below, and 2.2.4 Celestial mechanics

are able to apply their knowledge creatively.

Law of gravity, gravitational potential, Keplers laws (no

derivation needed for first and third law). Energy of a

2 Theoretical skills point mass on an elliptical orbit.

The ability to make appropriate approximations, while Pressure, buoyancy, continuity law, the Bernoulli equa-

modelling real life problems. Recognition and ability to tion. Surface tension and the associated energy, capil-

exploit symmetry in problems. lary pressure.

2.3 Electromagnetic fields 2.4 Oscillations and waves

Concepts of charge and current; charge conservation and Harmonic oscillations : equation of motion, frequency,

Kirchhos current law. Coulomb force; electrostatic angular frequency and period. Physical pendulum and

field as a potential field; Kirchhos voltage law. Mag- its reduced length. Behaviour near unstable equilib-

netic B-field; Lorentz force; Ampres force; Biot-Savart ria. Exponential decay of damped oscillations; resonance

law and B-field on the axis of a circular current loop and of sinusoidally forced oscillators: amplitude and phase

for simple symmetric systems like straight wire, circular shift of steady state oscillations. Free oscillations of LC-

loop and long solenoid. circuits; mechano-electrical analogy; positive feedback

as a source of instability; generation of sine waves by

feedback in a LC-resonator.

2.3.2 Integral forms of Maxwells equations

2.4.2 Waves

Gauss law (for E- and B-fields); Ampres law; Faradays

law; using these laws for the calculation of fields when

Propagation of harmonic waves: phase as a linear func-

the integrand is almost piece-wise constant. Boundary tion of space and time; wave length, wave vector, phase

conditions for the electric field (or electrostatic potential)

and group velocities; exponential decay for waves propa-

at the surface of conductors and at infinity; concept of

gating in dissipative media; transverse and longitudinal

grounded conductors. Superposition principle for elec- waves; the classical Doppler eect. Waves in inhomo-

tric and magnetic fields; uniqueness of solution to well-

geneous media: Fermats principle, Snells law. Sound

posed problems; method of image charges. waves: speed as a function of pressure (Youngs or bulk

modulus) and density, Mach cone. Energy carried by

waves: proportionality to the square of the amplitude,

2.3.3 Interaction of matter with electric and magnetic

continuity of the energy flux.

fields

Resistivity and conductivity; dierential form of Ohms 2.4.3 Interference and diraction

law. Dielectric and magnetic permeability; relative per-

mittivity and permeability of electric and magnetic ma- Superposition of waves: coherence, beats, standing

terials; energy density of electric and magnetic fields; fer- waves, Huygens principle , interference due to thin

romagnetic materials; hysteresis and dissipation; eddy films (conditions for intensity minima and maxima only).

currents; Lenzs law. Charges in magnetic field: heli- Diraction from one and two slits, diraction grating,

coidal motion, cyclotron frequency, drift in crossed E- Bragg reflection.

and B-fields. Energy of a magnetic dipole in a magnetic

field; dipole moment of a current loop. 2.4.4 Interaction of electromagnetic waves with mat-

ter

itatively); refractive index; dispersion and dissipation of

Linear resistors and Ohms law; Joules law; work done electromagnetic waves in transparent and opaque ma-

by an electromotive force; ideal and non-ideal batter- terials. Linear polarisation; Brewster angle; polarisers;

ies, constant current sources, ammeters, voltmeters and Malus law.

ohmmeters. Nonlinear elements of given V -I charac-

teristic. Capacitors and capacitance (also for a single

2.4.5 Geometrical optics and photometry

electrode with respect to infinity); self-induction and in-

ductance; energy of capacitors and inductors; mutual in- Approximation of geometrical optics: rays and optical

ductance; time constants for RL and RC circuits. AC images; a partial shadow and full shadow. Thin lens ap-

circuits: complex amplitude; impedance of resistors, in- proximation; construction of images created by ideal thin

ductors, capacitors, and combination circuits; phasor di- lenses; thin lens equation . Luminous flux and its conti-

agrams; current and voltage resonance; active power. nuity; illuminance; luminous intensity.

2.4.6 Optical devices and gas constant; translational motion of molecules and

pressure; ideal gas law; translational, rotational and os-

Telescopes and microscopes: magnification and resolv-

cillatory degrees of freedom; equipartition theorem; in-

ing power; diraction grating and its resolving power;

ternal energy of ideal gases; root-mean-square speed of

interferometers.

molecules. Isothermal, isobaric, isochoric, and adiabatic

processes; specific heat for isobaric and isochoric pro-

2.5 Relativity

cesses; forward and reverse Carnot cycle on ideal gas and

Principle of relativity and Lorentz transformations for its eciency; eciency of non-ideal heat engines.

the time and spatial coordinate, and for the energy and

momentum; mass-energy equivalence; invariance of the

2.7.2 Heat transfer and phase transitions

spacetime interval and of the rest mass. Addition of par-

allel velocities; time dilation; length contraction; relativ- Phase transitions (boiling, evaporation, melting, subli-

ity of simultaneity; energy and momentum of photons mation) and latent heat; saturated vapour pressure, rel-

and relativistic Doppler eect; relativistic equation of ative humidity; boiling; Daltons law; concept of heat

motion; conservation of energy and momentum for elas- conductivity; continuity of heat flux.

tic and non-elastic interaction of particles.

2.6.1 Probability waves Plancks law (explained qualitatively, does not need to

be remembered), Wiens displacement law; the Stefan-

Particles as waves: relationship between the frequency

Boltzmann law.

and energy, and between the wave vector and momen-

tum. energy levels of hydrogen-like atoms (circular

orbits only) and of parabolic potentials; quantization of

angular momentum. Uncertainty principle for the con-

3 Experimental skills

jugate pairs of time and energy, and of coordinate and

3.1 Introduction

momentum (as a theorem, and as a tool for estimates);

The theoretical knowledge required for carrying out the

2.6.2 Structure of matter experiments must be covered by Section 2 of this Syl-

Emission and absorption spectra for hydrogen-like atoms labus.

(for other atoms qualitatively), and for molecules due The experimental problems should contain at least

to molecular oscillations; spectral width and lifetime of some tasks for which the experimental procedure (setup,

excited states. Pauli exclusion principle for Fermi parti- the list of all the quantities subject to direct measure-

cles. Particles (knowledge of charge and spin): electrons, ments, and formulae to be used for calculations) is not

electron neutrinos, protons, neutrons, photons; Comp- described in full detail.

ton scattering. Protons and neutrons as compound par- The experimental problems may contain implicit the-

ticles. Atomic nuclei, energy levels of nuclei (qualita- oretical tasks (deriving formulae necessary for calcula-

tively); alpha-, beta- and gamma-decays; fission, fusion tions); there should be no explicit theoretical tasks unless

and neutron capture; mass defect; half life and exponen- these tasks test the understanding of the operation prin-

tial decay. photoelectric eect. ciples of the given experimental setup or of the physics

of the phenomena to be studied, and do not involve long

2.7 Thermodynamics and statistical physics mathematical calculations.

The expected number of direct measurements and

2.7.1 Classical thermodynamics

the volume of numerical calculations should not be so

Concepts of thermal equilibrium and reversible pro- large as to consume a major part of the allotted time:

cesses; internal energy, work and heat; Kelvins tem- the exam should test experimental creativity, rather than

perature scale; entropy; open, closed, isolated systems; the speed with which the students can perform technical

first and second laws of thermodynamics. Kinetic the- tasks.

ory of ideal gases: Avogadro number, Boltzmann factor The students should have the following skills.

3.2 Safety repeated measurements.

Finding absolute and relative uncertainties of a quan-

Knowing standard safety rules in laboratory work. Nev-

tity determined as a function of measured quantities us-

ertheless, if the experimental set-up contains any safety

ing any reasonable method (such as linear approxima-

hazards, the appropriate warnings should be included in

tion, addition by modulus or Pythagorean addition).

the text of the problem. Experiments with major safety

hazards should be avoided.

3.6 Data analysis

3.3 Measurement techniques and apparatus Transformation of a dependence to a linear form by ap-

Being familiar with the most common experimental tech- propriate choice of variables and fitting a straight line to

niques for measuring physical quantities mentioned in experimental points. Finding the linear regression pa-

the theoretical part. rameters (gradient, intercept and uncertainty estimate)

Knowing commonly used simple laboratory in- either graphically, or using the statistical functions of a

struments and digital and analog versions of sim- calculator (either method acceptable).

ple devices, such as calipers, the Vernier scale, stop- Selecting optimal scales for graphs and plotting data

watches, thermometers, multimeters (including ohmme- points with error bars.

ters and AC/DC voltmeters and ammeters), potentiome-

ters, diodes, , lenses, prisms, optical stands, calorimeters,

4 Mathematics

and so on.

Sophisticated practical equipment likely to be unfa- 4.1 Algebra

miliar to the students should not dominate a problem. In

the case of moderately sophisticated equipment (such as Simplification of formulae by factorisation and expan-

oscilloscopes, counters, ratemeters, signal and function sion. Solving linear systems of equations. Solving equa-

generators, photogates, etc), instructions must be given tions and systems of equations leading to quadratic and

to the students. biquadratic equations; selection of physically meaning-

ful solutions. Summation of arithmetic and geometric

series.

3.4 Accuracy

Being aware that instruments may aect the outcome of 4.2 Functions

experiments.

Being familiar with basic techniques for increasing Basic properties of trigonometric, inverse-trigonometric,

experimental accuracy (e.g. measuring many periods in- exponential and logarithmic functions and polynomials.

stead of a single one, minimizing the influence of noise, This includes formulae regarding trigonometric func-

etc). tions of a sum of angles, Solving simple equations in-

Knowing that if a functional dependence of a physi- volving trigonometric, inverse-trigonometric, logarith-

cal quantity is to be determined, the density of taken data mic and exponential functions.

points should correspond to the local characteristic scale

of that functional dependence. 4.3 Geometry and stereometry

Expressing the final results and experimental uncer-

tainties with a reasonable number of significant digits, Degrees and radians as alternative measures of angles.

and rounding o correctly. Equality of alternate interior and exterior angles, equal-

ity of corresponding angles. Recognition of similar trian-

gles. Areas of triangles, trapezoids, circles and ellipses;

3.5 Experimental uncertainty analysis

surface areas of spheres, cylinders and cones; volumes

Identification of dominant error sources, and reasonable of spheres, cones, cylinders and prisms. Sine and cosine

estimation of the magnitudes of the experimental uncer- rules, property of inscribed and central angles, Thales

tainties of direct measurements (using rules from docu- theorem, medians and the centroid of a triangle. Stu-

mentation, if provided). dents are expected to be familiar with the properties of

Distinguishing between random and systematic er- conic sections including circles, ellipses, parabolae and

rors; being able to estimate and reduce the former via hyperbolae.

4.4 Vectors 4.7 Calculus

Basic properties of vectorial sums, dot and cross prod- Finding derivatives of elementary functions, their sums,

ucts. Double cross product and scalar triple product. Ge- products, quotients, and nested functions. Integration

ometrical interpretation of a time derivative of a vector as the inverse procedure to dierentiation. Finding defi-

quantity. nite and indefinite integrals in simple cases: elementary

functions, sums of functions, and using the substitution

rule for a linearly dependent argument. Making definite

4.5 Complex numbers integrals dimensionless by substitution. Geometric inter-

pretation of derivatives and integrals. Finding constants

Summation, multiplication and division of complex

of integration using initial conditions. Concept of gradi-

numbers; separation of real and imaginary parts. Con-

ent vectors (partial derivative formalism is not needed).

version between algebraic, trigonometric, and exponen-

tial representations of a complex number. Complex roots

of quadratic equations and their physical interpretation. 4.8 Approximate and numerical methods

Using linear and polynomial approximations based on

4.6 Statistics Taylor series. Linearization of equations and expressions.

Perturbation method: calculation of corrections based on

Calculation of probabilities as the ratio of the number of unperturbed solutions. Finding approximate numerical

objects or event occurrence frequencies. Calculation of solutions to equations using, e.g., Newtons method or

mean values, standard deviations, and standard devia- bisection of intervals. Numerical integration using the

tion of group means. trapezoidal rule or adding rectangles.

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