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# Project Job no.

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U 4/12/2013

## GABION RETAINING WALL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (BS8002:1994)

TEDDS calculation version 1.1.03

71.6 0 10kN/m 2

3 - 1000 mm 1000 mm

1000
3
3000

3000
2 - 2000 mm 1000 mm

1 - 2000 mm 1000 mm

30.7kN/m 2
59.7kN/m 2

Wall geometry
Width of gabion 1; w1 = 2000 mm
Height of gabion 1; h1 = 1000 mm
Width of gabion 2; w2 = 2000 mm
Height of gabion 2; h2 = 1000 mm
Step to front face between 1 and 2; s2 = 0 mm
Width of gabion 3; w3 = 1000 mm
Height of gabion 3; h3 = 1000 mm
Step to front face between 2 and 3; s3 = 1000 mm
Wall inclination; = 0 deg

Wall fill
Gabion fill unit weight; d = 15 kN/m3

Centre of gravity
Horizontal distance to centre of gravity gabion 1; xg1 = w1 / 2 = 1000 mm
Horizontal distance to centre of gravity gabion 2; xg2 = w2 / 2 + s2 = 1000 mm
Horizontal distance to centre of gravity gabion 3; xg3 = w3 / 2 + s2 + s3 = 1500 mm
Vertical distance to centre of gravity gabion 1; yg1 = h1 / 2 = 500 mm
Vertical distance to centre of gravity gabion 2; yg2 = h2 / 2 + h1 = 1500 mm
Vertical distance to centre of gravity gabion 3; yg3 = h3 / 2 + h1 + h2 = 2500 mm
Weight of gabion 1; W g1 = d w1 h1 = 29.0 kN/m
Weight of gabion 2; W g2 = d w2 h2 = 29.0 kN/m
Weight of gabion 3; W g3 = d w3 h3 = 14.5 kN/m
Weight of entire gabion; W g = W g1 + W g2 + W g3 = 72.5 kN/m
Project Job no.

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Horiz distance to centre of gravity entire gabion; xg = ((W g1 xg1) + (W g2 xg2) + (W g3 xg3)) / W g = 1100 mm
Vert distance to centre of gravity entire gabion; yg = ((W g1 yg1) + (W g2 yg2) + (W g3 yg3)) / W g = 1300 mm
Correcting for wall inclination horiz dist; Xg = xg cos() + yg sin() = 1100 mm
Vertical change in height due to wall inclination; Hf = yg3 + h3/2 - ((yg3 + h3/2) cos() - (xg3 + w3/2) sin()) = 0 mm

## Calculate effective height of wall

Effective height of wall;
H = (yg3 + h3 / 2) + (w1 sin()) - Hf + [cos (90 ) sin ( + ) w3]/ sin [180 ( + )] = 3000 mm
Height of wall from toe to front edge of top gabion; Hincl = ((yg3 + h3 / 2) cos() - (xg3 - (w3/ 2)) sin()) = 3000mm

## Calculate the angle of rear plane of wall

Effective angle of rear plane of wall; =90 deg + = 90.0 deg

## Calculate the effective face angle

Effective face angle; = Atan [(yg3 + (h3 / 2)) / ((xg3 - (w3/ 2)))] - = 71.6 deg

Soil parameters
Slope of retained soil; = 0.0 deg
Mobilization factor; M = 1.0
Internal angle of friction for retained soil; = 30.0 deg
Saturated density of retained soil; s = 20 kN/m3
Coefficient for wall friction; K = 1.0
Wall friction; = K = 30.0 deg
Design angle of base friction; b = 30.0 deg
Bearing capacity of founding soil; q = 75 kN/m2
Active Pressure using Coulomb Theory;
Ka = (sin( + )2)/[(sin())2 sin( - ) (1+[(sin( + ) sin( - )) / (sin( - ) sin( + ))])2] = 0.297

Surcharge; po = 10 kN/m2
Surcharge loading as equiv height of soil; hs = po / s = 500 mm
Active thrust due to soil; Pa,soil = 0.5 Ka s H2 = 26.7 kN/m
Active thrust due to surcharge; Pa,surch = po Ka H = 8.9 kN/m
Total active thrust; Pa = Pa,soil + Pa,surch = 35.7 kN/m
Total thrust resolved horizontally; Ph = Pa cos(90 - + ) = 30.9 kN/m
Total thrust resolved vertically; Pv = Pa sin(90 - + ) = 17.8 kN/m
Height above toe thrust acts if is 0; dh,soil = H (H + 3 hs) / (3 (H + 2 hs)) = 1125 mm
Height above toe thrust acts; dh = dh,soil w1 sin() = 1125 mm
Horiz distance to where thrust acts; bv = w1 cos() (dh,soil / tan ()) = 2000mm

## Overturning stability take moments about the toe

Overturning moment; Mo = Ph dh = 34.7 kNm/m
Restoring moment; MR = (Pv bv) + (W g Xg) = 115.4 kNm/m
Factor of safety for overturning; Fo,M = MR / Mo = 3.32
Min allowable factor of safety for overturning; Fo,M,min = 2.00
PASS - Design FOS for overturning exceeds min allowable FOS for overturning
Sliding stability ignore any passive pressure infront of structure
Total vertical force; N = W g + Pv = 90.3 kN/m
Total horizontal force; T = Ph = 30.9 kN/m
Sliding force; Ff = T cos () N sin () = 30.9 kN/m
Project Job no.

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## Resistance to sliding; FR = (N cos () + T sin ()) tan (b) = 52.2 kN/m

Factor of safety for sliding; Fo,S = FR / Ff = 1.69
Min allowable factor of safety for sliding; Fo,S,min = 1.50
PASS - Design FOS for sliding exceeds min allowable FOS for sliding

Pressure at base
Force normal to base; Ns = (N cos () + T sin ()) = 90.3 kN/m
Eccentricity; e = (w1 / 2) (MR Mo) / Ns = 107 mm
Reaction acts within middle third of base
Pressure at toe; toe = (Ns / w1) (1 + (6 e / w1)) = 59.7 kN/m2
Pressure at heel; heel = (Ns / w1) (1 - (6 e / w1 )) = 30.7 kN/m2
PASS - Allowable bearing pressure exceeds max design pressure to base