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CHAPTER NO 6

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
*IRREVERSIBLE REACTIONS
A reaction which proceeds in a definite direction till its completion is known as
irreversible reactions

Or
The reaction in which reactants are completely converted into products is known as
irreversible reactions

this reaction is also known as (one way reaction) (complete reaction) (uni-directional)

EXAMPLE
1) AgNO3 + Nacl  AgCl + NaNO3

2) C + O2  CO2

REPRESENTATION
It is denoted by single arrow ()

*REVERSIBLE REACTIONS
Reactions in which reactants are partially converted into products are known as
reversible reactions

Or
A reaction in which reactants forms product and after some time products are
converted into reactants and an equilibrium is establish is known as reversible
reactions

this reaction is also known as (incomplete reactions) (two way reaction)

(bi-directional reaction)

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EXAMPLE
1) H2 + I2 2HI
2) N2 +3H3 NH3

REPRESENTATION
It is denoted by double arrow ( )

*FORWARD REACTION
Chemical reaction in reversible reaction which take place in forward direction is known
as forward reaction

OR

The reaction which proceed from reactants to product side is known as forward
reaction

EXAMPLE
H 2 + I2 2HI

In this reaction ( H2 + I2  2HI ) is a forward reaction.

*BACKWARD
BACKWARD REACTION
Chemical reaction in reversible reaction which take place in backward direction is
known as backward reaction

OR

The reaction which proceed from product to reactants side in known as backward
reaction

EXAMPLE
H 2 + I2 2HI

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In this case (2HI  H2 + I2 ) is a backward reaction

*backward reactions are also known as reverse reaction.

*EQUILIBRIUM
When forward reaction and backward reaction occur at same rate the then that time
is called the time of equilibrium.

OR

A time when the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of backward reaction is
known as state of equilibrium or chemical equilibrium

GRAPH
A B

When the reaction begins reactants A starts converting into product B its mean
concentration of A decreases by the passage of time and the concentration of B
increases than at time t equilibrium will establish (which is called the time is
called the time of equilibrium ) and the line of the graph will be straight

*CONCENTRATION (Active mass))


The amount (quantity) of a chemical substance is called as concentration

OR

The amount of solute in given amount of solution is called as its concentration

OR

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Type equation here.The ratio of no of moles and volume is called concentration

REPRESENTATION
It is denoted by square brackets [ ]

UNIT

Moles/dm3

-: 1dm3=1litre

LAW OF MASS ACTION (Rate


( Law))
This law was given by guldberge and wage in 1864

The rate at which a substance reacts is directly proportional to its active mass
(concentration) and the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the products of
concentration of its reactants

EXPLANATION ( IN URDU
URDU )

Reaction ki raftaar reactant ki concentration py depend hai aur agar aik sy ziada reactants hon to
products banny ki raftaar reactants k product yani (multiplication) py depend hgi.

Matlab ye k jitni ziada reactants ki concentration hgi products banny ki speed ya raftaar utni hi ziada
hgi..

Now considering a general reaction.

A+BC+D

Applying law of mass action

Rate of reaction [A].[B]

dx/dt = k [A].[B] -: it s also known as rate expression

-: k = rate constant

-: dx = change in concentration

-: dt = change in time

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DERIVATION OF KC
Considering a reaction

XA + YB aC + bD

Rate of forward reaction [A] X


[B]
Y

X Y
rf = k1 [A]X [B]

a b
Rate of backward reaction [C] [D]

a b
rf = k2 [C] [D]

at equilibrium

rate of forward reaction = rate of of backward reaction

Y a b
k1 [A]X [B] = k2 [C] [D]

a b
K1 / K2 =[C] [D] /[A] X Y
[B]

-: K1 / K2 = constant => kc (equilibrium constant)

a b
kc =[C] [D] /[A] X
[B]
Y

kc = [products]/[reactants]

EQULIBRIUM CONSTANT
It is a ratio of concentration of products to the concentration of reactants

EXAMPLE
H 2 + I2 2HI

-: kc = [products]/[reactants]

kc = [H2].[I2]/[HI]2

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EXPRESSION OF KP
In case of gaseous equilibrium partial pressure is used instead of concentration
because at a given temperature partial pressure of a gas is proportional to its
concentration. In this case equilibrium constant is expressed as kp instead of kc.

A(gas) + B(gas) C(gas) + D(gas)

Kp = [PC].[PD]/[PA].[PB]

EXAMPLE

1 = PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2

Kp = [ P.PCl3].[PCl2]/[P PCl5]
RELATION BETWEEN KC AND KP
There are three cases in which kc and kp relate

1) Kc = kp

When moles of reactants are equal to moles of products

2HI H 2 + I2

2 moles or (volume) 2 moles or (volume)

2) Kc > kp

When no of moles of reactants are greater

N2 +3H3 2NH3

4 moles or (volume) 2 moles or (volume)

3) kc < kp

When no of moles of products are greater

2NH3 N2 +3H3

2 moles or (volume) 4 moles or (volume)

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ETHYL ACETATE EQUILIBRIUM

CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 +H2O

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