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Facilitators Guide Engineering Materials and Metallurgy

ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND METALLURGY

Ferrous Metals and Alloys

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Contents: Ferrous Metals and Alloys


Duration
Activity Topic
(Min.)

o Introduction 30

o Phase equilibrium diagram for iron and iron carbide 30

o Flow diagram for production of Iron and Steel 30

o Cast Iron 40

o Low carbon steel, Medium carbon steel and High


40
carbon steel

o Alloy steels 40

o Tool steels 30

o Magnetic Materials 30

o Special cutting tool materials 30

Approximate Duration: 5 Hours

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Level 5 Engineering Materials and Metallurgy Duration


Semester:1 Objective 2 : Ferrous Metals and Alloys

Introduction: 30 mins

Ferrous (Fe2+), in chemistry, indicates a divalent iron compound (+2


oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron
compound (+3 oxidation state). Outside chemistry, ferrous is an adjective
used to indicate the presence of iron.

The word is derived from The Latin word ferrum ("iron"). Ferrous metals
include steel and pig iron (with a carbon content of a few percent) and
alloys of iron with other metals (such as stainless steel). Manipulation of
atom-to-atom relationships between iron, carbon, and various alloying
elements establishes the specific properties of ferrous metals.

Fig : 1 Metals Classification


Characteristics
Carbon steels are steels in which the main alloying additive is carbon.
Mild steel is the most common due to its low cost. It is neither brittle nor
ductile, has relatively low tensile strength, and is malleable. Surface
hardness can be increased through carburizing. High carbon steels have a
higher carbon content which provides a much higher strength at the cost
of ductility.

Alloy steels are steels (iron and carbon) alloyed with other metals to
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improve properties. The most common metals in low alloyed steels are
molybdenum, chromium, and nickel to improve weldability, formability,
wear resistance, and corrosion resistance.

Stainless steels are steels that contain a minimum of 10% chromium.


There are many grades of stainless steel, but the most common grade
used for typical corrosion resistant applications is type 304, also known
as 18-8. The term 18-8 refers to the amount of chromium (18%) and
nickel (8%) combined with iron and other elements in smaller quantities.
The metals finish is depicted by a number, 3 to 8, with 3 being the
roughest and 8 being a mirror-like finish. Other specifications to consider
include textures and coatings.

Tool steels are particular steels designed for being made into tools. They
are known for toughness, resistance to abrasion, ability to hold a cutting
edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at high temperatures. The
three types of tool steel available are cold work steels used in lower
operating temperature environments, hot work steels used at elevated
temperatures, and high speed steels able to withstand even higher
temperatures giving them the ability to cut at higher speeds.

Cast iron is an iron alloy derived from pig iron, alloyed with carbon and
silicon. Carbon is added to the base melt in amounts that exceed the
solubility limits in iron and precipitates out as graphite particles. Silicon is
added to the melt to nucleate the graphite which optimizes the
properties of cast iron. Often dismissed as a cheap, dirty, brittle metal;
cast iron is getting much more attention and use today because of its
machinability, light weight, strength, wear resistance, and damping
properties.

Maraging steels are carbon free iron-nickel alloys with additions of


cobalt, molybdenum, titanium, and aluminium. The term maraging is
derived from the strengthening mechanism, which is transforming the

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alloy to martensite with subsequent age hardening. With yield strengths


between 1400 and 2400 MPa, maraging steels belong to the category of
ultra-high-strength materials. The high strength is combined with
excellent toughness pro

Application
Mild Steel Carbon content of 0.1 to 0.3% and Iron content of 99.7
99.9%. Used for engineering purposes and in general, none specialised
metal products.
Carbon steel Carbon content of 0.6 to 1.4% and Iron content of 98.6
to 99.4 %. Used to make cutting tools such as drill bits.
Stainless Steel Made up of Iron, nickel and chromium. Resists staining
and corrosion and is therefore used for the likes of cutlery and surgical
instrumentation. See our infographic celebrating 100 years of stainless
steel usage in buildings or the different types of stainless steel.
Cast Iron carbon 2 6% and Iron at 94 to 98%. Very strong but brittle.
Used to manufacture items such as engine blocks and manhole covers.
Wrought Iron Composed of almost 100% iron. Used to make items
such as ornamental gates and fencing. Has fallen out of use somewhat.

Ferrous metals and alloys are used in countless applications as


construction materials, medical devices, tools, magnetic cores, wires, and
in the aerospace, military, and medical fields.

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Phase equilibrium diagram for Iron and Iron carbide 30 mins

Fig: 2
The above figure shows the equilibrium diagram for combinations of
carbon in a solid solution of iron. The diagram shows iron and carbons
combined to form Fe-Fe3C at the 6.67%C end of the diagram. The left
side of the diagram is pure iron combined with carbon, resulting in steel
alloys. Three significant regions can be made relative to the steel portion
of the diagram. They are the eutectoid E, the hypo eutectoid A, and the
hypereutectoid B. The right side of the pure iron line is carbon in
combination with various forms of iron called alpha iron (ferrite), gamma
iron (austenite), and delta iron. Allotropic changes take place when there
is a change in crystal lattice structure.

From 2802 F - 2552 F the delta iron has a body-centred cubic lattice
structure. At 2552 F, the lattice changes from a body-centred cubic to a
face-centred cubic lattice type. At 1400 F, the curve shows a plateau but

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this does not signify an allotropic change. It is called the Curie


temperature, where the metal changes its magnetic properties.

Two very important phase changes take place at 0.83%C and at 4.3% C.

At 0.83%C, the transformation is eutectoid, called pearlite.


gamma (austenite) --> alpha + Fe3C (cementite)

At 4.3% C and 2066 F, the transformation is eutectic, called ledeburite.


L(liquid) --> gamma (austenite) + Fe3C (cementite)

30 mins
Flow diagram for production of steel

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Fig 3 : Steel Production Process Flow Diagram

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Cast Iron 40 mins

Composition

Cast iron is iron or a ferrous alloy which has been heated until it liquefies,
and is then poured into a mould to solidify. It is usually made from pig
iron. The alloy constituents affect its colour when fractured: white cast
iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through.
Grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and
initiate countless new cracks as the material breaks.

Carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are the main alloying elements, with the
amount ranging from 2.14 wt% and 13 wt%, respectively. Iron alloys
with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes
these base alloys ternary FeCSi alloys, the principle of cast iron
solidification is understood from the binary ironcarbon phase diagram.
Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point
of the ironcarbon system, the melting temperatures closely correlate,
usually ranging from 1,150 to 1,200 C (2,100 to 2,190 F), which is about
300 C (572 F) lower than the melting point of pure iron.

Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its
relatively low melting point, good fluidity, castability, excellent
machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons
have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications
and are used in pipes, machines and automotive industry parts, such as
cylinder heads(declining usage), cylinder blocks and gearbox cases
(declining usage). It is resistant to destruction and weakening by
oxidation (rust).

The earliest cast iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were
discovered by archaeologists in what is now modern Luhe County,
Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare,
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agriculture, and architecture. During the 15th century, cast iron became
utilized for artillery in Burgundy, France, and in England during the
Reformation.[2] The first cast iron bridge was built during the 1770s by
Abraham Darby III, and is known as The Iron Bridge. Cast iron is also used
in the construction of buildings.

Classification:
1. White cast iron
The carbon is on the surface of ferrites with small fraction and is in the
form of Fe3c, the section of white cast iron is in sliver white color, its
features is hard and fragile, it is difficult to be processed with machine
and little used to produce parts. The main usage: it is used as the raw
materials to make steel, also can be deal to malleable irons.

2. Gray cast iron


The carbon is on the surface of ferrites with small fraction and all is in the
form of graphite, the section is in grey color. It is used widely actually, it
occupies 80% of the cast iron. Their features are soft, fragile, poor
intensity and small gravity. It includes common gray cast iron, malleable
cast iron, ductile cast iron and vermicular graphite cast iron.

3. Mottled cast iron


It is belonged to the transition tissue between the white cast iron and
gray cast iron. Because its property is not very good so it is used little.

4. Ductile Iron
Ductile iron is also called as spheroidal graphite cast iron or sg iron.
Because of the nodular agent, the graphite form is shown as the
spheroidal, so this iron will have larger elongation and higher tensile and
yield strength.

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Typical uses
Cast iron is used in a wide variety of structural and decorative
applications, because it is relatively inexpensive, durable and easily cast
into a variety of shapes. Most of the typical uses include:
- historic markers and plaques
- hardware: hinges, latches
- columns, balusters
- stairs
- structural connectors in buildings and monuments
- decorative features
- fences
- tools and utensils
- ordnance
- stoves and firebacks
- piping.

The basic cast iron material in all of these applications may appear to be
the same, or very similar, however, the component size, composition,
use, condition, relationship to adjacent materials, exposure and other
factors may dictate that different treatments be used to correct similar
problems. Any material in question should be evaluated as a part of a
larger system and treatment plans should be based upon consideration
of all relevant factors.

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Table 1 :Effects of Sulphur , Phosphorous and Silicon on Cast Iron


ELEMENTS EFFECTS
RANGE GREY IRON RANGE DUCTILE IRON RANGE MALLEABLE IRONS
% % %
Sulphur 0.02 - Promotes < Excessive levels < The effects of sulphur
(S) 0.16 formation of 0.015 in base-iron 0.015 and manganese cannot
white iron increase tendency be considered
unless for dross defects. separately.
balanced by Levels above
manganese. 0.015 % promote Blackheart : To produce
Effects on formation of poor a ferritic matrix the
hardness graphite nodules sulphur must be
balanced by manganese.
and strength and quasi-flake
Mn % must be greater
see graphite. than S % x 1.7. If
Manganese. manganese low,
High sulphur annealability is retarded,
promotes resulting in retained
dross and pearlite and possibly
tendency for carbides. High hardness
manganese and low elongation.
sulphide
blow-holes. Whiteheart : Excess
Levels less manganese promotes
than 0.05 % ferritic cores, loose
reduce graphite aggregates, low
response to tensile strength and high
inoculation ductility. Excess sulphur
promotes pearlitic cores,
treatment.
spherulitic graphite, high
tensile strength and low
ductility.
Silicon 1.4-2.8 Promotes Reduces chilling 1.2 - Blackheart :
(Si) formation of tendency. 1.6 Accelerates carbide
ferrite. Promotes breakdown and
Reduces formation of ferritization.
strength and ferrite. Increases
hardness. hardness and
Reduces tensile strength of
"chilling" ferritic grades.
tendency. Increases ductile-
Levels above brittle transition
2.8 % temperature.
embrittle and Accelerates 0.6 - Whiteheart : As for
harden iron. pearlite and 0.8 Blackheart material.
carbide
breakdown during
heat treatment.

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Phosphoru 0.02 - Increases < 0.05 Above 0.05 % can < 0.05 Increases ductile-
s 1.2 hardness produce internal brittle transition
(P) and unsoundness temperature. Promotes
brittleness. defects. galvanizing and
Increases Embrittles the iron temper embrittlement.
tendency for - raises ductile-
internal brittle transition
unsoundness temperature.
defects. At Promotes
low levels galvanizing and
(0.04 %), temper-
increases embrittlement.
metal- Segregates to
penetration grain boundaries
and finning. and produces
carbide/phosphide
complexes.

Carbon Steel
40 mins
Carbon steel is steel in which the main interstitial alloying constituent is
carbon in the range of 0.122.0%. The American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) defines carbon steel as the following: "Steel is considered to be
carbon steel when no minimum content is specified or required for
chromium, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, titanium, tungsten,
vanadium or zirconium, or any other element to be added to obtain a
desired alloying effect; when the specified minimum for copper does not
exceed 0.40 percent; or when the maximum content specified for any of
the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted:
manganese 1.65,silicon 0.60, copper 0.60."

The term "carbon steel" may also be used in reference to steel which is not
stainless steel; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels. As the
carbon percentage content rises, steel has the ability to become harder
and stronger through heat treating; however it becomes less ductile.
Regardless of the heat treatment, a higher carbon content reduces
weldability. In carbon steels, the higher carbon content lowers the melting
point.

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Table 2 : Chemical Composition

Element Content

Carbon, C 0.14 - 0.20 %

Iron, Fe 98.81 - 99.26 % (as remainder)

Manganese, Mn 0.60 - 0.90 %

Phosphorous, P 0.040 %

Sulphur, S 0.050 %

Classification / Properties

Physical Properties Metric Imperial

Density 7.87 g/cc 0.284 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties Metric Imperial

Hardness, Brinell 126 126

Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness) 145 145

Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness) 71 71

Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness) 131 131

Tensile Strength, Ultimate 440 MPa 63800 psi

Tensile Strength, Yield 370 MPa 53700 psi

Elongation at Break (In 50 mm) 15.0 % 15.0 %

Reduction of Area 40.0 % 40.0 %

Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel) 205 GPa 29700 ksi

Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi

Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel) 0.290 0.290

Machinability (Based on AISI 1212 steel. as 100% machinability) 70 % 70 %

Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80.0 GPa 11600 ksi

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Electrical
Metric English Comments
Properties

Electrical resistivity 0.0000159 - annealed


0.0000159 -cm
@0C (32F) cm condition

0.0000219 - annealed
@100 C/ 212 F 0.0000219 -cm
cm condition

0.0000293 - annealed
@ 200 C/392 F 0.0000293 -cm
cm condition

Applications of Mild/Low Carbon Steel


It is used in bending, crimping and swaging processes.
Carburized parts that include worms, gears, pins, dowels, non-critical
components of tool and die sets, tool holders, pinions, machine parts,
ratchets, dowels and chain pins use AISI 1018 mild/low carbon steel.
It is widely used for fixtures, mounting plates and spacers.
It is suitably used in applications that do not need high strength of alloy
steels and high carbon.
It provides high surface hardness and a soft core to parts that include
worms, dogs, pins, liners, machinery parts, special bolts, ratchets, chain
pins, oil tool slips, tie rods, anchor pins, studs etc.
It is used to improve drilling, machining, threading and punching
processes.
It is used to prevent cracking in severe bends.

Medium Carbon Steel

Approximately 0.300.59% carbon content.Balances ductility and strength


and has good wear resistance; used for large parts, forging and automotive
components. Medium Carbon steel is characterized by good weldability,
good machinability, and high strength and impact properties in either the
normalized or hot rolled condition.

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Medium Carbon steel has a low through-hardening capability with only


sections of size around 60 mm being recommended as suitable for
tempering and through-hardening. However, it can be efficiently flame or
induction hardened in the normalized or hot rolled condition to obtain
surface hardnesses in the range of Rc 54 - Rc 60 based on factors such as
section size, type of set up, quenching medium used etc. Medium Carbon
steel lacks suitable alloying elements and hence does not respond to the
nitriding process.
Table 3 : Chemical Composition Medium Carbon Steel

Element Content

Carbon, C 0.420 - 0.50 %

Iron, Fe 98.51 - 98.98 %

Manganese, Mn 0.60 - 0.90 %

Phosphorous, P 0.040 %

Sulphur, S 0.050 %

Classification /Properties

Physical Properties Metric Imperial

Density 7.87 g/cc 0.284 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties Metric Imperial

Hardness, Brinell 163 163

Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell hardness) 184 184

Hardness, Rockwell B (Converted from Brinell hardness) 84 84

Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell hardness) 170 170

Tensile Strength, Ultimate 565 MPa 81900 psi

Tensile Strength, Yield 310 MPa 45000 psi

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Elongation at Break (in 50 mm) 16.0 % 16.0 %

Reduction of Area 40.0 % 40.0 %

Modulus of Elasticity (Typical for steel) 200 GPa 29000 ksi

Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi

Poissons Ratio (Typical For Steel) 0.290 0.290

Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi

Applications

Medium Carbon Steel is widely used for all industrial applications


requiring more wear resistance and strength. Typical applications are as
follows:
Gears Pins Rams
Shafts Rolls Sockets
Axles Spindles Worms
Bolts Ratchets Light gears
Studs Crankshafts Guide rods
Connecting rods Torsion bars Hydraulic clamps

High Carbon Steels

Carbon steels which can successfully undergo heat-treatment have a


carbon content in the range of 0.301.70% by weight. Trace impurities of
various other elements can have a significant effect on the quality of the
resulting steel. Trace amounts of sulphur in particular make the steel red-
short, that is, brittle and crumbly at working Temperatures. Low-alloy
carbon steel, such as A36 grade, contains about 0.05% sulphur and melts
around 1,4261,538 C (2,5992,800 F). Manganese is often added to
improve the hardenability of low-carbon steels. These additions turn the
material into a low-alloy steel by some definitions, but AISI's definition of
carbon steel allows up to 1.65% manganese by weight.

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Application
High carbon steel is used for applications in which high strength, hardness
and wear resistance are necessary, such as wear parts, knives, saw blades,
springs, gear wheels, chains, brackets etc. cold chisels, wrenches, Jaws for
vices, pneumatic drill bits, wheels for railways service, wire for structural
work, shear blades, hacksaws.

Alloy Steels 40 mins

Alloy steel is steel that is alloyed with a variety of elements in total


amounts between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical
properties. Alloy steels are broken down into two groups: low-alloy steels
and high-alloy steels. The difference between the two is somewhat
arbitrary: Smith and Hashemi define the difference at 4.0%, while
Degarmo, et al., define it at 8.0%.]Most commonly, the phrase "alloy steel"
refers to low-alloy steels.

Every steel is truly an alloy, but not all steels are called "alloy steels". Even
the simplest steels are iron (Fe) (about 99%) alloyed withcarbon (C) (about
0.1% to 1%, depending on type). However, the term "alloy steel" is the
standard term referring to steels with other alloying elements in addition
to the carbon. Common alloy ants include manganese (the most common
one), nickel, chromium,molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less
common alloyants include aluminium, cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium,
titanium,tungsten, tin, zinc, lead, and zirconium.

The following is a range of improved properties in alloy steels (as


compared to carbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, wear
resistance, corrosion resistance, hardenability, and hot hardness. To
achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat
treating.
Some of these find uses in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such
as in the turbine blades of jet engines, in spacecraft, and in nuclear
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reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel


alloys find important applications where their responses to magnetism are
very important, including in electric motors and in transformers.

Low Alloy Steel:

1. Low Alloy Steel Definition Among alloy steels, when Ni, Cr, Mo, and
other alloy elements content consist of less than 10.5% are defined as low
alloy steels.

2. Company products compatible with low alloy steels


High heat resistance steel (Chromium- Molybdenum Steel)
Low temperature use steel (Nickel Steel)
Weathering Steel
High yield and high tensile strength steel

3. Low alloy steels general description

Chromium-Molybdenum Steel :
This low alloy steel series contains 0.5% ~ 9% Cr and 0.5% ~ 1% Mo. Its
carbon content on average is lower than 0.20%, with decent weldability
and higher hardening ability due to its alloy trait. The Cr content improves
its anti-oxidization and anti-corrosion ability, and Mo enhances its strength
in high temperature condition; The steel supplying conditions are generally
gone through annealing or normalizing and tempering
processes.Chromium-Molybdenum Steel has been widely used in the areas
such as petrol chemical industry, steam power equipment, and high
temperature services.

Nickel Steel :
The average steel in low temperature environment will have higher
strength but lower elongation and toughness, thus increases the chance
for brittle fracture. If the steel is needed in a low temperature

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environment, having superior low temperature toughness is essential. Any


suitable steel for this purpose is called low temperature service steel or
Nickel steel. Low Alloy Low Temperature Service Steel is formed by adding
2.5% to 3.5 % of Ni in the carbon steel to enhance its low temperature
toughness. Ni can strengthen ferrite matrix while lowering Ar3 (third
transformation temperature) which helps with fine grain formation. In
addition to the normalizing treatment during the production process of
low alloy low temperature service steel, quenching and tempering are also
parts of the mechanical properties improvement treatment.

Weathering Steel :
Generally there are two categories of rust prevention methods: one type
for instance, is paint coating, electroplate, ceramic coating, or adding
layers of anti-corrosion material, anything to shield the steel surface from
corrosive environment. Another type is to use stainless steel or weather
steel, meaning adding anti-corrosion alloy elements into the steel.
Weathering steel is formed by adding small amounts of Cu, Cr, P, Ni, and
other alloy elements into low alloy steel. During the initial application, it
will also rust like the average carbon steel; however, after certain period
(usually one year) the rustic surface will serve as an impermeable
protective cover, preventing the further expansion of rust into inner part
of steel.

High Tensile and High Yield Strength Steel :


This low alloy steel series are added Mn, Ni, Cr, and Mo etc, can increase
strength of ferrite matrix; improve the hardening tendency; and allow
better control of grainize.This type of steel under as welded condition can
meet the demand of high strength, corrosion resistance, or improve notch
toughness and other mechanical properties. This steel type has good weld
ability with the yield strength from 480 to 830MPa, and tensile strength
from 610 to 1350 MPa.

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High Alloy Steel


This group of expensive and specialized steels contain alloy levels in excess
of 10%, giving them outstanding properties. The three basic types of
stainless are:
1.Austenitic
2.Ferritic
3.Martensitic

Austenitic manganese steel contains high carbon and manganese levels,


that give it two exceptional qualities, the ability to harden while
undergoing cold work and great toughness. The term austenitic refers to
the crystalline structure of these steels.

Stainless steels are high alloy steels that have the ability to resist corrosion.
This characteristic is mainly due to the high chromium content, i.e., 10% or
greater. Nickel is also used in substantial quantities in some stainless
steels.
Tool steels are used for cutting and forming operations. They are high
qualitysteels used in making tools, punches, forming dies, extruding dies,
forgings and so forth.Depending upon their properties and usage, they are
sometimes referred to as water hardening, shock resisting, oil hardening,
air hardening, and hot work tool steel.

Because of the high levels of alloying elements, special care and practices
are required when welding high alloy steels. Ferritic stainless steels have
12 to 27 percent chromium with small amounts of austenite-forming
alloys.
Martensitic stainless steels make up the cutlery grades. They have the least
amount of chromium, offer high hardenability, and require both pre- and
post-heating when welding to prevent cracking in the heat-affected zone
(HAZ).

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Tool Steels:
Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly
well-suited to be made into tools. Their suitability comes from their
distinctive hardness, resistance to abrasion, their ability to hold a cutting
edge, and/or their resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures
(red-hardness). Tool steel is generally used in a heat-treated state. Many
high carbon tool steels are also more resistant to corrosion due to their
higher ratios of elements such as vanadium and niobium.

With a carbon content between 0.7% and 1.5%, tool steels are
manufactured under carefully controlled conditions to produce the
required quality. The manganese content is often kept low to minimize the
possibility of cracking during water quenching. However, proper heat
treating of these steels is important for adequate performance, and there
are many suppliers who provide tooling blanks intended for oil quenching.

Tool steels are made to a number of grades for different applications.


Choice of grade depends on, among other things, whether a keen cutting
edge is necessary, as in stamping dies, or whether the tool has to
withstand impact loading and service conditions encountered with such
hand tools as axes, pickaxes, and quarrying implements. In general, the
edge temperature under expected use is an important determinant of both
composition and required heat treatment. The higher carbon grades are
typically used for such applications as stamping dies, metal cutting tools,
etc.

Tool steels are also used for special applications like injection molding
because the resistance to abrasion is an important criterion for a mold that
will be used to produce hundreds of thousands of parts.

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Special purpose types


P-type tool steel is short for plastic mold steels. They are designed to
meet the requirements of zinc die casting and plastic injection molding
dies.
L-type tool steel is short for low alloy special purpose tool steel. L6 is
extremely tough.

F-type tool steel is water hardened and substantially more wear resistant
than W-type tool steel.

Stainless Steels

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French
"inoxydable", is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content
by mass.

Stainless steel does not readily corrode, rust or stain with water as
ordinary steel does, but despite the name it is not fully stain-proof, most
notably under low-oxygen, high-salinity, or poor-circulation environments.
There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the
environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the
properties of steel and resistance to corrosion are required.

Stainless steel differs from carbon steel by the amount of chromium


present. Unprotected carbon steel rusts readily when exposed to air and
moisture. This iron oxide film (the rust) is active and accelerates corrosion
by forming more iron oxide, and due to the greater volume of the iron
oxide this tends to flake and fall away. Stainless steels contain sufficient
chromium to form a passive film of chromium oxide, which prevents
further surface corrosion by blocking oxygen diffusion to the steel surface
and blocks corrosion from spreading into the metal's internal structure,
and due to the similar size of the steel and oxide ions they bond very
strongly and remain attached to the surface.

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Applications
Stainless steels resistance to corrosion and staining, low maintenance and
familiar lustre make it an ideal material for many applications. There are
over 150 grades of stainless steel, of which fifteen are most commonly
used.

The alloy is milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing to be
used in cookware, cutlery, household hardware, surgical instruments,
major appliances, industrial equipment (for example, in sugar refineries)
and as an automotive and aerospace structural alloy and construction
material in large buildings.

Storage tanks and tankers used to transport orange juice and other food
are often made of stainless steel, because of its corrosion resistance. This
also influences its use in commercial kitchens and food processing plants,
as it can be steam-cleaned and sterilized and does not need paint or other
surface finishes.

Stainless steel is used for jewellery and watches with 316L being the type
commonly used for such applications. It can be re-finished by any jeweller
and will not oxidize or turn black. Some firearms incorporate stainless steel
components as an alternative to blued or parkerized steel. Some handgun
models, such as the Smith & Wesson Model 60 and the Colt M1911 pistol,
can be made entirely from stainless steel. This gives a high-lustre finish
similar in appearance to nickel plating.

Unlike plating, the finish is not subject to flaking, peeling, wear-off from
rubbing (as when repeatedly removed from a holster), or rust when
scratched. Some automotive manufacturers use stainless steel as
decorative highlights in their vehicles.

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Effects of alloying elements in steel:


Alloying elements are added to effect changes in the properties of steels.
The basis of this section is to cover some of the different alloying elements
added to the basic system of iron and carbon, and what they do to change
the properties or effectiveness of steel.

Chromium:
As with manganese, chromium has a tendency to increase hardness
penetration. This element has many interesting effects on steel. When 5
percent chromium or more is used in conjunction with manganese, the
critical quenching speed is reduced to the point that the steel becomes air
hardening. Chromium can also increase the toughness of steel, as well as
the wear resistance. Probably one of the most well-known effects of
chromium on steel is the tendency to resist staining and corrosion. Steels
with 14 percent or more chromium are referred to as stainless steels. A
more accurate term would be stain resistance. Stainless tool steels will
infact darken and rust, just not as readily as the non-stainless varieties.
Steels with chromium also have higher critical temperatures in heat
treatment.

Nickel
Nickel is added in large amounts, over about 8%, to high chromium
stainless steel to form the most important class of corrosion and heat
resistant steels.Nickel increases the strength of ferrite, therefore
increasing the strength of the steel. It is used in low alloy steels to increase
toughness and hardenability. Nickel also tends to help reduce distortion
and cracking during the quenching phase of heat treatment.

Manganese
Manganese slightly increases the strength of ferrite, and also increases the
hardness penetration of steel in the quench by decreasing the critical
quenching speed. This also makes the steel more stable in the quench.
Steels with manganese can be quenched in oil rather than water, and

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therefore are less susceptible to cracking because of a reduction in the


shock of quenching. Manganese is present in most commercially made
steels.

Molybdenum
Molybdenum increases the hardness penetration of steel, slows the critical
quenching speed, and increases high temperature tensile strength.

Tungsten
Used in small amounts, tungsten combines with the free carbides in steel
during heat treatment, to produce high wear resistance with little or no
loss of toughness. High amounts combined with chromium gives steel a
property known as red hardness. This means that the steel will not lose its
working hardness at high temperatures. An example of this would be tools
designed to cut hard materials at high speeds, where the friction between
the tool and the material would generate high temperatures.

Vanadium
Vanadium helps control grain growth during heat treatment. By inhibiting
grain growth it helps increase the toughness and strength of the steel.

Tool Steels 30 mins


Tool steels are steels that are primarily used to make tools used in
manufacturing processes as well as for machining metals, woods, and
plastics. Tool steels are generally ingot-cast wrought products, and must
be able to withstand high specific loads as well as be stable at elevated
temperatures.

The different grades of tool steel are frequently classified according to a


system called the SAE steel grades or AISI/SAE steel grades, created by the
Society of Automotive Engineers (now SAE International) and the American
Iron and Steel Institute. It categorizes each type of steel with a letter that
indicates its properties or production method.
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AISI Designations
W: Water-Hardening
S: Shock-Resisting
O: Cold-Work (Oil-Hardening)
A: Cold-Work (Medium-Alloy, Air-Hardening)
D: Cold-Work (High-Carbon, High-Chromium)
L: Low-Alloy
F:Carbon-Tungsten
P:P1-P19-Low-Carbon Mold Steels
P20-P39 -Other Mold Steels
H:H1-H19:Chromium-Base Hot Work
H20-H29:Tungsten-Base Hot Work
H40-H59:Molybdenum-Base Hot Work

High Speed Tool Steels


High-speed alloys include all molybdenum (M1 to M52) and tungsten (T1
to T15) class alloys. High-speed tools steels can be hardened to 62-67 HRC
and can maintain this hardness in service temperatures as high as 540 C
(1004F), making them very useful in high-speed machinery. Typical
applications are end mills, drills, lathe tools, planar tools, punches,
reamers, routers, taps, saws, broaches, chasers, and hobs.
Table 4: Tool steel grades

Name Class Alloy Type

AISI M1 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M10 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M2 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M3 class 1 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M3 class 2 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M30 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M33 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

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AISI M34 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M36 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M4 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M41 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M42 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M43 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M44 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M46 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M47 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M6 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI M7 Tool steel Molybdenum high speed steel

AISI T1 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T15 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T2 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T4 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T5 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T6 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

AISI T8 Tool steel Tungsten high speed steel

Hot-work Tool Steels


Hot-work tool steels include all chromium, tungsten, and molybdenum
class H alloys. They are typically used for forging, die casting, heading,
piercing, trim, extrusion, and hot-shear and punching blades.

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Table 5: Hot work Tool steel grades

Name Class Alloy Type

AISI H10 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H11 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H12 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H13 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H14 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H19 Tool steel Chromium hot work steel

AISI H21 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H22 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H23 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H24 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H25 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H26 Tool steel Tungsten hot work steel

AISI H42 Tool steel Molybdenum hot work steel

Cold Work Tool Steels


Cold-work tool steels include all high-chromium class D, medium-alloy air-
hardening class A alloys, water hardening W alloys, and oil hardening O
alloys. Typical applications include cold working operations such as
stamping dies, draw dies, burnishing tools, coining tools, and shear blades.

Table 6: Cold work tool steel grades

Name Class Alloy Type

AISI A10 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A2 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A3 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A4 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

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AISI A6 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A7 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A8 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI A9 Tool steel Air-hardening medium-alloy cold work steel

AISI D2 Tool steel High-carbon, high-chromium cold work steel

AISI D3 Tool steel High-carbon, high-chromium cold work steel

AISI D4 Tool steel High-carbon, high-chromium cold work steel

AISI D5 Tool steel High-carbon, high-chromium cold work steel

AISI D7 Tool steel High-carbon, high-chromium cold work steel

AISI O1 Tool steel Oil-hardening cold work steel

AISI O2 Tool steel Oil-hardening cold work steel

AISI O6 Tool steel Oil-hardening cold work steel

AISI O7 Tool steel Oil-hardening cold work steel

Magnetic Materials
30 mins
There are a few materials which are naturally magnetic, and have the
potential to be turned into magnets. Some of these materials are
iron
hematite
magnetite
ionized gases (such as the material stars are made of)
A magnet can be made to stick to objects which contain magnetic material
such as iron, even if they are not magnets. But a magnet cannot be made
to stick to materials which are plastic, or cotton, or any other material,
such as silicate rock, which is not magnetic.

Just because a material contains iron or some other magnetic material,


however, it may not be a magnet. It takes special conditions to turn
magnetic material into magnets. That is because a magnet is an object
from which the force of magnetism originates.
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The origin of magnetism lies in the orbital and spin motions of electrons
and how the electrons interact with one another. The best way to
introduce the different types of magnetism is to describe how materials
respond to magnetic fields. This may be surprising to some, but all matter
is magnetic. It's just that some materials are much more magnetic than
others. The main distinction is that in some materials there is no collective
interaction of atomic magnetic moments, whereas in other materials there
is a very strong interaction between atomic moments.
The magnetic behaviour of materials can be classified into the following
five major groups:
1. Diamagnetism
2. Paramagnetism
3. Ferromagnetism
4. Ferrimagnetism
5. Antiferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism
When you think of magnetic materials, you probably think of iron, nickel or
magnetite. Unlike paramagnetic materials, the atomic moments in these
materials exhibit very strong interactions. These interactions are produced
by electronic exchange forces and result in a parallel or antiparallel
alignment of atomic moments. Exchange forces are very large, equivalent
to a field on the order of 1000 Tesla, or approximately a 100 million times
the strength of the earth's field.

The exchange force is a quantum mechanical phenomenon due to the


relative orientation of the spins of two electron.

Ferromagnetic materials exhibit parallel alignment of moments resulting in


large net magnetization even in the absence of a magnetic field.

The elements Fe, Ni, and Co and many of their alloys are typical
ferromagnetic materials.

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Two distinct characteristics of ferromagnetic materials are their

(1) spontaneous magnetization and the existence of

(2) magnetic ordering temperature

Spontaneous Magnetization
The spontaneous magnetization is the net magnetization that exists inside
a uniformly magnetized microscopic volume in the absence of a field. The
magnitude of this magnetization, at 0 K, is dependent on the spin magnetic
moments of electrons.

A related term is the saturation magnetization which we can measure in


the laboratory. The saturation magnetization is the maximum induced
magnetic moment that can be obtained in a magnetic field (Hsat); beyond
this field no further increase in magnetization occurs.

The difference between spontaneous magnetization and the saturation


magnetization has to do with magnetic domains (more about domains
later). Saturation magnetization is an intrinsic property, independent of
particle size but dependent on temperature.

Curie Temperature

Even though electronic exchange forces in ferromagnets are very large,


thermal energy eventually overcomes the exchange and produces a
randomizing effect. This occurs at a particular temperature called the Curie
temperature (TC). Below the Curie temperature, the ferromagnet is
ordered and above it, disordered. The saturation magnetization goes to
zero at the Curie temperature. A typical plot of magnetization vs
temperature for magnetite is shown below.

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Fig 4: Magnetisation curve


The Curie temperature is also an intrinsic property and is a diagnostic
parameter that can be used for mineral identification. However, it is not
fool proof because different magnetic minerals, in principle, can have the
same Curie temperature.
Hysteresis
In addition to the Curie temperature and saturation magnetization,
ferromagnets can retain a memory of an applied field once it is removed.
This behaviour is called hysteresis and a plot of the variation of
magnetization with magnetic field is called a hysteresis loop.

Fig 5: Hysteresis loop

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Another hysteresis property is the coercivity of remanence (Hr). This is the


reverse field which, when applied and then removed, reduces the
saturation remanence to zero. It is always larger than the coercive force.

The initial susceptibility (0) is the magnetization observed in low fields, on


the order of the earth's field (50-100 T). The various hysteresis
parameters are not solely intrinsic properties but are dependent on grain
size, domain state, stresses, and temperature. Because hysteresis
parameters are dependent on grain size, they are useful for magnetic grain
sizing of natural samples.

Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials


Most of magnetic materials of industrial interests are ferromagenetic
materials. The ferromagnetic materials can be categorized into two; one is
soft magnetic materials and the other is hard magnetic materials. As
shown in the magnetization curve, a ferromagnetic material with the
demagnetized state does not show magnetization although they have
spontaneous magnetization. This is because the ferromagnetic materials
are divided into many magnetic domains. Within the magnetic domains,
the direction of magnetic moment is aligned.

However, the direction of magnetic moments varies at magnetic domain


walls so that it can reduce the magneto static energy in the total volume.
In the demagnetized state, total magnetization is cancelled because of the
random orientation of the magnetizations in magnetic domains. When
external magnetic field is applied, domain walls migrate and disappear
when all magnetic moments are aligned to the direction of the magnetic
field. When all magnetic domains are wiped away and magnetizations are
all aligned to the direction of the magnetic field, magnetization is
saturated. This magnetization is called saturation magnetization, Ms.

When domain wall can easily migrate, the ferromagnetic material can be
easily magnetized at low magnetic field. These types of ferromagnetic

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materials are called soft magnetic material, and are suitable for
applications of magnetic cores or recording heads. Since soft magnetic
materials can be demagnetized at low magnetic field, coercivity Hc is low.
As they can be easily magnetized, permeability is high. For ferromagnetic
materials to be soft, their magnetocrystalline anisotropy and
magnetostriction constant must be low. In addition, for easy migration of
magnetic domains, they must have small number of defects such as crystal
grains.

When domain wall is difficult to migrate, magnetization of the


ferromagnetic material occurs only when high magnetic field is applied. In
other words, these types of ferromagnetic materials are difficult to
magnetize, but once magnetized, it is difficult to demagnetize. These
materials are called hard magnetic materials, and are suitable for
applications such as permanent magnets and magnetic recording media.
Hard magnetic materials have high magneto crystalline anisotropy. Since
large magnetic field is required to demagnetize, their coercivity Hc is
usually high, but coercivity is highly sensitive to the microstructurure.

Fig 6: Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials

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Table 6: Applications of Magnetic Materials

Field of
Products Requirements Materials
application

Soft Magnets

Power
Motors
conversion
Generators Large MR
electrical -
Electromagnets Small HC
mechanical
Low losses = small Fe based materials, e.g.
conductivity Fe + (0,7 - 5)% Si
Power (Power) low w Fe + (35 - 50)% Co
adaption Transformers

Transformer
Linear M - H curve
("bertrger")

LF ("low"
Small conductivity Fe + 36 %
Signal frequency; up
medium w Fe/Ni/Co 20/40/40
transfer to 100 kHz)

HF ("high"
Very small conductivity
frequency up Ni - Zn ferrites
high w
to 100 kHz)

Magnetic
Large dM/dH for H 0
field "Mu-metal" Ni/Fe/Cu/Cr 77/16/5/2
ideally mr = 0
screening

Hard Magnets

Loudspeaker Fe/Co/Ni/Al/Cu 50/24/14/9/3


Permanent Small generators SmCo5
Large HC (and MR)
magnets Small motors Sm2Co17
Sensors "NdFeB" (= Nd2Fe14B)

Data storage Video tape


analog Audio tape

Ferrite core Medium HC(and MR), NiCo, CuNiFe,


memory hysteresis loop as CrO2
Drum rectangular as possible Fe2O3

Hard disc,
Floppy disc
Data storage
digital
Magnetic garnets (AB2O4,
or A3B5O12), e.g.
Special domain with A = Yttrium (or mixtures of
Bubble memory
structure rare earth), and B = mixtures
of Sc, Ga, Al
Most common: Gd3Ga5O12

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Specialties

GMR reading Special spin structures


Quantum head in multilayered
devices
materials

Special Cutting Tool Materials 30 mins

Many types of tool materials, ranging from high carbon steel to ceramics
and diamonds, are used as cutting tools in todays metalworking industry.
It is important to be aware that differences do exist among tool materials,
what these differences are, and the correct application for each type of
material.
The various tool manufacturers assign many names and numbers to their
products. While many of these names and numbers may appear to be
similar, the applications of these tool materials may be entirely different.
In most cases, the tool manufacturers will provide tools made of the
proper material for each given application. In some particular applications,
a premium or higher priced material will be justified.

This does not mean that the most expensive tool is always the best tool.
Cutting tool users cant afford to ignore the constant changes and
advancements that are being made in the field of tool material technology.
When a tool change is needed or anticipated, a performance comparison
should be made before selecting the tool for the job. The optimum tool is
not necessarily the least expensive or the most expensive, and it is not
always the same tool that was used for the job last time. The best tool is
the one that has been carefully chosen to get the job done quickly,
efficiently, and economically.

A cutting tool must have the following characteristics in order to produce


good quality and economical parts:

Hardness harness and strength of the cutting tool must be maintained

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at elevated temperatures, also called hot hardness.

Toughness toughness of cutting tools is needed so that tools dont chip


or fracture, especially during interrupted cutting operations.

Wear Resistance wear resistance means the attainment of acceptable


tool life before tools need to be replaced.

Cemented Carbides
Introduced in the 1930s, these are the most important tool materials today
because of their high hot hardness and wear resistance. The main
disadvantage of cemented carbides is their low toughness. These materials
are produced by powder metallurgy methods, sintering grains of tungsten
carbide (WC) in a cobalt (Co) matrix (it provides toughness). There may be
other carbides in the mixture, such as titanium carbide (TiC) and/or
tantalum carbide (TaC) in addition to WC.

Fig 7: Cemented Carbide


In spite of more traditional tool materials, cemented carbides are available
as inserts produced by powder metallurgy process. Inserts are available in
various shapes, and are usually mechanically attached by means of clamps
to the tool holder, or brazed to the tool holder. The clamping is preferred
because after a cutting edge gets worn, the insert is indexed (rotated in
the holder) for another cutting edge. When all cutting edges are worn, the
insert is thrown away. The indexable carbide inserts are never reground. If

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the carbide insert is brazed to the tool holder, indexing is not available,
and after reaching the wear criterion, the carbide insert is reground on a
tool grinder.

Fig 8: Parts of a tool

ISO specifies three basic grades for cemented carbides according to use:

One advance in cutting tool materials involves the application of a very


thin coating (~ 10 m) to a K-grade substrate, which is the toughest of all
carbide grades. Coating may consists of one or more thin layers of wear-
resistant material, such as titanium carbide (TiC), titanium nitride (TiN),
aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and/or other, more advanced materials. Coating
allows increasing significantly the cutting speed for the same tool life.

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Cubic boron nitride (CBN) and


synthetic diamonds
Diamond is the hardest substance
ever known of all materials. It is
used as a coating material in its
polycrystalline form, or as a single-
crystal diamond tool for special
applications, such as mirror finishing
of non-ferrous materials. Next to

diamond, CBN is the hardest tool


material. CBN is used mainly as
coating material because it is very
brittle. In spite of diamond, CBN is
suitable for cutting ferrous materials.

Fig 9: Inserts with diamond Tips

Stellite
Stellite alloys are a group or a range of cobalt-chromium alloys. They are
designed to be resistant to wear and corrosion. These alloys may also have
some portions of tungsten or molybdenum and some small but critical
amounts of carbon. Stellite is a trademarked name of Deloro Stellite
Company supplying Stellite alloys like Stellite3, Stellite 6, Stellite 12 and
Stellite 21.

There are many types of Stellite alloys composed of varying quantities of


cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, iron, nickel, boron, aluminium,
carbon, manganese, phosphorus, silicon, titanium and sulphur in different
proportions. Most Stellite alloy compositions contain at least four to six of
the listed elements.

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Stellite alloys are non-magnetic alloys which are highly resistant to


corrosion. A range of different alloy compositions are prepared by
combining different elements in varying proportions and the properties of
an individual alloy composition might vary from an alloy of a different
composition. Different alloy compositions are used for different purposes
and valued for their functional flexibility.

The alloy Stellite 100 is mostly used nowadays for cutting tools as it is very
hard and is capable of maintaining a great cutting edge even when
exposed to high temperatures. The alloy is also resistant to processes such
as hardening and annealing that might result from excessive heat. Other
Stellite alloys are manufactured to combine the properties of corrosion
resistance, wear resistance and the ability to tolerate extreme
temperatures.

Stellite alloys can be characterized as having great hardness and


toughness. They are also normally highly resistant to corrosion. The
extreme harness of these alloys frequently makes it difficult to work with
them and so anything made from these alloys are normally very expensive.
Usually, Stellite parts are precisely cast to avoid any need of further
excessive machining. Stellite alloys are more frequently machined by
grinding instead of cutting. These alloys usually have very high melting
points resulting from the combined content of cobalt and chromium.
Table 7:Composition of Stellite

The various uses of Stellite alloys are discussed below:


Stellite alloys are used in the process of hard facing.
They are also applied in the manufacturing of saw teeth and acid-
resistant machine parts.
The invention of Stellite alloys greatly improvised the manufacturing of

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poppet valves as well as the valve seats for valves. These alloys
revolutionized the exhaust valves of internal combustion engines. The
interval between maintenance of the valves and re-grinding of the valve
seats was lengthened to a significant degree by reducing the erosion of the
valves from hot gases.
The first third of M60 machine gun barrels (starting from the chamber)
and the M2HB machine gun are lined with Stellite. Stellite alloys were also
used to make the shoulders and locking lugs of Voere Titan II rifles.
Stellite alloys are also frequently used to make the cast structure used
for dental prosthesis.
During early 1980s, experiments were conducted in United Kingdom to
see if precision-cast Stellite alloys could be used to create artificial hip
joints as well as other bone replacements.
Stellite alloys have been used to manufacture turning tools for lathes.
Stellite alloys have greater cutting abilities compared to carbon steel tools
as well as some high speed steel tools. They are especially capable of
cutting difficult materials like stainless steel. Improvements in tipped tools
over the years have greatly reduced the use of Stellite alloys in lathes.

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