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RADIOGRAPHIC TESTING

COMPARATIVE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (UNACCEPTABLE WHEN)


LEGENDS:
IP: Incomplete Penetration IF: Incomplete Fusion IC: Internal Concavity EI: Elongated Indication RI: Rounded Indication BT: Burn Through ESI: Elongated Slag Inclusion IFD: Incomplete Fussion due to Cold Lap
ISI: Isolated Slag Inclusion HB: Hollow Bead EU: External Undercut IU: Internal Undercut AI: Aligned Indication LOF: Lack of Fusion LI: Linear Indication NA: Not Applicable ICP: Inadequate Cross Penetration
T/t : Nominal wall thickness of the thinner of two component joined by a butt weld . TW: Thick. of weld excluding any reinforcement. TWI: Thick. of weld including weld reinforcement
REF. CODE API 1104 (2005) / ANSI B31.8 / B31.4 ASME SEC. VIII (2008a) / API 650 (2007) ANSI B31.1 (2001) ASME B31.3 (2008)
PRESS. VESSEL PLANT PIPING
PIPELINE & STORAGE PRESS. VESSELS POWER PIPING (APPLICABLE FOR GIRTH & MITTER GROOVE)
DEFECTS TANKS
UW - 51 (b) UW- 52 (SPOT) NORMAL SEVERE CATEGORY D HIGH PRESSURE

CRACKS Other then shallow or star = Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero

Shallow Crater / Star > 5/32" (4 mm) length

IP Zero Zero Zero > 1/32" (1 mm) & 0.2Tw Zero Zero Zero
Depth NA
Each indication >1" (25mm) /Aggregate length >1" in
Length without HI LOW continuous 12" OR exceeds 8% of weld length in any
weld < 12" (300mm) in length
Cummulative Length > 1/5" (38mm) in 6" weld > 1/5" (38mm) in 6" weld
Each indication >2" (50 mm) /Aggregate length 3" in
Length due to HI LOW conctinuous 12" (300 mm)
Length of Individual > 2" (50 mm), Aggregate Length >
Inadd. Cross Penetration 2' in any continuous 12" (300 mm)
IF Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero

Open to surface > 1 mm & > 0.2 TW

Length Length of each indication > 1" (25 mm)


Wall thk.(mm) Height
> 1" per 12" weld / 8% of weld length in any weld < 12" <1/2"(13) 1/16" (1.5 mm)
Aggregate (300 mm) in length >1/2", < 2" (51) 1/8" (3 mm)
>2" (51) 3/32" (4 mm)
Due to COLD LAP Length of Each indication > 2" (50 mm),
Aggregate length > 2" in 12" (300 mm) contimuous length
Aggregate length / > 8% of weld length
IC Density exceed base metal: Refer to Burn Through for NA NA When there is an abrupt Total joint thickness, including weld reinforcement, < Tw
accetance change in denstiy
Depth (Suck Up)
BT For Pipe O.D > 2.375 " (60.3 mm) NA NA Zero Zero Zero Zero Zero

Size & Density Size > 1/4" (6 mm) max. dimension


and if the longest indication seperated by less than 3L, L is the length of
Densaity > base metal / dimension > thinner wall thick Longest indication . Max length of indication > 19 mm.
joined & density in any portion exceeds rhen thinnest AI shorter then 6 mm is acc for any plate
adjacent parent material.
Density > base metal : aggregate length of separate BTs Except when the distance b/w successive imperfection > 6L, where L is the
> 1/2"per 12" (300 mm) weld or total weld longest imperfection in the group

For Pipe O.D < 2.375" (60.3 mm)


Except when the distance b/w
Density > Base metal and 1/4" (6 mm) max. dimension successive imperfection > 6L, where L If the longet indication's considered are separate by at least 3L. The ma. Length
is the longest imperfection in the group of unacceptable indication's shall be > 3/4". Any such indication longer then 1/4"
Density > base metal and dimension > thinner wall thick. shall be unacceptable for any plate thickness.
Desity of BTs > base metal

UNDERCUTTING Aggregate length of EU & IU combinnation Zero Zero Zero


> 2" ( 50mm) per 12" weld or > 1/6 of weld length

Depth NA > 1/32" (1 mm) & Tw/4 > 1 .5 mm &TW/4 OR 1 mm)

AOI (excluding IP due to HI-low & UC) > 2" (50 mm) in
ACCUMULATION OF any continuous 12" (300) OR aggregate length exceeds
IMPERFECTIONS 8% of weld length
NA If the sum of the longest NA NA NA NA
Any group of AI which have Any group of AI which have
ALIGNED aggregate length > t in a
dimensions of all such
aggregate length > t in a
indication > T in a length of
INDICATIONS length of 12t
6T
length of 12t

sheet 1 of 3
1. Rounded Indications: Indications with a maximum length of three times the width or less on the radiographed are defined as R. I., the indication may be circular, elliptical,
conical or irregular in shape and may have tails.
When evaluating the size of an indication, the tail shall be included. The indication may be from any imperfection in the weld, such as porosity, slag or tungston.
2. Aligned Indications: A sequence of four or more rounded indications shall be considered to be aligned when they touch a line parallel to the length of the weld drawn through
the centre of the two outer rounded indications.
3. Linear Indications: crack, Incomplete Fusion, Incomplete Penetration, elongated Slag Inclusion
4. Elongated Indications: Length of indications greater then 3 times the width
Fluid service: a general term concerning the application of a piping system, considering the combination of fluid properties, operating conditions, & other factors which establish
the basis for design of the piping system.
Category D Fluid Service: a fluid service in which all the following apply: (1) the fluid handled is nonflammable , nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissues. (2) the

Category M Fluid Service: a fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic
fluid, caused by leakage, can produce serious irreversible harm to persons on breathing or bodily contact, even when prompt restorative measures are taken.

High Pressure fluid Service: a fluid service for which the owner specifies the use of chapter IX ( is considered herein to be pressure in excess of that allowed by the ASME
B16.5 PN 420 (Class 2500) rating for the specific design temperature & material group. However , there are no specified pressure limitations for the application of these rules.

Normal Fluid Service: a fluid service not subject to rules for Category D, Category M, or High Pressure Fluid Service.
Severe Service:
APPENDIX 4
(a) Image Density , Density within the image of the indication may vary & is not a criterion for acceptance or rejection
(b) Relevant Indication: , ref. table 4.1, FOR 1/10 t for t less than 1/8 (3 mm), 1/6 t for t 3 mm to 6 mm, 1/32 t for t greater then 6 mm to 50 mm & 1/16 t for t greater then 50
mm.
(c ) Maximum Size of RI : 1/4 t or 4 mm, except Isolated Indications seperated from others by 25 mm or moremay be 6 mm. For t greater then 50 mm is 10 mm.
(d) Aligned RI : the sum is less than t in a length of 12t, Fig 4-1, Spacing and Length of group shall be as per Fig 4-2
(e) Spacing : distance between adjacent RIs is not a factor.
(f) RI Charts : Fig 4-3 through 4-8
(g) Weld Thickness less then 3mm thk: Max. 12 no. of RI in 150 mm length of weld. .
(h) Clustered Indications : 4 times as for random indications. Cluster Length exceeds the lesser of 1" (25mm) or 2t. Where more than one cluster is pesent, the sum of the
lengths of the clusters shall not exceed 25mm in 150mm weld length.
Rounded Indication Chart (APPENDIX 4, TABLE 4-1)
Acceptance Standard for Radiographically determined Rounded Indications in welds

Thickness Maximum size of acceptable Rounded Indication Maximum size of


(t) Non Relevant Indication
Random Isolated
inches mm inches mm inches mm inches mm
Less than 1/8 3.17 1/4t 6.35t 1/3t 8.5t 1/10t 2.5t
Less than 1/8 3.17 0.031 0.792 0.042 1 0.015 0.39
Less than 3/16 4.76 0.047 1.19 0.063 1.6 0.015 0.39
Less than 1/4 6.35 0.063 1.58 0.083 2.1 0.015 0.39
Less than 5/16 7.93 0.078 1.98 0.104 2.64 0.031 0.79
Less than 3/8 9.52 0.091 2.38 0.125 3.175 0.031 0.79
Less than 7/16 11.11 0.109 2.77 0.146 3.7 0.031 0.79
Less than 1/2 12.7 0.125 3.77 0.168 4.3 0.031 0.79
Less than 9/16 19.05 0.142 4.76 0.188 4.8 0.031 0.79
Less than 5/8 15.87 0.156 3.96 0.21 5.3 0.031 0.79
Less than 11/16 17.46 0.156 3.96 0.23 5.8 0.031 0.79
3/4 to 2, inclus. 19.05 0.156 3.96 0.25 6.35 0.031 0.79
over 2 50.8 0.156 3.96 0.375 9.5 0.063 1.6
(Table T - 232.2) Wire IQI TABLE T - 276 for the selection of Penetrameters (SOURCE SIDE)
Nomianal Single-Wall Essential Essential Dia
Hole -Type Sensitivity
Designation & dia., in. Material Thickness Range Wire of Wire
ASTM Dia (No.) Inches mm No. mm Designation Thk. (mm) S=V.W/T x 100
0.0032 (1) Upto 0.25, incl. Upto 6.4, incl. 5 0.2 12 0.32
0.004 (2) Over 0.25 through 0.375 Over 6.4 through 9.5 6 0.25 15 0.38
A 0.005 (3) Over 0.375 through 0.50 Over 9.5 through 12.7 7 0.33 17 0.44
0.0063 (4) Over 0.50 through 0.75 Over 12.7 through 19.0 8 0.41 20 0.51
0.008 (5) Over 0.75 through 1.00 Over 19.0 through 25.4 9 0.51 25 0.64
0.01 (6) Over 1.00 through 1.5 Over 25.4 through 38.1 10 0.64 30 0.76
0.013 (7) Over 1.5 through 2.00 Over 38.1 through 50.8 11 0.81 35 0.89
B 0.016 (8) Over 2.00 through 2.5 Over 50.8 through 63.5 12 1.02 40 1.02
0.02 (9) Over 2.5 through 4.0 Over 63.5 through 101.6 13 1.27 50 1.27
0.025 (10) Over 4.0 through 6.0 Over 101.6 through 152.4 14 1.6 60 1.52
0.032 (11) Over 6.0 through 8.0 Over 152.4through 203.2 16 2.54 80 2.03
0.04 (12) Over 8.0 through 10.0 Over 203.4 through 254.0 17 3.2 100 2.54
C 0.05 (13) Over 10.0 through 12.0 Over 254.0 through 304.8 18 4.06 120 3.05
0.063 (14) Over 12.0 through 16.0 Over 304.8 through 406.4 20 6.35 160 4.06
0.08 (15) Over 16.0 through 20.0 Over 406.4 through 508.0 21 8.13 200 5.08
0.1 (16)
0.126 (17)
D 0.16 (18)
0.2 (19)
0.25 (20)
0.32 (21)
REF. CODE API 1104 / ANSI B31.8 / B31.4 ASME SEC. VIII (2008a) / API 650 (2007) ANSI B31.1 (2001) ANSI B31.3 (2008)
PRESS. VESSEL & PLANT PIPING
PIPELINE PRESS. VESSEL POWER PIPING
DEFECTS STORAGE TANKS (APPLICABLE FOR GIRTH & MITTER GROOVE)
UW - 51 (b) UW- 52 (SPOT) NORMAL SEVERE CATEGORY D HIGH PRESSURE
SLAG/TUNGSTON For Pipe O.D > 2.375" (60.3 mm)
ESI > 2" (wagon tracks: width > 0.8 mm is considered
INCLUSION / EI
as separate indications)
ESI aggregate length > 2" (50 mm) per 12" weld

Width of ESI > of ESI 1/16" (1.6 mm)

ISI aggregate length > 1/2" (13 mm) per 12" weld EI length : 1/4" (6 mm) for t
upto 3/4" (19 mm) inclusive , Individual length > Tw/4 &
Width of ISI > of ISI 1/8" (3 mm) EI length >: Slag inclusion or cavities 1/3t for t from 3/4" (19 mm) to
Individual length > 2 Tw Individual length > Tw/3
> 4mm
More then 4 ISIs with max. width 1/8" (3 mm) per 12" (a) 1/4" (6 mm) for t upto Individual width > (3 mm) & Individual width > 3/32" (2.5
are unacceptable . If the 2 1/4" (57 mm) inclusive, 3/4" Individual width > (2.5
weld 3/4" (19 mm) Tw/2 mm) & Tw/3 NA
length of any such (19 mm) for t over 2 1/4" (57 mm) & Tw/4
(b) 1/3t for t from 3/4" (19 Cummulative length > 4Tw in Cummulative length > Tw in
ESI / ISI aggregate length > 8% of weld length indication > 2/3t mm) Cummulative length > Tw
mm) to 2 1/4" (57 mm) any 6" (150 mm) weld length any 12" Tw weld length
For Pipe O.D < 2.375" (60.3 mm) where t is the thk. Of the in any 12" Tw weld length
(C) 3/4" for t over 21/4" thinner portion of weld
Length > 3 x thinnest wall thickness joined (wagon
ESI tracks: width > 0.8 mm is considered as separate
indications)
ESI > 1/16" (1.6 mm) OR Width of ISIs > 1/2 of
thinnest wall joined and aggregate Length > 2 x
Width thinnest wall
ESI/ISI aggeregate length > 8% of weld length

POROSITY / RI NA
See BPV Sec. VIII,
Individual > 1/8" (3 mm), > 25% of thinest wall thk. & DIV. 1 Appendix 4
Individual / scattered size Distribution of Scattered as per Fig 19 or 20
Diameter of cluster & aggregate Length in any In excess of that shown in
Cluster continous 12" > 1/2" (13 mm) appendix A-250 of section I of Zero
Individual & Aggregate length > 1/2" (13 mm)per 12" ASME BPV.
Finish Pass / Surface weld RI are not a factor in the Any group of indication in the
RI inexcess of that shown
acceptability of weld not line that have length > t in a
Hollow Bead Length of each indication > 1/2" (13 mm) as acceptable in appendix 4
required to be fully length of 12t except where the
aggeregate length > 2" per 12" weld / > 8% of weld of ASME section VIII code
radiographed distance b/w the sucessive
individual HB > 1/4" (6mm) length & indication exceed 6L.
< 2" (50 mm) separation L is the length of longest
indication in group
for Tw 1/4" (6mm) Limit is
Size & distrib. Internal Same as for Appendix 4 See table 4.1 Appendix 4
For TW > 1.5 x Appendix 4

Surface or exposed Zero


NA NA NA NA Roughness: > 500 min Ra per
SURFACE FINISH Reinf. Below then the out side of pipe NA > 12.5 ,u m R
ASME B46.1
Reinf. Above then the out side surface of pipe by more
then 1/16" (1.59 mm) Surface Porosity of Exposed Slag Inclusion = Zero

width of reinf. >1/8" (3.17 mm) then the original groove


NA NA NA
REINFORCEMENT for Tw in (mm) height in (mm)
Limit is twice then Normal /
Wall thk.(mm) Height

Or internal protrusion < 1/4" (6) > 1/16" (1.5) Severe <1/2"(13) 1/16"(1.5)

Height >1/4" (6) , <1/2" (13) >1/8" (3) >1/2", < 2" (51) 1/8" (3)

>1/2" (13) , <1" (25) >5/32" (4) >2" (51) 3/32" (4)
>1" (25) > 1/16" (5)

PIPE OR FITTING Arc Burns, Long Seam discontinuties & other discont.
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
Detected by RT shall be reported to client
DISCONTINUTIES
Crack, IP, BT etc. AS PER ASME SEC. IX, 2007 (a) Linear Indication : (1) Crack, IP, IF AS PER ASME SEC. IX, 2007 (b) Rounded Indication: (1) > 20% of t or 3 mm which
(2) ESI inclusion length > 1/8" (3 mm) for t upto 3/8" (10 mm), 1/3t for t > 3/8 < 2 1/4", 3/4" (19 mm) for t > 2 1/4" (57 ever is smaller (2) TW < 1/8' (3 mm), no. of rounded indications > 12 in a 150 mm (6")
WELDER TEST EU > 1/32" (0.79 mm) deep or 12.5% of W.T. which
mm) (3) Group of slag inclusion in line that have aggregate length > t in a length of 12t. except when 2 Indications length (3) TW > 1/8" refer Appendix I
ever is smaller & 2" in any contins. 12" length of weld
seperated by 6L, where L is the Longest Inperfection in group RI less than 0.8 mm Max. dia not to be consider in RT acceptance.