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1. Discuss the properties of an ideal primary standard.

Primary standard is a reagent with high purity that serves as a reference

material in titrations. The properties of primary standard dictates the accuracy of a
method. A primary standard should have a high purity with an available established
method for confirming it, a high atmospheric stability, has no hydrate water so that
it wont affect the composition of solid in different humidity, has a cheap price, has
a reasonable solubility in the titration medium, and has a large molar mass to
minimize the standard error associated with weighing.

Skoog, D.A.; West, D.M.; Holler, F.J.; Crouch, F.R. Fundamentals of Analytical
Chemistry, 9th ed,; Brooks/Cole: USA, 2014; pp 305

3. Discuss the basic components of the unknown soda ash sample based
on the volume relationship at the phenolphthalein and methyl orange

There are 5 possible combinations of the components of soda ash that is

based on the volume at phenolphthalein and methyl orange endpoints.

Table 1. Components of Soda Ash Based on the Volume of HCl Added Until

Component(s) Relationship of V1 and V2*

NaOH V2 = 0
NaHCO3 V1 = 0
Na2CO3 V1 = V2
NaOH + Na2CO3 V1 > V2
NaHCO3 + Na2CO3 V1 < V2
*V1 = volume of HCl added until phenolphthalein endpoint; V 2 = volume of HCl
added until methyl orange endpoint
According to the 3 trials of the experiment, the volume of HCl added until the
methyl orange endpoint is always greater than that of the volume of HCl added until
the phenolphthalein endpoint. Based on the table above, the components of the
soda ash sample are NaHCO3 and Na2CO3.

5. Explain the rationale behind not storing basic solutions in volumetric


Alkalis should not be stored in a volumetric glassware because they attack

the silica in the glass. The surface of the glass simply dissolves when an alkali
solution attacks it. The process continuously exposes a fresh surface which in turn is
dissolved. This type of corrosion proceeds at uniform rate until there is a sufficient
supply of alkali.

Glass Corrosion. (accessed March

6, 2017)
7. Why is there a need to boil the solution before reaching the methyl
orange endpoint?

The solution is needed to boil before reaching the methyl orange endpoint to
know if it is over titrated or not. If the solution turns red after boiling then it is over
titrated, if it stayed in the range of yellow-orange then the titration is a success.

9. Discuss the cause of carbonate error and its effect on the calculated
values obtained in standardization and sample analysis.

Carbonate error affects the calculated values obtained in the standardization

and sample analysis since it increases the pH of the sample to be analyzed means,
needing more titrant to reach the endpoint.

Carbonate impurity, its effect on titration curves. (accessed March
6, 2017)