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PORPHYRY COPPER SYSTEM

Richard H. Sillitoe

I Pendahuluan

- Sistem porfiri : volume yang besar ( 10- 100 km3) yang bisa juga
mengandung mineralisasi skarn, carbonate- replacement, sediment-
hosted, dan high- intermediate sulfidation epitermal..
- Calc – alkaline batolit dan rentetan vulkanik yang menjadi tanda
dari subduksi dan convergent plate margin.
- Sistem Cu dibagian dalam mengandung Cu , Mo, Au dan juga Cu,
Au dan Zn skarn dan pada bagian dangkal terdiri dan high-
intermediate sulfidation epitermal Au, Ag, Cu .
- Ordovician- miocene ( Worldwide ages of Porphyry Cu System)

II. Tatanan Tektonik Sistem Porfiri

- Sistem porfiri Cu dibentuk/dihasilkan di lingkungan busur magmatik
(termasuk belakang busur) – regional – scale stress regimes .
- Strongly extensional settings, typified by compositionally bimodal
basalt-rhyolite magmatism, lack significant porphyry Cu systems
(Sillitoe, 1999a; Tosdal
and Richards, 2001).
- The stress regime depends, among other factors, on whether there
is trench advance or rollbackand the degree of obliquity of the plate
convergence vector (Dewey, 1980).
- Epitermal high sulfidasi juga terbntuk bersamaan dengan proses ini
dibagian atas , walaupun tidak bersamaan dengan endapan Porfiri
Cu .
- Changes in crustal stress regime are considered (
mempertimbangkan) by some as especially favorable (baik)
times for porphyry Cu and high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit
generation.
- Patahan yang saling berpotongan mejadi faktor utama untuk
mendeterminasi bagian dari lokasi dan geometri sitem porfiri
Cudan unsur-unsur utama.

III. Pluton – Porphyry Relationships

- Varied relationships are observed between porphyry Cu systems
and precursor ( awal) plutons, which are typically multiphase,

to upper crustal crystallization sites of mafic to felsic magmas that ascended(naik ) from deeper reservoirs before porphyry Cu systems were developed IV. commonly (biasanya) . calc-alkaline or. . Porphyry Cu systems may be spatially ( bebas/leluasa) associated with comagmatic.g. entirely removes the eruptive products. equigranular intrusions. the erosion involved in the unroofing of porphyry Cu deposits also severely (semuanya) degrades (menurunkan/ penurunan) volcanic landforms (e.. because magmatic volatiles are dissipated (menghamburkan) during the voluminous (sangat besar) pyroclastic .y atau kurang . hubunganan dengan Vulkanik . The precursor (awal) plutons are considered (diperkirakan) as the mid. . less commonly. they are not only spatially. FarallónNegro district) and. particularly ash-flow caldera formation. However. at least in the general vicinities ( hampir/ sekitar) of the depositst hemselves. Catastrophically explosive volcanism. 4) . alkaline volcanicb rocks. commonly of batholithic dimensions and dioritic to granitic compositions. typically of intermediate to felsic composition (fig 4) . but also temporally and probably genetically related to porphyry Cu and superjacent epithermal Au formation (Fig. Pluton awal and endapan porfiri biasanya dipisahkan oleh waktu sekitar 1-2 M. is normally incompatible( tidak cocok) with synchronous porphyry Cu and superjacent epithermal Au deposit formation.

giving the initial (asal) impression (kesan/pemgaruh) of wall rocks playing a noninfluential ( tidak berpengaruh) role. eruptions rather than being retained (menahan) and focused in a manner conducive (menghasilkan. Grasberg. particularly where marble is developed (berkembang) near intrusive contacts. V. . 1993 (peranan)). however. and metamorphic rocks (e. that certain lithologic units may enhance ( meningkatkan) grade development (perkembangan) in both porphyry Cu and related deposit types.g. 1982). Titley.. Arizona. resulting in high-grade ore formation (e. mengakibatkan) to ore formation . Wilkinson et al. Ferrous Fe-rich lithologic units also appear to favor (menyokong) highgrade porphyry Cu mineralization (e. 1997). . Massive carbonate sequences. It is becoming increasingly( meningkat) clear. Sillitoe.g. calderas may influence the localization of later. fine- grained rocks have the capacity to act as relatively impermeable (kedap) seals (penutup) around and/or above porphyry Cu deposits.. Phillips et al.. 1974. genetically unrelated porphyry Cu systems. Ray and Mineral Park. Nevertheless( walaupun demikian).g. and other poorly fractured. Porphyry Cu systems are hosted by a variety of igneous. presumably ( diduga) because of their capacity to effectively precipitate (mempercepat) Cu transported in oxidized magmatic fluids... sedimentary. Pengaruh batuan Samping. It is unlikely (tidak mungkin) coincidental . .

bersebelahan) host rocks contain the highest grade mineralization in most deposits although. early porphyries and their contiguous ( berdekatan. Commonly. high-sulfidation epithermal deposits are favored (dihasilkan) by permeable rock packages. are chilled against. and Yerington district skarn Cu occurrences. karakteristik dimensi endapan . VI. and contain xenoliths of older phases (Fig. carbonate-replacement. particularly thinly (tipis) bedded. commonly pyroclastic or epiclastic in origin. either lack (kekurangan/ketiadaan) porphyry intrusions or contain (berisi/mengandung) only relatively minor dikes (e. although disparate (berbeda) lithologic units can also prove (ternyata/menjamin) receptive where extensively fractured. The size of the stocks does not appear to bear ( enghasilkan/mengandung) any obvious relationship to the size of the associated porphyry Cu deposits and their Cu contents . The stocks and dikes commonly (umumnya have diameters and lengths. the xenoliths are largely assimilated by the younger phases. and late. . respectively (masing-masing). silty units. . . Mineralization elsewhere ( disekitar) in porphyry Cu systems may be even more profoundly (sangat) influenced (dipengaruhi) by rock type. Large-tonnage. and sediment-hosted mineralization types are obviously dependent on (terbantung pada) the presence of (kehadiran dari) reactive carbonate rocks. which were emplaced immediately before (early porphyries). beyond (diluar) the porphyry Cu deposits. as “floating” pieces (Fig. and mineralization. exceptionally.. The distal parts of porphyry Cu systems. the end of (late mineral porphyries). Sillitoe. in addition to metal contents and ratios (Cu/Au/Mo) and intensity of veining. 1971. 2000). leaving only the contained quartz veinlets. Gustafson. alteration. are used to distinguish the relative ages of porphyry intrusions: younger phases truncate veinlets in. . Proximal and distal skarn. The immediately premineral. 7). Intermineral porphyries are typically less well mineralized as they become progressively younger. Nevada. Several criteria. and after (postmineral porphyries) the alteration and mineralization events (Fig. the earliest phase can be poorly mineralized . (kebetulan/bersamaan) that at least half the ore at three of the highest grade hypogene porphyry Cu deposits is hosted by such rocks: a gabbro- diabase-basalt complex . Wall-rock xenoliths in the . chemically more refractory than the host porphyry.(terjadi) . of ≤1 km. 1978). 7. The earlier porphyry bodies are not destroyed when intruded (diganggu) by later phases but merely(sekedar) split (menambah/meretakka/membelah) apart. The porphyry Cu-related intrusions comprise (terdiri atas) multiple phases (Kirkham. causing overall inflation of the rock package as would occur during ordinary dike emplacement.g. Virgin dike in the skarn- dominated Copper Canyon district.and postmineral phases are barren . 6). during (intermineral porphyries).

seharusnya) applied . Phreatic and phreatomagmatic are distinguished by absence of tuffaceous material . . clast/matrix ratio. fine- grained igneous material. hydrothermal cement. marginal parts of some porphyry intrusions may be sufficiently abundant to constitute intrusion breccias VII Magmatic-hydrothermal and phreatic breccias . or some combination of the three . Igneous matrices (matrix) tend to( cenderung) be more common at depth near the magmatic source. which are mainly dependent on clast form and composition. where the term igneous breccia is appropriately ( sewajarnya. and alteration type. matrix/cement constitution. Magmatic-hydrothermal breccias display a variety of textures (Table 1). The breccia clasts may be set in rock-flour matrix.