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Design of Heads and closures

Flat head/closure
Flanged only head
Similar to flat head ri= knuckle radius
but there is a Sf = Straight flange length
gradual change in Do = outer dia of vessel
the shape at the
corner to reduce
the local stress
Formed head and their different sections
(1) Central dished section
(2) Corner torus section and
(3) Straight flange section

ri= knuckle or torus radius

Ri = crown radius

Two junctions of discontinuity-

(a) Between knuckle (torus) and
crown (dish)
(b) Between knuckle (torus) and
straight flange
-> source of stress concentration
.Contd. Flanged shallow dished heads
Flanged standard dished
(Torispherical) heads

ri not less than 3t or 6% of Di
According to IS, ri not less than 10 % of Di and Ri not greater than Do
Application: (1)Pressure range- 0.1 to 1.5 MN/m2
(2) Vertical process vessel at low pressure
(3) Horizontal cylindrical storage tank for volatile fluids like naphtha,
gasoline and kerosene, etc.
(4) Large dia storage tank (where flanged only is not sufficient)
Ellipsoidal head
For standard head:
Major to minor axis ratio 2:1

Application: (1)Pressure range- 0.7-1.5 MN/m2 and more

(2)Pressure range- preferably >1.5 MN/m2
Hemispherical head

High pressure

.Contd. Conical head
Bottom of evaporator, spray
drier, crystallizer, settling
tank, etc

2 = 60o, commonly used

Design of flat head
Stress and strain in an elemental strip of a
curved plate or beam
Bending moments in a circular flat plate

Deflection in a dished circular plate

Bending moment in a circular plate

Uniformly loaded flat plate with the edges
Slope of plate at center and at the periphery = 0,


y = 0 at r = d/2 for clamped plate

Calculation of stress and thickness

At the centre of the plate, r = 0 and


Design of conical head

a) Stress discontinuity up to,


b) Region away from knuckle or junction,

Dished head