03-2760 Copyright © 2003 The New York Times Company

A NEW YORK TIMES NEWSPAPER IN EDUCATION CURRICULUM GUIDE

Early Action Against Teen Drug Use
Teens as Communicators to Their Peers
A Unit for High School Educators
SPONSORED BY THE OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY

(800) 631-1222 www.nytimes.com/learning

This educator’s guide was developed by The New York Times Newspaper in Education Program with sponsorship from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. It did not involve the reporting or editing staff of The New York Times, other than containing news articles previously published in The New York Times.

CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ■ Teens as Communicators to Their Peers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ■ Using The New York Times in This Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ■ Messages for the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ■ Introductory Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ■ Suggested Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ■ Article: Kids As Messengers on Teenage Drinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 LESSON 1
Understanding Addiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Article: Drug Addiction as a Developmental Disorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Article: Addiction: A Brain Ailment, Not a Moral Lapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction . . . . . . 17 Fact Sheet: Stages of Addiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Case Study: Max’s Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Caring and Enabling Responses, Understanding the Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Fact Sheet: Enabling Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Article: Murder Trial Starts in Death of Man Stuck in Windshield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Article: Woman Is Sentenced to 50 Years in Case of Man in Windshield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Speak Up! Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Article: Teenage Drug Use Is Dropping, a Study Finds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Teen Images in Movies: What’s “Cool” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Article: At Sundance, a New Generation of Teenagers Acting Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Community of Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Article: Tailoring Treatments for Teenage Drug Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

LESSON 2

LESSON 3

LESSON 4

LESSON 5

LESSON 6

LESSON 7

APPENDIX “Care-Full Communication” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Correlation to National Content Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Author and Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
© 2003 The New York Times Company

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INTRODUCTION
TEENS AS COMMUNICATORS TO THEIR PEERS
The goal of these lessons is to motivate teenagers to be effective communicators to their own peers on the subject of avoiding drug or alcohol use; in particular, to influence peers to pull back from early stages of substance abuse and dependency. This goal draws on the high value teenagers place on the opinions of their friends and the fact that peer influence is a powerful deterrent to substance use. The curriculum helps you inform your students why addiction is a danger young people need to know about, how to recognize patterns of behavior that indicate early involvement with substance abuse, how they can play a caring role in influencing a friend-abuser to pull back from drug or alcohol use and, if necessary, how they can suggest ways to seek help. A student who is abusing illicit drugs or alcohol can, of course, relate and apply these lessons to his or her personal situation as well.

USING THE NEW YORK TIMES IN THIS UNIT
Have your students look through The New York Times daily and locate articles relevant to drugs, alcohol and health, as well as articles about teens, ads for films with teen characters, anti-drug advertising, etc. Post and discuss these articles or advertisements as you deem appropriate. While it is obviously helpful to find articles directly concerning illicit drugs or alcohol, this is by no means the only way to use the newspaper in this unit as advertisements, theater and movie reviews and special features may also provide a basis for discussion. The New York Times is a timely, high-quality resource for learning. Classroom use of The Times will open stimulating conversations with your students and reinforce positive behavior and critical thinking. Throughout the unit are activities using the daily New York Times newspaper that reinforce lesson themes relevant to students’ experiences, such as:
● dealing with temptation and alienation ● situations that require diplomacy in language use ● situations that require an empathetic approach

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INTRODUCTION
● ● ● ●

statistics and their interpretation media depiction of teenagers truth and misconceptions data-based information

Reading The New York Times fosters literacy and writing skills. Students will encounter a high level of vocabulary and informational writing. The activities ask students to distinguish between news reporting and opinion writing. Activities are constructed so that students use the articles, columns, reviews or letters to the editor in The New York Times as models for developing their own writing skills. Enhancing students’ academic skills is not only a goal in itself, but with academic success, teens may well avoid drug use to gain acceptance or personal satisfaction.

MESSAGES FOR THE CLASSROOM
Create and display two posters. No one ever intends to get addicted. It’s never too late to pull back from using.

INTRODUCTORY CLASSROOM DISCUSSION
You may want to set the stage for this unit with a round-table discussion identifying basic issues, such as those reflected in the questions below, and setting the ground rules when discussing alcohol and drug issues. Encourage students to speak openly, but remind them not to betray any confidences, not to name anyone by name and not to talk about issues they are not comfortable sharing with the class. Explain to students that if any of the discussion questions or comments from other students bring up painful or difficult issues that they feel they would like to speak about privately, they can see you after class. You then can refer them to a school assistance professional or school guidance counselor as warranted.

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INTRODUCTION
NOTE: For this exercise it is enough to listen to students, acknowledge their ideas and encourage in-depth research. You may want to explain that the class will be studying specific strategies in future lessons in this curriculum.
■ Facilitate a discussion with these questions:
● What pressures or impulses do teens face that make them

think they should start experimenting with drugs or alcohol?
● What are some strategies you might suggest to these teens to

resist these pressures or impulses?
● What are some substitute activities that teenagers can choose

rather than experimenting with drugs or alcohol?
● How can the use of alcohol and marijuana hurt friends and family? ● How do you think teens react when they have been hurt,

offended, embarrassed, or left out by friends or other teenagers who are using marijuana or alcohol?

SUGGESTED GUIDELINES
The topic of alcohol and illicit drug use is often difficult for students to talk about openly, even without issues of illegality. They may be resistant to discuss the topic, or they may just tell you what they think you want to hear. Before beginning the unit it may be helpful to acknowledge that alcohol and drug use in society evokes difficult feelings, particularly for teens. Encourage students to speak openly, but also to respect the privacy of others; in return, you will respect their privacy. In fact, you will insist that they not name individuals or disclose identifying information that could embarrass, hurt or implicate anyone. Use a term to indicate that all discussions are a “safe zone.” If students need to talk about a specific case – about themselves or a friend or relative – they should be directed to the school’s Student Assistant Program (SAP) coordinator or guidance counselor.

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Sunday, April 20, 2003

INTRODUCTION

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Sunday, April 20, 2003

INTRODUCTION

Continued from previous page

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
BACKGROUND

1

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Discuss what happens to the

brain when someone grows addicted to alcohol, or to marijuana or other drugs. ● Write a letter to a close friend or sibling that explains the scientific basis for addiction and why teenagers are especially vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drugs.

This lesson explores the biological basis of addiction and why teenagers are particularly vulnerable to the temptations and effects of drugs. More than any of the other lessons in this unit, the lesson requires some direct teaching to convey to the students the scientific principles involved. When discussing addiction, it is important to preserve credibility with students and not overstate the probability of a person’s becoming addicted. The important point to emphasize is that no one knows if he or she will become addicted when setting out to experiment with drugs or alcohol. The risk of addiction for any one person lies in this uncertainty.

PREPARATION
TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times,

(one per student) ● Copies of Lesson 1 Homework Assignment Sheet from Page 13 ● Copies of the New York Times article “Drug Addiction as a Developmental Disorder” from Page 14 (one per student) ● New York Times article, “Addiction: A Brain Ailment, Not a Moral Lapse,” from Pages 15-16 (one per student)

■ Assemble tools. ■ Review the two articles associated with this lesson. ■ Write the definition of novelty: “novelty: something new, fresh or

unusual” as well as additional vocabulary words you deem appropriate to the lesson.

VOCABULARY
novelty, addiction, behavior, stimulation, vulnerable, affinity, impulsive, motivational, dopamine, chronic, euphoria

WARM UP
■ Distribute today’s New York Times (one per student). ■ Direct students’ attention to the definition of novelty written on

the board. ■ Direct the students to look through The Times for examples of novel experiences or situations – incidents or activities – as if the students themselves were involved. ■ Ask students to share some examples of novel experiences and to discuss why these experiences would seem exciting or desirable.

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
DISCUSSION
■ Facilitate a discussion with these questions:

1 1

● What are some examples of exciting activities that might also

be dangerous?
● How do you decide if a risk is worth taking or not? ● Drugs and alcohol appeal to some teenagers because they seem to

offer novel and exciting experiences. Why do you think some people begin experimenting with drugs and alcohol and others don’t? ● Why are drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana considered risky behavior for teenagers? ● Do people think about the possibility of becoming addicted when they begin using drugs?

SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS:

(You may use this background for yourself, or you may wish to read it to your students.) Current brain research shows that addiction has a biological basis, whether the addiction is to tobacco, alcohol, or to marijuana or other illicit drugs. Research also shows that the brain is still physically developing and changing throughout the teenage years and that the brains of teenagers are more vulnerable to damage from drugs. In general terms, the human brain has a “reward system” that encourages a person to repeat normal, healthful life activities that promote survival and well-being. Sensations of pleasure come about when the brain releases a chemical called dopamine. The pleasurable sensation caused by dopamine is the “reward” that tells the person that it is a good thing to repeat that experience – such as eating, exercise, even hearing music or dancing. Drugs also cause the release of dopamine in the brain, but in unnaturally large amounts, and this can cause very intense pleasurable sensations, or euphoria. Behind these sensations, several things are happening in the brain. The brain’s own “reward system” is set in motion to want to repeat the drug-taking experience. But using the drug again and again makes a person accustomed to its effect, or

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

1

habituated, so that the brain needs the drug just to feel “normal.” This habitual use of the drug physically changes the brain. The result of drug use that becomes habitual and has negative consequences is drug “abuse.” Continued abuse can lead to addiction. Addiction happens when the brain senses an intense need or craving for a drug, and the craving is stronger than the person’s ability to resist, even when there are dangerous or destructive consequences. The individual may be unable to acknowledge the negative consequences, which would be obvious to an outside observer. At this point, addiction is not a simple matter of willpower, but a strong chemical impulse acting in the brain. Why do some people become addicted to drugs and others don’t? Heredity is a factor. Scientists believe that individuals whose brains naturally release low amounts of dopamine or do not have properly functioning dopamine receptors may be more prone to addiction than others. As The New York Times article we will read today explains, teenagers are particularly vulnerable to the addictive process for several reasons. First, teenagers naturally seek new experiences as part of their social and physical development; their brains reward them for this curiosity. Second, the pathways in the brain that are linked to impulse control – that will stop the individual from engaging in a dangerous new experience – are still “under construction” or in the development stages in teenagers. Finally, because the brain is still developing, teenagers’ brains are more likely to be physically damaged, possibly in permanent ways, as a result of drug use.

READING ACTIVITY
■ Give out copies of the New York Times article “Drug Addiction as a

Developmental Disorder.”
■ As a class, read and discuss the article.

a) According to the article, why are teenagers more vulnerable to the effects of drugs and alcohol? (“The circuitry that releases chemicals that associate novel experiences with the motivation to repeat them develops

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

far more quickly in adolescence than the mechanisms that inhibit urges and impulses.” Also, teenagers are more likely to experiment with drugs than other groups, and the effects may be more damaging because the brain is still developing.)

1 1

b) According to Dr. Andrew Chambers, a teenager’s brain deals with “novel experiences” by associating them with one type of motivation. What is this motivation? (The motivation to repeat novel experiences.) With what mechanism is a teenager’s brain less likely to associate? (The mechanisms that inhibit urges and impulses.) c) To what kind of “novel experiences” is Dr. Chambers referring? (Novel experiences may include a wide variety of experiences, including experimenting with drugs, alcohol and sex, eating unfamiliar foods, participating in athletics, performing in front of an audience for attention, driving fast, bungee jumping, riding on roller coasters. All of these activities may cause sensations of pleasure associated with the release of dopamine in the brain.) d) According to the article, why wasn’t this conclusion reached by earlier studies of drug addiction? (Most research into the mechanisms of addictions or treatment focused on adults.) e) What three aspects of teenage behavior did Dr. Chambers cover in his study? (Attraction to novelty, less than adult levels of judgment and an overriding interest in sex.) f ) What is happening to the brain’s motivational circuitry during adolescence? (This circuitry is rapidly expanding.) g) How does the frontal cortex of a teenager’s brain compare to an adult’s, and why would this have an impact on a teen’s vulnerability to drugs and alcohol? (The frontal cortex, which is activated when weighing whether risky behavior is worth the potential rewards, is less developed in teens than in adults. According to Dr. Chambers, the mechanisms associated with the frontal cortex that inhibit impulses are under construction and therefore teens are less likely to inhibit their impulses. This mechanism is also prone to damage from the use of drugs.) h) How does an increase in sexual hormones leave the brain “more open

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

to the addictive use of drugs”? (According to Dr. Chambers, surges in sex hormones reshape sections of the developing brain during adolescence. These normal changes leave teenagers more attuned to new social and sexual stimulation, which in turn leave them more open to the addictive effects of drugs.)

1 1

IN-DEPTH DISCUSSION
Facilitate a discussion with these questions:
■ Do you agree with Dr. Chambers that teens are attracted to novelty?

Why or why not? Do you agree with him that teenagers have less than adult levels of judgment?
■ What are some of the advantages and disadvantages to being attracted

to novelty? What do you think “adult levels of judgment” means?

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
Distribute copies of Lesson 1 Homework Assignment Sheet and New York Times article “Addiction: A Brain Ailment, Not a Moral Lapse.”

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
■ Write a short feature article for your school newspaper explaining

addiction. Use the health pages of Science Times as a model for your writing.
■ Investigate how a person’s blood alcohol content is calculated and

create an informational poster about it for other teens. Information can be found at Brown University’s Health Education Web site (http://www.brown.edu/Student_Services/Health_Services/ Health_Education/ATOD/alcohol/alcohol_and_your_body.htm#4)
■ Explore “Mind Over Matter” (http://www.nida.nih.gov/MOM/TG/

momtg-marijuana.html) to learn about the brain mechanisms triggered by marijuana, then create a “How It Works” poster.

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Understanding Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
RESOURCES

1

The National Institute of Drug Abuse’s “The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction,” focusing particularly on Section II, “The Reward Pathway and Addiction” (http://165.112.78.61/pubs/Teaching/Teaching2/Teaching3.html) “Addiction’s Path” from the Society of Neurobiology (http://www.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/addiction.html) “The Biological Basis of Addiction” from the Addiction Science Network (http://www.addictionscience.net/ASNbiological.htm) “Oops: How Casual Drug Use Leads to Addiction” (http://www.drugabuse.gov/Published_Articles/Oops.html) “Anti-Drug Education with The New York Times: Focus on Marijuana” (http://www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/NIE/focusonmarijuana/ )

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Understanding Addiction

LESSON

1

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________
■ Read the New York Times article “Addiction: A Brain Ailment, Not a Moral Lapse,”

by Jane Brody.
■ Write a letter to a close friend or younger sibling about the process of drug abuse and addiction.

Explain what happens in the brain when someone becomes addicted to drugs or alcohol. Make a strong case to your reader why this information is important to understand and why you want to protect him or her from drug abuse.
■ Include information from this New York Times article that you feel could help explain your

concerns, using quotation marks around the material you use and citing the author and where and when the article was published. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, June 24, 2003

LESSON

1 1

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, September 30, 2003

LESSON

1 1

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, September 30, 2003

LESSON

1 1

Continued from previous page

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

2

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Identify behavior that may be the

BACKGROUND
This lesson describes the stages of addiction and the patterns of behavior associated with them. The lesson is designed to help students identify behavior that indicates a friend is abusing marijuana or alcohol and begin to think about ways to talk to such a friend about behavior and substance abuse. The lesson incorporates the need to recognize that friends may resist hearing about or curbing their drug use. The lesson introduces the “Care-Full Communication” strategies, which will be explored in greater depth in Lesson 4.

consequence of substance abuse at the different stages, i.e. experimentation, abuse, dependency/addiction. ● Identify in a written document ways to show concern for a friend who is abusing alcohol or marijuana or other drugs.

PREPARATION
■ Assemble tools. ■ Review the case study on Pages 26-29. ■ Plan the division of groups for the classroom activity.

TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times (one ● ●

● ●

copy per student) Large pieces of construction paper or poster board Copies of the Lesson 2 “Stages of Addiction Fact Sheet” from Pages 23-24 (one per student) Copies of Lesson 2 Homework Assignment Sheet (one per student) from Page 25 Copies of the Lesson 2 Case Study from Pages 26-29 (one per student) Copy of “Care-Full Communication” strategies from Page 73 (one per student)

VOCABULARY
diplomacy, scenario, crave, entrepreneur

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
Draw a line horizontally across the top of the board. Divide the line into three parts and label as shown:
Beginning Use Habitual Use/Pattern of Abuse Early Dependence/Addiction

SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“No one ever intends to become addicted. Instead, a person begins to experiment with drugs or alcohol and as use continues, the drug begins to change the brain. Addiction occurs gradually. There are no absolute divisions between the stages of addiction.”
■ Give out copies of the Lesson 1 Stages of Addiction Fact Sheet.

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

■ Divide students into small groups. ■ Direct students in each group to read sections of the handout aloud

2 1 2

to one another. Ask students to brainstorm a list of behaviors and consequences associated with each stage of use. ■ Ask students to take notes, which they will use in completing the homework assignment. ■ Reconvene as a class and invite students to share their lists of behavior and consequences. ■ Write a master list of behaviors and consequences on the board. The patterns of behavior cited by students may be transferred to large-size paper and posted in the classroom for future reference. ■ After the reading and discussion of “Max’s Story,” ask students to add his behavior to the list.

RESPONSES WILL VARY, BUT MAY INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:

Beginning Use: Little noticeable change in behavior to outside observers ● Some may experience guilt about behavior or suffer lower self-esteem ● Some may lie about whereabouts and actions ● Some may experience moderate hangovers

Habitual Use /Pattern of Abuse: School performance and attendance may decline Mood swings ● Changes in personality ● Lying and conning ● Change in friendships (neglecting old friends who don’t use alcohol or marijuana, and gravitating toward drug-using friends) ● Fighting and conflict with friends and family members may increase ● Interest shifts toward procuring and using drug of choice
● ●

Early Dependence/Addiction: Continues drinking or smoking even after friends say it’s time to stop Staying drunk or high for several days at a time ● Craving a drink or a toke at a specific time every day, like after class or after work
● ●

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

Sneaking a drink, or getting high, while in the company of others ● A significant part of the day spent obtaining, consuming or recovering from the effects of alcohol or pot ● Drinking or smoking to help fall asleep ● Feelings of depression when not using alcohol or marijuana ● Physical deterioration including weight loss, health problems and poor appearance ● May experience memory loss, flashbacks, paranoia, volatile mood swings and other mental problems ● Likely to drop out or be expelled from school or lose job ● May be absent from home much of the time ● Possible overdoses ● Lack of concern about being caught ● Focused only on procuring and using drug of choice

2 1

READING ACTIVITY AND IN-DEPTH DISCUSSION
■ Give out copies of the Lesson 2 Case Study, “Max’s Story.” ■ Review the Stages of Addiction Fact Sheet and explain to students

that they will now be putting a human face on this process. As a class, read the case study, then discuss the following questions: a) When did Max begin experimenting with marijuana? (He used marijuana for the first time in the middle of 8th grade, but didn’t start seeking a regular source for the drug until the end of that year.) b) What are some of the “red flags” that indicate Max has developed a pattern of marijuana use and is beginning to abuse the drug? (Answers will vary but may include: stopped caring about schoolwork, his grades dropped, he had a change in friendships, began selling marijuana to get money, lying and conning.) c) Why did Max stop hanging out with his old friends? (The case study is not explicit about this, but this is a chance for students to talk about their own experience of friends drifting away when using drugs. Speculation may include: They didn’t relate to his behavior if they weren’t using drugs themselves, they disapproved of his new “friends,” or they

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

2

disagreed with his “entrepreneurial activities.” ) d) What was Max’s attitude to his mother? Did this change after he was caught for selling marijuana? (Max says he always loved his mom and was afraid of any mental or physical harm coming to her.) e) What were some of the consequences of getting caught? (At the time he was caught, school administrators contacted the parents of other students about their child’s use of drugs. Max was blamed for this and he lost several drug-using friends over this, causing him to re-evaluate his friendships.) f ) Who are Max’s true friends? (In his words: “The ones that stuck with me when I got busted.”) g) What advice does Max offer others for resisting the peer pressure to use or continue to use? (Among the various approaches he offers, first, try saying no. Or say that your parents just called and you have to go home, or explain that you tried marijuana that was laced with something that made you sick, etc. In general, Max advocates a diplomatic approach to refusing, but while he may be diplomatic, even to the point of telling a white lie, he is uncompromising in his resolve not to use marijuana again.) h) Max never mentions that his friends spoke to him about his drug abuse. What do you think his non-drug-using friends could have said to him to help him?

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
■ Give each student a copy of today’s New York Times. ■ Read aloud this definition and description of diplomacy: ■ “Diplomacy is skill in dealing with people; tact.” Diplomats use

language that is respectful, but seeks to achieve a goal.”
■ Direct students to look through the newspaper for examples of

situations in which diplomacy might be required.

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

2

■ Have students share some examples of “diplomacy in the news”

and give their rationale why diplomacy may be essential in a specific situation.

DISCUSSION
Facilitate a discussion with these questions:
■ Why is it important to show consideration for others when

delivering bad news or discussing a difficult situation? .
■ What recent conflicts in the news would require a diplomatic

approach to solve?

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“When a friend tells someone, ‘Marijuana is messing up your life,’ or ‘You have a drinking problem,’ that person often reacts just like someone getting bad news. That person may feel hurt, get angry, go on the defensive or not want to believe what is being said. It can stress a good friendship to say anything about a drug or alcohol problem, so often we don’t say anything. In the long run, however, this can be even more hurtful.”
■ Give out copies of the “Care-Full Communication” strategies for

students to refer to when completing their homework assignments. ■ Give out copies of the Lesson 2 Homework Assignment Sheet. ■ Review the homework assignment.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
■ How does a person show the greatest care and respect to a close

friend with a drinking or drug problem? Using the Op-Ed pages of The New York Times as a model, write a short essay explaining how you would suggest approaching a friend with a drinking or drug problem.

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Recognizing Patterns Of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages Of Addiction

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

2

■ Compose and perform a dramatic dialog between two friends – one

who has a substance abuse problem and the other who is demonstrating “Care-Full Communication” strategies.

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FACT SHEET | Stages of Addiction

LESSON

2

N

o one intends to become addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or to marijuana or other drugs. People usually begin using these substances thinking they have control over their use, but as a person advances from “beginning use” to a “pattern of abuse,” it takes more of the substance to feel an effect, so they take more of it. Some people may reach a state of dependency. How much time this stage requires and when this occurs are not the same for all people, and some people may not ever have the compulsion to use enough to become addicted.
Beginning Use Habitual Use/Pattern of Abuse Early Dependence/Addiction

BEGINNING USE

The user tries a drug out of curiosity. Peer pressure often plays an important role in encouraging drug use at this stage, particularly among adolescents, but also among adults. Use is limited to weekends or is used only in social situations, such as parties. At this stage, people can control their drug use. A pattern of use begins to emerge – one of use in social situations – although probably not at every social situation. There is no pattern of “out of control” or abusive use. Reasons for Beginning Use –Curiosity, peer pressure, social acceptance, parental defiance, thrill seeking; to appear grown up, relieve boredom, feel better, diminish inhibitions.

Effects of Beginning Use – Euphoria and return to normal state after using. (A small amount of a substance may cause intoxication.)

or may not experience a craving, either psychological or physical, for the drug.

PATTERN OF ABUSE HABITUAL USE Use continues and the user seeks out the drug, using it with greater frequency until the use becomes incorporated into the user’s lifestyle. Habitual use leads to a definite pattern. The drug typically becomes a normal part of a person’s “party” experience and becomes a part of his or her planning and thought process before going to a party. At this point, people begin to lose control over their use. Some “abuse” may occur, though not in a pattern: impaired functioning or some harm may result. A person may At this stage, a person continues to use drugs in spite of negative consequences. Examples of negative consequences include DWI’s (summons or arrest for driving while intoxicated), lateness or absences, problems at school, an increase in fighting with friends, partners and family members, hangovers or withdrawal symptoms. Reasons for Habitual Use/Abuse – To manipulate emotions; to experience the sensations the drug produces; to cope with stress and uncomfortable feelings such as pain, guilt, anxiety and

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FACT SHEET | Stages of Addiction

LESSON

2

sadness; to overcome feelings of inadequacy. The user may begin to experience depression or other uncomfortable feelings when not using. The drug may be used to stay high or at least not to feel uncomfortable. Effects of Habitual Use/Abuse – Intense pleasure is the desired effect, but when it wears off it is followed by the beginnings of withdrawal. Intoxication begins to occur regularly as the individual passes from habitual use to abuse. The user may begin to feel guilt and shame as abusive behavior has harmful consequences. The individual may attempt to control his or her use without success, and more of the substance is needed to create the desired effect. The user may have suicidal ideas or attempt suicide.

dependence is subtle in some cases and clear-cut in others. The progression to addiction varies according to the drug and/or the person. Reasons for Addictive Use – The drug is needed to avoid pain and depression from withdrawal; many wish to escape the realities of daily living; user no longer has control over the ability to cut down on use. Effects of Addictive Use – An addicted person’s normal state of being is one of pain and discomfort; drug use helps the person to feel a state of normalcy, but when the drug wears off he or she again feels pain. A person is unlikely to feel intense pleasure from the drug at this stage; may experience suicidal thoughts or attempts; feel guilt, shame, remorse over use; depression, aggression, irritation and apathy; may experience blackouts and extreme tolerance to the drug.

EARLY DEPENDENCE/ ADDICTION Frequency of use increases in spite of impaired functioning. There is a loss of control over use, with the drug becoming the focal point in the user’s life. Dependence is synonymous with the terms addiction and chemical dependency. The distinction between abuse and

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

| Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction

LESSON

2

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________
Imagine Max is your friend (or draw on your experience with a friend who you think is abusing alcohol, marijuana or another drug). Answer the following questions in complete sentences, in preparation for talking with your friend about the problems you see. What in your friend’s behavior makes you think that the friend is abusing alcohol or marijuana or another drug?_______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ How does it make you feel to see your friend experiencing serious negative consequences to his or her life?______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ What would be the most caring thing you could do for a friend in this situation and how might these actions backfire on you?_____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ What words or examples might you use to discuss your concern with your friend?_____________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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CASE STUDY | Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction

LESSON

MAX’S STORY
(This essay is adapted from an account written by a teen seeking treatment at a Phoenix House center. Phoenix House is the nation’s largest non profit organization devoted to the treatment and prevention of substance abuse. Used with permission.)

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High School In about the middle of 8th grade I smoked weed for the first time. One of my friends called me and told me that he had gotten some weed from a friend of his sister. I jumped at the opportunity to try this thing that I had heard so much about. Me, and a few of my other friends who were around, met up with him and this friend who had gotten him the weed. The kid who hooked us up rolled up a couple of joints and we passed them around. I didn’t really get blazed, just kind off chilled out. But even this little feeling, I liked. Though I didn’t really get high that time, my friend’s friend told me I would the next time. So two weeks later my friends and I got some more from this same kid and we all got really blazed. I immediately fell in love with this feeling of leaving the planet. When I was high I didn’t have to worry about anything. I could leave my life and all the worries that came with it behind for a couple of hours. While I was sober I was always worrying about my mom because she traveled a lot, my grades or something else. When I got high I didn’t worry about anything, I could chill with my friends and have a good time.

A Reliable Source At this time I had no reliable source so I began a search for one. Finally at about the end of the year, a new kid came to school and told me about a spot you could buy it and I got a phone number of a dealer that could come meet me wherever I was from his friend. I began to smoke as often as I could get away with it. This was basically on the weekends because I had to come straight home from school everyday. Over the summer I didn’t really get many chances to smoke because I was stuck at camp. But then summer ended, and then I really started to get connections. I knew about 3 spots and had 4 or 5 dealers’ numbers. I knew every spot and dealer’s kind of weed, the weight of their bags in grams (anywhere from nicks (5 dollars bags) to 100 sacks (100 dollars bags) and what kind of high it would give me. Like I said I would only smoke on weekends or days I had off school but by the middle of that year I was smoking so much on these days that I would make up for the school days. My grades began to drop and had gone from a 96 in my elementary school to an 82 in my new school, this is still good but not compared to what I was capable of.

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CASE STUDY | Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction

LESSON

Thuglife At some point in this year I had stopped hanging out with my friends from school so much and started chilling with kids I had met on the streets at some point or another. These kids were “thugs” or “gangsters” whatever you prefer, they carried weapons, joined gangs, didn’t go to school, sold drugs, committed robberies, pulled schemes, etc. However even though these kids were “my boys” I tried to avoid participating in any of these activities. If I needed money I might be a lookout or something but most of the time I didn’t offer and they didn’t ask. Though I was chilling with these kids I still never cut school and always came home on curfew. I always loved my mom and was afraid of any mental or physical harm coming to her. It’s not like she’s not a strong person, she’s very strong and extremely successful at her work. I also always respected her, and I never once stole money from her or anything like that. Street Pharmaceutics When you hang out with people like my friends you cannot stay out of trouble forever. By the end of October of my 9th-grade year I had begun to sell weed with a couple of my school friends. We would get pretty bad stuff and just pack dime bags to the point of explosion. This was not the most successful of enterprises. Basically the only people we sold to were our other school friends and a couple of “losers” we

2 2

would rip off. On November 21st my entrepreneurial activities came to a screeching halt. One of those losers we had been ripping off got caught and told his mommy that he had bought it from me. She then proceeded to call the school and tell the headmaster. Of course I was the only one who got caught. During parent teacher conferences my headmaster pulled my mom aside and told her that I had been selling drugs. That night I got a call to come straight home. My mom was in tears on the phone as she told me if I didn’t go to rehab I would have to be expelled from school. Getting Sober On November 29th I was admitted to the Impact program at Phoenix House. For the first two weeks I was grounded, this meant that I had no access to the phone or Internet, I couldn’t go out and the only time I was allowed out by myself was when I went to school. This was lucky for that kid who snitched on me because if I could have gotten in touch with some of my out of school friends it would have been very bad for him. The code of the street is “snitches get stitches.” But anyway I used this first stage of Phoenix House for what it was meant to be used for, reflection. I went to groups three times a week for two hours each time. On Mondays it was all the kids in the group and their parents. On Tuesdays and Thursdays it was just the kids, this was called peer group.

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CASE STUDY | Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction

LESSON

At first I was very resistant to the program. I constantly complained to my mom about how I didn’t need this and how it was just a waste of time and money. My biggest challenge was having to get rid of my “boys” from school and outside of school. However at about the same time as I got caught my school sent out a letter to the parents of a bunch of my friends informing them that their children used drugs. I, not surprisingly, was blamed for this and lost a few people who I thought were my friends over it. Because of this I began to re-evaluate my friendships. I began to realize that I didn’t really want to be friends with a lot of the people I was friends with. Basically I got rid of all my criminal out of school friends and most of my drug using friends. This left me with a much smaller social network. It’s not like I have no friends now I just only stuck with the ones that stuck with me when I got busted. Since then in my over a year in Impact I have made a lot of sober friends in and out of the program. But it’s not like a criminal social network was my only problem when I came in the program. I also had a serious lying problem; I would lie to my mom about who I was hanging out with, what I was doing and where I was going. I would say I was staying at one person’s house and stay at someone’s house that she didn’t even know so I could stay out later. I was so manipulative that when I look back on it it makes me sick. But I didn’t even mean to do it, I just didn’t want

my mom to worry about me so I instinctively manipulated her into thinking I was fine. Now I’m always totally honest with her and her boyfriend because, trust me, the last thing you want to happen is your parents to find everything out at once. Trust me they will eventually find out. It’s better to tell them when it happens rather than wait and have everything come out at once. Re-Entry

2 2

After 13 months in the Impact program I finally got on re-entry. This is the final phase of Impact. In this phase you only go to two groups a week rather than the usual three, one peer and the parent. On my new free day I have started doing community service. I just finished my three-month re-entry phase a week ago and am no longer in the Impact program. I am very proud of myself and thankful to certain friends and my family for being supportive all the way. In my time at Impact I have learned how to choose my friends, be honest with my parents and am working on getting better grades. I am in a much better place than I was a year and a half ago. My life has done a complete 180, I was going straight down last year and now I’m going straight up. I was very lucky in that I didn’t get expelled from school and was able to stay sober in the process of turning my life around. Now I know what people mean in the movies when they really

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CASE STUDY | Recognizing Patterns of Substance Abuse Behavior and Stages of Addiction

LESSON

mess up and people ask them if they could take it back would they and they say no. I would have been better off if I had never hit that first joint but I am also made a lot of real friends at Phoenix House and became a happy, sober and aware person in the process. Another thing I learned in Phoenix House is how to handle difficult social situations. Let’s just say you are hanging out with a bunch of friends and someone pulls out some tree. Everyone except you seems more than willing to smoke. The first thing you should always try is just saying no. However this doesn’t always work. Other ways of getting out of this are saying one of your parents just called and you have to go home, you think you’re in trouble.

Or if you don’t want to leave you can always say that you tried it once before and it was laced with something so you got really sick and now you’re scared to try it again. But the best way is always just to be honest, just tell them you don’t want to do it and if they hate on you then they’re not really your friends. Or let’s say you’re trying to quit smoking and your friend asks you to come smoke with him. You can just tell him you’re trying to quit, however, you may not be ready to say that yet. You can always just say you got caught and your parents are drug testing you. The main point I’m trying to make with all this is that you always have the option not to pick up, whether it’s your first time or you’re an experienced smoker. The option is always yours, remember that.

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Caring Responses vs. Enabling

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
PREPARATION

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Identify and write statements

3 3

■ Assemble tools. ■ Review the New York Times articles “Murder Trial Starts in Death of

that demonstrate the difference between enabling and caring responses to substance abuse behavior. ● Role-play and discuss situations in which a student takes appropriate steps so as not to enable a friend’s drug use.

Man Stuck in Windshield” and “Woman is Sentenced to 50 Years In Case of Man in Windshield.” ■ Plan how to pair up students for the classroom activity. ■ Review the Lesson 3 Homework Assignment Sheet.

VOCABULARY
facilitate, enable, confirmation

READING ACTIVITY
TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times ●

■ Give out copies of the New York Times article “Murder Trial Starts in

Death of Man Stuck in Windshield.”
■ As a class, read the article, then discuss the following reading

● ●

(one per student) Copies of Lesson 3 Fact Sheet: Enabling Behavior from Page 34 (one per student) Copies of Lesson 3 Role Play Scenarios from Page 35 Copies of Lesson 3 Homework Assignment Sheet from Page 36 (one per student) Copies of the New York Times article (one per student) “Murder Trial Starts in Death of Man Stuck in Windshield” from Page 37 and (one per student) “Woman is Sentenced to 50 Years In Case of Man in Windshield” from Page 38 (one per student, optional)

comprehension questions: a) What had Chante Mallard been doing before she hit Gregory Biggs? (She had smoked marijuana, taken Ecstasy and been drinking heavily.) b) How did Ms. Mallard respond to a friend who told her to call 911? (She refused to call because she didn’t want her parents to know what she’d done and didn’t want to go to jail.) c) What did she do instead? (She left him to die in her garage, and then called two friends, who dumped the body in a park.) d) What else could the friend whom Ms. Mallard called first have done? (The friend should have called 911, even if the result was that Ms. Mallard would have legal difficulties. Ms. Mallard was in much more serious trouble because her friends did not do the right thing.)
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“What her friends did for Ms. Mallard is an extreme case of what’s called ‘enabling’ or ‘enabling behavior.’ This means the things people do

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Caring Responses vs. Enabling

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

3

or say that result in the friends’ avoiding consequences of their own behavior. Enabling only helps the friends damage their lives, and sometime, the enablers’ lives as well.”
IF CLASS TIME IS LIMITED, DISCUSS:

a) What responsibility did Mr. Jackson and Mr. Cleveland have in this case? (They were “enabling” Ms. Mallard’s irresponsible behavior by not reporting the accident and trying to hide the death of Mr. Biggs. Furthermore, in covering up a hit-and-run accident, they were also guilty of a crime. They should have called the police.) b) What responsibility did the friends with whom Ms. Mallard was drinking and taking drugs earlier in the evening have in Mr. Biggs’s death? (Responses will vary; the key to understanding enabling is to see that by encouraging Ms. Mallard to drink and use marijuana and Ecstasy, and in allowing her to drive home in her inebriated condition, they were partially responsible for this tragedy.)
IF TIME ALLOWS:

Give out copies of the follow-up article “Woman Is Sentenced to 50 Years in Case of Man in Windshield.” Facilitate a discussion with these questions: a) Why couldn’t Ms. Mallard see that there was a chance to save Mr. Biggs’s life? (She had smoked marijuana, taken Ecstasy and been drinking heavily in the hours before she hit Mr. Biggs. As a consequence, her judgment was severely impaired. Her overwhelming concern for not getting caught, a kind of selfishness, also impaired her judgment.) b) How long was Mr. Biggs alive after he was struck? Could his life have been saved? (Mr. Biggs was alive for one or two hours after being hit and would probably have survived had he received medical treatment, according to medical experts who testified in the case.) c) What were some of the consequences of Ms. Mallard’s and her friends’ actions: (Generally, their lives will be forever changed by going to prison. They must live with knowing they are responsible – Ms. Mallard

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Caring Responses vs. Enabling

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

3

directly, her friends indirectly – for the death of another human being.)

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY – ROLE PLAY: HOW TO AVOID ENABLING A FRIEND’S DRUG USE
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“The things we do enabling friends who are using drugs aren’t as extreme as what Mr. Jackson and Mr. Cleveland did. They can be as simple as laughing at their jokes when they are high even though you don’t think they’re funny or letting them sleep off a hangover at your house while you tell their parents you both are studying. These are the types of behavior we can imagine the friends partying with Ms. Mallard exhibited. “In this next exercise you will act out some situations in which a friend does not do the kind of thing that will help a drug-abusing friend keep using or avoid the consequences of using drugs.”
■ ■ ■ ■

Divide class into three or four groups. Assign each group a Lesson 3 Role Play Scenario. Give out copies of Lesson 3 Fact Sheet: Enabling Behavior. Direct each group to take about 10 minutes to discuss the assigned scenario.

■ The role of the main character is to:

a) decline to do what the drug-using friend asks, with words and body language that the students will deem appropriate, “cool” or otherwise effective. b) make a caring response instead.
■ The role of the drug-abusing character is to:

a) try to get his or her way. b) respond to what the main character says or does.
■ Tell the students that each group will perform the assigned scenario

for the class. The observing students will be asked to offer an analysis of how the enactment depicted each of the following: a) the enabling behavior that the drug-using character wanted. b) the skill of the main character in avoiding enabling behavior.

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Caring Responses vs. Enabling

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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c) the skill of the main character in trying to make a caring response.
■ Direct the students to refer to the list of “Enabling Behavior”

as a reference.
■ Invite students to be creative but also realistic in planning how to

enact the situation.
■ Each group will decide which two (or more) students will be the actors. ■ After 10 minutes, have the “actors” from each group perform

the scenario.
■ After the enactment, ask students who were observing:

a) What was the drug-using character trying to accomplish? To avoid? b) What did the friend who refused the request accomplish? c) What kind of caring response, if any, was the friend able to make? d) How convincing was the enactment?

HOMEWORK
■ Give out copies of the Lesson 3 Homework Assignment Sheet. ■ Review the homework assignment. ■ Direct students to the Op-Ed page of today’s New York Times, or to

the Personal Health column of Tuesday’s Science Times.
■ Ask them to choose a piece offering advice or opinion as a model for

writing the homework assignment.
■ Set a due date.

EXTENSION ACTIVITY
■ Screen “Good Intentions, Bad Results: Preventing Teenage Peer

Enabling and Chemical Use” (Johnson Institute, 1993; available from the Hazelden Foundation, www. hazelden.org) This video (available with teacher’s guide and student workbook) shows how peer enabling hurts teens, and demonstrates ways teens can successfully change behavior.
■ Ask students to search today’s New York Times for an article describing

people helping one another. If none is located, select a news article and discuss how citizens could respond to this article in a civic-minded way.

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FACT SHEET | Enabling Behavior

LESSON

3

e naturally want to help friends when they may be in danger. But often we unintentionally say or do the wrong thing. To learn the difference between helping someone and not really helping them, we have to know the actions that facilitate the addiction. Such actions are called “enabling.” Enabling behavior lets the drug user avoid negative consequences of his or her drug use.

W
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Enabling behavior includes the following: Failing to recognize the problem Ignoring or laughing at the problem Giving or lending money Rationalizing that the problem is not a big deal Blaming someone’s addictive behavior on something else Accepting responsibility for someone’s addictive behavior Buying alcohol or drugs for someone Providing a place to escape Cleaning up after messes Driving someone somewhere to get drunk or stoned. Lying to cover up problems Denying the addiction to others over responsibilities, covering up problems or making excuses

● Taking ●

Controlling the alcohol or drugs consumed

[adapted from “Love First: A New Approach to Intervention for Alcoholism and Drug Addiction” by Jeff and Debra Jay (Hazelden Foundation, 2000; www.hazelden.org)

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ROLE PLAY SCENARIOS | Enabling Behavior

LESSON

3

SCENARIO #1:

A friend of yours never has any money, but he always seems to have a bag of marijuana on hand, and he’s always asking if you want to get high. One day he comes to you and asks if he can borrow $20. You have it but don’t want to lend it to him to buy marijuana, so you tell him you don’t have it. But he won’t let up, and asks you to borrow it from a relative. He tells you he’ll sell some of his CD’s at the used record store and will pay you back.

SCENARIO #2:

Your friend wants to go to a keg party on the Saturday before finals, but you tell him you have to study. He urges you to go and tries to convince you there’s plenty of time on Sunday to prepare, but you insist and don’t go. Then, on Sunday evening after dinner, he comes over to your house and asks if he can copy your biology notes so he can cram for the test on Monday.

SCENARIO #3:

Your boyfriend got drunk at a party last weekend. He drank too much and started touching other girls inappropriately on the dance floor. One of the girls, a trusted friend of yours, confronted him. Your friend said he denied it and in fact, stated that your friend kept bumping up against him. Now your boyfriend invites you to another drinking party.

SCENARIO #4:

Your friend calls you up after school and tells you she skipped her afternoon classes to get high with some boys. She said she got so high she wasn’t able go to work and she wants you to call her employer, pretend you are her mother, and offer an excuse – telling the employer that your “daughter” is sick.

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Enabling Behavior

LESSON

3

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________
■ Write an article about “enabling” that you might see as an opinion column on the Op-Ed page,

or in the Personal Health column, of The New York Times. Offer advice to other young people about what they should know about enabling friends’ drug use and how to avoid it. You may include the following:
● Behavior

indicating that your friend may have a problem with drugs or alcohol ● Some enabling behaviors that this friend may expect of you ● How you could act responsibly, be supportive, stay friends and still avoid enabling your friend’s substance abuse. ● How you can show this person that you care about him or her, even though you won’t support his or her substance-related behavior. ● Whom you or your friend can go to for help with this problem.
___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, June 24, 2003

LESSON

3

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Saturday, June 28, 2003

LESSON

3

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Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

4

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● List specific strategies for talking

BACKGROUND
The communication strategies in this lesson are based on the principles of “motivational interview” (MI) techniques recommended by prevention professionals. Originally introduced by William Miller and Stephen Rollnick in the early 1990’s, MI techniques provide brief, non-confrontational ways of helping someone to make changes in her or his behavior.

to friends about drugs and alcohol.
● Role-play “Care-Full

Communication” strategies to express their concerns to someone using alcohol or marijuana by writing a dialogue in which the student practices caring responses to deter a friend from drug or alcohol abuse.

PREPARATION
■ Assemble tools. ■ On large paper, copy the “Care-Full Communication” strategies from

Page 73 and display this poster in the classroom. ■ Review the scenarios and plan how to pair up students for the classroom activity. ■ Review the Lesson 4 Group Activity and Homework Assignment Sheets.

TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times, ● ● ●

(one per student) Large pieces of construction paper for a teacher-made poster Copies of the Lesson 4 Speak Up! Scenarios from Pages 42-43 Copies of the Lesson 4 Classroom Activity Sheet from Page 44 (one per student; this sheet will also be used for the homework assignment) Copies of the Lesson 4 Homework Assignment Sheet from Page 45 (one per student) Copies of “Care-Full Communication” Strategies from Page 73, one per student, if not previously distributed (see Lesson 2)

VOCABULARY
empathy, sympathy, reflection, non-confrontational

WARM UP ACTIVITY
SAY TO THE STUDENTS:

“According to former New York Times reporter Isabelle Wilkerson, who won the 1994 Pulitzer Prize, empathy is a vital part of good journalism. Wilkerson defines empathy as ‘a sensitive show of concern ...of seeing through the eyes of another,’ and explains that communicating with her sources is key to her success in reporting. ‘It is critical in my reporting life that I step back and think like a human being to get the story,’ she argues.”
■ Give each student a copy of today’s New York Times. ■ Direct students to select a news article or opinion column from The

Times that demonstrates how the writer is attempting to see through the eyes of another. If students have difficulty identifying such

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Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

4

empathy in an article, ask them to select a news or feature article in which they themselves can identify with the people involved.
■ Have students share their examples of empathy in Times articles

they selected.
■ Ask students to read passages that convey sensitivity to the points of

view of the people in the story or a “sensitive show of concern.” What words or phrases in particular convey this?
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“If people can demonstrate empathy for others, they have a better chance for honest communication. If you are able to understand what your friends are experiencing, there is a greater possibility that they will understand your point of view since you share a common starting point in your discussion.”

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY: “CARE-FULL COMMUNICATION” ROLE PLAYS
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“Approaching a friend about substance abuse is a difficult task. The person is likely to be resistant to change. In this exercise, you will practice a communication strategy that is recommended for talking to peers about abusing alcohol or marijuana or other drugs. It consists of finding brief, non-confrontational ways of helping someone to make changes in her or his behavior.” Divide class into three or four groups. Give each student a Lesson 4 Speak Up! Scenarios Sheet. Give each student a Lesson 4 Classroom Activity Sheet. Direct the students’ attention to the “Care-Full Communication” poster displayed in the classroom. Ask them to take out their copies of “Care-Full Communication” distributed in Lesson 2. ■ Direct students to complete the Classroom Activity Sheet as a preparation for the enactment of a role-play using the assigned scenario.
■ ■ ■ ■

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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■ Direct each group to choose a scenario to role-play and to create a

dialogue for two or more members of their group to enact emphasizing use of “Care-Full Communication” strategies. The goal of the scenario is to: a) Express the character’s feelings about his or her friend’s drug or alcohol use. b) Be diplomatic and show empathy. c) Try to influence the friend to pull back from substance abuse.
■ After 10 minutes of preparation, have the actors from each group ■ ■ ■ ■

role-play the scenario. Direct the students who observe each role play to take notes on which “Care-Full Communication” strategies they observed. Invite the audience of students to respond to each scenario. Check off which “Care-full Communication” strategies were used. Comment on the authenticity of the situation portrayed in the scenario.

CONCLUDING DISCUSSION:

Are there any additions you can recommend to the “Care-Full Communication” strategies?

HOMEWORK
■ Hand out Lesson 4 Homework Assignment Sheet. Review

instructions. Have the students share some of their own scenarios in a future class.

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SPEAK UP! SCENARIOS | Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

LESSON

4

SCENARIO #1:

Your girlfriend has just stood you up for the third time in a row. The first two times this happened, she came to you afterward and said she was drunk, but she also said she was very sorry and that she made a mistake to get involved with her drinking friends. You really want to stay friends with this girl, but you also told her, “It’s me or them.” She said you just didn’t know how to have fun, but she promised it wouldn’t happen again, except she still wants to stay friendly with both you and her drinking friends. What should you say to her?

SCENARIO #2:

You and your boyfriend are at a party where people start smoking weed and drinking. Ecstasy is going around, too. Several couples start making out and groping each other pretty hot and heavy, but they don’t seem to care that there are a lot of people around. Your boyfriend comes over and starts kissing and groping you. He has smoked weed before at parties, but his actions were never as obvious as now. When you object, he tells you to take a toke and calm down, and insists that smoking a joint will make you have more fun. What should you say to him?

SCENARIO #3:

Your best friend calls you up and invites you to a party, and you know she always gets high before, during and at a party. This party is with a crowd of friends who like to get high. You also know that your parents would ground you if they knew you were doing marijuana. What should you say to your friend?

SCENARIO #4:

You have a date with a girl that you like a lot, but your older brother invites you to go with him and a bunch of his friends. You know they will be drinking – a lot. They tell you to bring your girl along, but you know she wouldn’t like it. This happened before and you said no to your brother and went out with the girl, but then he told you that you were turning into the girl’s slave. Your brother told you she wouldn’t respect you if you always did just what she said. What will you tell your brother?

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SPEAK UP! SCENARIOS | Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

LESSON

4

SCENARIO #5:

Your friend calls you and invites you to a party. You want to go because they’re going to be playing your favorite computer game and all your other friends will be there, too. But you also know they will be smoking a lot of weed and your friend has been bragging that he is a “user.” Your dad is very strict and he told you if he ever smelled marijuana on your clothes, or found out you were getting high, he would ground you on weekends for the rest of the school year. What should you say to your friend?

SCENARIO #6:

Your friend has been falling asleep in class and not handing in her homework. Her grades are poor and she has dropped out of the extracurricular activities in which she participated. She has told you that she likes to drink when she gets home from school and takes liquor from her parents’ cabinet. She has invited you to her home to “try the stuff.” She said she has invited some other friends who also want to try drinking. What would you say to your friend?

SCENARIO #7:

Your friend calls and asks you to write a note for him explaining his absence in school. He says that he was too hung over to go to school, but he can’t ask his parents to write the note because they didn’t know he cut classes. He promises never to drink again, but needs the note for this one time. How would you handle this?

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET | Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

LESSON

4 4

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________

1 2

Choose one of the “Speak Up!” scenarios. Review the “Care-Full Communication” poster; now read your scenario aloud, looking for ways to implement some of these strategies to communicate your response to the person who is abusing alcohol or marijuana. Discuss each of the following questions, and then formulate an answer to each one: You are responding to someone who has presented you with a difficult dilemma or situation. How would this person know you are understanding, caring, and yet not enabling? What approaches or words would you use in this situation to be both empathetic and yet strong in your own convictions?_______________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ What other things can you say or do to encourage change by showing that you care about this person? _______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Review the answers above and ask yourself if these reflect that you have done everything possible to avoid arguments, demonstrate care and accept the reality of the situation.

3

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Speak Up! Using Diplomacy and Communication Skills

LESSON

4 4

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________
■ Write your own “Speak Up!” scenario and suggest what approaches, language or examples you

would recommend for “Care-Full Communication”. Give fictional names for the characters. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

5

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Discuss why and how the

BACKGROUND
High school students often form the misconception that using drugs is a part of normal teenage behavior. However, current research confirms the opposite – that a majority of 10th-graders do not use alcohol or marijuana or other illicit drugs and that all forms of substance abuse among teens are now on the decline. The goal of this lesson is to extend this trend by raising awareness that most adolescents do not use or abuse drugs and that use of drugs is not the “norm.” When students are clear about this, they are less likely to think they have to try illicit drugs, and they become more open to understanding the risks involved with using them. For a deeper exploration of the elements of statistics central to this lesson, it may be helpful to teach this lesson with a math teacher.

exceptional and dramatic, rather than the norm, are often what is considered “newsworthy.” ● Create a hypothesis about the number of students using alcohol and marijuana and compare this hypothesis to key results from the Monitoring the Future Study, a survey conducted by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research.

PREPARATION
TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times (one

■ Assemble tools. ■ Pre-select an article from today’s New York Times that reports on an

copy per student) ● Copies of Lesson 5 Classroom Activity Sheet from Page 51 (one per student) ● Copies of Lesson 5 Homework Assignment Sheet from Pages 5253 (one per student) ● Copies of the New York Times article “Teenage Drug Use Is Dropping, a Study Finds” from Pages 54-55 (one per student)

unusual or dramatic event: a train wreck, etc. ■ Review the results of the Monitoring the Future survey printed in the Lesson 5 Homework Assignment Sheet.

VOCABULARY
methodology, sampling, indicator, cohort, hypothesis, newsworthy, sensational (not primary definition), norm

WARM UP: NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
■ Give out copies of today’s New York Times.

SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO STUDENTS:

“What is ‘newsworthy’? Are unusual events more likely to be considered news than everyday, ordinary events?”

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Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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■ Direct students to find examples in their copies of today’s New York

Times that reflect the same idea: news is often the unusual or dramatic, not what is ordinary reality for most people. Have students read aloud portions of their selections.
■ Or, you may read a portion of the New York Times news article you

pre-selected reporting on an unusual or dramatic event.

DISCUSSION
Facilitate a discussion with these questions:
■ Is the drama and excitement of unusual events just something of

interest to the general public?
■ What motives might exist for news organizations to emphasize the

unusual, exciting, etc?
■ What is the value of reporting unusual or unique events? Can they be

agents for needed change or reform?
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS:

“Sometimes what is reported as news can result in misconceptions about teenage drug and alcohol use. News reports in particular may give extra prominence to criminal behavior and may emphasize illegal teen activities, which are not the norm at all. Scientists are more likely to study ‘normal’ behavior in a way that will allow us to see the full range of what most people do.”

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY ■ Give out copies of the Lesson 5 Classroom Activity Sheet. ■ Direct students to answer the questions as you read them aloud. ■ Record some of the responses on the board under headings such as “Marijuana past month,” “Marijuana regularly,” “Alcohol past month,” “Alcohol regularly.” ■ Ask for a show of hands to indicate the number of students who answered “increasing,” decreasing,” and “about the same,” and record

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Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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the majority answer to each question on the board. ■ If appropriate to your class and situation, ask for some examples of responses to the questions and what evidence the students have for their own estimates.

READING ACTIVITY
SAY TO THE STUDENTS:

“In the ‘Classroom Activity,’ you formed a hypothesis about what’s typical for teenagers regarding the use of alcohol and marijuana. To compare your hypotheses, we are going to examine evidence based on the Monitoring the Future Study, conducted by the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. “In 2002, this survey tracked a total of 44,000 middle and high school students in over 400 schools. Students responded by filling out questionnaires in classrooms during regular class periods. Participation was voluntary. Some of the results for this survey have been summarized in a New York Times article that we will read and discuss first. This article will help us determine if you were correct in guessing whether the use of alcohol and marijuana is rising, falling or holding steady. For homework, you’ll examine some data from the study that will help us determine if the proportions we guessed at were true or not, and explore ways to restate those proportions to accurately reflect what is true.”
■ Give out copies of the New York Times article “Teenage Drug Use Is

Dropping, a Study Finds.”
■ As a class, read the article, then discuss the following questions:

a) What simultaneous results did the 2002 Monitoring the Future survey show? (Teen smoking, drinking and the use of illegal drugs all fell.) b) Why is this study considered “the most reliable indicator of teenage substance abuse”? (The survey’s reliability is attributed to its methodology – including how the questionnaires are designed, how the questions are worded, how and when students are surveyed, the large number of students surveyed and the prestige of the institution conducting it.)

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Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

5

c) How did the proportion of 10th graders consuming alcohol change from 2001 to 2002? (In this year, alcohol consumption declined 3.5 percent among 10th graders.)
IF CLASS TIME IS LIMITED:

Direct students to compare answers to the first question of the Reading Activity (“What simultaneous results did the 2002 Monitoring the Future survey show? Teen smoking, drinking and the use of illegal drugs all fell.”) with their answers to Question 3 of the Classroom Activity. (“Do you think that the use of marijuana among teens is, increasing, decreasing or about the same as always?”) Ask: How accurate were the individual or class’s hypotheses? Why is it important to base one’s opinions on reliable evidence? ● Why is the sample size a significant factor in creating a reliable study? ● How might the results of the Monitoring the Future survey have been different if the results were based on only a handful of student responses?
● ●

IF TIME ALLOWS, ALSO DISCUSS:

d) According to Professor Johnson, how might the terror attacks of Sept. 11 have influenced teen substance abuse? Do you agree with this theory? Why or why not? (Dr. Johnson believes the tragedy of 9/11 had somewhat of a sobering effect on the country’s young people.) e) How does Dr. Hanson account for these trends? (Dr. Hanson said there was no scientific evidence of a Sept. 11 effect. He believed the explanation for the drop in teen substance use lay in teenagers’ increased perception of the risks involved in smoking, drinking and drug use, and with an increase in negative advertising on television and in other media.)
■ What do students think might account for the change in teen

substance use?

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
■ Explain to students that they will be analyzing some results of the

Monitoring the Future survey, and creating charts that accurately portray the results.

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Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

5

■ Give out copies of the Lesson 5 Homework Assignment Sheet. ■ Review the table of results from the Monitoring the Future survey.

Make sure students understand that the “30-day” figures indicate the percentage of respondents who said they had used this substance sometime in the month BEFORE the survey. The chart in the homework assignment has been adapted from the following source: NIDA InfoFax: High School and Youth Trends, (http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/HSYouthtrends.html) to show data only for: marijuana/hashish, alcohol, cigarettes, Ecstasy; 8th and 10th graders; 30-day and daily frequency.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
■ Display students’ charts from the Homework Activity. ■ Have students write an article for the school newspaper on their

analysis of actual teen substance use.

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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET | Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

LESSON

5

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________

1

What proportion of students at your grade level would you guess have smoked marijuana … a) in the past month? _____________________________________________________ b) regularly? ____________________________________________________________

2

What proportion of the students at your grade level do you think have taken a drink of alcohol … a) in the past month? _____________________________________________________ b) regularly? ____________________________________________________________

3

Do you think that the use of marijuana among teens is … (circle one) INCREASING DECREASING ABOUT THE SAME AS ALWAYS

4

Do you think that the use of alcohol among teens is … (circle one) INCREASING DECREASING ABOUT THE SAME AS ALWAYS

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

LESSON

5

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________
MONITORING THE FUTURE STUDY:

Trends in Prevalence of Various Drugs for 8th-Graders and 10th-Graders. The decimal numbers displayed in this table represent the percentage (%) of students using a particular substance within the time frame indicated.

2000 - 2002
8TH-GRADERS 10TH-GRADERS

2000
Marijuana /Hashish 30-day daily Alcohol 30-day daily Cigarettes (any use) 30-day 1/2 pack+/day MDMA [Ecstasy] annual 30-day

2001
9.2 1.3

2002
8.3 1.2

2000
19.7 3.8

2001
19.8 4.5

2002
17.8 3.9

9.1 1.3

22.4 0.8

21.5 0.9

19.6 0.7

41.0 1.8

39.0 1.9

35.4 1.8

14.6 2.8

12.2 2.3

10.7 2.1

23.9 6.2

21.3 5.5

17.7 4.4

3.1 1.4

3.5 1.8

2.9 1.4

5.4 2.6

6.2 2.6

4.9 1.8

Source: National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA)

A

Examine the table of results from the Monitoring the Future Study, and answer the following questions: What percentage of 10th-graders used marijuana in the month before they took the survey in 2002? ____________________________

1

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Researching Behavior and Perceptions of Drug Use

LESSON

5

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________

2 3 4 5
B

What percentage of 10th-graders used alcohol in the 30-day period before they took the survey in 2002? _________________________ Restate the answers to Questions 1 and 2 in proportional terms (such as less than half, or more than a quarter). What language would communicate the terms in the clearest way? Be as precise as possible with the terms you choose. _____________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ What percentages of students did NOT use marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes and Ecstasy in the month before they took the survey in 2002? ______________________________________ Are you surprised by the results in this table? Why or why not?________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ On a large piece of paper or poster board, create a series of four charts or graphs that illustrate the proportions of 10th-graders who DO NOT use these four substances: alcohol, marijuana, cigarettes, Ecstasy. Use the figures for “30 days.” ● You may show only 2002, or include both 2002 and 2000 information. ● Give the source of the information on the bottom of your poster.

C

How could the information from the study be used when you are discussing teenage use of drugs or alcohol with a friend? How do you emphasize the information that this use is declining and that general use is NOT the norm? _________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, December 17, 2002

LESSON

5 4

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, December 17, 2002

LESSON

5 4

Continued from previous page

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Teen Images in The Movies: What’s “Cool”

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

6

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Discuss why popular movies often

BACKGROUND
The goal of this lesson is to encourage students to take a critical look at the images of teen behavior that popular movies deliver. The lesson asks students to look behind the Hollywood images of teens engaging in wild, negative, risky or destructive behavior – and to examine why these exaggerated or extreme behaviors have such a place in popular culture. The lesson asks students to create movie messages that reflect healthy and normal teen behavior and characteristics. This lesson is best taught after Lesson 5, which emphasizes that most teenagers do not abuse alcohol and drugs, despite some media reports and movies that might suggest otherwise. For a richer exploration of the elements of drama production, it may be helpful to teach this lesson with your school’s drama director. *In this lesson, the term “cool” is used to denote what is considered excellent, stylish and popular by youth standards. You may find other student slang more current.

depict teenagers in a sensational manner. ● List teenage stereotypes involving drugs. ● Outline an original movie scene based on a story found in The New York Times and write character profiles that celebrate positive images of teenagers.

TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times (one

copy per student)
● Copies of Lesson 6 Homework

Assignment Sheet from Page 60 (one per student) ● Copies of the New York Times article “At Sundance, a New Generation of Teenagers Acting Out” from Pages 61-63 (one per student)

PREPARATION
■ Assemble tools. ■ On the board, write the definitions of the following:

stereotype: a fixed or conventional notion, as of a person, group, idea, etc., held by a number of people and allowing for no individuality, critical judgment, etc. conflict: a fight or struggle, especially a protracted one; war; sharp disagreement or opposition, as of interest or ideas; clash.
■ Scan today’s New York Times to become familiar with some of the

reviews about movies that would appeal to teens. If such a review is not available in today’s Times, scan the ads and determine which would be targeted for teens. Or, visit The Times Web site, nytimes.com, and click on “Movies,” under the heading “Features” for lists of current titles and reviews. ■ Review the New York Times article “At Sundance, a New Generation of Teenagers Acting Out.”

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Teen Images in The Movies: What’s “Cool”

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

6

VOCABULARY
disaffected, promiscuous, precocious, sullen, frivolous, genre, anomie, subconscious, malaise, archetypal, viscera,

WARM UP
■ Give out copies of today’s New York Times. ■ Direct student to the movie reviews (in the Arts or Weekend Section). ■ Direct students to scan the movie ads and reviews and identify films

that have teenage characters or conflicts that appeal to them. Allow students a few minutes to jot down any notes or underline and circle portions that will help them to explain why these movies seem appealing.

DISCUSSION
Facilitate a discussion with these questions:
■ What makes the movies you chose seem appealing or especially interesting? ■ What drew you to the teen characters you have identified? ■ What are the conflicts depicted or implied? ■ Where is the line between fantasy and reality in a movie? How do

you know?
■ How does fiction – and by extension, movies – sometimes depend on

stereotypes and conflicts?

READING ACTIVITY
■ Give out copies of the New York Times article “At Sundance, a New

Generation of Teenagers Acting Out.”
■ As a class, read the article, then discuss the following questions:

a) According to the article, what is the point of movies that portray disturbed or dangerous teens? (“The point is generally to shock adults while reaching out to an audience of sullen teenagers who might identify with the characters’ anomie.” Note: “anomie” is defined as “lack of purpose, identity or ethical values in a person or in a society; rootlessness.”)
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Teen Images in The Movies: What’s “Cool”

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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b) According to the article, are these movies realistic? Toward what evidence of teen “reality” does this article point? (“These films do not reflect the reality of national trends, which, reassuringly, show drug use, smoking and drinking all declining among teenagers.” This statement supports the Monitoring the Future Study examined in Lesson 5. ) c) Do you think there is a connection between the people who make these movies and the topics they select to present? (The movies reflect the anxieties of adults.) d) How does Margarete Parrish describe teenagers? Do you agree with her? (About teenagers, Ms. Parrish says “They’re taller than we are ... stronger and unpredictable. And they challenge authority. They don’t take our word for it.”) e) How does Ms. Parrish explain adults’ secret, or “subconscious” attitudes toward teens? Do you think she’s right? Why or why not? (According to the article, Ms. Parrish claims “adults secretly dislike and fear teenagers.”)

DISCUSSION POINTS
■ Adults produce movies, not teens. ■ Sensationalism – exaggerated or shocking elements – is popular and

helps sell tickets.
■ Few popular movies are documentaries; hence, they do not necessarily

portray what’s real.
■ Most people can tell that a comic book, or an animated video game is

not real, but when the images are life-like, attractive, and powerful, it is easy to get “sucked in” to thinking “that’s the way the world is,” or “that’s what I wish the world was like.”

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
■ Direct students to take out a blank sheet of paper, fold it in half

lengthwise and then unfold it, creating three vertical columns. ■ Direct students to set up two columns, headed: CHARACTERS STEREOTYPES CONFLICTS
■ Direct students’ attention to the definitions of stereotype and conflict

written on the board.
■ Direct students to first make a list of some teen or young adult

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Teen Images in The Movies: What’s “Cool”

TEACHER LESSON PLAN

6

characters they know from movies they have seen. Next, ask them to write a list of stereotypes that might be represented in these characters, and a list of conflicts in which those characters are involved. ■ Clarify that not all stereotypes are negative: for instance the herorescuing-the-pretty-and-helpless-girl (the Tobey Maguire and Kirsten Dunst characters in “Spiderman”).

DISCUSSION
■ Invite students to share some of the characters, stereotypes and

conflicts. Then ask:
● Is “cool” an attitude or behavior? (The addition of the word “in”

should be used should the teacher wish). ● Can you be “cool” and not experiment with or use drugs and alcohol? ● If you could write your own movie, what are some positive characteristics you would want a teen character to have? How could the character positively resolve one of his or her major conflicts?

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
■ Explain to students that professional screenwriters frequently find

ideas for movies from the news and that the students will have the opportunity to do the same thing. ■ Give out copies of the Lesson 6 Homework Assignment Sheet.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
■ Have students write a pivotal scene for a movie, outlined in the

homework assignment. For more information on screenwriting style, format, and tips, consult the following Web sources: http://www.screenwriting.info http://www.absolutewrite.com

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HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET | Teen Images In The Movies: What’s “Cool”

LESSON

6 4

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________

A

Select a New York Times news or feature article that gives you an idea for a movie. Write a short summary of a scene in the movie, depicting a positive teen character or a realistic conflict and its resolution. Clip out and attach the New York Times article to your homework assignment sheet. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

B

Now give one of the characters a drug or alcohol problem within the situation of your movie; write a scene in which a friend helps the character face up to it. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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60

ARTICLE | The New York Times, Sunday, January 26, 2003

LESSON

6 4

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Sunday, January 26, 2003

LESSON

6 4

Continued from previous page

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Sunday, January 26, 2003

LESSON

6 4

Continued from previous page

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Community of Care

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
BACKGROUND

7

OBJECTIVES
At the conclusion of this lesson, students will be able to:
● Locate local drug and alcohol

This lesson allows students to identify and make contact with local alcohol and drug prevention resources, and also to familiarize themselves with an entire structure of support that promotes positive behavior and awareness in their community.

treatment resources.
● Work collaboratively with other

students to produce a guidebook for teenagers on preventing addiction. ● Create a newspaper ad and other publicity to promote the guidebook.

PREPARATION
■ Assemble tools. ■ Consult with your school’s student assistance professional, guidance

TOOLS NEEDED
● Today’s New York Times (one

per student) ● Copies of Lesson 7 Class Project Sheet from Page 68 (one per student) ● Copies of Lesson 7 Newspaper Activity Sheet from Page 69 (one per student) ● Copies of the New York Times article “Tailoring Treatments for Teenage Drug Users” from Pages 70-72 (one per student)

counselor or other faculty member before having students embark on the class project for this lesson, part of which consists of having the students research community substance abuse prevention resources and interviewing people associated with them for information. ■ Write the Warm Up prompt on the board before students arrive. ■ Review the New York Times article “Tailoring Treatments for Teenage Drug Users.” ■ Review the Lesson 7 Class Project and Newspaper Activity Sheets.

VOCABULARY
escalated, acute, petitioned, evaluation, intention, deterrent, abstained, trivialize, incarcerating, relapses, compliance, reimbursement, referrals, collaborate

WARM UP
■ Direct students to write an answer to the following question (written

on the board prior to class): “Think about the issues you and your friends face in high school relating to alcohol or marijuana and other drugs. Whom can you turn to for help with these issues? Think of one adult and one peer you can trust to talk to about drug-related issues.”

DISCUSSION
■ What qualities make a person trustworthy enough to discuss difficult

and often personal issues?
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN

7

■ Why is it important to have support from others when trying to solve

a drug- or alcohol-related problem?

READING ACTIVITY
■ Give out copies of the New York Times article “Tailoring Treatments

for Teenage Drug Users.” ■ As a class, read the article, then discuss the following questions: a) What did Michael Lagana say to his mother when she discovered marijuana among his things? (He assured her it wasn’t a problem.) b) What did Michael do after that about his alcohol and drug problem? (He continued to use and wound up in the emergency room after blacking out from a binge.) c) How did Michael’s parents respond to his actions? (They petitioned the county circuit court to order a substance abuse evaluation, and he was picked up from school and brought to a local hospital for the evaluation.) d) Where was Michael admitted after this substance abuse evaluation? (To a local alcohol and drug treatment center for teenagers.) e) How likely is a person to develop substance abuse problems if he or she starts using before age 15, compared to someone who tries after age 18? (If teenagers begin using illicit drugs before 15, they have a risk of abuse problems eight times as great as teenagers who begin after age 18 .) f ) Have drugs played a role in Anna Joseph’s life? (No, she has avoided them.) g) What has been a major deterrent for her? (Seeing other teenagers mess up their lives because they became dependent on drugs.) h) According to the article, why are effective drug treatment programs for teenagers different from those that work for adults? (To be effective, programs for teenagers need parents and other family members involved, and treatment must allow teens to stay in school. Other reasons stated or implied in the article include: Teenagers’ thought processes are different and so their motivational responses will vary; because the brains of teenagers are still developing, they are at greater risk of becoming addicted.)

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Community of Care

TEACHER LESSON PLAN
CLASS PROJECT: CREATING A GUIDEBOOK FOR YOUR PEERS
TEACHER DIRECTIONS

7

Explain that The New York Times article “Tailoring Treatments for Teenage Drug Users” summarizes many of the issues examined in this unit. Ask students to identify some of the main points of the article. Provide additions to the list if necessary, to include:
● Behavior by a teenager resulting from abusing alcohol or marijuana. ● Another teenager responding with concern to a friend who is

abusing alcohol or marijuana.
● Teens being more likely to become dependent on alcohol or

marijuana the earlier they start using these substances.
● Drug and alcohol use among teenagers generally declining, and

teens not needing to do drugs or alcohol to be “cool.”
● Drugs and alcohol being more dangerous for teenagers because these

substances affect the brain while it is still developing. Using these points as chapter themes, explain to your students that as a class they will design a guidebook that illustrates the key information a teenager should know to avoid the problems caused by abusing drugs or alcohol. The goal of this guidebook is to present this information in a way that will be convincing and compelling to their peers. For the guidebook, students will need to plan the following either by groups or by individual assignments:
● Develop a creative title for the guidebook. ● Prepare an outline for each chapter that captures the approach each

student or group thinks is best for getting each theme across to readers. ● Include in these outlines key statements that summarize each chapter. ● Include a list of illustrations or pictures gathered or produced to enhance the presentation of each chapter. Students should use images from The New York Times for ideas. ● Plan whom to go to and where to go in the community for help with drug or alcohol problems. Agree on who will oversee development of each part of the guidebook and the due dates.
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN

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The Times article also examines some of the treatments available for teenagers who have lost control over drugs or alcohol, and emphasizes the need for parental and community support for substance abuse prevention. For the guidebook, the class will compile a final chapter describing the various locations and organizations in the community that you and your friends can consult. As a class, review the Class Project Sheet, which has a summary of the assignments for the guidebook.

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT A
■ Assign to students individually or in pairs or teams a portion of the

guidebook project for research, interviewing and writing.
■ Set due dates.

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT B
■ ■ ■ ■

Give out copies of today’s New York Times. Give out copies of the Lesson 7 Newspaper Activity sheet. Review the assignment with the students. Set due dates.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
■ Make copies of the guidebook and distribute it to students and

teachers through your school’s guidance counselors, health or substance abuse prevention coordinator or homeroom teachers.
■ Use the advertisements the students designed as posters or flyers to

promote the guidebook in school. Submit one or more of the ads to the school newspaper.
■ To help students gain an understanding of newspaper advertising, have

them research the procedures and costs for placing an actual ad in The New York Times. They may visit www.nytadvertising.com for rates and information.

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CLASS PROJECT SHEET | Community of Care

LESSON

7 4

ur class will be creating a guidebook containing key information a teenager should know to avoid the problems caused by abusing drugs or alcohol. In order to produce the guidebook, the following assignments will be discussed in class and we will work together in completing each task.

O

WE NEED TO:
■ Prepare an outline for each chapter that

captures the best approach for getting the message to readers. ■ Include illustrations or drawings for each section chapter. ■ Prepare a table of contents. ■ Plan the type of interviews we should conduct and how to accomplish these interviews. ■ Develop a title for the guidebook. ■ Prepare a title for each section or chapter.

■ A representative from a family services agency. ■ A representative from a nearby substance

abuse treatment center. ■ A social worker on staff at a nearby hospital or mental health center. ■ An organizer for a local self-help group that focuses on overcoming alcoholism or drug dependence. ■ A pediatrician. ■ A staff member of a hospital emergency room. Plan your interviews before calling on the interviewee. You mission is to:
■ Determine how this person perceives

Community Interviews
Choose one of the following people to interview:
■ A guidance counselor or student assistance

program coordinator in your school. ■ A psychotherapist with expertise in substance abuse. ■ A representative from your state public health department’s drug and alcohol prevention services division. ■ A representative of a local council on alcoholism and drug dependence.

alcohol or drug abuse among teens. ■ Ask for this person’s recommendations for a range of local services for teens seeking ways to pull back from a pattern of abuse of alcohol or marijuana. Be sure to ask the interviewee for a range of different types of support, and to help you determine who is eligible for each service. ■ Research and list the addresses, Web sites and phone numbers of all your interviewees’ recommendations.

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NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET | Community of Care

LESSON

7 4

STUDENT NAME______________________________________________________________

R

eview the advertisements in today’s New York Times. Look for ideas to create an advertisement and for the section(s) of The Times where your advertisement should be placed to be most effective. (Check the Op-Ed page; book advertisements in The Arts section; Personal Health features in Science Times, etc.) Design an ad promoting your class’s guidebook. In planning your ad, you will need to provide some important answers to questions such as: Headline__________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Body Copy_________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Art or Image_______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Information on how consumers will obtain the guidebook (pretend: available at your local bookstore, online at …, call to order, etc; or for real: available at the guidance office, etc.)____________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, January 7, 2003

LESSON

7 4

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, January 7, 2003

LESSON

7 4

Continued from previous page

Continued on next page

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ARTICLE | The New York Times, Tuesday, January 7, 2003

LESSON

7 4

Continued from previous page

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APPENDIX
“CARE-FULL COMMUNICATION”
BEFORE APPROACHING A FRIEND ABOUT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL
■ Ask Yourself: Is changing this person’s behavior really important to me? Is it possible for this person to change? Do I plan on sticking around? ■ Make a Plan: Be clear to yourself about what you want to accomplish and what action you will take if your friend’s use continues.

4

WHEN YOU APPROACH A FRIEND ABOUT DRUGS AND ALCOHOL
■ Express Empathy. Show an understanding of how the person feels without imposing judgment. ■ Tell Him or Her How You Feel. Describe how your friend’s behavior affects you, not your friend. DO say, “I feel ... “; Do NOT say, “You are...” ■ Encourage Change by showing that you care about the other person and want to see her/him making healthy decisions.

ACT, DON’T REACT It’s easy to get caught up in the person’s response, so try to remember to:
■ Avoid Arguments. Ask questions, but do not be dogmatic or emotional. ■ Demonstrate Care. Make it clear that you care and want to stay friends. ■ Accept Reality. Realize that you don’t have to “win.” (This is not an argument!) Accept the reality that your friend may be ambivalent about changing his or her behavior and you may not be successful in your attempt to influence your friend, at least not at first.

TIPS FOR SUCCESS
■ When an individual is drunk or high, take care of yourself first; put off your talk for another time. ■ When an individual is with a group of people, don’t embarrass or humiliate him or her in front of the group; put off your talk for another time.

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CORRELATION TO NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS

APPENDIX

CORRELATION OF LESSONS TO NATIONAL STANDARDS

LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS LESSONS WRITING
Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing Uses grammatical and mechanical conventions in written compositions Gathers and uses information for research purposes

T

he activities in this curriculum guide are correlated with selected relevant standards from Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education, 3rd ed., established by Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). McREL is also the source of the standards correlated with the lesson plans that appear daily on The New York Times Learning Network (nytimes.com/learning). Each McREL standard has subcategories, or benchmarks, subdivided into those applicable to elementary, middle and high school. This table lists the standards only. Fro McREL’s complete content standards and benchmarks, which cover a wide variety of school subjects, go to mcrel.com.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

READING
Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process Uses reading skills and strategies to understand and interpret a variety of informational texts

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

LISTENING AND SPEAKING
Uses listening and speaking strategies for different purposes

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

MEDIA
SOURCE: Content Knowledge: A Compendium of

Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education, by John S. Kendall and Robert J. Marzano (2000, 3rd ed.): Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL), Aurora, Colo.; www.mcrel.org/standards/ Used by permission of McREL, 2550 S. Parker Road, Suite 500, Aurora, Colo. 80014; (303) 337-0990.

Understands the characteristics and components of the media

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

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CORRELATION TO NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS

APPENDIX

HEALTH STANDARDS LESSONS
1
Knows the availability and effective use of health services, products, and information Knows environmental and external factors that affect individual and community health Knows how to maintain and promote personal health Understands aspects of substance use and abuse Understands the fundamental concepts of growth and development

2

3

4

5

6

7

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

LIFE SKILLS LESSONS SELF-REGULATION
Sets and manages goals Performs self-appraisal Considers risks Demonstrates perseverance Maintains a healthy self-concept Restrains impulsivity

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

THINKING AND REASONING
Understands and applies the basic principles of presenting an argument Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

X X

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CORRELATION TO NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS

APPENDIX

LIFE SKILLS (Continued) LESSONS THINKING AND REASONING (Continued)
Effectively uses mental processes that are based on identifying similarities and differences Understands and applies basic principles of hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry Applies basic troubleshooting and problem-solving techniques Applies decision-making techniques

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

WORKING WITH OTHERS
Contributes to the overall effort of a group Uses conflict-resolution techniques Works well with diverse individuals and in diverse situations Displays effective interpersonal communicating skills

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

X X X X

VISUAL ARTS STANDARDS LESSONS
1
Understands and applies media, techniques, and processes … related to the visual arts

2

3

4

5

6

7

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

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CORRELATION TO NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS

APPENDIX

MATHEMATICS STANDARDS LESSONS
1
Uses a variety of strategies in the problem-solving process Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis Understands the general nature and uses of mathematics

2

3

4

5

6

7

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

BEHAVIORAL STUDIES STANDARDS LESSONS
1
Understands that group and cultural influences contribute to human development, identity and behavior Understands various meanings of social group, general implications of group membership, and different way groups function Understands that interactions among learning, inheritance, and physical development affect human behavior Understands conflict, cooperation and interdependence among individuals, groups and institutions

2

3

4

5

6

7

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

APPENDIX
The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) coordinates drug policy throughout the federal government. You may contact: Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse P.O. Box 6000 Rockville, MD 20849–6000 800–666–3332 www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov Many free publications are available online from the ONDCP. See: www.teachersguide.org www.theantidrug.com The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) is the federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 www.samhsa.gov/ SAMHSA maintains the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, an excellent overview resource available on the Web at www.health.org/ or by phone at 800-788-2800. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health charged with conducting and publicizing research on drug abuse and addiction prevention. NIDA 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213 Bethesda, MD 20892 www.nida.nih.gov/ The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) is a voluntary health organization offering services, publications and information. NCADD 20 Exchange Place, Suite 2902 New York, NY 10005 (212) 269-7797 www.ncadd.org/

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

APPENDIX

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University is a unique “think/action tank” addressing substance abuse and its effects on society. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University 633 Third Avenue, 19th floor New York, NY 10017 (212) 841-5200 www.casacolumbia.org/

SELECTED ANTI-DRUG WEB SITES
FOR STUDENTS: FreeVibe (www.freevibe.com) A well-designed anti-drug site created especially for young people by the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. Planet Know (www.planet-know.net) A site for teens offering anti-drug entertainment and games created by the Center For Substance Abuse Prevention of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration. FOR PARENTS: Parents. The Anti-Drug (www.theantidrug.com) Padres. La Anti-Droga (www.laantidroga.com) The parent pages (in English and Spanish) of the anti-drug resource site from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. You Can Help … Keep a Kid Off Drugs (www.youcanhelpkids.org) A resource site for parents and community volunteers interested in creating programs and advising youth to stay away from drugs. Parenting is Prevention (www.parentingisprevention.org) An advice and information resource featuring parent questions and answers from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration.

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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

APPENDIX

FOR EDUCATORS: Teachers. The Anti-Drug (www.teachersguide.org) A drug education resource developed by the Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign of the Office of Drug Control Policy. NIDA Goes to School (www.drugabuse.gov/GoestoSchool/NIDAg2s.html) Science-based teacher resources from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including “Sara’s Quest” and “Slide Teaching Packets” that offer entertaining visual materials describing how marijuana affects the brain. Safe and Drug-Free Schools (www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS) A compendium of U.S. Department of Education programs and activities for reducing drug, alcohol and tobacco use in and around schools. National Association of Student Assistance Professionals (www.NASAP.org) Information on SAP contacts and how to implement a comprehensive SAP program in school communities for the prevention, early identification and intervention of student substance use, violence and other barriers to learning. “L-Evated: The Blunt Truth,” a video about marijuana with a guide for teachers and counselors, in which teens act out various scenarios about peer pressure. (www.meeproductions.com/store/videosreports/ELTBT.cfm)

DAILY LESSON PLANS FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES LEARNING NETWORK (www.nytimes.com/learning/)
The New York Times Learning Network is a free service for students in Grades 3-12, their teachers and parents. The site is updated Monday through Friday throughout the year and offers an extensive collection of lesson plans based on articles published in The New York Times. A selection of lesson plans addressing drugs and drug prevention may be found in the Lesson Plan Archives under “Health.”

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AUTHORS AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

APPENDIX

THIS GUIDE WAS WRITTEN BY

4

CLAYTON DEKORNE, Ph.D., an author for The New York Times Learning Network (nytimes.com/learning), educational writer and curriculum consultant. THIS GUIDE WAS EDITED BY STEPHANIE DOBA, Corporate Sponsorships Manager, Newspaper in Education, The New York Times.

WE ALSO THANK THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS FOR CONTRIBUTING THEIR EXPERTISE: JO ANN BURKHOLDER, Student Assistance Program Administrator, Safe and Drug Free Schools and Community Coordinator, Roanoke County Schools, Roanoke, Va. ELLEN MOREHOUSE, Executive Director, Student Assistance Service Corporation, Tarrytown, N.Y. WIN TURNER, licensed clinical psychologist and alcohol and drug counselor; senior adviser for the American Institute of Research and the New England Institute of Addiction Studies. NAOMI WEINSTEIN, Director, American Council for Drug Education and Children of Alcoholics Foundation, national prevention affiliates of Phoenix House

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