ANTI-DRUG EDUCATION WITH THE NEW YORK TIMES

:

FOCUS ON MARIJUANA
A Unit for Middle and High School Educators
The New York Times Newspaper in Education Program
Sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy

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02-1569-1

This educator’s guide was developed by The New York Times Newspaper in Education Program with sponsorship from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. It did not involve the reporting or editing staff of The New York Times, other than containing news articles previously published in The New York Times.
© 2002 The New York Times Company

CONTENTS
PAGE INTRODUCTION TO THE TEACHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Article: Teenage Drug Use at an 8-Year Low . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

LESSON 1 LESSON 2 LESSON 3 LESSON 4 LESSON 5

LESSON 6 LESSON 7 LESSON 8 LESSON LESSON LESSON LESSON 9 10 11 12

Marijuana Facts and Fictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Article: For Some, Marijuana Grows Mean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Marijuana Dilemmas For Teenagers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 How Many Teens Use Marijuana? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Article: Use of Drugs by Teen-Agers Declines Some, Report Says. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Marijuana and the Brain: A Science Lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Article: Marijuana’s Effects: More Than Munchies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 The Dangers of Smoking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Part I – Cigarettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Part 2 – Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Article: An Old Enemy, Smoking, Hangs Tough . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Developing Refusal Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Drugged Driving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Article: Teenagers Favor Curbs, But Drinking Remains Rife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Drugs and Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Article: Mexican Cartel Survives Losses, Official Says . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Marijuana in the Media: Part 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Marijuana in the Media: Part 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Anti-Marijuana Ads for Teens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Anti-Marijuana Ads for Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Parent/Guardian Information About Marijuana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

APPENDIX Fact Sheet: Marijuana’s Health Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Fact Sheet: Drugged Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 National Content Standards Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Authors and Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION TO THE TEACHER
people feel good without drugs) s examples of persuasive essays and advertising (in preparation for creating their own anti-drug material) s examples of individuals who stick up for what they believe in (a key refusal skill) s examples of news stories that focus on the exceptional or dramatic, rather than what most people do (most teens don’t use drugs – normative education) s examples of people who have to make difficult decisions (responding to peer pressures may be difficult) s trustworthy information (critical thinking skills about drugs) Using The New York Times, students will also boost their academic skills: scanning, identifying articles of relevance or personal interest, encountering new vocabulary, enhancing reading comprehension, broadening horizons and knowledge, improving writing skills, developing their critical thinking, and more.

M

arijuana is the illicit drug most used and abused by young people. After alcohol and tobacco, it is the substance that students in grades 8 through 12 are most likely to have used. The aim of this guide is to help you educate your students and their families about the dangers that marijuana poses to young people, and to dispel some of the myths about it that may prevent them from taking marijuana as seriously as they should. The good news is that recent surveys show declines in teen use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs, and that parents and teachers are playing crucial roles in this trend. Students in one recent survey who said that their teachers and parents warn them “a lot” about drugs reported dramatically lower drug use than students who said their teachers and parents never do so.* Please see the New York Times article of July 18, 2002, “Teenage Drug Use at an 8-Year Low,” located at the end of this Introduction, for a report on this survey.

COLLECTING AND DISPLAYING MATERIALS
(These resources will be especially useful in Lesson 8.)

USING THE NEW YORK TIMES IN THIS UNIT
You can use New York Times articles like this as a springboard for your lessons in drug prevention. We have reproduced a number of pertinent articles to implement specific lesson objectives in this guide. In addition, however, the lesson plans show you how to use the core value of The New York Times in the classroom: as a student-centered tool of discovery. Going through the daily papers themselves, your students will be challenged to find:
s examples of positive adult roles (that would be

You and your students should go through The New York Times every day for articles obviously pertinent to this unit, and collect them for use throughout the program. Collect news articles about marijuana and other drugs and their health effects, drug trafficking, local drug arrests and criminal activity, and anti-drug advertisements.

A NOTE ON READING AND GRADE LEVELS
We are frequently asked about the “reading level” of The New York Times. There is no clear answer, as each issue contains the writing of hundreds of different individuals in varying styles. Teachers use The New York Times successfully in many different ways – which do not have to involve having students reading a news story from beginning to end. Students at lower reading
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negatively affected by marijuana use; reinforce positive uses of time as behavioral alternatives to drug use)
s examples of advice for healthy behavior (that help

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INTRODUCTION
levels can use headlines and key concepts, or even work primarily with photographs and ads. This guide is aimed primarily at students in grades 6 through 10. You as the teacher will be able to select and adapt the material to suit the skills and age level of your students.
s Actively involving the family and community. s Including teacher training and support. s Providing material that teachers can easily and

correctly implement, and that is culturally appropriate for the students.

WHAT WORKS IN EFFECTIVE DRUG PREVENTION PROGRAMS
Research has shown some key elements to be the most effective in drug prevention programs.** These key elements are:
s Helping students recognize internal social pressures

ADAPTING THE LESSONS FOR YOUR STUDENTS
These lesson plans include material for a broad span of developmental levels. As you select the lessons to use and the specific activities within each lesson, consider the socio-economic backgrounds of your students as well as prior exposure to drug education programs. Consult with counseling staff, drug educators and others in your school district who work in this area for guidance, especially if you believe there may be students in your classes who are using substances and might “act out” if uncomfortable with the lesson material.

to use drugs, such as wanting to belong to the group, and external pressures, such as media influences and peer attitudes.
s Fostering the development of the personal and social

skills necessary to resist peer pressure. These include refusal skills, decision-making, setting goals, assertiveness and managing stress.
s Improving academic competence, which supports

INTERDISCIPLINARY TIME FRAME FOR THE LESSONS
Each lesson plan contains a wealth of material that can be integrated throughout the week. For example, the writing activities develop language arts skills; the reading analysis develops comprehension skills; the content of the articles often relates to science and health; the lesson on informal surveying relates to social studies and the use of polling techniques. We encourage you to team with other teachers for interdisciplinary instruction.
*Source: National Parents’ Resource Institute for Drug Education, Inc. (PRIDE), 2001-2002 survey. ** Source: “Making the Grade: A Guide to School Drug Prevention Programs,” © 1999 Drug Strategies

self-esteem and attachment to the school and community values.
s Including normative education that shows most

students do not use alcohol, tobacco, marijuana or other drugs.
s Providing age-appropriate activities and materials

about the consequences of using alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs, and giving enough lessons following well-designed prevention curricula.
s Using interactive teaching techniques, such as

discussions, cooperative learning and role playing, rather than didactic approaches or scare tactics.

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INTRODUCTION

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 1
MARIJUANA FACTS AND FICTIONS

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

BACKGROUND NOTES

T

distinguish between some facts and fictions about marijuana q identify some negative consequences of using marijuana, including its addictive potential q identify sources of information in a news article q evaluate how they know information is reliable and trustworthy, in general and about drugs
q

eenagers may be particularly resistant to facts about marijuana. There is plenty of contrary information given, consciously or unconsciously, by a wide variety of people in their lives, popular media, even their own families. The goal of this lesson is to impress upon students the importance of evaluating information for themselves and finding trustworthy sources of information.

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Locate examples of various types of articles in The New York Times:

news articles reporting on breaking events; editorials, signed columns, news analyses; feature stories. Scan the front page of today’s New York Times to familiarize yourself with articles that students may choose for the Homework assignment.

VOCABULARY
dependence, addiction, genetic predisposition, relapsed, euphoric, paranoid, rehabilitation, potent, oblivion, inebriated, lenient, assessing, ramifications, syringe, abstinence.

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Student journals q Copies of the New York Times article “For Some, Marijuana Grows Mean” (one per student) from pages 10-11 q Copies of Lesson 1 Newspaper Activity Sheet (one per student)

WARM UP
Sources of the information we read in news articles are extremely important. Reporters must attribute information so that the reader knows exactly where the information originated.
s Distribute today’s New York Times to students. s Direct students to select an article of interest and search the article for

sources of information. A source can be a person who said something, a report from a government agency or perhaps a scientist’s discovery. s Discuss student findings. s ASK: Did you find any information that did not have a source? (Times reporters and editors check each fact to be sure it is attributed, but other publications may not. Advise your students to watch for information that doesn’t have a credible source.) SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS “We hear a lot of conflicting information about marijuana. You might
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 1
MARIJUANA FACTS AND FICTIONS

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT:
DIRECT STUDENTS TO TAKE HOME TODAY’S NEW YORK TIMES AND COPIES OF THE LESSON 1 NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET. REVIEW INSTRUCTIONS. ASSIGN DUE DATE.
q

hear from friends or the media a different story than you hear from your family or in school. The important thing is to look carefully at the information from more than one perspective before jumping to a conclusion. It’s also important to decide which information you are going to trust. Who is giving you valid information, and how do they know it?”

READING ACTIVITY
s Give out copies of the New York Times article “For Some, Marijuana

Grows Mean” from pages 10-11.
s As a class, read the article, then discuss the following questions:

Explain the difference between these types of articles in The New York Times, and have students locate examples in today’s issue of The New York Times: • a news article reports impartially on an event, giving both sides of an issue. • an opinion piece, news analysis, review, column or editorial allows the author to express his or her opinion. See the Op-Ed page, editorial page, signed columns, book or movie reviews, stories labeled “News Analysis.” • a feature is a broader look at a trend or human interest story; it may have more colorful writing and a personal point of view by the writer, but still presents information in a clear and trustworthy manner.

a. Who wrote this article? b. How frequently does Daniel smoke marijuana? What problems has smoking marijuana caused him? c. According to the article, what are some of the ways marijuana can make you feel? d. How did Daniel and his friend feel this time, and what actions followed? e. What is the active ingredient in marijuana? f. How much stronger is marijuana today compared to marijuana used in the 1960’s? g. According to the Times article, can someone form a dependency on marijuana? h. What “psychological ramifications” affect dependent users? i. How do these effects compare to those of other drugs, according to the article? j. According to the article, are some people predisposed to become addicted? How can you know if you are one of the people predisposed to become addicted? k. Who or what are the sources for this information?

DISCUSSION
s Is Daniel addicted to marijuana?

SUGGESTED WAY TO EXPLAIN ADDICTION OR DEPENDENCY TO YOUR STUDENTS:
s “Addiction is a change in a person’s body; it is not just a bad habit.

Addiction makes a person strongly want, or crave, a substance –

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 1
MARIJUANA FACTS AND FICTIONS

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT:
q

In each type of journalism, the rule is clear: let the reader know who is doing the talking, and what the sources of the information or opinion are. The goal is to produce an article that is fair and that the reader can trust. Read aloud the introduction at the top of the Lesson 1 Homework Assignment Sheet. It explains the basic ethic of news reporting: convey reliable information from trustworthy sources, present the information objectively, and acknowledge both sides of an issue. Direct students to complete the Lesson 1 Newspaper Activity Sheet. Direct them to choose a news article that impartially reports an event (rather than an opinion piece, news analysis, review, column or editorial).

such as cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana or other drugs – once the body becomes accustomed to having the substance regularly. Even though people know it is harmful and want to quit, they have great difficulty quitting because they feel really terrible when they try; they may be nervous, irritable, unable to concentrate or think about anything other than getting the drug, even be physically ill or in pain. This is called withdrawal. Withdrawal symptoms occur because the body has physically come to expect the substance in order just to feel ‘normal.’ People also become dependent on a drug because they are unwilling to give up the good feelings they have when they are on the drug. They lose the ability to feel good without it.”
s “Not every person will become addicted to, or dependent on, every

q

potentially addictive substance. For example, you may know adults who smoke cigarettes heavily, even cough a lot from them; yet other adults will just smoke a cigarette from time to time but not regularly, and they don’t seem to ‘need’ cigarettes. Same thing with alcohol; why do some people become alcoholics and others don’t? Something similar occurs with marijuana; this is why the article says ‘For Some, Marijuana Turns Mean.’ Scientists are beginning to understand why this is so; it seems to be related to physical elements that are part of a person’s genetic makeup, inherited just like eye color and other physical qualities. But unlike eye color, these inherited elements are invisible and difficult to pin-point.”
s “Since it is impossible for an individual to know in advance whether he

q

or she will become addicted or dependent, this is one reason illicit drugs are dangerous. Why take the chance it might be you? Why even fool around with it?” Guide the discussion to emphasize that Daniel is probably one of the people with a genetic predisposition to marijuana addiction, which is why it is very hard for him to quit and he keeps having relapses – or going back to the drug. Emphasize that Daniel’s involvement with marijuana has led to the most serious sorts of problems for himself and his family, now and in the future.

REVIEW DISCUSSION: Facts and Fictions About Marijuana
s Read to the class the statements in quotations below. Explain that these

are some of the myths about marijuana that teens may believe. Then ask for examples from the Times article that contradict the myths:
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 1
MARIJUANA FACTS AND FICTIONS

1. “Marijuana won’t hurt you; it’s just a plant.” But how has marijuana hurt Daniel? 2. “Marijuana makes you feel relaxed and laid back.” How has Daniel’s behavior been the opposite of “relaxed and laid back”? 3. “Marijuana doesn’t cause you to lose control the way other drugs do.” How did Daniel lose control? 4. “Marijuana is not addictive.” If this is so, why can’t Daniel stop using it, even though all these bad things have happened to him because of it?
s Conclude by reinforcing that the statements are not true, as shown by

Daniel’s story. Ask students to evaluate why they can believe Daniel’s story is true, and not distorted.

RESOURCES
Basic introduction to marijuana and teens: National Institute of Drug Abuse “Marijuana: Facts For Teens” (http://www.nida.nih.gov/MarijBroch/Marijteens.html).

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LESSON 1
NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

CONSIDER THE SOURCE

Responsible newspaper reporters writing news articles provide reliable information from sources they trust, and let the readers know who or what those sources are. They also report the news impartially – without taking sides or being emotional. These rules let the reader know that he or she can trust that the information in a news article is accurate and form an opinion based on that information. Scan the front page of today’s edition of The New York Times. Choose a news article that interests you, read it carefully, then write a short response to each question below: Headline: ____________________________________ Date at top of page:______________ Byline (author of article) ________________________________________________________ 1. Why would it be important to identify the author of the article by name?___________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. Who is interviewed and/or quoted in the article?______________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3. What other sources of information are relied upon or referred to in the article? Is more than one point of view presented? Give an example.___________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you feel that the news story gives you true or accurate information? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 5. What sources of information about drugs would you trust most? Trust least? ________ ______________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 1
ARTICLE

Continued on next page

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LESSON 1
ARTICLE

Continued from previous page

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 2
MARIJUANA DILEMMAS FOR TEENAGERS

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

VOCABULARY
dilemma, scenario

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Print out on index cards or copy and cut out “Marijuana Dilemmas for

evaluate and resolve dilemmas relating to peer pressure q identify and describe difficult choices that occur in life, as reported in The New York Times q identify personal guideposts to making the right decisions
q

Teenagers” from page 14.
s Review the dilemmas, and divide students into six groups, one for

each dilemma.

WARM UP
Define the word dilemma: a difficult choice between two alternatives. Ask the students for some examples of difficult choices, or occasions when they have had to choose one action over another.

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
s Distribute The New York Times (one copy per student) s Direct students to look through today’s New York Times for an example

New York Times (one copy per student) q Six index cards or slips of paper with “Marijuana Dilemmas for Teenagers” from page 14 q Copies of Lesson 2 Classroom Activity Sheet (one per group)

of a dilemma, or difficult choice. Possibilities: a policy decision a government official might need to make, balancing the interests of one group of people against the interests of another; a personal decision about health care choices someone may face; a trial in which a jury has to decide on a verdict. s After a few minutes, have students share some of their “dilemmas in the news.”

DISCUSSION
ASK: s How did individuals in the news articles make choices? s Did they ask someone? s Do research? s What does the article tell you about the choice? s Did they make good choices or bad choices? s How do you know? What were the consequences of their choices? s Discussion points: difficult choices are a fact of life. s What guideposts can you use to help you make good choices – in your personal life, in your job?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 2
MARIJUANA DILEMMAS FOR TEENAGERS

s Who can you consult when you have a difficult choice to make? s What kind of information do you need in order to make a choice?

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “We’re going to look at some scenarios about marijuana in which making a choice may appear very challenging. What should you do in a difficult situation? This exercise will let you practice what to decide, how to tell others of your decision and look at the outcomes.”
s Divide students into six groups and distribute to each group a slip of

paper or index card with one of the dilemmas from page 14 on it. s Give out copies of the Lesson 2 Classroom Activity Sheet. s Allow students 15 minutes to discuss and complete the activity sheet. s Then have each group of students read their dilemma and present the resolutions they arrived at. SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Each dilemma involved outside pressures putting certain demands on you, ultimately forcing you to make a decision.”
s Was it difficult to see both points of view in the dilemma? s Was it easier to see one point of view more than the other? s Did you arrive at a point of view you would be most likely to adopt if

you were in this situation?
s What were some resolutions you arrived at? s Where might you go for help resolving this dilemma?

What are some ways you know that doing something is your own idea? q How do you know something is right for you?
q

Guide the discussion to reinforce the negative consequences of marijuana use, weighed against the perceived benefits of choosing marijuana.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 2
MARIJUANA DILEMMAS FOR TEENAGERS
s

Cut out and distribute the following statements (one per group): DILEMMA 1
MAKING THE GRADE. You have always wanted to get good grades and perform well on tests. At the same time you want to stay “connected” to friends who have pressured you to smoke weed. There’s just not enough time to prepare well for school and also hang out with this group of friends. And if you do use marijuana, it clouds your mind and makes it difficult to do well on tests. What will you decide? What will you tell your friends?

DILEMMA 2
THIS IS YOUR LIFE. A friend tries to persuade you to smoke marijuana, arguing that it lets you chill and really relax. But an older friend that you respect told you that when you’re high you’re so laid back you’re more likely to do something really stupid – something you could regret for the rest of your life, such as having unprotected sex or possibly causing a car accident. Who are you going to believe? What will you say to the friend who is urging you to smoke?

DILEMMA 3
POWER PLAY. You are hoping to qualify for a new record in your sport this year. Recently you were also invited to smoke marijuana by a group you think is cool. You know that along with the “high” from marijuana comes a lack of coordination and energy, difficulty paying attention and anxiety. Will you decide to make the team or make the “scene”?

DILEMMA 4
FINANCIAL FREEDOM. You’ve been working an after-school job and have spending money for some fun stuff, like CD’s and movies. You’ve even been putting some aside for that big-ticket item you’ve always wanted. Now some friends are urging you to spend money on weed, and you know it isn’t cheap. What’s it worth? How will you explain your decision?

DILEMMA 5
TRUSTING TIES. You want to belong. You love your family. But when friends you think are cool offer you some weed, you make the decision to smoke it; and now you find yourself lying to your family. Feeling high also makes it difficult to communicate with people who aren’t high. You find yourself fighting more at home. Friends who don’t use drugs say you seem distant and think you don’t like them. Is smoking marijuana worth trading for the trust of friends and family? How will you explain your answer to everyone involved?

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LESSON 2
CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENTS IN GROUP______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ MARIJUANA DILEMMAS

Dilemma # _________ Title_____________________________________________________ 1. Read the dilemma aloud as a group. 2. Identify the “pro-marijuana” and “anti-marijuana” points of view within the dilemma, then complete the chart by answering the following questions: a. Who in the dilemma is advocating each point of view? b. What action would each advocate want to see from you? c. What is the likely outcome of pleasing the advocate of each point of view?
PRO-MARIJUANA: ANTI-MARIJUANA:

a.

ADVOCATES

b.

ACTIONS

c.

OUTCOMES

3. Write a brief newspaper editorial about this dilemma. Give the facts of the dilemma and what your “editorial board” (peer group) recommends. Use editorials in The New York Times as your model.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 3
HOW MANY TEENS USE MARIJUANA?

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

BACKGROUND NOTES

M

examine how different polling methods might lead to different responses q identify actual levels of teen drug use in our society q give reasons why scientific studies or surveys are valuable ways to learn about what most people do q distinguish that what “most” people do may not make news
q

ost teenagers have not used marijuana and never will. Yet popular belief among teens often suggests that most people are using marijuana or other drugs, and some teenagers might feel compelled to try drugs in an effort to be “normal.” The goal of this lesson is to raise awareness of the fact that most adolescents do not use marijuana, other illicit drugs, alcohol or tobacco. It is important not to directly ask students if they have used an illicit substance, or otherwise put them in a compromising situation.

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools s Hang three large sheets of paper on three walls of the room, each with

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

one of the following statements: “Approve/Good Idea,” “Disapprove/Bad Idea” and “Don’t Know.” s Place two different colored slips of paper (for example, one red and one blue) on each desk. s Write the “Warm-Up” prompt on the board before students arrive s Scan today’s New York Times to familiarize yourself with articles that students might choose for the Homework assignment. Identify any example of a poll reported in a news article.

New York Times (one per student) q Classroom chalk board q Colored paper in two colors, such as yellow and blue q Three large sheets of paper q Copies of the New York Times article “Use of Drugs by Teenagers Declines Some, Report Says” from pages 21-22 (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 3 Classroom Activity Sheet (one per pair of students)

VOCABULARY
statistics, survey, poll, ebbing, overwhelmingly, marginally, significant, attributed, reassessment, gauge.

WARM-UP
s In this initial activity, students will respond to two polls, one silent and

one public. The silent poll will involve students writing on pieces of paper and passing them forward. For the public poll, students will move to three sides of the room, standing near the posters with statements that reflect their view on an issue.
s Upon entering class, direct students to respond to the following prompt,

written on the board prior to class: q Do you approve of using marijuana? (Approve, Disapprove or Don’t Know.)

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 3
HOW MANY TEENS USE MARIJUANA?

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
Distribute copies of today’s New York Times. q Distribute copies of Lesson 3 Newspaper Activity Sheet. Review. Establish due date.
q

q

Do you think it is a good idea or a bad idea to try marijuana at least once? (Good Idea, Bad Idea or Don’t Know.)

SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS: “On your desk are two slips of paper, one yellow, one blue, to be used as your ballots in a silent, anonymous poll. Do not write your names on the papers. On the yellow paper, answer this question: Do you approve of using marijuana? Respond: Approve, Disapprove or Don’t Know. On the blue paper, answer this question: Do you think it is a good idea or a bad idea to try marijuana at least once? Respond: Good Idea, Bad Idea or Don’t Know.” Collect the papers in two piles, one for each question.
s Next, explain to students that they will be participating in a public poll.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Have students make a chart in the form of an inverted pyramid from the statistics they gather to show that most young people do not use marijuana or have even tried it. q For more recent surveys as reported in “Use of Drugs by Teen-Agers Declines Some, Report Says” see the “Monitoring the Future” study reports online (http://www. monitoringthefuture.org). In addition, other surveys, such as the “National Household Survey on Drug Abuse” from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (http://www.samhsa.gov/ oas/p0000016.htm) and the “Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System” from the Centers for Disease
q

Point out the posters hanging on the three walls of the room. Read the first question on the board aloud, and ask students to move to the side of the room that best reflects their views. Tally the results on the board, and allow the students to return to their seats. Then read the second question aloud, and ask students again to move to the side that best reflects their views. Again tally the results, and allow the students to return to their seats.
s Finally, tally the results of the silent poll and clearly show the results for

each on the board next to the results of the public poll.

DISCUSSION
s Are the results for each poll identical? s Which poll was easier to respond to? Why? s Was it easier or harder to come to an opinion when the responses were

anonymous? Explain. SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “It’s easy to think that ‘everyone’ (all teens, anyway) considers marijuana acceptable and that ‘everyone’ uses marijuana. We hear about people using it all around us, and we often hear that it’s fun to smoke. These messages are reinforced in movies and music; kids talk in the hallways and in the lunch room. To appear cool – to show that we are plugged in and know what’s up – we may say we think it’s cool, and we may even imply that we use it, just so we don’t appear uncool. But did you ever wonder if the people all around you may be doing the same thing? What we say may not always match what we feel or do. How do you really know if ‘everyone’s’ doing it?”

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 3
HOW MANY TEENS USE MARIJUANA?

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
Control (http://www.cdc.gov/ nccdphp/dash/yrbs/) also track drug use among teens and its consequences. Using all available resources, including the Internet, research the most current source material available and update the chart on the Classroom Activity Sheet, then write your own article that summarizes the results.

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
s s s s s

Divide students into pairs. Give out one Lesson 3 Classroom Activity Sheet to each pair. Have each group select a student to record answers on the activity sheet. Ask pairs to complete Exercise A. After Exercise A has been completed, distribute copies of the New York Times article “Use of Drugs by Teenagers Declines Some, Report Says ” from pages 21-22. s As a class, read the Times article. s Direct students to complete Exercise B, using information in the article.

DISCUSSION
Ask students to respond to the following questions:
s How many students were surveyed in the study reported in the article? s What is the drug used most by teenagers? s How has drug use in general changed among teenagers, as reported in

the article?
s How accurate were your team’s estimates in Exercise A? s Were you surprised by the results reported in the Times article? Why or

why not? Guide the discussion to reinforce the value of a scientific survey like this to find out what is real. A survey polls a large number of people and counts up their answers. It aims to learn what is a fact by measuring something -- in this case, the responses of many teens. The fact we learn is that most teens do not use drugs.

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LESSON 3
CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________ EXERCISE A: What percentage of American teenagers do you think use any illicit drug, marijuana

or inhalants, or drink alcohol, or smoke cigarettes? As a group, complete the following chart by estimating the number of 8th, 10th and 12th grade students who you think have 1) ever tried the substance in their lifetime, and 2) used it in the past month.
LIFETIME 8th 10th 12th 8th PAST MONTH 10th 12th

ANY ILLICIT DRUG ___________________________________________________________________________________ MARIJUANA ___________________________________________________________________________________ INHALANTS ___________________________________________________________________________________ ANY ALCOHOL ___________________________________________________________________________________ BEEN DRUNK ___________________________________________________________________________________ CIGARETTES

EXERCISE B: Now complete the same chart using information from the Times article, “Use of

Drugs by Teenagers Declines Some, Report Says.”
LIFETIME 8th 10th 12th 8th PAST MONTH 10th 12th

ANY ILLICIT DRUG ___________________________________________________________________________________ MARIJUANA ___________________________________________________________________________________ INHALANTS ___________________________________________________________________________________ ANY ALCOHOL ___________________________________________________________________________________ BEEN DRUNK ___________________________________________________________________________________ CIGARETTES

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LESSON 3
NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

S

urveys are a way to add up information from many individuals to learn about the behavior of a large group of people. Statistics are numbers that allow us to compare and analyze the results.

s Scan The New York Times for an article about the behavior or opinions of a group of people, or

a trend, that uses statistics. It could have to do with politics, crime, health, employment or other subjects. Answer the questions below. Headline: ____________________________________ Date at top of page:______________ Byline (author of article) ________________________________________________________

1. What is the main idea of the story?_______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the most important statistics given in the story?______________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. Would you say that the story reports on what involves MOST people? Why?______________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 4. What statistics made this worthy of a news story?____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the sources of the information?___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 4
MARIJUANA AND THE BRAIN: A SCIENCE LESSON

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

BACKGROUND NOTES

S

ome parts of this article will likely be too difficult for middle school or other students; they will find the stories of individuals at the beginning and end of the article more accessible. You may want to summarize the science lesson as follows: When a person smokes marijuana, the active ingredient, THC, binds to specific sites on nerve cells throughout the brain and body called cannabinoid receptors. There are many different kinds of receptor sites in nerve cells. Such sites are often compared to the locks into which neurotransmitters fit to complete a synapse. Cannabinoids from marijuana seem to fit one type of lock, which then stimulates a series of reactions that lead to the side effects affecting the brain. When the brain is overwhelmed with cannabinoids through marijuana use, these interfere with the uptake of endocannabinoids, and interrupt the ability to remember. Cannabinoids are the THC compounds released into the body through marijuana use. Cannabinoid receptors are the sites on cell membranes where cannabinoids bind, or stick. Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds in the body involved in many body and brain functions. Endocannabinoids play an important role in a part of the brain involved in learning and memory. They are believed to strengthen the connections between nerve cells.

describe how marijuana affects the brain in general, and the memory in particular q cite scientific research about the addictive potential of marijuana q identify behavior associated with marijuana dependency q identify from articles in The New York Times successful adult roles that would be incompatible with drug use
q

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Copies of the New York Times article “Marijuana’s Effects: More Than Munchies” from pages 28-30 (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 4 Newspaper Activity Sheet (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 4 Homework Assignment Sheet (one per student)

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Create a list of 12 unusual words to use in the “Warm-Up.” The words

you select should be varied and unusual enough to make them challenging for your students to remember. You can use words from the Vocabulary section of this lesson or you may want to pull words from the list of “Obscure and Unusual Words” (http://phrontistery.50megs.com/allwords.html). s Review the New York Times article “Marijuana’s Effects: More Than Munchies.” s Review the Background Notes.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 4
MARIJUANA AND THE BRAIN: A SCIENCE LESSON

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q

VOCABULARY
cannabis, cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, addiction, receptors, intoxicant, illicit, hippocampus, neurotransmitters, genetically, dopamine, pharmacology, benign, lagged, drastic, dire, debilitating, intrigued, liberally, regulating, abundance, mellow, leptin, satiety, obese, modified, contentious, derail, insidious, extent, magnitude

Give out copies of the Lesson 4 Homework Assignment Sheet. Review. Set due date.

WARM-UP

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
q

Compare the 2001 statistics on marijuana use among students in the chart “Marijuana Use Rising” at the end of the “More Than Munchies” article on pages 28-30, with the statistics in the article on pages 21-22, “Use of Drugs By TeenAgers Declines Some, Report Says,” which was written in 1998. Write an analysis of the trend in marijuana use between 1998 and 2001 for each age group. Use as a writing model a News Analysis from The New York Times. Review the Fact Sheet, “Marijuana’s Health Effects,” on pages 74-75, in the Appendix. Research one (or more) system(s) of the body – heart, lungs, immune system or

Tell students that you will read a list of words that you want them to listen to, and when prompted, to write down as many as they can remember. Before reading the list, ask several students to stand in different places in the room. Direct two to carry on a loud conversation, ask a couple of others to read aloud from different books. Play the radio. Over this noise, read your list of words, then direct students to write down as many as they can remember. After a few minutes, explain to the students that, like the disruptions, marijuana interferes with normal information transfer and memory. SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Marijuana makes a number of activities – including reading, learning, sports, and any activity requiring strong reflexes, or physical and mental energy – much more difficult. How marijuana acts on the brain is only beginning to be understood. In this lesson we’ll learn about the latest research that explains how marijuana affects memory and some other functions of the brain and body. Then you’ll think about how people can be adversely affected in their jobs and lives by these effects.”

READING ACTIVITY
s Give out copies of the New York Times article “Marijuana’s Effects: More

Than Munchies” from pages 28-30.
s As a class, read the article up to the sentence:

q

“People often fail to notice that a friend or neighbor has a marijuana problem …” You may have to skip over some of the material in the middle of the article, depending on the level of your students.
s Clarify the terminology – cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and cannabinoid

receptors, as explained in the Background Notes, page 23. Make sure students understand the differences between these terms and the gist of Dr. Wilson’s research on memory and marijuana before continuing.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 4
MARIJUANA AND THE BRAIN: A SCIENCE LESSON

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES
reproductive system – and create a presentation poster that explains how this system works when healthy. Indicate on your poster what effects marijuana can have on this part of the body, and any health risks to this system attributed to the use of marijuana. Take a picture of your poster and submit it to your student newspaper with a caption.

s Discuss the following questions:

a. Why did Dawn say she started smoking marijuana? How old was she? b. How did marijuana affect her performance in school? c. According to the article, what are endocannabinoids? d. How does THC resemble endocannabinoids? e. What has Dr. Rachel Wilson recently discovered about how endocannabinoids affect memory? f. What percentage of people may become addicted to marijuana? g. What particularly bad effects can marijuana use have on young people? Why?
s Ask students to give some of the qualities of addiction, from pages 6-7 in

Teacher Lesson Plan 1.

DISCUSSION
Based on what you’ve learned from the article, do you think marijuana is dangerous for young people? How might using marijuana have a long-term, negative effect on a person’s life?

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
s Distribute copies of today’s New York Times, one copy per student. s Ask students to scan their newspaper, looking for articles that describe

people at work in demanding jobs. s Direct students to complete the Lesson 4 Newspaper Activity Sheet.

RESOURCES
“How Do Nerve Cells Communicate?” the Society of Neuroscience (http://www.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBackgrounders/ communication.htm). “Neuroscience for Kids” (http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html) “Mind Over Matter” (http://www.nida.nih.gov/MOM/MOMIndex.html), a good teaching module for younger teens from the National Institute of Drug Abuse. “The Brain & the Actions of Cocaine, Opiates and Marijuana” (http://www.drugabuse.gov/Teaching/Teaching.html)

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LESSON 4
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

IS MARIJUANA ADDICTIVE?

Finish reading the article “Marijuana’s Effects: More Than Munchies,” then complete the questions using your own words to interpret the research results described in the article. 1. According to Dr. Alan Budney, why don’t people always notice that someone has a problem with marijuana?______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. Is marijuana addictive? Give the following to support your answer: Two examples from scientists or scientific studies in the article___________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Two quotes from individuals expressing their opinion or observation______________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. List the problems Dawn and Mark have in their lives that would make you say they “have a problem” with marijuana. Would you say they are “addicted” to marijuana? In your opinion, is there a difference? ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 4. Combine all of your answers above in an essay in the style of the Op-Ed page of The New York Times.

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LESSON 4
NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

CONSIDER THE SOURCE

Scan the articles in today’s New York Times for words referring to the jobs that people do. Examples might include political leader, teacher, airline pilot, writer, professional athlete, doctor, judge, truck driver, pharmacist, ballet dancer, scientist, parent. Choose one article, then answer the following questions: Headline: ______________________________________ Date at top of page:____________ Byline (author of article) ________________________________________________________

A B C D

What job does the person in the article do?

Based on what you learned from the article, “Marijuana’s Effects: More Than Munchies,” what are some specific ways that marijuana use might affect the person(s) mentioned in this article and what they are doing?

What might this individual say to a co-worker who expressed an interest in smoking marijuana?

If this person’s boss found out the person was smoking marijuana, do you think that he or she would lose his or her job? Bearing in mind that marijuana is illegal, what else might happen to them?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 5
THE DANGERS OF SMOKING

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

TIME
Allow more than one class period for completion of this lesson.

PART 1 – CIGARETTES VOCABULARY
succumb, debilitating, chronic, endorsement, condemned, prominent, prevalence, interventions

identify reasons why some teenagers might want to smoke cigarettes and others would not q give specific examples of the dangerous health effects caused by smoking tobacco and marijuana q describe addictive qualities of cigarettes and marijuana q identify some positive and negative ways to communicate to peers about the harmful effects of drug use among teens
q

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Write the “Warm-Up” prompt on the board.

WARM-UP
Direct students to fold a piece of paper lengthwise, and to label the left column “Why” and the right column “Why Not.” Then direct them to respond to the following prompt written on the board: “WHY” – “List reasons why someone might smoke cigarettes.” “WHY NOT” – “List reasons why people should not smoke cigarettes.” After a few minutes, ask students to share their lists, recording student responses on the board in the two columns.
s Do students feel that any of the reasons for smoking are justifiable? s Why do people smoke if they know the dangers listed in the “Why

TOOLS NEEDED
PART ONE q Today’s New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Copies of The New York Times article “An Old Enemy, Smoking, Hangs Tough” from pages 36-38. q Copies of Lesson 5 Newspaper Activity Sheet PART TWO q Copies of Fact Sheet: Marijuana’s Health Effects, pages 74-75 (one per student)

Not” column?

READING ACTIVITY
s Distribute copies of the New York Times article “An Old Enemy,

Smoking, Hangs Tough,” from pages 36-38. s As a class, read the Times article, then discuss the following questions: a. Who is George Harrison and why did he die? b. How many Americans die or become disabled by tobacco smoke each year, according to the article? c. How many long-term smokers will develop a debilitating disease? What are some of these diseases?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 5
THE DANGERS OF SMOKING

TOOLS NEEDED
Copies of Lesson 5 Classroom Activity Sheet (one per group) q Poster board or large piece of construction paper (minimum one per group) q Markers, colored pencils (enough for students to share) q Tape or glue sticks, scissors (enough for students to share) q Copies of The New York Times, as well as popular teen, sports, and entertainment magazines from which students can cut pictures (enough for students to share)
q

d. How many teenagers start smoking each day? e. What do tobacco companies get for their investment in movies? f. What messages relating to tobacco use can be found in movies, according to the article? g. What effect does smoking portrayed in movies have on middle school students? h. What effect does starting to smoke at an early age have, according to one study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Society?

DISCUSSION
The article asks: “What will it take to persuade the 48 million Americans who still smoke to quit, and what will it take to keep the 3,000 teenagers who each day start smoking to resist this deadly addiction?”
s What do you think it will take? s How do you suggest trying to persuade teenagers not to start smoking? s What kind of information is most persuasive to teens? s How much money do you need to support a cigarette habit? s Calculate the cost for a month or a year, then direct students to select

items in advertisements in The Times that they could buy with money not spent on cigarettes.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES:
q

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
s Distribute copies of today’s New York Times. (Note: the Tuesday Science

Watch the movie “The Insider” and write a review (in the style of a New York Times movie review) that explores some of the events leading up to the 1998 tobacco settlement. What evidence did the tobacco company withhold? How was it uncovered? Were you surprised by the outcome of this movie? What did you learn about investigative journalism

Times section often reports medical news, along with a regular column on health.) s Distribute copies of Lesson 5 Newspaper Activity Sheet.

PART 2 –MARIJUANA PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Review the fact sheet: Marijuana’s Health Effects, pages 74-75.

SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “While tobacco is certainly harmful to your health, scientists believe that marijuana can be even worse for the lungs because users often inhale unfiltered smoke deeply and hold it as long as possible. Marijuana

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 5
THE DANGERS OF SMOKING

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES:
from this movie? Were there any parts of this movie that seemed unbelievable? Explain.
q

smoke contains some of the same ingredients in tobacco smoke that can cause emphysema and cancer. Many marijuana users also smoke cigarettes; the combined effects of smoking these two substances create an increased health risk.”

DISCUSSION
s Distribute copies of the Fact Sheet on pages 74-75: Marijuana’s Health Effects. Review the Fact Sheet and draw attention to “Effects on the Lungs.” s How does smoking marijuana compare to smoking tobacco? s Were you surprised by any of these facts? s Do any of these facts contradict popular messages you have received in movies, songs or other popular media about the effects of marijuana?

Visit Philip Morris International’s Web site (http://www.pmintl.com/ corp_resp/ysp/antismoking.htm) and read about their anti-smoking programs for television and radio. Choose one of these anti-smoking campaigns and write an evaluation of the program from a teenager’s perspective. Write in the style of a Times Op-Ed essay; study examples before you write.

GROUP ACTIVITY
s Divide class into small groups of three or four. s Explain to students that each group will create a full-page advertisement for The Times that conveys important basic information, pictures and statistics to encourage their peers to resist marijuana. s Distribute Lesson 5 Classroom Activity Sheets. s Distribute poster board. s Direct students to begin development of their ads by completing the “brainstorm lists.” Prompt students to discuss each question and generate a brainstorm list following each one (allow approximately two to three minutes per question). s Allow students to complete their ads, then display them in a hallway of the school, lunch room, school library or the school’s counseling center. Submit to the student newspaper for publication.

RESOURCES
“Healthy Lungs,” an article for teenagers by ForReal with links to graphic images of smoking-diseased lungs (http://www.forreal.org/know/healthylungs.asp) “Trends in Tobacco Use,” a report by the Epidemiology and Statistics Unit of the American Lung Association (http://www.lungusa.org/data/smoke/smoke1.pdf)

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LESSON 5
NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME________________________________

elect an article from The New York Times that might help readers live a healthier and more satisfying life. Write a paragraph that explains how someone might benefit from the information in this article. Who is the article written for? Do you think the information would be persuasive to such a reader? Why or why not? How might the information in this article help you talk to someone about this topic? (Note: the Science Times section, published Tuesdays, includes health reports.)

S

Headline: ____________________________________ Date at top of page:______________ Byline (author of article) ________________________________________________________

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LESSON 5
CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

As a group, you will create an informative advertisement to convey important basic information, pictures and statistics to encourage your peers to resist marijuana.

BRAINSTORM A MESSAGE:

BRAINSTORM ABOUT INFLUENTIAL IMAGES:

Begin by reviewing the Fact Sheet: Marijuana’s Health Effects. Choose one or more facts on this sheet that you think would be worth conveying to other teenagers. _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Do any of these facts contradict popular messages you have received in movies, songs or other popular media about the effects of marijuana? What would a more factual message be? ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

What are some activities that teens like to do? _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ What are some images or activities that seem especially scary to teenagers? _________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ What movies, television shows, songs or comedy routines do teens like? _____________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Who are some of the musicians, actors, comedians and athletes you think are influential to other teens? _______________________________________ _______________________________________

COMBINE A MESSAGE AND AN IMAGE: Look over your “brainstorm lists” and develop an advertisement using words and images that you think would be persuasive to other teenagers. Use markers, colored pencils and/or images from popular magazines to illustrate the message. Study ads in The Times and other media as models.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 6
DEVELOPING REFUSAL SKILLS

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Create a poster titled Basic Rules of Engagement, as below.

articulate in a socially skillful manner their refusal to do something that makes them feel uncomfortable q describe some successful strategies for resisting peer pressure q identify the behaviors and ideas of people who adhere to their own beliefs and principles
q

BASIC RULES OF ENGAGEMENT Always respect the opinions of others. Don’t put people down. Respect the privacy of others. Let others finish without interruption.
s Create a poster titled Refusal Skills, as below.

REFUSAL SKILLS Find your own way to say that you choose not to do it. Be willing to discuss why you feel that way. Be willing to listen to a different point of view. Make it clear that if your friend does it, you don’t hold it against him or her. Use your sense of humor.
s Create a poster titled Goals to Remember, as below.

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Student journals q Copies of “Refusal Skills” (one per student) from page 42. q Poster board or large pieces of paper for “Basic Rules of Engagement” and “Refusal Skills” posters. q Six index cards or slips of paper with “Refusal Skill Role Plays,” from page 43. q Copies of Lesson 6 Homework Assignment Sheet (one per student)

GOALS TO REMEMBER Keep your friends, even if you keep your distance from what they do. Stay out of trouble. Stay in control.

WARM-UP
Direct the students to write in their journals short responses to the four questions below. Read aloud: “Think of a time when someone wanted you to do something that you didn’t want to do because it was illegal, unsafe, against school or family rules, or that in some other way did not feel right to you. Perhaps you were in a group of people who started doing things that made you feel uncomfortable.”
s What was the situation? s How did you feel? s What did you want to say to them? s If you were able to replay that time, what would you say to them?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 6
DEVELOPING REFUSAL SKILLS

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q

Give out copies of today’s New York Times. Give out copies of Lesson 6 Newspaper Activity Sheet. In this homework assignment, students will be looking in The Times for examples of people who stand up for their own beliefs and principles. Explain to students that learning to refuse to do something often means having the confidence to stand up for what you believe in.

q

SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Learning to say no to someone we like is not easy. It brings up a lot of conflicting feelings. When friends ask us to do something that feels wrong, we not only feel uncomfortable about doing whatever we have been asked to do, but we may also feel uneasy about losing respect, losing popularity, perhaps even losing friendship. Today we’re going to practice learning to say no gracefully – without losing respect or friendship.”

q

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
s Give out copies of “Refusal Skills” from page 42. s Explain to students that they will first be learning some essential skills –

things to say as well as ways to think clearly – to use when someone asks them to do something they do not want to do. 1. Begin by reviewing the posted “Basic Rules of Engagement.” 2. Next, introduce the Refusal Skills below, by explaining that ways to say no gracefully can be learned. In parentheses are examples of how teens might refuse with responses appropriate to their peer group. Introduce this scenario: A new friend – someone you would like to get to know better – has asked you to come over after school to smoke weed, and you don’t want to.
q Find your own way to say that you choose not to do it.

(“That’s not my thing … I’m not into that … I don’t smoke, thanks … I’m just not OK with it … I would just feel weird.”)
q Be willing to discuss why you feel that way.

(“A lot of bad things can happen …. I can’t afford to mess up … it is illegal and I don’t want to get hassled … that’s not how I want to spend my money … I don’t put bad things into my body … We’ll both get in trouble if we get caught.”)
q Be willing to listen to a different point of view

(“I hear what you’re saying … I can respect how you feel ...”)
q Make it clear that if your friend does it, you don’t hold it against

him or her. (“You decide for yourself; I just don’t want to do it … I just don’t think it’s right, but if you do, that’s your call.”)

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 6
DEVELOPING REFUSAL SKILLS

q Use your sense of humor.

(“It would make me too crazy, and I’m crazy enough already without it … If I got high I would be stuck at the lowest level of Nintendo …”) Practicing these skills will help you act from a position of strength and confidence. 3. Refusal Skills role play: divide the class into groups of three to five students. Place the slips of paper with the “Refusal Skills Role Plays” face down on a desk and mix them up. Have each group choose one at random. Direct them to create dialogue and take on parts to act out. Remind them to adapt the refusal skills to fit the situation, and to follow the Basic Rules of Engagement. Encourage the students to be creative and use their sense of humor. After a few minutes of preparation, have the groups role play for the class.

DISCUSSION
After the role playing, ask students to respond to the following questions:
s If you were really in one of the situations described in these role plays,

what do you think would be the hardest thing to do?
s How do you think these role plays would help you in a similar real-

life situation?

RESOURCES
Theantidrug.com offers a selection of articles for parents and teachers describing ways to approach anti-drug role play and other tips for helping students deal with peer pressure (http://www.theantidrug.com/advice/articles_roleplay.html) (http://www.theantidrug.com/advice/tips_peer.html). “DOC” (Doctors Ought to Care) offers anti-smoking resources for youth, teachers and parents, including an online refusal skills program, “Learning to Say No” (http://www.kickbutt.org/youth/factguide/40.html)

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LESSON 6
REFUSAL SKILLS

BASIC RULES OF ENGAGEMENT s Always show respect to other people. s Don’t use put-downs. s Respect other people’s privacy. s Let others finish without interrupting.

REFUSAL SKILLS s Find your own way to say that you choose not to do it. s Be willing to discuss why you feel that way. s Be willing to listen to a different point of view. s Make it clear that if your friend does it, you don’t hold it against him or her. s Use your sense of humor.

What to do when someone keeps pushing you
q Make eye contact. q Explain your reasons for not doing what’s been asked. q Say “Listen to me.” q Pause to see if the person is listening. q If a friend still won’t listen, leave and say “I’ll see you later.”

Remember
q You can disapprove of what someone does without rejecting the whole person. q Disagreeing with others does not mean they will stop liking you.

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LESSON 6
REFUSAL SKILLS ROLE PLAYS
s

Cut out the following statements: (printed in boxes) ROLE PLAY #1
Before a science test, a friend asks you to place your test paper where she can look at it during the test. You don’t want your friend to flunk, but you also don’t want to get caught cheating and you don’t think it’s fair.

ROLE PLAY #2
You and a friend have gone to a movie across town, but you didn’t tell your parents. Another friend said he would pick you up but never showed. Your friend wants you to hitchhike home with him. You’ve never hitchhiked before, and don’t think it’s a good idea.

ROLE PLAY #3
You and a couple of friends are watching TV one Friday night and you catch the beginning of the Tonight Show with Jay Leno. During the monologue, Jay and his band-leader crack some jokes about marijuana. Your friends laugh and make comments about marijuana being cool, and one pulls out a joint and suggests going outside to smoke it. You don’t want to and they want to know what’s wrong with you.

ROLE PLAY #4
At the park, a friend’s older brother and a couple of his friends come over and hang out with you and your friend. The brother takes out a pack of cigarettes and offers one to each of you. You have never smoked and you know your friend doesn’t smoke either, but she takes one. You don’t want to, but you also don’t want to embarrass yourself or your friend by not acting cool.

ROLE PLAY #5
A friend invites you to his house after school when his parents aren’t home. Another friend and his girlfriend stop by and invite you both to smoke some weed. Your friend hesitates, but then says okay. You don’t smoke, and you told your parents you wouldn’t. You can feel the friend’s girlfriend watching for your reaction, and you don’t want her to think you’re afraid of smoking marijuana.

ROLE PLAY #6
You are invited to a party and have agreed with your parents that a friend will drive you home at a certain time. The party is fun and you lose track of the time. You remember at the exact time you agreed to be home, so you will be late, and you are in a hurry to leave. You round up your friend, and as you are about to pull out of the driveway, he starts to laugh and tells you he is really high.
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LESSON 6
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Scan today’s New York Times and look for an article about people sticking to or upholding their own beliefs or principles. Select one article and answer the following questions: Headline: ____________________________________ Date at top of page:_______________ Byline (author of article) _________________________________________________________

1. Who in the article is sticking to a belief or principle?__________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. What belief or principle is this person or group sticking to? __________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. How is this principle or belief challenged? _________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 4. How has this person or group faced the opposition? __________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you admire this person or group? Why or why not? _______________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 6. Write a letter to the editor expressing your views about this article, using your answers to questions 1-5. Study letters to The Times as models for your letter.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 7
DRUGGED DRIVING

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Review the Fact Sheet: Drugged Driving, page 76

VOCABULARY
rife, enforcement, proportion, legislation, profile, counseling, momentum

give examples of laws that are meant to deter dangerous behavior q persuasively argue why drinking or using drugs can impair judgment in driving or other situations q write a plan of action to avoid being put in a position of having to ride in a car with someone who has been drinking or using drugs
q

WARM-UP
Distribute today’s New York Times, one per student. Direct students to look through The Times for examples of laws that are intended to keep people from hurting themselves or others. Ask students to state what law is involved, what it is intended to prevent and how effective they think it is, based on facts from news articles. Ask: s What might happen without this law? s How do you balance the attitude “It’s a free country, I can do what I want” with making laws so people will be responsible?

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

DISCUSSION
Distribute copies of the Fact Sheet: Drugged Driving, page 76. SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teenagers in this country, accounting for 38 percent of all deaths among those 15 to 19 years old. And one quarter of the teens killed in those crashes had been drinking heavily.”
s What are some reasons that might account for these facts? s Is it fair to say that teenagers are more impulsive and take greater risks? s Based on the information on this sheet, how do you think smoking

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Copies of The New York Times article, “Teenagers Favor Curbs, But Drinking Remains Rife” from page 50 (one per student) q Copies of Fact Sheet, page 76: Drugged Driving (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 7 Homework Assignment Sheet (one per student)

marijuana could impair a person’s ability to drive? s Were you surprised by any of these facts? s How do some of these facts contradict popular messages in movies, advertisements or music that glamorize marijuana or other drugs?

READING ACTIVITY
s Distribute copies of the New York Times article “Teenagers Favor
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 7
DRUGGED DRIVING

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q

Curbs, But Drinking Remains Rife,” from page 50.
s Direct students in small groups to read the Times article, then discuss the

following questions in their small groups: a. According to the survey, what percentage of students favored keeping the legal drinking age? What percentage favored raising it? b. How did the survey numbers for teenagers compare to those for adults? c. Why does Ralph Hingson of Boston University’s School of Public Health say teenagers support strict enforcement of drinking laws? Do you agree with him? Why or why not? d. Why do you think Mr. Hingson says “a majority of high school seniors drink, but only a small proportion are drinking heavily”? e. According to the article, how many traffic deaths among teenagers in 1999 were associated with drinking laws? f. How did raising the drinking age affect the number of alcohol-related traffic deaths among people 15 to 20 years old? g. According to the survey, what penalties had the most influence on persuading teenagers not to drink? Survey your group: are these penalties effective? Why or why not? Have each group prepare a role play portraying parents and teens discussing an action plan for avoiding drinking situations. As each group presents, other class members take notes. Write up the role plays as a news report for the student newspaper.

Distribute copies of Lesson 7 Homework Assignment Sheet.

RESOURCES
The Impaired Driving Division of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides articles and links describing drunk-driving laws, effective ways to implement a community-based designated-driver program, and guides for reducing underage drinking (http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/alcohol/) Mothers Against Drunk Drivers addresses the challenges faced by all the highschool students who won’t be drinking this weekend (more than half ). (http://www.madd.org/under21/0,1056,1107,00.html)

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 7
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

TOOLS NEEDED
q One

pair of inexpensive sunglasses q Two ankle weights q Petroleum jelly or paste q Masking tape

1

SET UP AN EXPERIENCE TO SIMULATE IMPAIRED DRIVING.

PREPARATION
s Blur the outside of a pair of sunglasses using petroleum jelly or paste. s Create an obstacle course in your classroom using gymnasium cones

and/or desks and chairs. Mark off the route of this course, which should include a straight-lined section as well, using masking tape. s Create three identical “instrument panels” on a piece of cardboard by drawing three different circles, and numbering them 1, 2 and 3. Invite a volunteer to attach an ankle weight to one leg and another to the opposite wrist, to put on the blurred glasses, and then try to follow the obstacle course. Before this “driver” begins, ask three other volunteers to hold an “instrument panel” at three prominent places along the course (for example, at the beginning, in the middle and at the end), holding the panels within easy reach of the volunteer navigating the course. While navigating the course, the “driver” must pause at each “instrument panel” and “operate” the controls by pressing button #1 at the first stop, button #2 at the second stop, and button #3 at the third stop. Explain to students that the blurred glasses and the weights are meant to simulate the effects of alcohol on a person’s vision and equilibrium while operating a car. After one or more volunteers have had an opportunity to navigate the course, ask students to respond to the following questions:
s How did the glasses and the weights affect the way the volunteer

“drivers” were able to maneuver their way around the obstacle course?
s What kind of difficulty did the “drivers” appear to have in “operating”

the “instrument panel”?
s How is this simulation helpful in deterring someone from driving

under the influence of alcohol?
s Do you think it would prevent you from getting in a car driven by

someone under the influence of alcohol? Why or why not?

2

CONDUCT A “FISHBOWL” DISCUSSION:

s Explain to the class that they will be participating in a “fishbowl”

discussion on Drinking, Taking Drugs and Driving.
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 7
EXTENSION ACTIVITIES

s First, ask students to number off one to five, and keep a list on the

board of all “1’s,” “2’s,” “3’s,” “4’s,” and “5’s.”
s Explain the rules of a fishbowl discussion and make sure that students

understand them before proceeding.
s Familiarize yourself with the scope of questions to be asked and take an

active role steering the discussion to the question at hand. Fishbowl discussion rules: All the “1’s” sit facing one another in the center of a circle created by the rest of the students. The students in the center are the only ones allowed to speak. If a student from the outer circle wants to add to the discussion, he or she moves to the center of the circle, taps a non-speaking participant to indicate that he or she should resume a place in the outer circle, and takes that student’s place as the new person in the discussion. This person becomes a “1,” and the departing student adopts the assigned number of the student entering the circle. After discussing the first question, all the “2’s” switch places with the “1’s,” the second question will be posed, and the same fishbowl procedure occurs. The topic questions will change enough times so that all students have an opportunity to be in the center of the discussion at least once.

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:
s What are some attractions for teenagers to drinking? s What are some of the dangers of teen drinking and of alcohol abuse in

general? If teenagers knew about these dangers, would they be less inclined to drink? Why or why not? s What are situations other than driving that require you to be totally alert? How would being high on alcohol or marijuana make you vulnerable in such situations?

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LESSON 7
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Due Date ____________________________________________
DRUGGED DRIVING

I

magine you have been invited to a party at a friend’s house. You are not expected home for several hours when a friend’s older sibling invites you and a couple of others to go for a drive. You think it would be fun, and hop in the car. After you are a long distance from the party, the driver lights up a joint and starts passing it around. 1. How do you feel about being in a car with a driver who is getting high?_____________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

CHOICE #2:

What I would say:____________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Possible outcome:____________________ __________________________________ __________________________________
CHOICE #3:

What I would say:____________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Possible outcome:____________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 4. What are some actions you can take now, or people you can go to for guidance, to help you avoid being put in this position in the future? _________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 5. Write a headline for a news report about the situation described above. Use as your model the headlines on the front page of The Times. __________________________________ __________________________________

2. What are three choices you can make in this situation? What would you say to the driver and other passengers in each case? What are the possible outcomes?
CHOICE #1:

What I would say: ___________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Possible outcome:____________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

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LESSON 7
ARTICLE

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 8
DRUGS AND CRIME

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Scan The Times for articles about drugs and crime in today’s Times and

give some specific examples of violence and criminal activity frequently associated with drug trafficking q write a persuasive essay about whether an individual has a moral connection to violence, even far away, when the individual uses or buys drugs q identify persuasive writing and the elements that make it effective
q

papers from previous days. s Assemble tools. s Review the New York Times article on page 54: “Mexican Cartel Survives Losses, Official Says.” s Write definitions of user/addicts and drug traffickers on the board as follows: q User/addicts buy or steal for their drug habit q Drug traffickers earn money pushing/selling large quantities of drugs.

WARM-UP
Explain the distinction between user/addicts and drug traffickers. Briefly review definitions of “user/addicts” and “drug traffickers.”
s Divide class into small groups. s Direct students to search today’s Times and past papers for articles

TOOLS NEEDED
Copies of today’s New York Times (one per student) q Classroom chalk board q Several copies of The Times from previous days. q Articles linking drugs and criminal activity that you have collected from The New York Times and other sources q Copies of the New York Times article “Mexican Cartel Survives Losses, Official Says” from page 54 (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 8 Homework Assignment Sheet q Student journals
q

about drugs and crime. Each student will select one article and review for facts about user/addicts and drug traffickers. s Distribute a copy of today’s Times to each student and some past copies to specific students in each small group. s Allow time; circulate to guide students. (Note: it is helpful to use any articles on this topic that students have collected from previous copies of The Times. Classroom collections can be added to posters, to bulletin boards or kept in a class clippings file.)

DISCUSSION
ASK: s What did you find out about user/addicts and drug traffickers? s What laws did they break? s What are the reported consequences? SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS: “User/addicts may or may not commit petty crimes; these people should be offered rehabilitation and treatment. They may be people in our community. Drug traffickers are people who deal in large amounts
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 8
DRUGS AND CRIME

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q Distribute

copies of today’s New York Times. q Direct students to the Op-Ed page of The Times. Explain that this page consists of opinions by the writers. The homework assignment gives students an opportunity to express their opinions. Use the Op-Ed page as a model. Submit the best pieces of writing to your student newspaper or post on a school bulletin board.

of drugs for profit, may commit grave crimes against innocent people in the process, and punishments under the law are much harsher. Drug traffickers may be linked to people in our community through steps in an international distribution process.” “Drugs do not just appear in our neighborhoods. Drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and narcotic pain killers are illegally bought and sold by drug traffickers with ties that often extend far beyond the local community. As we will learn, these big-business operations often go together with a variety of criminal activities and violent actions against each other and innocent people.”

READING AND WRITING ACTIVITY
Distribute copies of the New York Times article “Mexican Cartel Survives Losses, Official Says” from page 54. As a class, read the article. Then discuss the following questions:
s How does this drug gang resemble a legitimate business? How is

it different? s How many people do the authorities think have been killed by members of this gang? s Why does the gang kill people in the course of doing its business? s What are some things the Mexican government has to do to try and stop the gang? s Why do people deal in drugs even though it is so dangerous? s How does the association of marijuana and cocaine with the violence mentioned in the article affect your attitude about these drugs?

VOCABULARY
cartel, smuggling, distributors, attorney general, prosecutor, money-laundering, enforcer

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LESSON 8
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Due Date ______________________________________
PERSUASIVE ESSAYS

A

Choose a persuasive essay from the Op-Ed page that expresses a point of view with which you agree.

Headline: ____________________________________ Date at top of page:_______________ Byline (author of article) _________________________________________________________ What is the argument made in the essay? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ What are the two sides of the issue in the essay? ______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Identify the sentences or words that persuade you to agree with the writer. _________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

B

Now, prepare your own persuasive essay in the style of the Op-Ed page. State your opinion on the topic:
s “If I buy or use illegal drugs, I am (or am not) personally connected to violence against

innocent people.”
s Support your opinion with facts from news articles and opinions of specific individuals

(by name).

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LESSON 8
ARTICLE

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 9
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA – PART 1

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Write the following on the blackboard:

define the terms “popular culture” and “youth culture” q discuss how the media purvey popular culture q identify examples of popular culture communicated by articles and advertisements in the Arts section of The New York Times. q interview a peer and a parent about the influence that humorous media messages about marijuana use have on teens.
q

POPULAR CULTURE means all the knowledge, values, beliefs, customs and behaviors that are currently in style with a group of people, like Americans or youth.
s Scan today’s New York Times and note ads that promote the

following ideals of popular culture. (Hint: be sure to check the ads for movies):
q q q q q q q q q q

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

Patriotism Helping others Adventure Fun Power Success Making money Consumption (buying/having things) Love Beauty

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board. q Copies of Lesson 9 Newspaper Activity Sheet (one copy per two students) q Copies of Lesson 9 Homework Assignment Sheet: Media Influence Interviews (one per student) q Scissors (enough for students to share)

VOCABULARY
popular culture, youth culture

WARM-UP
SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Today we’re going to discuss the concept of popular culture, the kinds of messages that our popular culture gives us about marijuana use, and the influence these messages have on young people like you.” Refer to the blackboard and review the meaning of popular culture with the students. SAY TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Popular culture covers all people, young and old, but let’s think of some examples of the knowledge, values, beliefs, customs and
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 9
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA – PART 1

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q Tell

behavior that are popular with students and are an important part of your lives.” Ask them specifically:
q What do you value? q What do you like to do? q What do you believe?

the students that the class is going to do some interview research to find out if people believe that messages in movies and on TV about marijuana are influencing young people to smoke pot. q Give each student a copy of the Lesson 9 Homework Assignment Sheet: Media Influence Interviews. q Review the homework assignment. q Review interview instructions with the students and emphasize that they have to ask the question and write down the answers of the people they are interviewing. They are not supposed to give the sheet to someone to fill in the answers. q Assign a due date and have them write it at the top of the page. (Note: Lesson 10 uses the completed homework assignment.)

Start the students off with the word “independence” – they want to be independent and not rely on their parents as they did when they were little. The students may give you a list that includes such other words as: cars, fun, sports, music, popularity and being cool. List these on the board and label them “Youth Culture.” Next, ask the students: q How do you know which of these things are important? q Where do you get your ideas about what clothes are in style and what things are cool to do? q Do these ideas change very often? This discussion should lead to an identification of the media, including music, movies, magazines, television, newspapers and the Internet, as one place where youth get messages and ideas about their culture. It should also lead to an understanding that the values of popular and youth culture are not static, but often change frequently and rapidly. Turn the discussion to advertising as a way that values of popular culture are conveyed.

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
Students will work in pairs for the rest of this activity. s Distribute a copy of today’s New York Times to each student. s Distribute a copy of the Lesson 9 Newspaper Activity Sheet to each pair of students. s Review the steps on the Lesson 9 Newspaper Activity Sheet with the class, making sure students understand what they are supposed to do and answering any questions. s Direct students to specific ads and discuss any of the following messages in the ads. q Patriotism (ads for the Army or Navy and ads for military movies) q Adventure (4X4 automobile ads and Mountain Dew ads)
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 9
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA – PART 1

q Helping others (ads for the Red Cross or Big Brothers) q Fun (beer ads) q Success (ads that show successful people using cell phones q q q q

and computers) Making money (ads for stock brokers like Merrill Lynch) Consumption (ads that show people shopping or buying) Love (toothpaste or shampoo ads that show two people embracing) Beauty (perfume or clothing ads that show beautiful men and women)

Allow about 20 minutes for completion of the assignment. Conclude the activity with a discussion of the values of popular culture they found in articles and advertisements.

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LESSON 9
NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Use the Arts section of The New York Times for this activity. Look at headlines of articles and read the first few paragraphs of some articles. Look at the advertisements in this section. When you have finished, answer the following questions about what you observed.

1

Using the definition of popular culture that is on the blackboard and remembering the discussion in class you just had about popular culture, state one message about our culture that you see often in the Arts section, either in ads or in articles.

2 3 4 5

Was the message about adult culture, youth culture or both?

How many ads did you find that communicate that same message?

What words, pictures or symbols in the ads communicate this cultural message?

Pick one ad and tell what cultural idea, value, belief or behavior (not product) the ad is selling you. Please attach your ad to this assignment sheet before handing it in.

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LESSON 9
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Due Date ____________________________________________
MEDIA INFLUENCE INTERVIEWS s Choose a young person about your age and an adult. They can be family

members or friends. Do not write down their names. s Interview each person separately. Ask the following question using exactly these words: “If a young person sees jokes or other references on TV or in the movies about marijuana being fun, do you think that will or will not influence the person to use marijuana? Why or why not?”
s YOU must write down each person’s answer below. DO NOT give them the page and let them

write their answers.

FRIEND/YOUTH

______ Will influence _______Will not influence

Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

ADULT

______ Will influence _______Will not influence

Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 10
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA: PART 2

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Check students’ completion of Marijuana in the Media: Part 1, from

Lesson 9, including Homework Assignment Sheet. s Scan recent copies of The Times for reports of polls or surveys.

examine the messages about marijuana, especially humorous ones, being communicated by popular culture through the media q compare and contrast these humorous messages about marijuana with the facts about marijuana use.
q

WARM-UP
Ask the students to report on what they heard from the people they interviewed in the Lesson 9 Homework Assignment. Ask for a show of hands and write on the board: 1) number of adults that said influence/not influence and 2) number of youth that said influence/not influence, and write the numbers (research data) on the board. Conduct a discussion about the differences (if any) in the numbers between adults and youth and ask the students why they think they got these results from their research. Students should hand in their interview sheets after the discussion. Compile results of the survey for use in a class news report. Note: be sure to inform readers of your news report that this was an “informal” survey.

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom blackboard q Completed Lesson 9 Homework Assignment Sheet: Media Influence Interviews

DISCUSSION
Ask the students if they have ever seen any advertisements for marijuana in the media. Once you have established that because marijuana is an illegal substance it cannot be advertised, tell the students that even thought there is no advertising for marijuana, we do get messages about marijuana from the media, and conduct a discussion about the kinds of messages that we get. ASK: What are the messages? Write on the board responses such as: q Marijuana is bad q Marijuana is no big deal q Marijuana is fun q Marijuana is cool q People are funny when they smoke marijuana q Using marijuana can get you in trouble q Using marijuana helps you have fun q Using marijuana helps you relax q Marijuana makes you stupid
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 10
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA: PART 2

Use the following questions to elicit responses from the students and list on the board all the different messages about marijuana that you get.
s What are some examples of marijuana use in movies you have seen?

What about music? Music videos? Television? The Internet?
s What messages about marijuana did these examples communicate to

you? (If the students focus on the “marijuana is bad” message, which they might because they think that is the answer you want, encourage them to talk about the other kinds of messages they get about marijuana, like smoking marijuana is fun or cool, or people are funny when they smoke marijuana.)
s Do you ever watch The Tonight Show with Jay Leno? During his

monologue at the beginning, Leno and his band director, Kevin Eubanks, sometimes joke about marijuana and even do funny skits about it. What kind of message does that give people about marijuana?
s Students who watch television shows like Sex and the City, The

Sopranos and Six Feet Under will frequently see marijuana being used as a harmless social drug. What kind of message does that give people?
s Summarize the discussion by examining whether the messages that

are written on the board are true or false.
s Tell the students that this is a good example of the fact that popular

culture doesn’t always give us messages that are good or correct. For example, many movies and ads make smoking cigarettes look healthy and cool, but we know that message is not the truth. Next ask the students the following discussion questions:
s If the media communicate the message that smoking marijuana is

fun and marijuana is a subject for humor and jokes, how does that compare with what you know about marijuana? (If students have not already done so, they should review the fact sheet on pages 74-75 about Marijuana’s Health Effects.)
s Do you think this kind of message influences young people like

you to smoke marijuana because they think it’s fun and harmless?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 10
MARIJUANA IN THE MEDIA: PART 2

s When our popular culture tends to make a joke of marijuana and

makes it seems like lots of people are using it, is it hard for you to believe that using marijuana is unhealthy and can have serious consequences?
s What can you do when you see or hear a message that makes using

marijuana look like fun when you know it’s not good to do it?

WRITING ASSIGNMENTS
1. Write up the results of the class survey as a news report for the student newspaper. Use as models for writing examples of poll or survey reports in The New York Times. Note the sources of statistics in these articles. 2. Write an editorial based on the facts reported in the student survey. Study Times editorials as models for your writing. Submit the best editorial with the survey news article to the student newspaper.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 11
ANTI-MARIJUANA ADS FOR TEENS

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Refer to Teacher Lesson Plan 9 for learning to detect values, lifestyles and

messages in popular culture.
s Write key concepts on the board q Target Audience q Headline q Body Copy q Layout q Place q Props q Posture q Photography q Story q Values q Lifestyle q Message

identify elements of advertising structure and content q analyze and critique an anti-drug ad aimed at teenagers q create an anti-drug ad aimed at teenagers q communicate anti-drug information to a parent, guardian or other adult
q

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom blackboard q Copies of “YOU ARE HERE” ad on page 67 (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 11 Classroom Activity Sheet: Creating An Anti-Marijuana Ad for Teens (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 11 Homework Assignment: Anonymous Parent/ Guardian Interview

SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “We’re going to talk about using advertising as a way to promote drug prevention, and explore different ways an advertisement can communicate a ‘message.’ Advertising messages give you information, but they also play on your emotions. Obviously, their goal is to make you want to buy a particular product or adopt a particular idea. Advertisers do this very well with words, pictures and music. We’ll explore some advertising methods so we can create ads to make young people want to avoid marijuana.”

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
Distribute copies of today’s New York Times to each student. Ask students to choose some advertisements that appeal to them, and discuss the following questions:
s What is the headline on the ad? s What is the body copy? s Who is the audience for this ad – who is it aimed at? s How does the art in the ad use “the four P’s”? q Place – setting q Props – objects q Posture – how the models(s) are posed
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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 11
ANTI-MARIJUANA ADS FOR TEENS

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
Distribute copies of Lesson 11 Homework Assignment: Anonymous Parent/ Guardian Interviews. Instruct students not to put any names on it, either their own or those of their parent or guardian. q Explain that they should ask for and write down the adult’s responses, but that if some people are not comfortable giving a response they need not do so. Set a due date. The adults’ responses will be used in Lesson 12. q Bear in mind that there may be family situations in which the adults do not wish to respond to the interview questions.
q

q Photography – techniques such as focus, camera angle, use of

color, etc.
s What is the story being told in the ad? (Elicit not just events, but

emotions.)
s What values are being expressed in the ad? s What lifestyle is being shown in the ad? s What is the message of this ad? s How is this ad persuasive or not persuasive to you?

Now distribute copies of the “YOU ARE HERE” ad from page 67 and go through the same questions as above. Explain that this is an ad from the Office of National Drug Control Policy.

DISCUSSION
Explore further the degree to which students find the “YOU ARE HERE” ad persuasive.
q Does the scene shown in this ad seem believable to you? q Do you think that teenagers would pay attention to this ad? q Would they do anything differently after seeing this ad?

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
Distribute copies of the Lesson 11 Classroom Activity Sheet. Direct students to review the information about marijuana that they have learned during this unit and pick a theme that they find particularly persuasive in order to create an anti-marijuana ad for people their own age. Students may complete their ads as homework if necessary. Set a due date. Explain to students that they will be showing the ad to their parent, guardian or other adult, as well as to other students in the class.

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LESSON 11
CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Due Date ____________________________________________
CREATING AN ANTI-MARIJUANA AD FOR TEENS

n a separate sheet of paper, create an anti-marijuana ad for people your age that could appear in a newspaper or magazine. You can use pictures you draw, clip from The New York Times or other publications, or find on the Internet or in other sources.

O
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Use these questions as a guide to creating your ad: What anti-drug “message” would you like to communicate to other teens about marijuana use? _________________________________________________________________________ What is your story?___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What is your headline?________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

What is your body copy?_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What values will you show? ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

What lifestyle will be depicted? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ What are the four “P’s” for the art in your ad: Place, Props, Posture, Photography?__________ __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 11
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

Due Date ____________________________________________

ANONYMOUS PARENT/GUARDIAN INTERVIEW

Students: Give your parent/guardian or other adult the anti-marijuana ad for teens that you created. Ask your parent/guardian or other adult to read it and then respond to the following questions anonymously. Write down their answers: 1. What information did you learn from reading this ad? _________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Do you find the information in this ad helpful? Why or why not?________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is a concern you have about young people and drug use – especially marijuana – that you would like to communicate to other parents or guardians? ______________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What concerns do you have about drug use – especially marijuana – that you would like to communicate to young people? ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 11
ANTI-MARIJUANA AD FOR TEENS

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 12
ANTI-MARIJUANA ADS FOR PARENTS

OBJECTIVES:
AT THE CONCLUSION OF THIS LESSON, STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO:

PREPARATION
s Assemble tools. s Make sure there are no names on the completed Lesson 11

Parent/Guardian Interview sheets. Make duplicates to cover instances where students did not return them, so each student will have one.

identify some differences between advertising aimed at adults and ads targeting teenagers q identify some positive ways to communicate with their parents or guardians, older siblings and other adults about drug use among teens q communicate information on marijuana to family members q create an anti-marijuana ad targeting parents and guardians of teens
q

WARM UP
Collect the anti-marijuana ads for teens that students created as part of Lesson 11 and redistribute them, giving each student an ad created by a different student. If some students have not turned in their assignment, allow students to double-up with one ad. Ask students to look at the ad created by one of their peers.
q What is the story in this ad? Does it seem realistic to you? q What is the message it conveys? q Is the ad persuasive?

TOOLS NEEDED
q Today’s

Have the students write on a separate piece of paper comments to the student who created the ad, listing what they think are the ad’s strengths and weaknesses. Collect the ads and comments and redistribute to the creators of the ads. SUGGESTED INTRODUCTION TO YOUR STUDENTS: “Your parents and guardians and other adults have a very important role to play in helping you stay away from marijuana and other drugs. The important thing is that you need to talk to them, and that might mean learning to look at things in the same ways they do. To help you do this, we’re going to begin looking at some newspaper ads that might interest them more than they might interest you. “Then we’re going to examine an anti-drug ad aimed at parents and guardians of teens, looking for ways you might talk to parents and guardians about the questions and concerns you have about marijuana.”

New York Times (one copy per student) q Classroom chalk board q Anti-Marijuana Ads for Teens that students created in Lesson 11 q Copies of the “TRUTH. THE ANTI-DRUG” ad on page 73 (one per student) q Copies of Lesson 12 Homework Assignment Sheet: Creating an Anti-Marijuana Ad for Parents and Guardians q Completed Lesson 11 Parent/ Guardian Interview sheets q Copies of Parent/Guardian Information/About Marijuana, on page 71

NEWSPAPER ACTIVITY
s Distribute copies of today’s New York Times, one per student. s Ask students to find advertisements that they think would interest

adults more than teenagers.

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 12
ANTI-MARIJUANA ADS FOR PARENTS

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
q Give out copies of Lesson

DISCUSSION
s What is the headline on the ad? s What is the body copy? s Who is the audience for this ad -- who is it aimed at? Their age,

12 Homework Assignment Sheet: Creating an AntiMarijuana Ad for Parents and Guardians. Set due date.
q Give out Parent/

Guardian Information About Marijuana sheet.
q Instruct students to give

their parent or guardian the ad they create attached to the Parent/Guardian Information About Marijuana sheet.
q Ask the students to have

gender, interests. s How does the art in the ad use “the four P’s”? q Place – setting q Props – objects q Posture – how the models(s) are posed q Photography – techniques such as focus, camera angle, use of color, etc. s What is the story being told in the ad? (Elicit not just events, but emotions.) s What values are being expressed in the ad? s What lifestyle is being shown in the ad? s What is the message of this ad? s How is the ad persuasive or not persuasive to you? s How do the ads you found differ from the ads that appeal to teenagers? s What are some similarities?

their parent or guardian sign the completed assignment.

CLASSROOM ACTIVITY
Now distribute copies of the “TRUTH. THE ANTI-DRUG” ad from page 73 and go through the same questions as above. Explain that this is an ad from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. Explore further the degree to which students find the “TRUTH. THE ANTI-DRUG” ad persuasive.
q What is the strongest message in this ad for parents and guardians? q What are some ways you might start a conversation about drugs

with your parents or guardians? q If parents are worried about their children using drugs, what should they do? q How useful is advertising as a way of educating people about drug prevention?

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TEACHER LESSON PLAN 12
ANTI-MARIJUANA ADS FOR PARENTS

What concerns do the parents and guardians in our class have about helping young people stay away from marijuana? Give out copies of the completed Lesson 11 Homework Assignment: Anonymous Parent/Guardian Interview. Ask students to read some of the responses from the sheet they have been given and take notes for ideas in creating their own anti-marijuana ad aimed at parents and guardians.

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PARENT/GUARDIAN INFORMATION
ABOUT MARIJUANA

RESOURCES
There are many resources available to parents and teenagers to help you talk about drug use, and about marijuana in particular. The drugs on the streets today are not necessarily the same as those in the past, and these resources deserve careful examination. FOR PARENTS: National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information: 1-800-788-2800 www.theantidrug.com www.laantidrug.com (Spanish) www.parentingisprevention.org www.talkingwithkids.org/ drugs.html FOR STUDENTS: National Drug and Alcohol Treatment Hotline: 1-800-662-4357 www.freevibe.com www.whatsyourantidrug.com www.straightscoop.com

P

arents and Guardians: Your child’s class is learning about drug prevention, with a focus on marijuana.

After alcohol and tobacco, the drug most used and abused by teens is marijuana. While most middle and high school students don’t use marijuana regularly and have never even tried it, there are reasons for concern.
s Marijuana use starts earlier than a generation ago. s Marijuana is much stronger than a generation ago. s More people are seeking treatment and there are more emergency room

admissions connected to marijuana dependence and abuse. s There are harmful, long-term consequences to marijuana use, especially for youth. Regular use by young people hinders their learning and social development. s Marijuana is addictive for some people. s Young people who smoke marijuana are much more likely to use other drugs, join gangs or display deviant behavior. s Young people who do not smoke marijuana are much more likely to do well in school and have positive relationships with their families and community. s Young people need to be educated about the dangers of driving – and other situations – when judgment is impaired due to drug use. You have an important role to play in helping your child resist drug use. The starting point is to express your clear expectation that he or she not use marijuana or other drugs.

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LESSON 12
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET

STUDENT NAME_________________________________________

Due Date ____________________________________________ CREATING AN ANTI-MARIJUANA AD FOR PARENTS AND GUARDIANS n a separate sheet, create an ad aimed at parents, guardians or other adults about how they can help keep young people from using marijuana. You can include original artwork or photography, or clip art from The New York Times, other publications, the Internet and other sources.

O

Attach your completed ad to the Parent/Guardian Information About Marijuana sheet and show both to your parent, guardian or other adult. Use these questions as a guide to creating your ad:

1 2What is your story?___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What is your headline?________________________________________________________ 3__________________________________________________________________________ 4What is your body copy?_______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

What anti-drug “message” would you like to communicate to other teens about marijuana use? __________________________________________________________________________

5What values will you show? ____________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What lifestyle will be depicted? _________________________________________________ 6_________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

7

What are the four “P’s” for the art in your ad: Place, Props, Posture, Photography?__________ __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________

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LESSON 12
ANTI-MARIJUANA AD FOR PARENTS

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APPENDIX
FACT SHEET: MARIJUANA’S HEALTH EFFECTS

GENERAL INFORMATION
s Marijuana is a green or gray mixture of dried, shredded flowers and

leaves of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. A strong form of marijuana is called sensemilla. s The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9tetrahydrocannabinol). s The average THC content of U.S.-produced sensemilla has risen from 3.2 percent in 1977 to 12.8 percent in 1997. s Short-term effects of marijuana use include euphoria, lack of inhibition, relaxation, drowsiness and sensory-perceptual experiences. s Other effects of marijuana use include problems with memory and learning; difficulty in thinking and problem-solving; loss of coordination; and increased heart rate, anxiety and panic attacks. s Heredity influences whether a user has positive or negative sensations after smoking marijuana.

EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA ON THE BRAIN
s THC affects the hippocampus, the area of the brain that handles

learning, memory and the integration of what we sense with emotions and motivations. s THC suppresses activity of the neurons in the information-processing system of the hippocampus. s The ability to learn, which depends on the hippocampus, also deteriorates because of the effect of THC. s Long-term use of marijuana produces changes in the brain similar to those seen after long-term use of other major drugs of abuse.

EFFECTS OF HEAVY MARIJUANA USE ON LEARNING AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
s People who use marijuana heavily have lower skills related to attention,

memory and learning, even after not smoking for 24 hours or more.
s Research on marijuana use among teenagers showed that, on average,

those who used marijuana had lower achievement than the non-users, more delinquent behavior and aggression, greater rebelliousness, poorer relationships with parents, and more associations with delinquent and drug-using friends. s Research also shows more anger and more regressive behavior (thumb sucking, temper tantrums) in toddlers whose parents use marijuana than among the toddlers of non-using parents. s Heavy marijuana users can lose ambition in life and become very passive.

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APPENDIX
FACT SHEET: MARIJUANA’S HEALTH EFFECTS

EFFECTS ON THE LUNGS
s Marijuana smoke contains carbon monoxide, nitrosamines,

benzopyrene, and over 60 cannabinoid compounds. All of these are respiratory irritants and potential carcinogens and may remain in fat tissue for several months. s Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems as tobacco smokers, including daily cough and phlegm, symptoms of chronic bronchitis and more frequent chest colds. s Continuing to smoke marijuana can lead to abnormal functioning of lung tissue injured or destroyed by marijuana smoke. s The amount of tar inhaled by marijuana smokers and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed are three to five times greater than among tobacco smokers.

EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY
s Drugs of abuse may interfere with proper nutrition and rest, which can

affect proper functioning of the immune system.
s Babies born to mothers who used marijuana during pregnancy were

smaller than those born to mothers who did not use it.
s Use of marijuana by a mother during the first month of breast-feeding

can impair the infant’s motor development (control of muscle movement).

LINK WITH CANCER
s THC may promote tumor growth by impairing the body’s anti-tumor

immunity system. (NIDA News Release, 6/20/00)
Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy

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APPENDIX
FACT SHEET: DRUGGED DRIVING

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: s Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for American teenagers. s Sixty-five percent of teen passenger deaths occur when another teenager is driving. s Two out of three teenagers killed in motor vehicle crashes are males. s One quarter of fatally injured teen drivers (16 to 20 years old) in 1995 had a blood alcohol concentration at or above .10 percent. According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy: s 10.7% of young adults aged 18 to 25 report driving under the influence of drugs at least once in the past year. s Most of the 7 million who reported driving under the influence of illegal drugs also reported driving under the influence of alcohol. s Of drivers who reported driving in the past year after drug use, 70 percent reported using marijuana, and the majority (60 percent) reported heavy or weekly use in the last year. According to the National Household Survey of Drug Abuse:
s Among drivers who reported driving after drug use, a majority were

younger (between 16-20 years of age).
s 39.7% of drivers aged 16 to 20 reported driving within 2 hours of using

marijuana and other illegal drugs, compared to 24.5% for drivers 21 and older. According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse: s The only way to remove alcohol and other drugs from the body is to wait for the liver and other organs of the body to metabolize the substances. No amount of coffee, showering, exercise or anything else can make the body do a faster job.
Source: Office of National Drug Control Policy

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APPENDIX
NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS CORRELATION

T

he activities in this curriculum guide are correlated with selected relevant standards from Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education, 3rd ed., established by Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL). McREL is also the source of the standards correlated with the lesson plans that appear daily on The New York Times Learning Network (www.nytimes.com/learning).

LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS
WRITING
Uses the general skills and strategies of the writing process Uses the stylistic and rhetorical aspects of writing Uses grammatical and mechanical conventions in written compositions Gathers and uses information for research purposes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

READING
Each McREL standard has subcategories, or benchmarks, subdivided into those applicable to elementary, middle and high school. This table lists the standards only. For McREL’s complete content standards and benchmarks, which cover a wide variety of school subjects, go to www.mcrel.com.
Uses the general skills and strategies of the reading process

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Uses reading skills and strategies X X X X X X X X X X X X to understand and interpret a variety of informational texts

LISTENING & SPEAKING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Uses listening and speaking strategies for different purposes

X X X X X X X X X X X X

MEDIA
Understands the characteristics and components of the media

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

X X X X X X X X X X X X

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APPENDIX
NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS CORRELATION

HEALTH STANDARDS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Knows how to maintain mental and emotional health Knows how to promote and maintain personal health

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Knows essential concepts about the prevention and control of disease X X X X X X X X X X X X Understands aspects of substance use and abuse

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Understands the fundamental conX X X X X X X X X X X X cepts of growth and development

LIFE SKILLS
SELF-REGULATION
Sets and manages goals Performs self-appraisal Considers risks Demonstrates perseverance Maintains a healthy self-concept Restrains impulsivity

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

THINKING & REASONING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Understands and applies the basic principles of presenting an argument Understands and applies basic principles of logic and reasoning Understands and applies basic principles of hypothesis testing and scientific inquiry Applies basic trouble-shooting and problem solving techniques

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Applies decision-making techniques X X X X X X X X X X X X

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APPENDIX
NATIONAL CONTENT STANDARDS CORRELATION

WORKING WITH OTHERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Contributes to the overall effort of a group

X X X X X X X X X X X X

Uses conflict-resolution techniques X X X X X X X X X X X X Works well with diverse individuals X X X X X X X X X X X X and in diverse situations Displays effective interpersonal communication skills

X X X X X X X X X X X X

CIVICS STANDARDS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Understands what is meant by “the public agenda,” how it is set, and how it is influenced by public X X X X X X X X X X X X opinion and the media Understands how certain character traits enhance citizens’ ability to fulfill personal and civic responsibilities

X X X X X X X X X X X X

SCIENCE STANDARDS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Understands the principles of heredity and related concepts Understands the structure and function of cells and organisms

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

MATHEMATICS STANDARDS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis

X X X X X X X X X X X X

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APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) coordinates drug policy throughout the Federal government and also provides much free information to the public. You may contact: Drug Policy Information Clearinghouse P.O. Box 6000 Rockville, MD 20849–6000 800–666–3332 www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration (SAMHSA) maintains the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, an excellent overview resource available on the Web at www.health.org/ SAMHSA 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, MD 20857 800-788-2800 www.samhsa.gov/ The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is part of the National Institutes of Health charged with conducting and publicizing research on drug abuse and addiction prevention. NIDA 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213 Bethesda, MD 20892 www.nida.nih.gov/ The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) is a voluntary health organization offering services, publications and information. NCADD 20 Exchange Place, Suite 2902 New York, NY 10005 (212) 269-7797 www.ncadd.org/

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APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University is a unique “think/action tank” addressing substance abuse and its effects on society. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University 633 Third Avenue, 19th floor New York, NY 10017 (212) 841-5200 www.casacolumbia.org/ The American Academy of Pediatrics offers resources under its “Media Matters” program to help pediatricians, parents, and children become more aware of the influence that media have on child and adolescent health, including alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. See www.aap.org/advocacy/mediamatters.htm The American Academy of Pediatrics 141 Northwest Point Boulevard Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098 (847) 434-4000 www.aap.org Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA) is a membership organization of over 5,000 anti-drug coalitions and provides services and resources to community anti-drug programs. CADCA 901 North Pitt Street, Suite 300 Alexandria, VA 22314 800-54-CADCA www.cadca.org/

SELECTED ANTI-DRUG WEB SITES
FOR STUDENTS: ForReal (www.forreal.org) An accessible site by and for teens offering anti-drug articles and resources maintained by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration.

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APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

FreeVibe (www.freevibe.com) A well-designed anti-drug site created especially for young people by the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign of the Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Anti-Drug (www.theantidrug.com) La Anti-Droga (www.laantidroga.com) A basic resource (in English and Spanish) for students from the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the White House office that coordinates drug policy. Planet Know (www.planet-know.net) A site for teens offering anti-drug entertainment and games created by the Center For Substance Abuse Prevention of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration. Straight Scoop News Bureau (www.straightscoop.org) A resource site for middle and high-school students interested in reporting about drugs and drug abuse for school papers and other media outlets.

FOR PARENTS: Parents. The Anti-Drug (www.theantidrug.com/advice) Padres. La Anti-Droga (www.laantidroga.com/static/tips/padres.htm) The parent pages (in English and Spanish) of the anti-drug resource site from the Office of National Drug Control Policy. You Can Help … Keep a Kid Off Drugs (www.youcanhelpkids.org) A resource site for parents and community volunteers interested in creating programs and advising youth to stay away from drugs. Parenting is Prevention (www.parentingisprevention.org) An advice and information resource featuring parent questions and answers from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration.

FOR EDUCATORS: Teachers. The Anti-Drug (www.theantidrug.com/teachersguide) A drug education resource developed by the Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign of the Office of Drug Control Policy.

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APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

NIDA Goes to School (www.drugabuse.gov/GoestoSchool/NIDAg2s.html) Science-based teacher resources from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, including “Sara’s Quest” and “Slide Teaching Packets” that offer entertaining visual materials describing how marijuana affects the brain. Safe and Drug-Free Schools (www.ed.gov/offices/OESE/SDFS) A compendium of U.S. Department of Education programs and activities for reducing drug, alcohol and tobacco use in and around schools. National Association of Student Assistance Professionals (www.NASAP.org) Information on SAP contacts and how to implement a comprehensive SAP program in school communities for the prevention, early identification and intervention of student substance use, violence and other barriers to learning. “L-Evated: The Blunt Truth,” a video about marijuana with a guide for teachers and counselors, in which teens act out various scenarios about peer pressure. (www.meeproductions.com/store/videosreports/ELTBT.cfm)

SELECTED DAILY LESSON PLANS FROM THE NEW YORK TIMES LEARNING NETWORK
(www.nytimes.com/learning/) The New York Times Learning Network is a free service for students in grades 3-12, their teachers and parents. The site is updated Monday through Friday throughout the year, and offers an extensive collection of lesson plans based on articles published in The New York Times. A selection of lesson plans addressing drugs and drug prevention include: “This is Your Brain on Pot” Creating Informational Print Advertisements to Inform Teenagers About the Physiological Effects of Marijuana Addiction (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20020430tuesday.html) “Constant Craving” How Drugs Interact With the Nervous System (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20001114tuesday.html) “High-Risk Areas” Understanding the Motivation Behind Drug Abuse Behaviors That Put People at Risk for Contracting H.I.V. (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20000426wednesday.html)
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APPENDIX
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

“A Test Case for Individual Rights” Assessing Whether Student Drug Testing Is a Violation of Student Rights (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/19990820friday.html) “Risky Business” Investigating Connections Between Teens’ Movie Viewing Restrictions and Their Use of Tobacco and Alcohol (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20020226tuesday.html) “Don’t Drink To That!” Raising Awareness About the Risks of Driving While Intoxicated (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/20010508tuesday.html) “Clearing the Smoke About Cigarettes” Creating Anti-Smoking Ad Campaigns Geared Towards Kids (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/19991019tuesday.html) “All Choked Up by Smoking Statistics” Analyzing Statistics and Creating Graphs in the Mathematics Classroom (www.nytimes.com/learning/teachers/lessons/19981119thursday.html? searchpv=learning_lessons)

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APPENDIX
AUTHORS AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

THIS GUIDE WAS WRITTEN BY
CLAYTON DEKORNE, an author for The New York Times Learning Network (www.nytimes.com/learning/), an educational writer and curriculum consultant in New York and Vermont. LYNDA BERGSMA, Ph.D, Assistant Professor, College of Public Health; Director, Media Wise Initiative; and Associate Director, Rural Health Office, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz. STEPHANIE DOBA, Corporate Sponsorships Manager, Newspaper in Education, The New York Times

WE ALSO THANK THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS FOR CONTRIBUTING THEIR EXPERTISE:
JO ANN BURKHOLDER, Administrator of the Student Assistance Program, Safe and Drug Free Schools and Community Contact, Roanoke County Schools, Roanoke, Va. FRED GARCIA, Chief Programs Officer for Washington State’s Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse, and vice president of Garcia Consulting. NANCY GARCIA, president of Garcia Consulting of Olympia, Wash., a firm specializing in media literacy, grant writing and culturally competent organizational development. PAMELA WEDDINGTON, Vice President, Communications, MEE Productions Inc., a developer of materials and campaigns targeting urban youth and other inner city audiences, Philadelphia, Pa.

Creation of this guide did not involve the reporting or editing staff of The New York Times.

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