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A '

E U C L I D 's1




Briefly, yet Plainly Demonstrated.



Printed for D. M i d w i n t e r, in
St. Tauts Churchyard ; and J. Osborn
and T.Longman, rATater-noster-Row.


- ...x ... -
^Harvard \



HAT follows is a New

Translation, withseveral Al
terations, of Eight of the
Fifteen Books of Euclid'*
. Elements of Geometry, wrote long since
in Latin by our famous 'Dr, Barrow, viz;.
the first Six, Eleventh and Twelfth ;
which are a sufficient Foundation for all
the other useful Tarts of Mathematicks ;
A 2 the
To the READER;
thS others being not near so necessary to be

But these Elements of Barrow's hither*

to* -published, notwithstanding the Brevity
and Conspicuity os the Demonstrations,
which renders thempreferable to any others,
aresubject to some Deficiencies and Faultsi
'Particularly the Schemes of the 'Proposi
tions, mere Copies of those in Peter
Herigon'-r Euclid, are in general too
small, and indistinct ; and many ill adap
ted to the generality of the Propositions
.And others again, almost unintelligible
as those of Prop. 29, and 30. Lib. 11.
and Prop. 17. Lib. 12.

Moreover, the second Book "wants the

Schemes oj"I'rop. 5, 6, 7, s, whick by a
hare Contemplation and Attention to the
Text, would be almost sufficient to evince
their Truth, without reading the Demon

To the READER:

These Inconveniences I have obviated,

in thefollowing Sheets, where the Schemes
are made large and distinct, adapted to the
generality of the Propositions the Lines
drawn for Construction dotted, to distin*
guijb themfromgiven Lines: others easy
to be comprehended put instead of those of
Prop. 29, and 30. Lib. 11. and Prop. 17.
Lib. 12. apd those of Prop. 5, 6, 7, 8. Lib. 2.
wanting, are heresupply'd.

Jhave likewise left outsome, and alter d

Others of the Algebraick ttemonstratims of
the Second Book, which appeared to me%oo
Intricatefor a Learner not used to that Me'
thod, andsubstituted more easy ones in their
room. I have also adapted other Tlemon-
firations to the Schemes of Prop. 29, $q.
Lib. 11. and Prop. 17. Lib. 12. and have
so distinguished the Schemes representing
the T'lanes and Solids of the Eleventh and
Twelfth Books, that a Learner's Imagina
tion will be almost as much assisted as if he
had real Material Planes and Solids to
oiews Not
To the READER; ;

Not long after the first publication of

these Elements in Latin, a bad English.
Translation came out by an unknown
hand, who was ignorant of the Subject, i as,
plainly appears in Def. i. Lib. i. where
hefays that a Line is Longitude without,
Latitude. And in Def. s . where he again
repeats the words Longitude and Latitude
for Length and Breadth. And in Prop- i c
Lib. 5, &c.

Tet notwithstanding, this Translation has

been reprinted more than once, without any
Correction or Alteration, not so much as
to make itjust and tolerable, English, which
obliged me toshe Trouble of new doing the
following Books, and altering them as
above related, not doubting of their accept '
tance by the English Reader, ' '.

I have one thing more to fay, which is,

That it is much better to have the Schemes
of the Troposttions in thefame Tages with
theTropositions {as they are in this Tract)
-fingly, than to have many of them together
in one Cut *, because the Learner's Atten
tion to theTroposition he is reading, will
be interrupted not only by constantly taking
his Eye off from theplace he is reading, to
view the Scheme, which will always be
too distant, let the Cuts fold out never so
advantageously $ but likewise by the other
circumjacent Figures 0s the fame Cut, not
to mention the Trouble offinding a Figure
sometimes. Nay, even a Mathematician of
a Languid Taste, willlay a Book aside, ra
ther than take the trouble of seeking out
the Figure of a 'Proposition among a num
ber all together in one Cut.

* As in Taquefs Euclid, and the English Edition of KeH't

dmmtotiint'i Euclid.

xAn Explanation of the Notes or

Characters used in this Treatise.

= Signifies Equality, as A = B, or A B == BC 5
or AB sss BC = CD j implies that A is equal to B,
or AB equal to BC, or AB equal to BC equal to
cr Signifies Majority, as A r B, or AB cr EC 5
implies, that A is greater than B, or AB greater
than BC.
-3 Signifies Minority, as A -3 B, or AB -3 BC ;
signifies, that A is less than B, or AB less than
-4- Signifies, that the Quantities between which
it is, are added or to be added, as A^f- B = C-f-D,
implies that A added to B, is equal to C added to
D 5 and AB + CD = EF + GH -f-iK, signifies
that AB added to CD is equal to EF added to GH
added to IK.
- Signifies Substraction, or that the latter of the
two Quantities it is between, is substracted from *bo
former, as A B or AB CD\ implies, that B is
substracted from A, or CD from AB j- that is,
A B or AB CD is the Difference of A and
B, or of AB and CD. .# . . .. . . ,
X Is the Sign of Multiplication, as A X B, or
AB x BC, or AB X BC x CD signifies; that A is
multiply'd or drawn into B, or AB multiply'd or
drawn into BC, or AB multiply'd by BC, multi
ply'd byCD. The conjunction of the Letters sig
nifies the fame thing, as A X B = AB, or AB X
-/ Signifies the Side of a Square, as ^AiJ is the
Square Root, or the Side of the Square AB.
And 2 or 3 ove/ one or more Quantities,
signifies the Square or Cube of them, as A* or
or Ab1 or AB 4- AC* signifies the Square of A, or
of AB, or of AB -f AC. Understand the fame of
the Cubes.



Definition s. 'k

Point it that which has no Parts,

as the Point A.

Thb' a Point, stridly ta
ken, has no Parts, or is of no
Bigness ; yet in Practice, there is a Necessity
of takiug it of some Bigness,' and that various,
according to the Figure it is in or near : as
upon Paper a Point is represented by a Prick
with the Point of the Compasses, a Dott with
the Pen, &c. but on the Ground by a Peg,
Stake, &c. And when we have occasion to men
tion it, we usually call it by the name of some
Letter of the Alphabet:, as the Point A.
B 2.
Euclid'j Elements.
2. A Line is Length without Breadth ; as A B.

A Line is made by moving or drawing a Point
From one place to another : it being the Mark
or Trace that that Point leaves behind it. As
if I move or draw the. Point of my Compasses,
Pen, or Pencil, &c. upon Paper ; or a Peg,
Stake, &c. upon the Ground, from the place
or point A to B : then the Ma.rk or Trace made
thereby; which I call AB, is a Line, which will
have some Breadth and Thickness in Practice,
because the Point describing it is pf some Bigness.

3. The Bounds of a Line are Points, as the

Points A, B.
4. A Right Line is that which lies evenly be
tween its Points.
5. A Superficies is that which has only Length
and Breadth.
As the Motion of a Point makes a Line, so.
the Motion of a Line makes a Superficies.

rC 6. The Bound or
Bounds of a Superfi
cies are'one or more
Ltnes; as AB, BC,
CD, AD. *
7. A Plane Superficies is that which lies evenly
between its Lines.

A plane Superficies is that to which a right
Line may be apply'd all manner of ways, or
which* made by the Motion of a streight Line.
8. A
Book I. . 'Definitions.
8. A Plane Angle is the Inclination of two right
Lines to one another, that are
in the fame Plane, and touch
pne another ; yet not so that
both of them be in the fame
DireElion : as A B C.

An Angle is faid to be so much the less, the
nearer the Lines that make it are to one ano
ther. Take two Lines
AB, BC, touching one
another in B : then if
you conceive these two
Lines to open like the
Legs of a Pair of Com
passes, so as always to
remain fasten'd to one
another in B, as by the Rivet of the Compasses,
whilst the Extremity A moves from the Extre
mity C j you will perceive, that the more these
Extremities move from each other, the greater
shall the Angle between the Lines AB, BC be
and on the contrary, the nearer you bring them
to one another, the lesser will the A,hgle be.

Whence it must be observed, that the Big-

ness.of Angles. does not consist in the bigness of
the two Lines that form them, (which are called
the Sides of the Angle) but in the bigness of
their Inclination, or bow
ing to one another : for
example, the Angle DAF
is greater than the Angle
CAB j tho' the Lines or
Sides AD, AF of the one
are less than the Sides AC,
AB of the other : because
B x they
EuclidV Elements.
they do not incline or bow so much to one
another, as the Sides of the- Angle CAB. To
understand which, you need only conceive the
Angle DAF to be laid upon the Angle CAB,
as you may fee by the dotted Lines representing
the Angle DAF.

Here Note, That when I express an Angle by

three Letters, -that Letter in the middle expres
ses the Point wherein the Sides meet, which is
called the angular Point* As the Angle DAF
lhews the Angle formed by the two Lines or
Sides DA, AF; it being the angular Point
wherein the Sides meet.

Moreover, right-lined Angles are such, whose

Sides are right Lines j and curved-lined ones
such, whose Sides are crooked Lines.

9. When the Lines that contain or form an

Angle are right ones, that Angle is called a
Right-lined Angle.
10. When a right Line' CG, standing upon
a right Line AB, makes
. theAngIesCGA,CGB,
on each fide equal to
- . one another, each of
those equal Angles is
^ call'd a Right Angle ;
A Gc B and the right Line CG
thus standing, is called
a Perpendicular to the Line AB, upon which it

11. An
Book I. 'Definitions.
11. An Obtuse An
gle is that which is
greater than a right An-
, gle j as ACB.
12. An Acute An-
gle is that which is less
than a right Angle ; as
1 3. A Term or Bound /'/ the Extremity or End
of any thing.
14. A~ Figure is that which is contained under
one or more Terms or Bounds.
15. A Circle is a plane Figure contained under
one, Line, which is called the Circumference; to
which all Lines that fall from a certain Point
within the Figure, are equal to one another.
16. And that Point is called the Center of the
17. A Diameter of a
Circle is a right Line
drawn through the Center
thereof, terminating both
ways at the Circumferencey
and dividing the Circle in
to two equal Parts.
18. A Semi-circle is
a Figure which is con
tained under the Diameter, and under that part of
the Circumference which is cut off by the Diameter.
In the Circle EABCD, the Point E is the
Center, the Line AC the Diameter, and ABC
is a Semi-circle.
1 p. Right-lined Figures are such as are con
tained under right Lines.
20. Trilateral or three-fided F1gures are such as
are contained under three right Lines.
11. Quadrilateral or four-fided Figures are such
as are contained under four right Lines.
B 3 22. Muh
Euclid's Elements.
23. Mult1lateral or many-fided Figures, are such
as are contained under more right Lines than

23. Of Trilateral Figures,

an Equilateral Triangle, is
that which hath three equal
Sides ; as the Triangle A'. .*

24. An Isosceles Triangle, is that

which hath only two Sides equal ;
as the Triangle B.

2 5 . A Scalene Triangle,
is one whose three Sides
are all unequal ; as C.

26. Of these Trilateral Fi

gures, a Right-angled Triangle is
that which hath one right Angle j
as the Triangle A.

27. An Amblygonious, or
Obtuse - angled Triangle, is
that which hath one Angle
obtuse ; as B.

28. An Oxygonious, or A-
cute-angled Triangle, is that
which hath three acute An
gles ; as C
., An
Book I. 'Definitions.
An Equiangular, or Equal-angled Figure, is
that whereof all the Angles are equal-: And
two Figures are equiangular, if the several An
gles of the one Figure be equal to the several
Angles of the other. The fame is to be under
stood of equilateral Figures.

19. Of Quadrilateral,
or Four-sided Figures, a
Square is that whose Sides
are equal, and Angles
right; as A BCD.

30. An Oblong, or
Long-square, is a Fi
gure that has four
right Angles, but not
equal Sides; aABCD.

31. A Rhombus, is a
Figure which hath four
equal Sides, but is not
right-angled ;- as A.

M 32. A Rhom-
boides, is a Fi
gure whose op
posite Sides and
opposite Angles
are only equal ;
all the Sides being hot equal between them
selves, nor the Angles right ones; as CLMH.
K ^
33. All other Qua
drilateral Figures be
sides these, are cal
led Trapeziums ; as
B 4 54-
E u c l i d'j Elements.
. . 34. Parallel, or E-
quidistant right Lines,
g are such, which being
in the fame plain Su
perficies, if infinitely produced, would never meet;
as A and B.
35. A Paral
lelogram is a qua
drilateral Figure ,
whose opposite Sides
are parallel or equi
distant rt1GLHM.
3 6. In a Pa
rallelogram A B
C D, when a
Diameter A C,
and two Lines
EF, HI, paral-
lei to the Sides,
* cutting the Dia
meter in one or the fame Point G, are drawn
so, that the Parallelogram be divided by them
into sour Parallelograms ,- then those two Pa
rallelograms, D G and G B, thro' which the
Diameter does not pass, are called Comple
ments ; and the other two, HE, F I, which
the Diameter passeth thro', are called Paral
lelograms standing about the Diameter.
A Definition is what determines the Idea of
a Word, or which gives a clear Notion of the
Thing that we would have signified by that
Word. .
An Axiom is that which is so evident, that it
has no need of a Proof j as that the Whole is grea
ter than its Part, &c.
A Theorem is something proposed, the Truth
of which is to be made appear (which is called
demonstrating it) so evidently, that all scruple
Book I. 'Definitions.
concerning the fame may vanish ; as that the
Square of the Hypothenuse of a right-angled 'trian
gle, is equal to the two Squares of the other Sides.
A Problem is something proposed to be done ;
as to make a Circle pass thro' three given Points.
A Lemma is a Proposition laid dowt> only for
demonstrating some following Proposition more
A Corollary is a Consequence deduced from a
foregoing Proposition.
A Scholium is a Critical Exposition upon some
thing faid before.

Postulates or Petitions.
1. Grant that a right Line may be drawn
from any Point to any other Point.
2. That a finite right Line may be drawn
out at pleasure.
3. That a Circle may be described about any
Centre with any Distance.

1. Things equal to the fame third Thing,
are also equal the one to the other.
As, if A = B C; then is KC: or
therefore all the Quantities A, B, C, are equal
the one to the other.
Note. When you find several Quantities con
nected together after this manner, the first
Quantity, or any of the intermediate ones, by
virtue of this Axiom, is equal to thelalt: in
which cafe, for brevity's fake, we usually omit
citing this Axiom, notwithstanding the Force
of the Consequence depends upon it.
a. If to equal things you add equal things,
the wholes shall be equal. As if A = B, and
C == B ; then shall A + C = B+ D.

3. I
Eoclid'j Elements.
3. If from equal things you take away equa
things, the things rema1ning w1ll be equal. As
if A + C=B + D) and A=B; then shall
C = D.
4. If to unequal things you add equal things,
the wholas will be unequal. As if A <=~ B and
C = D; then shall A + C tr B + D.
5. If from unequal things you take away
equal things, the remainders will be unequal.
As if A + C tr B + D, and C = D : then shall
6. Things which are the double of the fame
third thing, or of equal things, are equal one
to the other. Understand the fame of things
that are the triple, quadruple,^, of tue fame
thing. As if A = 2 B, and C = 2 B : thea
shall A G.
7. Things which are the half of the one and
the fame thing, or of equal things, are equal the
one to the other ; conceive the fame of things
that are the one third, one fourth of the fame
thing. As if A = 4- B, and C = 4- B : then
shall A = C.
8. Th1ngs which agree together, or coincide,
are equal the one to the other.
The Converse of this Axiom is true in right
Lines and Angles, but .not in Figures, unless
they be similar. t
Moreover, Magnitudes are faid to agree, or
coincide, when the parts of the one being ap
ply5d to the parts of the other, they fill up an
equal, or the fame Space.
9. Every Whole is greater than its Part.
10. Two right Lines cannot have one and
the fame Segment (or Part) common to them
11. Two
Book I. 'Definitions.
11. Two right Lines meeting in the fame
Point, if they be both produced, will necessa
rily cut one another in that Point.
12. All ri*ght Angles are equal to one an
13. If a right Line BA, falling on two right
Lines AD, C B, makes the internal Angles on

the fame Side B A D + A B C less than two

right Angles : those two right Lines produced,
shall meet on that Side, where the Angles are
less than two right Angles.
14. Two right Lines do not contain a Space.
1 j. If toequal things you add unequal things,
the excess of the wholes shall be equal to the
excess of the unequal things before the Addi
tion. As if A = B, and C cr D : then shall
A + C B D=C D.
16. If to unequal things equal things be ad
ded, the excess of the whole shall be equal to
the excess of the unequal things before the Ad
d1tion. If A =B, and C cr > j then shall A +
C B Dbe A B.'
17. If from equal things unequal things be
taken away, the excess of the remainders shall
be equal to the excess of the things taken away.
If AcrB, and C = D; then shall A C B
+ D be + D C.
18. If equal things be taken from unequal
ones, the excess of the remainders shall be e-
qual to the excess of the wholes. As if A cr B,
and C = D; then shall AC-t-D B be
= A B.
19. E-
IZ Euclid5.? Elements.
19. Every Whole is equal to all its Parts ta
ken together.
7.0. If one whole thing be the double of an
other, and that which is taken away from the
first, the double of that which is taken away
from the second, the remainder of the first shall
be the double of the remainder of the second.
As if A==aB, and C=2D: then shall A - C
= aB 2D.
The Citations are thus td be understood :
When you meet with two Numbers in the
Margin, the first shews the Proposition, the
second the Book ; as by 4. i you are to under
stand the fourth Proposition of the first Book :
and so of the rest. Moreover, ax. denotes Ax
iom, post. Postulatet def. Definition, scb. Scholium,
and cor. Corollary. -

Upon a given finite right Line (AB) to describe
an equilateral Triangle (ABC).

About the Centers A and B, with the com-

3 mon distance AB or BA, * describe two Circles
b i poji. cutting each other in the Point C > from which
c i5 */. draw fc two right Lines, CA, CB : then is AC e
= AB = BC * = AC. Wherefore the Tri-
angle ACB is e an equilateral one. Which was to
be done.
Book I. Definitions.
After the fame manner may an Isosceles Tri
angle be described upon the Line AB, if the
Distances or Intervals of the equal Circles be
taken greater or less than the Line AB.

From a given Point A, to draw a right Line
AG equal to a right Line given (BC).

About the Center C, with the Distance CB,

describe * the Circle CBE. Join b AC, upon * 3
which raise c the equilateral Triangle ADC. b 1
Produce * DC to E, about the Center D, with \
the Distance DE, describe a the Circle DEH, e 2
and let DA be produced e to the Point G ins 15
the Circumference thereof. Then is AG = CB. 8 con
For DG f = DE, and DA s = DC. Where- f ?
fore AG b = CE * = BCk = AG. Which was k >
to be done.
The Position of the Point- A within or with
out the.Line BC varies the Cafes, but the Con
struction and Demonstration are every where'
the fame. V .

The Line AG might be taken between the
Po1nts of a Pair of Compasses, but no Postu-
1 . late
E u c l i d 's Elements.
late of Euclid, allows the doing of this, as Pro-
clus well observes.

Two right Lines (A and BC) being given ; from
the greater (BC) to take away a right Line (BEJ,
equal to the lejser (A.)

From the Point B draw the r1ght Line BD

a a. 1. = A then a Circle described about the Cen
b 1 5 des.
c conjl. ter b', with the Distance BD, (hall cut off
d 1 ax. BE b == BDc = Ad = BE. Which was to be
If two Triangles (BAC, bac) have two Sides of
the one (BA, AC) equal to two Sides of the other
(ba, ac) each to its correspondent Side (that is, BA
ba, and AC = slc) and have one Angle (A) e-
qual to one Angle (a), contained under the equal
right Lines : they /ball have the Base (BC) equal to
the Base (be), and the Triangle (BAC) shall be e-

Book I. Definitions. 15
qual to the 'Triangle (bac) ; . and the remaining An
gles (B, C) shall be equal to the remaining Angles
(b, c) each to each, under which the equal Sides are
subtended. * .,
If the Point a be applied to the Point A, and
the right Line ab placed upon the right Line
AB, the Point b shall fall upon B, because
ab = AB ^ also the right Line ac shall fall up
on AC, because the Angle A a ; moreover, n hyp.
the Point c shall fall upon the Point C, because
AC a = ac. Therefore the right Lines ic, BC,
because they have the same Bounds, shall agree
b or coincide, and so consequently are \equal.b %w.
Wherefore the Triangles BAC, foe,, and the An
gles B, b, as also the Angles C, c, do agree, or
coincide, and are equal. Which was to be demon
strated. .:

prop. v. !'...!
The Angles (ABC, ACB)
A at the Base of an Isosceles
/\ Triangle are equal to each - - -f
/ \ other. And, if the equal right -
J \ Lines AB, AC, be continued
I \ out,theAngles.(CBD,BCE)
Byt^* \C under the Base, are equal to
j x>.r*'" \ each ether.
B/ -**'" \A ^ Take a AE = AD, and a 3-
j \ joinbC,.D, and. B,^'
Then in the Triangles c ^
ACD', ABE, because AB is <= AC, and AEd =d mst.
AD, and the Angle A 1s common : therefore
sl1all'the Angle ABE be =ACD, and thee4.1.
Angle AEB ' = ADC, and the Base BE c =DC.
Also EC is s DB. Whence in the Triangles f 3 ax.
BCE, BDC, the Angle ECB shall be e = DBC,
(which is the latter part of the Proposition to be de
monstrated) and consequently the Angle EEC ==
16 Euclid'* Elements.
g what is DCB ; but the Angle ABF 8 = ACD. There-
froved be- fore the Angle ABC t _ ACB_ D
h i2 ax. COROLLARY.
Hence, every equilateral Triangle is also e-

If two Angles (ABC, ACB)
of a Triangle (ABC) be equal
the one to the other ; the Sides
AB, AC, subtended under the
equal Angles, shall^alfo be equal .
the one to the other.
If the Sides are not equal,
let either of them be the
* 5 1. greater, as let BAcrCA; now make aBD =
b 1 post. CA, and draw b the Line CD.
ct^, In the Triangles DBC, ACB, because BDc =
CA, and the Side BC is common ; and the An-
d1 hyp. gle DBCa= ACB1 the Triangles DBC and
e 4. 1. ABC shall be e equal to each other ; and so the
f 9 ** Part is equal to the Whole : which is f absurd.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence every equiangular Triangle is also e-

Jf from the Extremes (A, B) of a right Line, two
right Lines (AC, BC) be drawn to any Point C ; you
cannot draw two other right Lines (AD, ED) on
thefame fide the Point C frcm the fame Points A, B,
to any other Point, asD; so that AD, BD, be each
equal to AC, BC, (that is, that AD be = AC,
and BD = BC) but only to G

Book I. Euclid's Elements. 17,


Case i. If the Point D falls in AC, it is

manifest that AD is not equal to AC. a 9 **
. Case 2. If the Point D falls within the Tri
angle ACB, then draw the Line CD, and con
tinue out BDFand BCE. Now if you fay that
AD = AC, then will the Angle ADC b be = b 5. u
ACD. Also since c BD = BC, then shall the c ftp.
Angle FDC bbe = ECD. Therefore the An-d 9 ax.
gle i FDC c-ACD; that is, the Angle a FDC
tr ADC : which is absurd.
Case 3. If the Point D falls without the Tri- ,
angle ACB, then join CD.
Again, the Angle ACDe = ADC, and BCDe 5. i.
=. BDC ; but the Angle ADC f -=> BDC ; that f 9 .
js, the Angle ACD -=J BCD ; which is absurd.


If two Triangles (ABC, abc) have two Sides
(AB, AC) each equal to two Sides, ab, ac, and the
Base BC equal to the Base be j then the Angles con-
| tained under the equal right Lines (hall be equal, viz. y
I A = a.

C Eecause
18 Euclid'; Elements.
Because ' BC = c, if the Base BC be laid on
b Sax. the Base be, they will b coincide : therefore since
c hyp. ABc = ab, and AC = ac, the Point A will fall
on a, (for it cannot fall on any other Point, by
the last Proposition ;) and so the, Sides of the An
d 14 ax. gles A and a do coincide d : wherefore those
e 8. ax. Angles are e equal. Q. E. D.

I. Hence Triangles mutually equilateral to
f 4. 1. one another, are also mutually f equiangular,
g 8 ax. 2. Triangles mutually equilateral, are 6 equal
the one to the. other.

7o. bisect or divide a given
right-lined Angle BAC, into two
equal Parts.
h 1. Take b AD = AE.and draw
the Line DE, upon which make
an 1 equilateral Triangle DFE :
i 1. 1.
then draw the right Line AF,
and it shall bisect the Angle
k conjlr. - For kAD = AE, and the
Side AF is common, and the Base k DF = FE :
1 8. 1.
therefore 1 the Angle DAF = EAF. Q. E. F.

Hence appears the way of dividing an Angle
into these equal Parts, viz-. 4, 8, 16, &c. which
is done by a new bisecting of each of the for
mer ones.
The Method of cutting Angles into any Num
ber of equal Parts required by a Ruler and
Compasses, is as yet unknown to Geometri
Book I. Euclid'* Elements.

To hifeel a given right Line,
Upon the given Line AB
erect a an equilateral Trian
gle ABCj and b bisect the* i
-B Angle C, by the right Line 9
CD : which Line shall also
bisect the given Line AB.
For c AC = BC, and the Side CD is com
mon, and the Angle c ACD = BCD : There
fore d AD =BD. &.E.F. cm
The Construction of Prop. i. of this Book is 4"
sufficient for shewing the Practice of this, and
the last Problem.
From a given Point
(C) in a given right
A Line (AB), to ereft a
right Line CF, at right
Angles to AB.
A- -ft On either fide (of
the given Point take
the 'Line CD = CE , upon w^uu the
we uguc
Line ut.
erectfan equilateral Triangle:
i andi draw
> the Linef
- e 3.
FC ; and it will be the Perpendicular required.
For CE =CD, and CFis common, and DF
= EF (by Const.) whence the Triangles DFC,
EFC are mutually equilateral,- therefore s the S'
Angle DCF=r ECF j whence FC is '> a Perpen-h i0
dicular. Q. E. F.
This and the following Problem are easily per
formed by means of a Square.

To draw a right Line (CG) perpendicular upon
(or to) a given infinite right Line (AB) from a gi
ven Point (C) without that Line.
C 2 With
20 Euclid'* Elements.
With the Center C
a 3 post. \ describe a Circle "cut
ting the given right
Line AB in the Points
E and F ; then b bisect
b io. i. A "-- P B
EF in G, and draw
the right Line CG,
which will be the Perpendicular required.
Draw the Lines CE, CFj then the Triangles
c eonstr. EGC, FGC are c mutually equilateral : There-
ed 8. i. fore d the Angles EGC, FGC are equal, and by
e io df. consequence e right ones : wherefore GC is a
Perpendicular. Q. E. F.
When a right Lint AB
standing upon a right Line
CD, makes with it An
gles ABC, ABD ; those
are either two right An
gle*, or both together e-
B qual to two right Angles.
If the Angles ABC, ABD be equal; then it
f io its. is manifest thoy make i two right Angles ; if un
equal, then from the Point B let there be erect
g ii. i. ed 8 a Perpendicular BE : because the Angle
hii? ax, ABC = to b a right Angle -f- ABE ; therefore
i 2 ax. ABC + ABD ! = to one right Ang. + ABE
4- ABD = to k two right Angles/ Q, E. D.
k const.
If two right Lilies
(CB, BD) drawn con
trary ways to the Point
B in any strait Line
(AB) jo that the An
gles (ABC, ABD) on
B D tachfide AB be equal to
two right Angles : the faid Lines CB, BD, lie both in
Book I. Euclid'; Elements.
the fame DireBion, that is, they are one and thefame
strait Line.
If this be denied, let CB, BE be both in the
fame strait Line ; then will the Angle ABC
ABE= a two right ones, b = ABC + ABD :
which is 'absurd. b
. XV.
If two right Lines
(AB, CD) mutually cut
one another ; the Angles
(CEB, AED) at the
Vertex shall be equal.
For the Angle AEC
+ CEB is d = to two d
right ones a = AEC + AED; therefore CEB
ise = AED. Q.E.D. e }
If two right Lines
{EA, AF) be drawn to
wards contrary parts'
from the Point A taken
in any right Line GH,
in such manner that the Vertical Angles D and
B are equal to one another ; the said Lines EA,
AF, lie both in the fame strait Line.
For the Angle D-f- Af= two right Angles, f 1
e= B + A : therefore EA, AF, lie both in theg 1
fame strait Line. Q. E. D.
S C H 6 L 1 U M II.
If four strait Lines
(EA, EB, .EC, ED)
drawn ftom the fame
_ Point (E) (hall make
the opposite vertical
Angles 'equal ; then
shall AE, EB, and
CE, ED be two strait
L1nes. For
22. Euclid'; Elements.
For because the Ang. AEC + AED -f CEB
a from _| DEB == four right Angles, therefore shall
15- u AEC 4- AED (= bCEB + DEB) = two right
b byp.iax. A leS and so CED and AB c are r1ghc Lir1es.
c 14. I.
If one Side (BQ
of any Triangle,
(ABC) cowri-
tinued cut, the ex
ternal Angle ACD
is greater than ei
ther of the internal
and ofpvfite Angles
CAB, or CBA.
d 10. 1. Let theXines AH, BE bisect a the Sides AC,
e 1 soft. BC ; in which continu'd e out take f EF=; BE,
f 3.1. and HI = AH, and join FC, IC, and continue
out ACG.
g est1si. Now because CEe = EA, and EFe = EB,
h 15. 1. and Angle FEC b = BEA ; the Angle ECF (hall
i 4.1. be = EAB. In like manner, the Angle ICH
= ABH : therefore the whole Angle ACD
k 15. 1. (that is, k BCG) is 1 greater than either CAB
1 9 ax. or ABC. Q, E. D.^
Any fw Angles
ofa Triangle (ABC)
taken together, are
less than two right
D Continue out the
m 13. 1. Side BC, Now because the Ang. ACD-fACB
= two right Angles, and the Ang.n ACD .cr A,
n 16. 1.
therefore A -+- ACB 0 ~=J two right Angles. In
o 4-?x.
like manner the Ang. B + ACB is ~n two
right Angles. Finally, if the Side AB be con
tinued out, in like manner will the Angle A + B.
two tight Angles. Q.E. D. CO-
Book I. JEucud'j Elements. 23
1. Hence, if one Angle of any
Triangle be a right or an obtuse
one, the Remainders shall be a-
cute ones.
2. If a right Line (AE) makes
C E D unequal Angles with another
Line (CD) the Angle AED being acute, and
AEC obtuse, the perpendicular Line AD let fall
from any Point (A) thereof to that other Line
CD, will fall next to the acute Angle AED.
For if AC drawn towards the obtuse Angle
be faid to be a Perpendicular ; then in the Tri
angle AEC, the Angle AEC -f ACE shall be
cratwo right Angles, which is absurd. a 17. 1.
3. All the Angles of an equilateral Triangle,
and those two of an Isosceles one that are above
the Base, are acute Angles.
A Tshe greater Side (AC) as
every Triangle (ABC) does .
subtend the greater Angle
From AC cut offb ADb 3. 1.
= AB, and join DB ;
then the Angle ADB c= ABD. But i ADB* V'j
cr C ; therefore ABD <=~ C. Therefore e the e jxJ
whole Angle ABCe cr C. After the fame man
ner shall the Angle ABC be cr A. Q_ E. D.

In every Triangle ABC>
the greater Angle A is sub
tended by the greater Side
For 1f AB be supposed
equal to BC, then will
C 4 } the
24 E u c l 1 t>'s Elements.
a j. I. the Angle A be = C ; which is contrary to
the Hypothes1s : andlif AB cr BC, then shall the
b 18.1. Angle b C cr A ; which is contrary to the Hypo-
tfcfis. Wherefore BCcr-AB. And alter the
fame manner BC cr AC. Q. E. D.

. XX.
Two Sides (B A, AC)
of every Triangle ABC,
any ways taken, are
greater than the Side BC
that remains.
Continue out the
c 5.1. Line BA, and take cAD=:AC, and draw, the
i J.I. Line DC ; then shall the Angle D be d equal to
e 9 dr. ACD ; w hence the whole Angle BCD ecr D :
f 19. 1. and so BD s (e BA -f AC) cr BC . E. D.
g conj1r.
& * 4X.
If from the Extreme
Points of one Side (BC) of
a Triangle (ABC), two
Lines EP, CD, be drawn
to any Point within the
Triangle ; then are both
those Lines taken together
farter than the two other Sides of the Triangle
(BA, CA) but do contain a greater Angle BDC.
h 20.1. Produce BD to E, then is h CE+ED cr- CD :
add BD common to both, and then shall BD -f-
i 4 a*. DE -f EC ; cr CD -f- BD. Again, B A 4- AE
b cr- BE ; therefore BA -f AC ; cr- BE -f EC.
Whence, (1.) B A + AC c" BD + D9 >' whic
was one thing to be Demonstrated. (2.) The An-
k 1(>.1. gleBDCk crDECktr- A. Therefore the An
gle BDC cr-A. Q. E. D.

Book I. Euclid'* Elements. 25

To make a 75riangle (FKG) of three right Lines
FK, FG, GK ; which fl)all be equal to three right
Lines given A, B, C : but any two of them taken to-

gether must be lunger than the third ; because any

two Sides of a Triangle taken together, are longer .
than the third.
In the Infinite Line DE take orderly" DF, a
FG, GH, equal to the given Lines A, B,C;
then if with the Centers F and G, and the Di
stances FD and GH, two Circles beburawnb
cutting each other in K, and the right Lines
KF, KG be join'd ; the 'triangle FKG shall be
c made, whole Sides FK, FG, GK are equal toc ij <fef.
the three Lines DF, FG, GH, that is, d to thed 1 ax.
three given Lines A, B, C. Q.E.F.

At a Point
(A) in a right
Line given (A
B) to make a
gle A equal to
a given right-
lined Angle a.
27 EucLipV Elements.
a I post. Drawa the right Line gh any how cutting
b 3. 1. the Sides of the Angle, and make b AG ag ;
e 22. 1. upon AG raise c a 'Triangle equal-sided to the
other gab, so that AH be equal to ah, and
d 8. 1. GH=^i ; then shall you have the Angle Ada.
Q. E. F.
*' *
If two Triangles (ABC, abc) have two Sides
(AB, AC) of the one, each equal to two Sides (ab,
ac) of the other, and have the Angle A greater than

the Angle bac, contained under the equal right lines ;

the Base (BC) cf the one fhaU also be greater than
the Base (be) of the other.
* 23.1. Make the a Angle bag equal to A, and the
b 3. 1. Side ag fc = ac, and join bg, cg.
Cafe 1. When bg saIls above be, then because
d byP- ABd = sl, andACe = slg, and the Angle A
ysir. = sl. therefore is'fB'C = As- But since ac
1* e ag, therefore is the g Angle acgb age. And
f a so the Angle acgbcz~bgc, and consequently the
1*, Anele beg^^-bgc Therefore bg (BC) ; cr be.
*J 2, E. D.

Book I. E v CLi d's Elements. 26
Cafe 2. When the Base bg co1ncides with be,
then it is plain a that bg (BC) <=~ be. * 9 **
Cafe 3 . But when falls below be, because
ag-\- gbb cr ac -\- cb ; if from both sides you b 21. 1.
tajee away the equal Lines ag, ac, there will re
main bg (BC) <^bc. Q.E.D. . c S

If the 1J1 tangles
(ABC, abc) have
two Sides (AB,
AC)ofthe oneeacb two Sides
(ab, ac) of the 0-
ther ; and if the Base BC be greater than the Base
be ; then shall theAngle A contained under the equal
Lines be greater than the Angle a.
For if you fay that the Angle A = a, then
shall the Base = d be ; which is contrary d 4- 1*
to the Hypothesis. If you fay that the Angle
Acr a, then lhall BC be 1 =~ be j which is like- e 24. r.
wife contrary to the Hypothesis. &E.D.

If-two 'Triangles (BAC, bac) have two Angles
B, C, equal to two Angles (b, acb) and one Side of
the one equal to one Side of the other, either that Side


which lies between the equal Angles, or that which is

subtended by one of the equal Angles : each remaining
' . Side
28 Euclid'j Elements.
Side of the one shall be equal to the remaining Side of
the other ; and the remaining Angle of the one shall
be equal to the remaining Angle cf the other.
Hyp. i. Let BC = be j I say, BA = fe, and
AC = ac, and the Angle A = bac. For if you
a >- 1- fay that ha c BA, make'aWn=BA, and draw
bsuppos. Because ABb = bd, and BCe= be, and the
c hyp. Angle Bc = b; therefore, shall the Angle bed
d 4. i. be d = C e = which is s absurd : therefore
e fyp- AB = ab. In like manner, AC = ac ; and so
f 9 *- also the Angle Ad = bac. Q. E. D. '
Hyp. 2. Let AB = ab ; I say, BC = be, and
AC = ac, and the Angle A = bac. For if you
fay ttiat be c~ BC, make be=z BC, and join ae.
g hyp. Because AB ab, and BCb=:be, and- the
hsupfos. Angle B 8 = : therefore shall the Angle bea
h$lm bei = Ci=cy which is k absurd. Therefore
. ' ' BC = be; and consequently, as at first, AC ac,
and the Angle A = bac. Q. E. D.

If a right
Line (EF) fal
ling upon two
'~;;>-G right Lirtes(AB,
'f CD) makest
alternate Angles
equal the one to
the other ; then are tfce. right Lines (AB, CD) pa
rallel. ,
If AB, CD be faid not to be parallel, pro-
1 i6. i. duce them till they meet, suppose in G : Then
the outward Angle AEF will be 1 greater than
the inward Angle DFE, to which it was equal
by the 'Hypothesis : Which is absurd.
Book I. EuclI T>s Elements. 29*
If a right Line
(EF) falling upon
two right Lines
AB, CD, makes
the outward Angle
AGE , equal to
(CHG)the inward
and opposite Angle
on the fame fide j or makes the inward Angles AGH,
CHG, on the fame fide equal to two right Angles j
then are the right Lines (AB, CD) parallel.
Hyp. i . Because by the Hypothesis the Ang.
AGE = CHG, therefore the alternate Angles
BGH, CHG are equal : and consequently ABa 15- i-
and CD are b parallel. b 27- 1-
Hyp. 2. Because by the Hypothesis the Ang.
AGH -f- CHG = two right Ang. e = AGHc r3. i.
-f BGH ; therefore is d CHG = BGH : and d 3
consequently AB, CD are * parallel. QE.D. e 27. i.

If a right Line ('EF)
fats upon two Paral
lels (AB, CD) the al
ternate Angles DHG,
AGH, will be equal ' .
to each other, and the
outward Angle BGE
will be equal to DHE,
the inward and opposite Angle on the fame side ; as ,
also the inward Angles AGHf.CHG on the fame ' -
fide will be equal to two right Angles. ,
Ic is evident that AGH -f CHG = two right
Angles ; for otherwise AB, CD would not be
f parallel, which is contrary, to the Hypothesis.? i3 ax.
But also the Ang. DHG -J- CHG s =r twog i3. i.
right Angles: Therefore DHG b AGH1 = h 3 **.
BGE. &E.D. CO-11'l'
30 Euclid'* Elements.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence every Paralle
logram (AC) that has
one right Angle A, is
a Rectangle.
For A + B a = two
a 29.i.
right Angles : there
fore since A is a right
Angle, B must bebalso a right Angle. By the
b $ax.
fame Argument C and D are right Angles.

Right Lines (AB,
CD) parallel to one
and the fame right
Line (EF) are also
parallel the one to the
Let the Line GI
cut the three given
Lines any how ;
then because AB, EF are parallel, the Angle
c 29.i. AGJ will be c = EHI: also because CD and
, ; EF are parallel, the Angle EHI will be c =
d lax.' DIG : Therefore d the Angle AGI = DIG.
e 27. i. Whence AB and CD are c parallel. QE.D.

A From a given
* Point (A) to draw
a right Line AE,
parallel to a right
D Line BC given.
From the Point
A draw a right Line AD to any given Point of
the given right Line j with which at the Point
Book I. Euclid'* Elements. 3t
A thereof make a an Angle DAE == ADC : then 27- 1.
will AE and BC be parallel. Q. E. D.

A Ifone Side (BC)
of any 'Triangle
E (ABC) be conti
nued out ; the out- *
ward Angle ACD
C D fall be equal to
the two inward opposite Angles A, B : and the three
inward Angles A, B, ACB, of a Triangle, shall be
equal to two right Angles.
From C draw a CE parallel to BA ; then isa 31.1.
the Angle A b = ACE, and the Angle B b = b 29. 1.
ECD : Therefore A -f B = ACE + ECD c 1 ax.
ACD. Q.E.D. d v
Again, ACD-f- ACB c= two right Angles :e 13. 1.
Therefore A -f- B -f ACB ( = two right An-f 1
gles. Q.E.D.
j. The three Angles of any Tr1angle taken
together, are equal to the three Angles of any
other Triangle taken together. From whence
it follow?,
2. That if in one Triangle two Angles (taken
severally or together) be equal to two Angles
of another Triangle, (taken severally or toge
ther) then is the remaining Angle of the one,
equal to the remaining Angle of the other. In
like manner, if two Triangles have one Angle
of the one, equal to one of the other ; then is
the Sum of the remaining Angles of the one
Triangle, equal to the Sum of the remaining
Angles of the other.
3. If one Angle in a Triangle be a right An
gle, the other two are equal to a right one.
Euclid j- Elements.
Likewise that Angle in a Triangle, which is
equal to the other two, is itself a right Angle.
4. In an Isosceles Triangle, if the Angle made
by the equal Sides is a right one, the other two
upon the Base .are each of them half a right
5. An Angle of an equilateral Triangle is
two thirds of a right Angle : for f of two right
Angles is equal to ? of one.

By the help of this Proposition, you may
know how many right Angles the inward and
outward Angles of a right-lined Figure make ;
as will appear by these two following Theorems.

All the Angles of a right-lined Figure do together
make twice as many right Angles, abating four, as
there are Sides of the Figure.

From any Point within the Figure draw right

Lines to all the Angles of- the Figure, which
shall resolve the Figure into as many Triangles
as there are Sides of the Figure. Since there
fore in every Triangle the Sum of all the An
gles is two right Angles, all the Angles of the
Triangles taken together will make up twice
as many right Angles as there are Sides. But
the Angles about the faid Point within the Fi
gure make four right Angles therefore if from
Book I. Euclid'; Elements.
the Angles of all the Triangles, you take away
the Angles which are about the faid Point, the
remaining Angles, which make up the Angles
of the Figure, will make twice as many right
Angles, abating four, as there are Sides of the
Figure. Q E. D.

C 0 R 0 L.-
Hence all right-lined Figures of the fame
Species or Kind have the Sums of their Angles
T H E O R. It.
All the outward Angles of any right-lined Figure,
taken together, makejour right Anglei.
For every inward Angle of a Figure, with the
outward Angle of the fame, make two right An*
gles ; therefore al! the inward Angles together*
with all the outward Angles, make twice as
many right Angles as there are Sides of the Fi-
gure. But (as it was just now shewn) all the
inward Angles, together with four right An
gles, make twice as many right Angles as there
are Sides of , the Figure; therefore the outward
Angles are equal to four right Angles. Q. E. D.

C 0 R O L.
The Sum of the outward Angles of any right-
lined Figure is equal to the Sum of the outward
Angles of any other right-lined Figure.

B If two equal and fa*
"..... .' /
raliel Lines ( A B, CD) be
Ijoined the fame way, by
/ two other right Linn
j (AC, BD) then are
j) these Lines also equal and
D Draw
34 Euclid 's Elements.
Draw a Line from C to B : because AB and
29.i. CD are parallel, the Ang. ABC a= BCD:
and (by Hypothesis ) AB = CD, and the
4- i- Side CB common 3 therefore ACb=BD, and
the Ang. ACB b = DBC : Whence also AC,
27- '- BD are c parallel.

.q The opposite Sides
AB, CD, and AC,
BD, of a Parallelo
gram, as ABDC, are
equal each to the otlw
as also the opposite An
gles A,D ; and ABD,
ACD : and the Diameter BC bifetis the fame.
i hyp. Because AB, CD d are parallel, therefore the
'291- the Ang. c ABC = BCD. Also because AC,
BD are d parallel, the Angle ACB shall be e =
f 2 bt- CBD ; therefore the whole Ang. ACDf =ABD.
After the fame manner, A = D. Moreover,
because the Angles ABC, ACB are adjacent to
the common Side CB, and are equal to BCD,
* CBD ; therefore AC 8 = BD, and AB = SCD ;
and so the Triangle ABC = CBD. Q. E. D.

Every quadrilateral or four-sided Figure
ABDC, having the opposite Sides equal, is a
For (by 8. i.)the Ang. ABC = BCD ; there-
b 27. i. fore AB, CD are b parallel. In like manner the
Ang. BCA is = CBD ; therefore AC, BD " are
1 ijdef.i. also parallel: whence ABDC is ' a Parallelo
gram. Q. E. D.
ook I. Euclid'; Elements. 3S
Hence we learn
how to draw more
readily a Parallel
E CD, to a given
right Line AB,
through an assigned Point C.
In the Line AB take any Point, as E ; and
about the Centers E and C with any Distance
draw two equal Circles EF, CD : also at the
Center F, with the Distance EC draw a Circle
FD, which shall cut the former Circle (CD) in
the Point D : then shall the Line drawn (CD)
be parallel to AB ; for we demonstrate as before
that CEFD is a Parallelogram.
Parallelograms (BCDA, BCFE) constituted upon
the fame Base BC, and between the fame Parallels
AF, BC, are equal the one to the other. .

For ADa=BCa=EF, add DE common 34.i.

to both : then AEb=DF: but aito AB a = b zax.
DC, and the Ang. A c = CDE : therefore the
: 29. i.
Triangle ABEd = DCF. Take away the Tri l4- i.
angle DGE common to both, then the Tra
pezium ABGD c 3= EGCF : add the Triangle ' J ax.
BGC common to both ; and then the Parallelo 2 ax.
gram ABCDf = EBCF. Q.E.D.

D 2 The
36 Eve lids Elements.
The Demonstration of the other Cases is the
fame, but more plain and simple. .

A, _P If the Side AB of a right-
lined Parallelogram ABCD, be
conceived to be moved perpen
dicularly along the whole Line
BC, or BC along the whole Line
AB, the Area of the Rectang.
ABCD shall be produced by
B y C that Motion. Whence a Rectang.
is said to be made by the Multi
plication os two contiguous Sides into each o-
ther: for Example, if AB be 4 foot, and BC 3,
multiply 3 into 4, and there will be produced
i2 square Feet for the Area of the Rectangle.
This being supposed, the Dimension of any
* See the Parallelogram (*EBCF) is found by this Theo
Fgure of rem : for the Aiea thereof is produced by mul
Pi op. j,-. tiplying the Altitude BA by the Base BC : for
the Are^ of the Rectang. AC = Pgr. EBCF, is
made by multiplying BA by BC ; therefore, &c.

; fllll FE) constituted
upon equal Bases
BC, GH, and
/ 1 v/ between thee mfame
-7 Parallels AF,
BH, are equal
?? the one to the 0-
Draw BE and CF : because BC a = GH b =
b ' 4. i. EF ; therefore BCFE is a c Pgr. VVhence the
Pgr. BCDA " = BCFE " *= GHFE. Q. E. D.

Book I. Euclid'^ Elements, . 37

Triangles (BCA, BCD) constituted upon the
fame Base BC, and benveen the fame Parallels BC,
EF, are equal the one to the other.

Draw a BE parallel to CA, and a CF parallel ?T. I.

to BD ; then the Triang. BCA b =f BCAE c ' 34- 1.
==4-BDFCb = BCD. Q.E.D. 35- 1. &
1 ax.
pro p. xxxvm.
G A D H Triangles
(landing upon
equal Bases,
(BC, EF) and
Parallels GH,
BF, are equal
the one to the
Draw BG parallel to CA, and FH parallel
to ED : then the Trianp. BCAd= f the Pgr. ,
BGAC = c4-EDHFf = EFD. QE.D. 34- r.
5<S. 1. Se
If the Base BC c EF, 5tis evident' that the
Triang. BAC tr EFD: and contrariwise.


38 .Euclid'j Elements.

Equal Triangles (BCA, BCD)
constituted upon the fame Base
BC, on the fame Side, are be
tween the fame Parallels (AD,
If you deny this ; let ano
ther Line AE be parallel to BC,
and draw CE : then the Tri-
ang. ;CBE a = CBA b = CBD.
" 37- i.
Which is absurd.

Equal Triangles
ftituted upon equal
Bases BC, EF,
and on the fame
Side, are between
the fame Parallels.
If you deny
1> C E F
this, let another
Line AH be parallel to BF, and draw FH.
d 58. r. Then the Triangle EFH ri = BCA e = EFD
Which is f absurd.
* 9 ax.
If a Parallelogram
ABCD, and a Tri
angle BCE, have the
fame Base BC, and
are between the fame
Parallels AE, BC,
then is the Parallelo
gram ABCD theDou-
ble of the Triangle
Book I. Eucli d*j Elements.
Draw the Line AC, then the Triangle a BCA 37.
= BCE : therefore thePgr. ABCDb= 2BCA c c
= 2BCE. Q.E.D.
Hence may the Area of any Triang. (BCE)
be found : for since the Area of the Pgr. ABCD
is produced by multiplying the Altitude into
the Base, therefore the Area of a Trianple will
be produced by multiplying half the Altitude
into the Base, or half the Base into the Altitude :
as suppose the Base BC be 8, and the Altitude
7, there the Area, of the Triang. BCE is 28.
To constitute,
or make, a Pa
rallelogram (EC
GF) equal to a
given 'Triangle
ABC, in an An
gle equal to a gi-
ven right - lined
B C Angle D.
Through A draw AGd parallel to BC ; make '
c the Angle BCG= D ; Bisect f the Base BC in '
E, and draw EF parallel to CG, then is the 10
For if AE be drawn, the Ang. ECG = D
(by Censir.) and the Triang. BAC g = 2AEC b 8 58
= Pgr.ECGF. Q.E.F.
In every Parafle/j-u
plerfms (DG^-'GB) . \
of the Parallelograms
(HE, FI) -which stand
about the Diameter; \ .$
are equal the one to the
other. D 4
Euclid'; Elements.
For the Triang. ACDa=ACB, and the
T riant*. AGH a = AGE, and the Triang. GCF 3
GCI : Therefore the Pgr. DG b = BG.
Q.E. D.

To apply a Parallelogram FL to a given right Line
A, in a given right-lined Angle C, equal to a given
Triang. B.

Make c a Pgr. FD = the Triang. B; so that
the Ang. GFE be = C, and produce GF till
FH be A. Through H draw d IL, parall. to
EF, and produce DE to it in the Point I.
Continue out DG to meet a right Line drawn
from I in the Point K. Thro' K draw KL pa
rallel to GH, which let EF, IH continued out
meet in M, L. Then , shall FL be the Pgr.
For the Pgr. FL c = FD = B f, and the Ang.
MFH = GFE = C. Q_.E.D.

Tx make a Parallelogram FL in a given right-
lined Angle E, on a given right Line FG, that Jball
be equal to a given right-lined Figure ABDC.
Divide the given right-lined Figure into Tri
angles, as BAD, ACD j and make 8 the Pgr.
Book I. E u c %, id's Elements.

FH = BAD, so that the Ang. F = E. Conti

nue out FI, and on HI make the Pgr. IL =
ACD ; then shall the Pgr. FL = a FH 4- IL b
= ABDC. Q.E.D.

Hence we
can easily find
the Excess HE,
whereby a
right-lined Fi
gure A, 'ex
ceeds a lefler
one B : which
is done by ap
plying to any
the Pgr. DF
= B.
Upon a given right Line
AD to describe the Square
Raise c two Perpendi
culars AB, DC equal A to
the given right Line AD;
and join BC : I fay the
thing is done, v
42 Euclid'; Elements.
a const. For since the Ang. A -f- D a = 2 right Ang.
b 28. I. the Lines AB, DC shall be b parallel. But they
c33- 1- are a also equal. Whence AD, BC are c like
wise equal and parallel ; therefore the Figure
AC is ,a Parallelogram', having equal Sides. The
Angles are also all right ones ; because d one A
is a right Angle. Whence c AC is a Square.
29. 1.
e 29 des. &E.F.
In like manner you may easily describe a
Rectangle of two given Sides.

In right-angled Triangles BAC, the Square BE
described upon the Side BC subtending the right An
gle BAC, is equal to the Squares BG, CH (taken
together) described upon the Sides AB, AC, contain
ing the right Angle.


Join AE, AD j and draw AM parallel to

Book I. Euclid; Elements. 43
Because the Ang. DBCa = FBA, add ABC, 12 ax.
which is common to both ; and then shall the
Ang. ABD FBC. But also ABb = FB, and b 29 des.
BDb= BC ; therefore the Trials. cABD =
:4- 1-
FBC. But the Pgr. BM d = 2 ABD j and the 1 41. 1.
Pgr. BGd = 2FBC (for GAC is one right Line,
by the hyp. & 14. I.) Therefore e the Pgr. BM ' 6 ax.
= BG. In like manner, the Pgr. CM = CH ;
therefore the whole Square BE = 1 BG ~f- CH. f 2 a-x.
Q. E. D.
This Useful and Excellent Theorem is usu
ally called the Pythagorkk Theorem, from Pytha
goras the Inventor thereof. By means of it may
Squares be added or substracted, as in the two
following Problems.

Any Number ofSquares
being given, to make one
I ^ of them all.
Let there be given
three Squares, where
C7 of the Sides are AB,
BC, CE. Makeg the
right Angle FBZ, hav
ing Sides of an indefi
nite Length, and in
P A them sec off BA, BC,
and join AC ; then
shall b AC' = AB2+ BC1. Again, set off AC b47-*
from B to X, and transfer the third Side CE,
from B ^ E,jmcl join EX, and then shall
EX^zzEB^CCE^+BX1 (ACJ)= CE1 <
+ ABI-fBC\ &E.F.

44 EuclidV Elements.

Two unequal right Lines
AB, BC, being given ; to
find a Square that stall be
equal to the Excess whereby
._ _ J the Square of the greater
.A BCD ^3 exceeds the Square of
the lesser BC
Describe a Circle from the Center B with the
Distance BA, and from C erect the Perpendicu-
47. i. lar CE, meeting the Circumference in E, and
draw BE. Thenjhall a BE/ (BA_\) ~ BC* +
%*- CE2. Whence b BAS BC1 =CEJ. & E. F,

C Any two Sides of a right-
angled Triangle ABC being
given ; to find the third Side.
Let AC, AB, be the
Sides containing the right
Angle ; one of which let be
8, and the other 6. There
fore since c AC' + AB* =
c47- i-
64 -f- 36 = 100 = BC1-
Therefore shall BC = square Root of i00 =
Again, let AB, BC be known, the latter io,
and the former 6; then since BC' AB* =r
i r, i00 16 = (?4 = AC*. Therefore shall AC'
= square Root of 64. =r 8.

If the Square described upon one Side BC of a
Triangle, be equal to the two Squares described upon
the remaining Sides AB, AC of the Triangle ; the
Book I. Euclid; Elements. 45
jy Angle BAC comprehended
A Kn^er AB, AC, ffo n?-
f \ maining two *Sides 1f the
Triangle, is a right An
To AC draw the Per
pend. DA = AB, and
join CD.
B C Now'CD' = AD1 + ' 47-t.
AC' =~AB,-f AC4=* BC' . Therefore * CD * Set the
BC. Whence the Triangles CAB, CAD are
mutually equilateral to each other. There Tbeorem.
fore the Ang. CAB b = CAD c = right Ang. b 8. 1.
Q_E.D. c hyp.
Because CD' = BC1, we have inferred that
CD BC ; which will be very manifest by the
following Theorem.

'she Squares AF, CG of equal right Lines AB,
CD, are equal; and the Sides IK, LM of equal
Squares NK, MP are equal.

JF H. a N O p


Hyp. I. Draw the Diameters EB,HD; then

it is manifest d that AF= 2 Triang. EABe = * 34.1
2 Triang. HCD e CG. > E. D. < 4. t, &
Hyp. 2. If possible, let LM cr IK ; make LT 6 ***
= IK; and let LSs=LT\ Then LS (by s ,6 ,
4<S Eucli d> Elements.
*hyp. Parr, i.) =aNK = LQ.: which Ms false
k9**. Whence LM= IK.

C 0 & 0 I.
After the fame manner we demonstrate that
any Rectangles equilateral to each other are

End of the First Book.

( +7 )

E U C L I D 's



J V E R Y right-angled Parallelo
gram ABCD is faid to be con-
tain'd under two right Lines
AB, AD, that comprehend the
right Angle.
'Therefore when we fay the
RtElangle under BA and AD, or, for brevity fake,
n C *be Rectangle BAD, or
' " BA x AD (or ZA, for
Z x A) we mean the ReEl-
angle contain d under BA
and AD, comprehending a
right Angle.
2. In every Parallelogramick Space FHIK,
each of those Parallelograms which are about
its Diameter, with the two Complements, is
48 E U c l i d'j Elements.
called a Gnomon ; as
rhePgr.FB -|- BI -f
GA, chat is, EHMis
a Gnomon. Also the
Pgr.FB-f BI-fEM,
that is, GKA is a
Gnomon .

3. A Figure is faid to be constructed, when Lines

drawn parallel to the Sides cutting the Diameter in
cue Point, make two Parallelograms about the Dia
meter, and two Compliments. In like manner, 'a
double Figure is faid to be constructed, when two
right Lines, parallel to the Sjdes, make scut Pa
rallelograms and four Complements.

If there be two right
Lines AB, AF, and one
of them, as AB, be cut
into any number of Seg
ments AD, DE, EB ;
the Rectangle compre
hended under those t.wo
right Lines. AB and AF, is equal to the RiElangk
contain d under the undivided Line AF, and all the
Segments AD, DE, 'EB ; that is, ABx AF = AF
xAD-f- AFxDE-f AFxEB.
Set a AF perpendicular to AB, and through
F draw a the infinite Line FG perpendicular to
AF , and from D, E, B raise 3 the Perpendicu
lars DH, El, BG. Now AG shall be the Rec
l 9 ax. i , tangle under AF, AB ; and it is b equal to the
Rectangles AH, DI, EG ; that is, (because DH,
El, AF c are equal) to the Rectangles under .
AF, and AD; under AF and DE; and under
AF, EBt & E. D.
Book II. Euclid'* Elements'.

prop. n.
l If a right Line AB be
any how divided in D, the
tixo ReEiangles comprehend
ed under the who/e AB,
and each of the Segments
AD, DB, is equal to the
Square rf the whole Line
AB: that is, ABxAD +
. ABxDB AB*-
Raise the Perpendicular AF, which make e-
qual to AB; and then sliail a AFx AD -f- AF
x DB = AF x AB ; that is, (because AF= AB)
ABxAD-f ABxDB = AB\ ..>.

H G. If d right Line AB be
any how divided in D, the
Rectangle comprehended un
der the Whole AB, and one
of the Segments AD, is e-
qual to the Retlangle com
prehended under the Seg
ments AD, DB, together with the Square described
upon the Segment AD ; that is, AB x AD = AD
For raise AF perpendicular and equal to AD,
and corr pleat the Parallelograms FD, FB ; then
sliail AB x AF be = b AF x BD + AF x AD ; i
that is, (lince AF = AD) AB x AD=AD x DB
-j- AD1-

Euclid'; Elements.

Tjs WgAf Line AB fe kj
/joiu divided in C, ffo Square
described upon the whole Line
AB is equal to the Squares
g ; described upon the Segments
AC, CB, and twice a Re$~
angle comprehended under AC
CB ; that is, AD = (AB 2 j
= Ae+CB*-^ 2ACB.
Upon AB make the Square AD, whose Dia
meter is EB ; and form the Point C of Division,
draw the Perpendicular CF to the Line AB ;
and thro' G draw HI parallel to AB.
Because the Angle EHG = A is a right one,
and AEB a = half a right one ; therefore HE b
= HG e = EF = AC j , therefore d HF is the
, Square of the right Line AC. In like manner,
Cl is CB* ; therefore AG, GD, are the Rect
angles under ACCB, which are e equal. Whence
the whole Square AD = AC* + CB* + 2ACB.
CO HO L. \
1. Hence it is manifest, that the Parallelo
grams about the. Diameter of a Square are
2. Also the Diameter of any Square does bi
sect its Angles.
If any right Line
AB be divided into
equal Parts at C, and
into unequal ones slfD;
IIS I fay, the ReSiangle
contained underthe un
Book II. Eucli d'jt Elements. $i
equal Pans of the Whole, vix. AD, DB, together
-with the Square of the Line CD intercepted between ,
the Points of SeElion, is equal to the Square described
on CB the Half-Line,

We are to prove that AD x BD -f- CD* =

Upon BC describe a the Square CF, and a 46 r-
draw the Diagonal EB; and thro' D draw b b 3i. i.
DHG parallel to BF, and thro' H, KLO pa
rallel to CB ; and thro A, the Line AK pa
rallel to CL.
Now because the Complem. CH c = Com- c 43- *-
plem. HF, add DO, which is common j and
then DF == CO d == AL ; and adding CH, 4 i6. i.
which is common, and then AH = FD 4- DL
*e AD * DB (since DH f = DB) and adding ef i. 2.
LG = CD* ; and then the Gnomon NMX -f * con 4- l 2

LG = AD x DB -f CD\ But the Gnomon

NMX + LG = whole Square CEFB =~CB1.
Therefore AD x DB -f CD1 = CB\ Q.


If any right
Line AB be bi-
f0ed in the
Point C, and ar
ny Line BD be
added direUly to
it, the Rectangle
ADxDB con
tained under the
Euclid'; Elements.
whole Line, together -with the added Line and ths
added Line, tcgether with the Square of the half
Line BC, is equal to the Square described upon CD,
half the Line, together with the added Line.
We are to prove that ADx DB-f-BC1 =
Upon CD describe a the Square CEFD, and
join DE ; throy B draw BHG parallel to DF,
and thro' H, KL, M parallel to AD ; and thro'
A, AK parallel to CL.
Now AL b = CH c = HF ; add CM, which
is common, and then AM = Gnomon NXO.
, But AM = ADxDB (since DMd = DB)
' therefore the Gnomon NXO = AD x DB.
Again, adding LG d = CB , which is com
mon ; and then AD x DB-}-BC1 -= Gnomon
NXO -f LG = whole Square CF = CD'-


If any right Line AB le

any how cut in the Point C,
the Square of the whole Line
AB, together with the Square
of one of the Segments, as
BC, is equal to twice the
ReSiangle contained under the
,. whole Line AB ; and the
| said Segment BC, together
with the Square made on the
other 'Segment AC.

I soy AB^f CB1^ 2 ABx BC -f AC1. ' "..

Book II. Euclid'/ Elements. 53
Describe the Square of AB, and construct
the Figure, and continue out CF, BE', so that
FP = EQ.= BF; and draw P<Jj then the
Square FQj= CB\
Now since AGa = GE, add CF to both ; a43- i-
and then AF = CE==GQ (since by Constr.
CF=FQ.) : therefore AF GCi= 2 AB x BC.
- And if the Square HF^ AC* be added to b<"-*-2-

both sides, ihen will (AF + GQ.-f AC* =r

AB*+XB* (because CB* FQ) be = 2 AB x
BC-f-AC*. Q.E.D.

j If a right Line AB be
any how cut into two parts
in C, four times, the Reti-'
angle contained under AB,
q ^the whole Line and CB,
one of the Parts, together
N -with the Square of AC the
other part, is equal to the
A C B D S(juan 0f AD> heing th8
Line compounded of the whole Line AB, and the
Part CB, as one Line.
We are to prove that 4AB x CB -f- AC* =
For continue out the Line AB so that BD =
CB, and describe AF the Square of AD, and
construct the double Square.
Since CB = BD = GK 3 = KN, and PR = 3 H- i.
RO, the Rectang. CK shall be b = Rectang. V- l.
BN, and the Rectang. GR = Rectang. RN ;
and since CKe = BN j therefore BN = GR. c 43- i.
And so the four Squares BN, KC, GR, RN
are equal to one another = 4CK.

E 3 Again,
54 Euclid'.? Elements.
Again, the Rectang. AG = Rectang. MP?
and the Rectang. PL = Rectang. RF. But the
Rectang. MP = PL ; whence the four Parallelo
grams AG, MP, PL,RF are equal to each other,
= 4AG. Therefore the four Squares and
these four Rectangles making up the Gno-
PY are = 4AK = 4AB x BC ; and if\AC*
0.4. (XH a) be added, trien 4AB x BC -f AC*=
Gnomon PY + AC*= AD*. &E.D.
If a right Line AB.
E be cut into two equal
/'' j \ farts in Cyand two un-
/' G equal ones in "D ; then
y- ' \ the Squares of the un~
j 1 1 \ equal Parts AD, DB
A ~ C D B together, are the Dou
ble of the Square of the
Half-Line AC and the intermediate Part CD.
That 1V,~AD* + DB*'= 2 AC* + aCD*.
b ii. l, From C draw CE b = AC, and perpendicur
lar to it, and join EA, EB ; and thro5 D, F
c jt. i. draw c DF, FG parallel to CE and AB, and
draw AF.
Now since AC gs CE, and the Aug. ACE ==
* 5.i. right Ang. therefore the Ang. AEC d ==CEA
c Cor. 3. ? i right Ang. = CEB = EBC. Whence the
V. An^ AEB = riht Ans- and AE (~ EB- And
since the Ang. GEF = 4- right Ang. and the
A"g- EGF e = right Ang. therefore the Ang.
g 4. EFG = 4- right Ang. and so EG f = GF. Fop
the fame reason, in the Triang. DFB, the Side
DB = DF. _
Now AE" = b AC* + CE*= 2 ACj because
AC ~ CE. For the fame reason b EF *= EG*
+ QF%= 2GF* = 2CD*- And so AE* + EF*
Book II. Euclid'* Elements.
~^KC%+2CD\ BgtAE'4-EF1 (Tf* a) '47-
= (AD* + DF1) A&+ Dtfjjna; DF==
DB. Therefore AD* + DB* as 2 AC*+ aCD*-
E. D.

If a right Line
AB be divided into
two equal Parts in
the Point C, and
to it be direElly ad
ded any right Line
BD ; the Square
made on AD, the
Line compounded of
the whole Line AB and added one BD, together with
the Square of the added Line BD, shall be the Dou
ble of the Square of the Half-Line AC, and the
Square of the Line CD compounded of the Half-Line
AC and added Line BD.
That is, AD1 + BD' = aAC*+ aCP*.
From C draw CEb^= AC, and at right An- 1>
gles to AB, and join AE, EB. Likewise thro'
E, D draw c EF, DF parallel to AD, CE. 31.
Now because EC, FD are parallels the Ang
CEF + Angk EFD d = two right Ang. and so
the Ang. FEB + Ang. EFD "a two right Ang.
and consequently EB, FD will * meet, suppose
in G, and draw AG.
And then because AC CE, and the Ang.
ACE = right Ang. therefore the Ang. AEC f
= Ang. EAC * = -j- right Ang. = CEB= EBC. S cor
Whence the Ang. AEB = right Ang. and fince 32
Ang. EBC b = Ang. GBD = i right Ang. and "15
Ang. BDG = right Ang. Therefore BGD 1 1 32
= i right Ang. and so BD k = DG, for the * 6.
same reason in the Triang. EFG the $ide GF
= Side EF. E 4. Again,
S6 Euclid'/ Elements.
3 47- r. A?ain AE1==aEC1 + tA*= zAC\ JBe-
cause AC = CE. For the fame reason EG*
= aG^+ EEj== 2FE^== aCD^since EF =
CD.__Wheoce AE* + EG2 = aAC^-f aCD'i
But AE + EG*= a (AG1; = ("A^+'DGV
= A D' + DBi,_since DG = DB. Therefore

AD1 + DB1 = 2 AC1 + *CD". & E. D.

.~ -,
To cut a given right
Line AB so in G,
G 11 that the Rellangle
comprehended under the
whole Line AB, and
1 / one Segment GB be
> E A equal to the Square of
the other Segment AG.
That is, ABxBG = AG*.
3 4<>. 1. Upon AB describe a the Square AC, and bisect
b 10. j. b the Side AD in E,and draw EB, and cut off from
AE continued the part EF = EB, and describe
a a Square upon AF ; then shall AH (=AG2).
AB x BG. For continue our HG to I, then
c6.2. the Rectang. DH -\- EA* c-= Efc^_d= EB1 e =
A conft. BA*-f EA1. Therefore DH f= BA* <= Square
AC, ' Take away the common Rectang. Al,
and there will f remain the Square AH = GC j
that is, AG' d = AB x BG. Q, E. D.

This Proposition cannot be explain'd in Num
bers ; for no Number can be so divided, that
rhe Product of the Whole inro one of the Parts
(ball be equal to the Square qr the other Parr.
Book II. Euclid'j Elements'.

A If in an obtuse-angled
yi\ 'triangle ABC, the Square
Ij of the Side AC subtending
I \ the obtuse Angle ABC is
J \ greater than the Squares
/ / I e/AB,BC, the Sides con-
C IS D taining the obtuse Angle, by
twice the Rectangle under
one of the Sides BC, containing the obtuse Angle ABC,
viz. that continued tut, on which the Perpendicular
AD falls, and the Line BD taken without between
the Perpendicular -AD and tpe obtuse Angle.
That is, AC1 = CB*_+_aCBD_+ AB1.
For AC1 = a (CD1 + AD* b CB*+ 2CBD \ 47
+ BD1 + AD1 =) a CBl + aC6D -f AB*- 4*
. Hence, If the Sides of an obtufer angled Triangle
ABQ be known, we can easily find the Segment BD
intercepted between the Perpendicular AD, and the
Obtuse Angle ABC, as also the Perpendicular AD.
' As, Let AC be 10, AB 7, CB y. ThenAC*
100, AB 49, CB1 2y. Consequently AB +
Cfy =74. Take this from 100, and there re-,
mains 26 2CBD. Whence CBD shall be 13 ;
which divided by CB 5, and there will arise
2} for BD : whence AD is found by Prop. 47. 1.

In an acute- angled Triangle ABC, - the Square of
the Side AB subtending the acute Angle ACB, is less
than the Squares of the Sides AC, CB, comprehending
the acute Angle ACB, by twice a Rectangle compre
it Euclidj Elementsi
js^bended under one of the Side1
BC, about the acute Angle
ACB, viz. on -which the Per
pendicular AD falls, and the
Line DC taken within the
Triangle from the Perpendi-
I \ cular AD the acute Angle
That is,JJz + BCl=_ABl+^BCD.
a47- * ForA'C*+BC*= C'ADjf DC*+ BC* =" AD*
* 7- 2. + BD*+ *BCD =) a AB1 -f 2BCD. Q. E. D.

Hence, likewise if the three Sides of the Triangle
ABC be known, the Segment DC intercepted between
the Perpendicular AD and the acute Angle ABC,
as also the said Perpendicular, may easily be known.
Let AB be 13, AC 15, BC 14; take away
AB* (169) from AC +BC.*, that is, from 22 j
+ 196 =421 j and there remains 252 for
2BCD. Whence BCD shall be 126. Divide
this by BC 14, and there comes out 9 for DC ;
whence AD = ^225 81 = 12.

To make a Square ML equal to a given righti
lined Figure A.

Book II. EuclidV Elements. 59
Make a the Rectang. BD = A, and continue a 45- 1.
out the greater Side DC to F, so that CF= CB.
Bisect b DF in G, from which, as a Center, de- 1> 10. 1.
scribe the Circle FHD with the Distance GF,
and continue out CB to meet the Circumference
in H. Then shallO? = c ML = A. ' 4*' *'
For draw GHjjhen is A"=DB =e DCF = I tmst'
GF1 "GCa=f HCl= ML. Q.E.D. J'

End of the Second Book-

( 60 )

E U C I I D 's


BOOK 111


QUA L Circles (GABC, HDEF)

are sych whose Diameters are equal,
or frpm whose Centers the right Lines
GA, HD that be drawi? are equal.
Book III. E u c l i v's Elementsi
B 2. A right Line (AB)
G is said to touch a Circle
(FED)' when it so meets
thefame, that being pro-
E duced, does not cut it.
The right Line FG cut's
the Circle FED.
3. Circles BAC, ABE and also (FBG,ABE)
are faid to touch each other,'when they meet each other,
so as not to cut one another.
. The Circle BFG cuts the Circle FGH.

4. Right Unes FE, KL;

in a Circle GABD, aresaid
to be equally distant from the
Center, -when Perpendiculars
jyj- GH, GN drawn from the
Centre G to them be equal.
And that Line (BC) is faid
to be fartherfrom the Centre
upon which the greater Per-
pendicular (Cl) falls.

EVcliq's Elements.

C i-ASegment ABC of a Circle

is aFigure contained under a right
Line (AC) and a part (ABC)
of the Circumference of a Cir-

6. An Angle CAB, of a Segment is that Angle

-which is contained under a right Line CA, and an
Arch AB of a Circle.
' 7. An Ang. (ABC) is said to be in a Segment
(ABC) when some Point B is taken, in the Cir
cumference thereof and from it right Lines (AB,
CB) are drawn to the Extremes of the right Line
AC, which is the Base of the Segment : then the
Ang. ABC contained under the Lints supposed to be
drawn (AB, CB) is faid to be an Ang. in a Seg
8. But when the right Lines (AB, BC) compre
hending the Ang. ABC, do receive any Circumference
of the Circle (ADC) : then the Ang. ABC is faid to
/land uson that Circumference.

9. A SeBor ofa Circle (ACB)

is a Figure comprehended under
the right Lines AC, BC drawn
from the Center C, and the Cir
cumference AB between them.

10. Similar Segments ABC, DEF of a Circle

flre those which include equal Angles (ABC, DEF)
Book III. Euclid'j Elements. <5*

or whereof the Angles (ABC, DEF) are in them


To find the Centre F of a f-
ven Circle ABC.
Draw a right Line (AC)
any how in the Circle, which :
bisect in : through draw
a Perpendicular DB, and bi
sect the fame in F. Then
the Point F shall be the Ccn
If you deny it, let G, some Point without the
LineDB,be theCenter (since that cannot be divi
ded equally in any point but F)and draw the Lines
GA, GC, GE. Now, if G be the Centre, then
GAa = GC and AE = EC by Const. and the a i5 iff.
Side G E common. Therefore the Ang. GEA b b 8. i.
=: GEC, and consequently c a right one. c1odef.
Whence the Ang. GEC d = FEC. Which e is a i2 M.
absurd. \ . e9 ax.


Hence if a right Line (BD) bisects any right

Line AC at right Angles in a Circle, the Center
fliall be in the Line BD that bisects the o-
Euclid'j Elements.

The Centre of a Circle it

easily found, by applying the
Ang. of a Square to the Cir
cumference thereof.
For if the right Line
'DE that joins the Points
D,E, in which the Sides
of the Square QD, Q_E
cut the Circumference, be bisected in A, the
Point A shall be the Center. The Demonstra
tion of this depends upon Prop. 31. of this
prop. ir.
If any two Points (A, B)
be taken in the Circumference
of a Circle (CAB) the right
Line AB joining those two
Points, shall fall within the
In the right Line AB
take any Poinc D, and from
the Center C draw CA,CD, CB. Because
a 1 5. As. CA a = CB, therefore the Ang. A b = B. But
b 5- 1- the Ang. CDB c cr, A, therefore Ang.CDB tr-B,
c 16. r. whence CB (1 cr~ CD. But CB.only extends from
the Center to the Circumference^ therefore CD
does not come so far : Whence the Point D is
within the Circle. The fame may be proved of.
any other Point in the Line AB. And there
fore the whole Line AB falls Within the Circle.
COR 0 L.
Hence if a right Line touches a Circle, so as
not to cut it, it touches the fame but in one
Book III. Euc^id'j Elements.


In a Circle (EABC) / a
tight Line BD drawn through
the Center, bisecls any other
.* Line AC not drawn through
the Center, it shall also cut it at
F right Angles : and if it cuts it
at right Angles, it shall also bi->
s(B the fame.
Draw the Lines EA, EC from the Center E.
'Hyp. 1. .Because AF a = FC, and EA b =
EC, and -the Side EF is common ; the Angle
EFA. * s= EFC, and consequently" right Angles. c 8.1.
d 10 def. I
Hyx 2. Because the Ang. EFA e = EFC, and byp.&
the Ang.1E AF f = ECF, and the Side EF com- f12 a*.
mon j therefore AF B == FC, whence AC is cut t \l'u
into two equal parts. Q.E. D.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence if a Line drawn from the Vertical
Angle in any Equilateral or Isosceles Triangle
bisects the Base ; that Line is perpendicular to
it. And on the contrary, a Perpendicular
7' from the vertical Angle, bisects the

Circle ACD is two
right Lines^ AB, CD not
jy ' drawn thro' .the Center E,
do mutually 'cut each other ;
they will not mutually bisetl
jj each other.

66 EuclidV Elements.
For if one Line passes thro' the Center, it is
plain chat it cannot be bisected by the other ;
because (by Hyp.) that other does not pass thro*
the Center.
If neither of them pass thro* the Center, then
from the Center E draw EF : now if AB, DC
j. 3. were both bisected in F, then would a the An
gles EFB, EFD be both right ones, and conse
quently equal. Which is b absurd.

P. // two Circles (BAC,
BDC) cut one another,
they shall have the same
f D( Center TL.
\ 1 For if not, the Lines
EB,EDA being drawn,
from E the common
Center, then would
c. DE c = EB d = EA,

P R O P. VI.
If two Circles(B\C, BDE)
inwardly touch one another,
(in B) they have not one and
the fame Center F.
For if they have, right
Lines FB, FDA being
drawn, then would FD
= FBf = FA, which is f

bok III. Eti.cLtD'r Elements* 6,7

prop. vn.

If any Point G be taken

in AB, the Diameter of a
Circle not being the Center,
andseveral right Lines CG,
DG, GE be drawn from
that Point to the Circum
ference ; the longest of
them shall be that (GA)
wherein is the Center F, and
the shortest that -which remains ; and of the others,
that (as GC) which is drawn nearer to the Center
is always greater than that (GD) more remote ; and
there fall only two equal right Lines GE, GH
from the fame Point on the Circle, on each Side the
greatest GA, or least GB.
From the Center F draw the right Lines FC,
FD, FE, and make " the Angle BFH = BFE. 1.
I. GF-f FC (that is, GA) b cr GC. Q_ E D. 20.
1. The Side FG is common, and FC c = FD,
and the Ang. GFC d F~ GFD : wherefore p the 9 ax.
BaseGC^GD. Q. . D. 24. I.
3. FB (FE) f -a GE + GF. Therefore FG, f t,
Which is common being taken away from both,
there remains BG g-=1EG. e 5 ax.
4. The S1de FG is common, and FE ~ FH,
and the Ang. BFH b = BFE. Therefore is " Ccnstr.
GE * GH. But it has been demonstrated al ' 4. u
ready that no other Line GD, drawn from the
Point G, can be equal to GE or GH. ). E. D.

68 Euclid'; Elements.

If any Point A be taken
without a Circle, and from
that Point be drawn several
right Lines Al, AH, AG,
Al? to the Circle, one of
which as Al is continued thro'
the Center K, and the others
any how then the greatest
of those Lines falling on the
concave Periphery of the Cir
cle, is the said L nehX drawn
thro' the Center : and of the
others, that (as AH) which is
nearer to the Center, is always greater than AG ,
which is more remote, and the shortest of those right
Lines falling upon Hhe convex Part of the Periphe
ry, is AB, viz. that Line intercepted between the
Point A and the Diameter BI ; and of the others
that as AC which, is nearer to the least, is less than that
which is more remote as AD, and there are only two
right Lines AC, AL, equal, that fall fom that
Point 'to the Circle on each Side the greatest Al or
least AB.
From the Center K draw the right Lines
KH, KG, KF, KC, KD, KE : and make the
Ang.AKL = AKC.
1. Al (AK + KH) a cr AH. Q E. D.
; IO. t.
2. The Side AK is common ; and KH = KG,
and the Ang. AKH cr AKG. Therefore the 1
Base AH b cr AG. &E.D.
. 24.. 1-
3 . KA c KC -J- CA, from whence take
- zo. I. away KC, KB that are equal, and there will
remain AB 6 .-a AC.
1 4, AC -f CK c -a AD + DK. Whence take
.. away CK, DK that are equal, and there remains
f 5 ax. AC "3 AD. &E.D.
5. Th
Book III. Euclid'; Elements. 69
5. The Side K A is common, and KL = KC,
and the Ang. AKL a = AKC. Therefore LA b corfir.
= CA. But it was before stlewn, that no other 4. I.
Line could be drawn equal to those ; and there
fore, &c.
If a Point A be taken in
a Cinle BCK, and from
that Point more than two
equal Lints AB, AC, AK
le drawn to the Circumfe
rence ; then that Point (A)
is the Center of the Circle.
For more than two e-
qual right Lines cannot
be drawn c to the Circumference from any Point
unless the Center. Therefore A is the Center.

A Circle ' IAKBL
cannot cut another Circle
IEKFL in more than
two Points. .
For if it can let one
Circle cut' the other
in three Points I,K,L,
and join IK,KL which
bisect in M and N.
Now the Centers of both Circles are d in the 1 wI.5.
Perpendiculars MC, NH, and accordingly in
the Intersection of those Perpendiculars, which
is O. Therefore the Circles that cut each o-
ther have the fame Center. Which is false by
Prop. 5 . Book 3.

7 EuglidV Elements.

If two Circles GADE,
FABC, touch each other on th$
inside, and their Centers G, F,
be found; a right LineVG join
ing their Centers,- and produ
ced, will fall on the Point of
Contail A of the Circles.
For is possible let the
^ right Line FG cut the Cir
cles in some other Point besides that of Contact
A ; so that not FGA, but FGDB be aright Line.
15 &ftU Draw the Line GB. Now because GD a= GA,
b7.5. and GBb"^ GA (since the right Line FGB.
pastes thro' F the Center of the greater Circle)
f 9 ax. therefore is GB -3 GD. Which is c absurd.

If two Circles ADC.BEC, touch one another on thr
outside, the Line AB, which joins their Centers, A,B,
shall pass thro' the Point of Contabl C. r* '

If possible let A DEB be a right Line cutting

the Circles ; not in the Point of Contact C, but
in the Points D, E : draw AC, CB, then AD
* 20. 1. + EB (AC + CB) d t=~ AD + EB. Which is!
e 9 **- absurd.
Book III. Euclid'j Elements. 71


One Circle BACD cannot touch another BZDE,

in more Points than one, -whether inwardly or outward-

For if possible let the one touch the other in

two Points as B, D.
And take a the Centers H, O of the Circles a 3. 1.
BACD, BZDE, then the Line BHOD joining
those Centers will b fall in the Points of Contact b 3*
B,D;and since BH c = HD, therefore shall tdtftl.
BH c_ OD, and BO c- (by much) OD ; but
BO = ODbydef. 15. lib. 1. the Point O being
the Center. Which is absurd.
The Circle KAC can neither touch the
Circle BACD outwardly itr more Points than
one, viz.. in A, C. For draw AC.
Now the Line AC falls d within both the * 2. j.
Circles, but (by def. j. lib. 3 ) a Line that falls
within the Circle BACD, shall fall withoac the
Circle KAC, which is absurd.

n E u c l i t>'s Elements.

In a Circle EABC equal
right Lines AC, BD, are e-
qually dijlant from the Center
and those right Lines AC,
BD that are equally distant
from the Center are equal.
From the Center E draw
the Perpendiculars EF, EG,
s. 3. which shall a bisect AC, DB ; arid join EA,
7.* I. Hyp. AC= BD, therefore AF b = BG.
47. 1.firBtft EA is also EB, therefore FE* c = EA*
AE^EB1 EG\ thence dFE^=EG. QEJ). - HfJEX ^EG, therefore AF*c = EA1
EF*, =TeB* EG1 c = GB\ therefore AFd
6. ax. GB, and consequently e AC= BD. Q.E.D.

In a Circle GABC the
greatest Line is the Diameter
AD; and oj' ethers, (as FE)
that which is nearer to the
Centre G, is alv1ays greater
than BC, -which is mere re
1. Draw GB, GC. the
, M Diameter AD(fGB +
Z' 1. Let the D1stance GI r GH. take GN
= GH; thro' N draw KL perpendicular to GI;
join GK, GL ; then because GK = GB, and
GL GC, and the Ang. KGL <=- BGC, there
fore shall b KL (FE) cr BC. & E. D.
24. 1.
Book III. Euclid'* Elements. 75

D A right Line (C D) drawn
at right Angles from the
End of the Dameur HA
of any C1rcle BALH, falls
A without the Circle; and am-
. tier right Line AL, cannot
fall in the Place contained
c between that Line CD and
C the Periphery of the Circle ;
and the Angle EAI of a Semi- circle is greater than
any right-lined acute Angle -s but the remaining one
DAL less.
1. From the Centre B draw the right Line
BF to any Point F in the right Line AC. Now
the Side BF subtending^the rightAngle BAF, is a ' 19. 1.
greater than the Side BA opposite- to the acute
Angle BFA : therefore since BA (BG) reaches
to the C1rcumference, BF extends farther, and so
the Point F ; and by the fame reason, any other
Point <jf the right Line AC, shall be situate with
out the Circle. Q. E.D.
2. Draw BE perpendicular toAL. the SideBA
opposite to the right Angle BEA is b greater b 19. 1.
than the Side BE, subtending the acute Angle
BAE : therefore the Point E, and so the whole
Line EA falls within the Circle. Q.E.D.
3. Hence it follows that any acute Angle,
viz.. EAD, is greater than the Angle of Contact:
DAL ; the fame Angle also is less than any acute
Angle BAL of the Semicircle BAL. Q. E. D.

CO R 0 L.
Hence a right Line drawn at right Angles at
the End of the Diameter of a Circle, touches the
74 Euclid'j Elements.
. From this Proposition are deduced several
wonderful Paradoxes.

To (&vm* a Zif AC
from a given Point A, touching
a given Circk DBC.
Draw a right Line DA
from D the Centre of the gi
ven Circle to the given Point
A,cuttingthe Periphery in B,
and from the Center D de
scribe another Circle AE pas
sing thro' A; and from B. draw a Perpendicu
lar to AD, meeting the Circle AE in E : draw
ED meeting the Circle BC in C, then a right
Line drawn from A to Q shall touch the Circle
For DB 1 = DC, and DE a = DA ; and the
i i5 def.l
An?. D is common : therefore b the Ang. ACD
ccor. U&3 = EBD ; whence the right Line AC touches
c the Circle in C. Q. E. F. :


If any right Line AB

touches a Circle FEDC,
and a right Line FE joins
the Centre F and Point of
Contact E ; this Line
fl>all be perpendicular to
the Tangent AB.
If you deny it, let
JB some other right Line
FG, drawn from the
Center F be perpendicular to the Tangent, and
d des. 23. let it cut d the Circle in D. Therefore since the
&16. 3. Ang.
Book III. Euclid'j Elements. 75
Ang. FGE is said to be a right Angle, the Ang.
FEG lhall be a acute. Therefore b FE (FD) cr * m.ii.
FG j which is c absurd.

If any right Line AB
touches a Circle, andfrom
C the Point of Contact a
right Line CE be drawn
at right Angles to that
Tangent j the Center of the
Circleshall be in the faid
Line CE.
A G B If you deny it, let the
Centre be without CE in F, and draw FC from
the Point F to the Point of Contact. Now the
Ang. FCB is d a right Angle : and consequent- d i S. 3.
ly equal e to the right Angle ECB, by the Hypo- * li **-
thesis, which is f absurd. ^>-4*-


In a Circle DABC, the Ang.

BDC at the Centre is the double
of the Angle BAC at the Peri
phery, the fame Arch BC being
the Base of the Angles.

76 EuclidV Elements. .
Draw the Diameter ADE.
The external Angle BDEa = DAB'+ DBAb
2 52. I.
k5- 1* = 2DAB. In like manner the Ang. EDC =
2DAC. Therefore, in the first Case, the whole
c 2. ax. Ang. BDCc=2BAC; but in the third Case,
d 20. ax. the rema1ning d Ang. BDC = 2BAC Q. . D.

In a Circle EDAC, the Angles DAC and DBC
that are in the fame Segment, are equal to eaek
3 A^ l B

Case 1. If the Segment DA.BC be greater

than a Semicircle, draw ED, EC from the Cen
ter E. Then shall .2 Ang. Aa = E 1 = 2B.
Case 2. If the Segment be not greater than a
Semicircle, the Sum of the Angles of the Tri
angle ADF, are equal to the Sum of the Angles
of the Triangle BCF. Take from both AFD
c By
1 j. Cose
1. = BFC, and ADB c = ACB, and there remains
I. DAC = DBC. &E.D.
T'he opposite Angles ADC,
ABC of quadrilateral F1-
^ gures ABCD described in a
Circle, are equal to two right
Draw* AC, BD. The
Ang. ABC -f BCA -f
BACa = 2 right Angles.
32. I.
Book III. Euclid'j Elements. 77
But BDA b = BCA, and BDC b = BAC There- fc *i, 3-
fore c ABC -f- ADC = 2 right Angles. . Z>. c 1.

C 0 0 L.
1. Hence, if* AB, one Side of a quadrila- * See the
teral Figure described in a Circle, be continued fM'&l*"'
out, the external Angle EBC (hall be equal to
the internal Angle ADC, which is opposite to
ABC, the Angle adjacent to EBC, as is mani
fest from Prop. 13. 1. and ax. 3.
2. Also a Circle cannot be described about a
Rhombus ; because the opposite Angles of it
either exceed, or are less than two Right An
In a quadrilateral Figure
(ABCD) if the opposite An
gles A and C be equal ; then
a Grcle may be described a- . .
bout that quadrilateral Fi
For a Circle may pass
through any three angular
Points B,C,D(as shall be
manifest by the j Prop. Lib. 4.) and I fay the
fame will pass thro' A. For if not, let it pass
thro' F. Then if you draw the right Lines BF,
FD, BD ; the Ang. C -f F a = 2 right Ang. b = . 3.
C + A. Therefore A c = F. which is d absurd. b Htf


. Tmo similar and unequal

Segments ABC, ADC, of
two Circles, cannot be set
upon the fame right Line
AC,on the fame Side there-
78 E u c l i b's Elements.
For if they are faid to be similar, draw Cfi
cutting the Circumference in B and D ; and
join AD, and AB. Now because the Segments
1 D/. io. are suppos'd to be similar, the Ang; ADC a =
I , ABC. Which is b absurd.
k l6. i.
Similar Segments ABC, DEF of Circles, be
ing upon equal right Lines AC, DF, are equal to
each other.

For is the Base AC be laid upon the Base DF,

they will coincide, because AC == DF. Whence
the Segment ABC will coincide with the Seg
ment DEF, (for if not,, it will fall within ot
without the same,) and so the Segments will not
2ji 3. be * similar, (which is contrary to the Hyp.) ot
else partly within or partly without ; and so
i0.3. it will cut it in three Points. Which is b ab-
8. ax. surd. Therefore the Segment ABC c =?.DEF.

Book Hi. Euclid'j Elements. 79


A Segment (ABC) of
a Circle being given : To
describe the Circle whereof
that is the Segment.
Draw any two Chords
or right Lines AB, BC,
and bisect them in the Points D, E. And from *
the Points D, E, draw the Perpendiculars DF,
EF meeting each other in the Point F. Which
will be the Center of the Circle.
For the Center isa both in DF, and EF; and a Com. 3,
consequently is in the common Point F. jQ,. E. F.


In equal Circles GABC, HDEF, equal Angles

stand upon equal Parts AC, DF, of the Circumfe
rences, -whether they be at the Centers G, H, or C/V-
cumferences B,-E. ,

Because the Circles are equal, therefore GA

==HD, and GC = HF. Also by the Hyp.
theAng.G = H. Therefore AC a = DF. But b 20. j-.
likewise the Ang. B b = 4- G e= 4- H b = E. 'Hyp.
Therefore the Segments ABC, DEF, are d simi d io. Def.
lar, 3-
So Euclid 'j Elements.
e *4-- 1%3- lar, and so e equal. Therefore also the remain-
f 3. ax. ing Segments AC, DF, are f equal. Q. E. D.


In a Circle A BCD, if the Arch

AD be equal to the Arch DC ;
then shall AD be parallel to BC.
For drawing AC, and then the
26. 5. Ang. ACB stall be * ~ CAD.
Wlxnce by Prop. 27. 1. AD "


ht equal Circles GABC, HDEF, the Angles

standing upon eaual Parts AC, DF, of the Circum*~
ference, are equal between themselves, whether they
be at the Centers G, H, or at the Circumferences

a 16. 3. For if not, let one of the Angles AGC be

"Hyp. c-DHF, and make AGC DHF.: Then the
e9-f; Arch. AC* =DF b = AC. Which ,isc abjued.
* ' - ' * 1 -
.- '.' . - ' . <-..'L - .5' --- O ' " ;
Book III. Euclid'; Elements. Si

F A right Line EF, which
^ being drawn from A the mid
dle Point of any Circumference
BC, to touch the Circle, is pa
rallel to the right Line BC
subtending the faid Circumfe
Draw a Line DA from
the Center D to the Point
A of Contactt and join'DB, DC.
The Side DG is common, and DB = DC,
and the Ang. BDAa = CDA, (because the Ar 1 *7* 3-
ches BA, CA are b equal ;) therefore the Angles 1 'Hyp.
ac the Base DGB, DGC are c equal, and d con- ; 4. 1.
1 10. Des.
sequeritly right ones : but the inward Angles
GAE, GAF are also c right Angles; therefore * 18.
fBC, EF are parallel. Q.E.D. 'Au


In equal Circles GABC, HDEF, equal right

Lines AC, DF cut off equal Parts of the Circum
ferences, the greater ABC equal to the greaterDEF,
and the lesser AIC to the lesser DKF.

From the Centers G, H, draw GAj GC, and

G Ber
E u c l i dV Elements.
Because GA=HD, and GC = HF, and
AC a = DF, therefore the Ang. G b H :
Whence the Arch AIC c = DKF, and so the
remaining Arch ABC d = DEF. j>. E. D.
But if the intended Line AC be c- or -a than
DF ; then in like manner will the Arch AIC
be c- or -=i than DKF.

In equal Circles GABC, HDEF, equal right
Lines AC, DF subtend equal Circumferences ABC,


Draw the Lines GA, GC, and HD, HF :

because G A = HD, and GC = HF, and (be
cause the Arches AIC.DEF, are "equal) the Ang.
G b = H. Therefore the Ease AC c = DF
This and the three last Propositions are to be
understood of the fame Circle.

lo cut a given Circumfe
rence ABC into two equal
\ \ Parts.
V \ Draw the right Line AC,
\ J and bisect it in D > from
V D draw a Perpend. DB
D C meecr
Book III. Euclid'* Elements* 83
meeting the Arch in B; and it shall bisect the
For join AB and CB. Then the Side DB is
common and AD a = DC, and the Ang. ADB b 1 Const.
*= CDB. Therefore AB c = BC j whence the \ 12- ax'
Arch AB - = BC Jj^

In a Circle, the Angle
ABC, which is in the Semi-
Circle, is a right Angle ;
the Angle BAC, which is
in a greater Segment, is less
than a right Angle ; and
the Angle BFC, which is
in a lesser Segment, is
greater than a right Angle.
And moreover, the Angle of
the greater Segment is greater than a right Angle, and
cf a leffer, is less.
Draw QB from the Centre D. Because DB
fi= DA, therefore (hall the Aug. Aa = DBA. j, u
In like manner the Ang. DCBa = DBC- Whence b 2
the Ang. ABC b = A + ACB = d EBC ; and 1 9h f*
consequently ? ABC, EBC are right Angles. , i*'
&E.D. Therefore BAC jse1*n acute Angle. 1
. E. D. Wherefore since BAC-f BFC f=2 right f aa. 3.
Angles, the Ang. BFC shall be obtuse. Lastly,
the Angle under the right Line CB, and the
Arch BAC, is greater than a right Angle ABC.
And the Angle under CB, and the Peri
phery BFC of the lesser Segment, is g less than a ft 9 *.
right Ang. EBC. QE.D.

In a right-angled Triangle ABC, if the Hypothe- '
nuse AC Ire bisefled in D, a Circle described front
G a the
EuclidV Elements.
the Centre D thro A, shall pass thro B ; as any one
himself may easily demonstrate from this, and
Prop. 21. r.


D If any right Line AB

touches a Circle, andfrom
the Point of ContaSi be
drawn a right Line CE
cutting the Circle ; 'the
Angles ECB, ECA, which
it makes with the Tangent,
- are equal to those Angles
C B EDC, EFC that stand in
the alternate Segments of the Circle.
Let CD the Side of the Angle EDC be per
pendicular to AB (for it is a the fame thing.)
then CD is b a Diameter. Therefore the Ang.
CED in a Semicircle is c a right Angle. There
fore the Ang. D + DCE d = right Ang. e =
ECB + DCE. Whence the Ang. D f = ECB.
Q.E. D.
Therefore since the Ang. ECB + ECAS =
2 right Ang. b = D + F ; take from both the
equal Angles ECB, D, and there remains k
ECA = F. Q_E,D.


To describe the Segment of a Circle AIEB upon a

given right Line AB ; containing an Angle AIB,
equal to a given right-lined Angle Q.

Book III. Euclid'* Elements.

Make^the Ang. BAD=C, and thro' Aa*3.1.

draw AE,perpendicular to HD. at one End of
the given right Line AB, make the Ang. ABF
= BAF, whose other Side cuts AE in F. From
the Centre F describe a Circle thro' A, which
shall pass thro'B, (because the Ang. FBAb = b Const.
FAB, and so c FB = FA ;) and the Segment c <* 1*
AIB is that sought.
For because HD is perpendicular to the Di
ameter AE, the Line HD touches d the Circle d Ctfr.1tf.3.
which AB cuts. Therefore the Ang. AIB e = '32. 3.
BADs=C. Q.E.F. * Const.

To cut off a Segments ABC from a given Circle
ABC, contain1ng an Angle B equal to a given right-
lined Angle D.

G j Draw
16 Euclid'; Element si
*7. J. Draw * the right Line EF touching the given
kaj. 1. Circle in A. Likewise draw b AC making the
Ang.FACs=D. This shall cut off the Seg
e31. 3. ment ABC, containing the Ang. B c s= CAF 4
= D. Q. E. F.


If two right Lines AB, DC cut each other in a

Circle FABC, the Rectangle comprehended under the
Segments AE, EB of the onet is equal to the Reti-
angle comprehended under the Segments CE, ED of
the other.

Cafe 1. If the right Lines cut each other in

the Centre, the thing is clear.
Cafe 2. If one of them, as AB, passes thro' the
Centre F, and bisects the other CD, draw FD.
Book III. Euclid'* Elements. 87
Then the Rectan?. AEB + FE* * FB* b = \ *J
FD* < = ED* -f FE* d = CED + FE*. There- 48. ,.
sore the Rectang. e AEB = CED. Q. E. D. c 47- i.

3. If one of them, as AB, be a Diameter, cut

ting the other CD unequally, and bisect CD by
the Perpend, from the Centre FG:

Then theRectang. AEB + FE* f =^FB* J J 2;

(FD*) = *FG* + J3D* = FG* -f bGE* + b 5.V
Rectang. CED = kFE* + CED. Therefore the k 47. i.
Rectang. 1 AEB = CED. l $ **.

4. Is neither of the right Lines AB, CD

passes thro' the Centre, draw the Diameter
HG through E the Point of Intersection. Then
from what has been already demonstrated the
Rectang. AEB = GEH = CED.
If any Point D be taken without a Circle EBC,and
from that Point, therefalls two right Lines DA,DB
to the Circle; one of which}asT>A, cuts the Circle,and

88 E u c 1 1 d'j Elements'.
the other DB touches it ; then the ReElangle contained
under the -whole Secant DA, and the Line DC taken
outwardly between the Point D and the convex Part
of the Circle, is equal to the Square describedfrom the
Tangent DB.

Case 1. If the Secant AD passes through the

a 18. 3. Center E, join EB ; this makes a a right Angle
b 47- 1* withDB; whenceDB' + EB1 (EC1)b = ED1
c 6. 1.
= ^AD xDC -f EC\ Therefore AD x DC d
= DB\ QE.D.

Case 2. But if AD does not pass thro* the

Centre, draw EC, EB, ED; and EF perpend,
e 1 - to AD, whence AC is bisected e in F.
3' D'

I 47-.I- Therefore because BD* + EB1 f = D^E1 f

^F + f%Jj = EF" + ADC + FC4f =
*6. 2.
ADC+CE1 (EB*;) thereforel?!)1 shall be b =
II ax. 3. ADC. ..>.

C 0 R 0 L.
1. Hence, if several right
Lines AB, AC be drawn
from any Point A taken
without a Circle, the Rect
angle contained under the
whole Lines AB, AC, and
the external Parts AE, AF,
are equal to each other. For
if the Tangent AD be
drawn ; then shall CAF =;
AD* ; = BAE.

%. It
Euclid'j Elements.

i. It is also manifest that

two right Lines AB, AC
drawn from the fame Poinc
A to touch a Circle, are
equal to one another.
For if AE be drawn cut
ting the Circle ; then shall
ABia = EAF = AC*. 36.3.

3. It is likewise evident, that

there can be drawn only two right Lines AB,
AC to touch a Circle from the fame Point A
taken without the Circle.
For if the third Line AD be said to be a Tan
gent, then shall AD be b= AB = AC, which b -c"-
is c false. On the contrary it is manifest, that c 8< $
if two right Lines AB, AC fall on the convex
Part of a Circle from any Point A, and one of
them, as AB, touches the Circle ; then shall the
other also touch the Circle.
For if possible, let AC not touch the Circle,
but some other Line AD. Then AD d = ACr * * Ctr'
= AB. Which is f absurd. tft
m . 3.
If a Point D be taken without
a Circle,and from thefame there
falls two right Lines DA,DB to
the Circle ; one ofwhich, as DA
cuts the Circle, and the other
DB comes but to it; and if the .
Rectangle under the whole Se
cant DA, and DC the Part of
it taken without the- Circle, be
equal to the Square described on
d E u c l i t>'s Elements.
DB the infident Line ; the said Line DB (ball touch
the Circle.
a I7. ?. From D draw 1 the Tangent DF ; and draw
ED, EB, EF from the Centre E. Because DB*
*%* b = ADC c = DF% then (hallDB be d = DF.
* 36- 3- But EB = EF, and the Side ED is common ;
SoaJ. therefore the Ang. e EBD == EFD. But EFD
1. is a right Angle. Whence also is EBD (by ax. j 2)
8. I. therefore DB touches f the Circle. Q-E.D.

CO R 0 L.
8. 1. Hence the * Ang. EDB = EDF.

End of the Third Book.

E U-
t 9* )

E U C I I D 's




Right-lined Figure is faid to be in

scribed in a right-lined Figure, when
the Angles of the faid inscribed
Figure touch all the Sides of that in
Which it is inscribed.
As the TriangleDTLF is in
scribed in the Triangle ABC
II. In like manner a Fi
gure is faid to be described
about a Figure, when each
Side of the faid circumscri-
. bed Figure touches each
B V v Angle of the F1gure about
'which it is described.
So the Triangle ABC described about the Ti
ngle DEF.


III. A right-lin'd Figure is faid to be itI-

scrib'd in a Circle, when each Angle of the in
scribed Figure shall touch the Periphery of the
IV. And a right-lin'd Figure is faid to be de-
scrib'd about a Circle, when each of the Sides of
that Figure which is circumscrib'd, touches the
Periphery of the Circle.
V. In like manner, a Circle is faid to be in
scribe in a right-lin'd Figure, when the Peri
phery of the Circle shall touch each of the Sides
of the Figure in which it is inscrib'd.
VI. A Circle is said to be describ'd about a
right-lin'd 'Figure, when the Periphery of the
Circle touches every Angle of the Figure that it

VII. A right Line is faid to
be apply'd in a Circle, when
A the Extremes of it shall be
in the Periphery of the Circle ;
as the right Light AB.


Book IV. Eucli d'j Elements. 95

PROP. I. Probl. i.
To apply a right Line AB in a given Circle
ABC, equal to a given right Line D, which is not
greater than AC the Diameter of the Circle.

About the Centre A, with the Distance

AE=D describe" a Circle meeting the given ^ I. fie
Circle in B ; then if the right Line AB be drawn, ?. i
it shall be b=AE= eD. & E. F. c i

PROP. II. Probl. j.

To describe a Triangle ABC, in a given Circle
ABC, equiangular to agiven Triangle DEF.

Let the right Line GH touch a the given * ,7 *

Circle in A ; make b the Ang. HAC=F ; and b J\
the Ang. " GAB=E, and join BC. I say the 3
thing is done.

$4- % v c l i b's Elements.
e3M- Forthe Ang.Bc = HAC^=Fi andtheAhg.
* confi. Cc_ GAB. whence atfo thfe Ang< BACe
32. i. ajlfj Q triangle BAC is inscrib'd in
the Circle equiangular to the Triangle DEF.

PROP. III. Probl. j.

To describe the Triangle LNM about a given
Circle ABC, equiangular to a given Triangle

23. . Continue out the Side EF both ways. At the'

Centre I, make the a Ang. AIB==DEG, and
the Ang. BIC=DFH ; then let three right Lines
" "7- 3- LN, LM, MN touch b tne Circle in the Points
A3 B, C, and I fay the thing is done.
c ax. i3. For that the right Lines LN, LM, MN, will
meet, will thus appear ; because c the Angles
* l8' 3- LAI, LBI, are d right ones ; and so a right
Line AB being drawn, stiajl make the Angles
LAB, LBA, less than two right ones. There--
esclol. 32. fore since the Ang. AIB + Le=2. right Ang.
}- i = i DEG -J- DEF and AIB * = DEG j the
8 const'. Ang. L (hall be b = DEF. After the fame way
b 5 ax. of reasoning the Ang. M = DFE, therefore
k 3# h likewise the Ang. N k = D, and so the Trian
gle LNM is circumscribed about the Cir*
cle, Equiangular to the given Triangle EDF.
Book III. Euclid'* Elements. 9S

PROP. IV. Probl. 4.

J\. To inscribe a Circle

EFG in a given Tri
angle ABC
Bisect1 the twoAn-a9- 1
gles B and C by the
right Lines BD, CD
meeting in D, and
from D b draw the bI2.I:
Perpendiculars DE ,
DF, DG. a Circle described from the Centre D
through E shall pass through G and F, and
touch the three Sides of the Triangle.
For the Angle DBE c = DBF ; and the cw/r.
Ang. DEBd = DFB ; and the Side DB is com- d Ia-**
mon. Therefore DE * DF. Afcer the fame e 26. 1.
way of reasoning DG = DF, therefore a Circle
described from the Centre D, shall pass through
E, F, G ; and since the Angles at E, F, G, are
right ones, it (hall touch all the three Sides of
the Triangle. E. P.

Hence if the three Sides of a Triangle be known*
we can find their Segments made by the Points of
CmtaSl of the inscrib'd Circle. Thus,
Let AB be 12, AC 18, BC 16. Then shall
AB -j- BC = 28, from whence take 18 = AC
= AE + FC, and there remains 10, = BE -f-
BF. Therefore BE, or BF j. whence FC
or CG = ix. and so GA, or AE = 7.

Euclid's Elements'.

PROP, V. Probl. 5.
To describe a Circle ABC, about a given Tri

*1o.I1. Bisect a any two Sides (BA, AC) by the

1. Perpendiculars DF* EF meeting in F, which
will be the Centre of the Circle.
For draw the right Lines FA, FB, FC Now
b corst. because AD b = DB ; and the Side DF is com-
e cmjt. rnn ; an<l fhe Ang. FDA c == FDB ; there-
& 11. ax. fore sllall d FB = FA. In like manner FC =
d As' 1 FA. Whence a Circle having the Point F for a
Centre, shall pass thro* the three Angles B, A, C,
of the given Triangle.

CO R 0 L.
* 31.3. * Hence, if the Triangle be acute-angled,
the Centre will fall within the Triangle j it
right-angled, on the Side opposite to the right
Angle j . and if obtuse-angled, without the
Triangle. ,

Book III. E u c l i n's tLletitents. 97


By the same way you may describe a Circle

that shall pass through three given Points, not
being in one streight Line-

P.ROP. VI. Probl. 6.

To inscribe a Square ABCD,
in a given Circle EABCD.
Draw a the Diameters II. u
AC, BD, mutually cur-
ting each other at right
Angles in the Centre E,
and join their Extremes
by the right Lines, AB,
BC, CD, DA ; I fay the thing is done.
For because the four Angles atE are right ones
the Arcs b, and the Subtenses c AB, BC, CD, b 26. 3.
DA, are equal. Therefore ABCD is an equal- c 29- 3*
sided Figure ; but all its Angles are in Semicir
cles, and so are 6 right ones, whence ABCD is e 31.
a Square inscribed in the given Circle. e 29 Def.
PROP. VII. Probl. 7.
To describe a Square
FHIG about a given Cir
cle EABCD.
Draw the Diameters
AC, BD, mutually cut
ting one another at right
Angles. And thro' their
Extremes draw a Tan- , 1 7. .3.
fents meeting in F,H,I,G \
fay the thing is done.
For because the Angles at A and C are b right k 18. 3.
ones, FG shall bec parall. to HI ; in like man- '26. 1.
H ner,
s-s EuclidV Elements.
ner, FH shall be parall. to GI. Therefore
FHIG is a Parallelogram, and indeed right-
angled ; as likewise equal-sided, because FG A
34- 1. HId=BDe = CAd = FHd = Gl. Whence
j l$.Jef. FHIG is f a Square describ'd in the given Cir-
des. cle. Q. E. F.
A E B The Square ABCD
circumscribing a Circle>
is the double of the
Square EFGH irrfcrib'd
in the fame.
For theRectang. HB =
by 41. 1.

PROP. VIII. Probl. 8.

7o inscribe a Circle
IEFGH in a given Square
Bisect the Sides of the
Square in the Points H,
E, F, G ; and join HF,
EG, cutting each other
in I ; a Circle described
from the Centre I thro'H,
will be inscribed in the Square.
7 ax. For because AH, BF are a equal and b pa
b 4?. I. rallel, the Side AB (hall be c parall. to HF pa
c 3 J. I.
rall. to DC ; therefore IA, ID, IB, IC are Pa
* 7 ax. rallelograms. Whence AHd = AE' = HI
34. I.
= El = IF=: IG. And consequently a Circle
describ'd from the Centre I through H, shall
pass fcro' H, E, F, G, and shall touch the Sides
Book III. Euclid'; Elements. 9
of the Square, since the Angles at H, E, F, G,
are fight ones. Q E. F.

PROP. IX. Probl. 9.

To describe a Circle
EABCD about the given
Square ABCD.
Draw the Diameters,
AC, BD cutting one
nother in E ; from the
Centre E thro' A, de
scribe a Circle which will
circumscribe the given
For the Angles ABD, and BAC, are half 4 4*
right ones. Therefore EAb = ES, in like 2^i'
manner EA = ED = EC. Therefore a Circle
described from the Centre E, will pass thro'
A, B, C, D, the Angles of the given Square.

PROP. X. Probl 10.

To make an Ifo-
having each of the
Angles, ABD and
ADB at the Base,
the Double of the
remaining one A.
Take any right
Line AB, which
cutc in C so, that c 1i. 2
and from the Cen
ter A thro' B, describe the Circle ABD ; in
which apply d BD = AC, and join AD. Then * i.4.
sliall the Triang. ABD be that sought.
H 2 For
lOO EuclidV Elements.
c 5- 4- For draw DC ; and describe c a_Circle
thro'CDA. Because AB x BC = AC% it
* 37. 3- is manifest*1 that BD touches the Circle ACD,
which the right Line CD Cuts. Therefore the
e*t. j. Ang. BDC "=A- And so the Ang.BDC +
f I ax. CDA f = A +CDA = * BCD. But BDC +
f?2-3- CDA= BDAb= CBD ; therefore the Aog.
J * 1 BCD k = CBD. Whence DC 1 = DB m = AC.
1l'f* Wherefore the Ang. CDA" = A = BDC
m cost. Therefore ADB = 2 A = ABD Q. E. F.
" j. 1. This Construction may be Ana-
A lytically investigated thus. Sup-
/\ pose the thing done, and bisect
;! \ the Angle BDA by the right Line
\ \ CD j then shall a DA : DB : : CA :
\\ CB. Also because the Ang. CDA k
*W B D = * ADB c = A, therefore is 1
" 6- CA=DC. And because the Ang.
* .a. 1. DCB e = A + CDA e = 2 A = B, therefore
t ,. . flIall-DBe be = DC : and so DB f = CA. Con
sequently DA : C BA) CA : : CA : CB. There-
1 7. <S- sore is BA x CB = C A*-

C 0 R 0 L.
:' 32. 1. Because all the Angles, A, B, D, make b up
r of two right Angles, ic is manifest that A is t
of two right Angles.

Book III. EuclidV Elements.

PROP. XL. Probl. Ii. .

To describe an equilateral and equiangular Penta
gon ABCDE in a given Circle ABCDE.

Describe a an Isosceles Triangle FGH, having 1 10.

each of the Angles at the Base, the Double of
that at theVertex. And in the C1rcle inscribe b, k 2.4
the Triangle CAD equiangular to the aforesaid
Triangle ; then bisect c the Angles ACD, ADC c 9- 1
by the right Lines DB, CE meeting in the
Circumference in B and E, and join the right
Lines CB, BA, AE3 ED ; I fay the thing requi
red is done,
For by Construction it is evident, that the An
gles CDB, BDA.DCE, ECAare equal, and so
the Arcs d and Subtenses e DC, CB, BA, AE,
DE are equal ; therefore the Pentagon is equi- ' 2?.
lateral. It is f also equiangular ; because the f 27
Angles BAE, AED, &c. of it stand * upon the f
equal Arcs BCDE, ABCD, &c. 9'
This Prob. may be easier sol v'd from Prop. 10.
Lib, 13.

- COR 0 L.
Hence each Angle of an equilateral and equi
angular Pentagon is equal to 4 of 2 right Angles,
or 4 of one.
H 3 S C H 0 L,
E.uclidV Elements.

Universally all Figures of odd Numbers of Sides
may be inscrib'd in a Circle by means of Isosceles Tri
angles, whose Angles at the Base are Multiples of
those at the Vertex ; and Figures of even Numbers of
Sides may be inscribed in a Circle by help of Isosceles
Triangles, whose Angles at the Base are sesquialteral
Multiples of those at the Vertex.
As in the Isosceles Triangle
c CAB, rf the Angle A=3C
== B ; then is AB the Side of
a Heptagon. If A be = 4 C ;
then is the Side AB that of an
Enneagon, &c. but if A=n4- C ;
_ then will the Side AB be that
of a Square, and if A=2f C,
then shall AB subtend the sixth part of the Cir
cumference. In like manner, if A=jf C j then
shall AB be the Side of an Octagon, &c.
PROP. XII. Probl. IS.

To describe an Equila
teral aud Equiangular
Pentagon ( HIKLG )
about a given Circle]
Inscribe * an Equi
lateral and Equiangu
lar Pentagon ABCDE
in the Circle, and from
its Centre draw the
right Lines FA, FB, FC, FD, FE, and the like
number of Perpendiculars GAH, HBI, ICK,
KDL, LEG to them, meeting in the Points
H, I, K, L, G ; I fay the thing is done.
goo k III. TLvchib's Elements. ioj
For since GA, GE drawn from thejame Point
C, touch H the Circle, GA shall be c = GE. b 16.
Therefore the Angle GFAd = GFE ; and so }'
the Angle AFE = z GFA. In like manner, the <s g-*^* 3
Angle AFH = HFB ; and consequently the
Angle AFB = 2 AFH. But the Angle AFE ' 27. 3.
= AFB. Therefore the Angle GFA' = AFH 7 *
But likewise the Angle FAH g = FAG ; and g 12 <w.
the Side FA is common j therefore HA b = b 26. I.
AG=s GE= EL, &c whence HG, GL, LK,
KI, IH, the Sides of the Pentagon, are equal :
as likewise the Angles ; as being the Doubles 1 1 2C.;2.
of the equal Angles AGF, AHF, therefore &c.

C 0 R 0 L.
In like manner if any Equilateral and Equi
angular Figure be describ'd in a Circle, and Per
pendiculars are erected at the Extremes of Semi-
iiameters drawn from the Center to the An
gles ; these Perpendiculars will constitute another
Figure of the fame Number of Sides, and equal
Angles circumscribing the Circle.

XIII. Probl. 13.

7o describe a Circle
FGHK in a given E-
quilateral and Equian
Bisect two Angles ap1.
A and B of the Penta
gon by the streight
Lines AF, BF, meet*
ing in F, and from F
draw the Perpendicu-
culars FG, FH, FI, FK, FL ; this being done,
a Circle describ'd from the Centre F through G,
will touch all the Sides of the Pentagon.
H 4 Draw
104 Euclid'/ Elements.
b byp. Draw FC, FD, FE because BA b = BC j
and the S1de BF is common ; and the Angle
const. FBA c sa FBC. AF shall be " = FC ; and the
d4-1- Angle FAB=FCB. But the Angle FAB e = f
e *>* BAE * f BCD. Therefore the Angle FCB
= f BCD. In like manner the whole Angles
C, D, E, &c. are all bisected. Therefore s1nce
f 1 the Angle FGB f = FHB, and the Angle FBH
= FBG, and the Side FB is common, the Line
*i6. \. FG shall be B FH. In like manner, all the
Lines FH, FI, FK, FL, FG, are equal. There-
fore a Circle describ'd from the Centre F thro*
m. 16. G)stlan pasS thro' H, I, R, L ; and touch b the
5- Sides of the Pentagon, since the Angles at these
Points are right ones. Q. . F.

C 0 R 0 L,
.. Hence if two of the nearest Angles of an Equi
lateral and Equiangular Figure be bisected, and
from the Point wherein Lines bisecting the An
gles meet, be drawn right Lines to the other
Angles of the Figure, all the Angles of the
Figure will be bisected.

. s c n o l iu m.'
After the same way you may describe a Cir
cle in any Equilateral and Equiangular Figure.

PROP. XIV. ProbL 14.

To describe aGrcleFABCDZ
about a given equilateral
and equiangular Pentagon
B'fect twq Angles of the
Pentagon by the Right
Lines AF, BF, meeting in
F ; then a Circle describ'd
Euclid'j- Elements, 10S
from . F thro* A, shall circumscribe the Penta
For draw FC, FD, FE, and the Angles
C, D, E will be a bisected : therefore FA, FB, "
FC, FD, FE are b equal. And consequently aitl
Circle describ'd from the Centre F, will pass
thro' A, B, C, D, E, the' Angles of the Penta
gon. Qj E. F.

After the fame manner, you may describe a
Circle about any equilateral and equiangular Fi
gure- -'

PROP. XV. Pro*/. 15. .

To inscribe an equilateral
and equiangular Hexagon
GABCDEF in a given Gr-
Draw the Diameter AD,
and describe a Circle from
the Center D thro' the
Center G, cutting the given
Circle in C, E. Draw the
Diameters CF, EB, and
join AB, BC, CD, DE,
EF, FA j I fay the thing
is done.
For the Angle CGDa = ' of two right ' ones 31.1.
DGE b == AGF b = AGB. Therefore ) 1 5- 1.
BDC == 7- of two right Angles. Therefore the c
Arcs d and Subtenses * AB, BC, CD, DE, EF l'z^ ?.
are equal. Whence the Hexagon is equilateral : 3.
but it is also equiangular, because every of its
Angles stand f upon eqgal Arcs. Q.E.F. ^7.3.

C 0 R 0 L.
I o6 * Euclid'; Elements.

C 0 R 0 L.
i: Hence the Side of a Hexagon inscribed in
a Circle, is equal to the Semidiameter.
2. Hence it is easy to inscribe an equilateral
Triangle ACE in a Circle.

S C H 0 L. Proh
You may this make an Hexagon upon a given
J 1. 1. Line CD- Make 3 the equilateral Triangle
CGD upon the given right Line CD, and from
the Centre D describe a Circle thro' C and D,
which shall contain a,n Hexagon upon the given
Line CD. . . .

B & O P. XVI. Prob. 16.

To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular j^bin-
decagon in a given Circle AEBC.


? 11. 4, Inscribe a an equilateral Pentagon AEFGH in

* V the given Circle j as likewise b an equilateral
Triangle ABC. Thenstjall BF be the Side of
the Quindecagon sought.
c cast. For the Arc AB isc f or of the Periphery,
and AF is or tj of it. Therefore their Dif
Book HI. Euclid'* Elements. . 107
serence BF is = ~ of the Periphery. Whence a
Quindecagon, whose Side is BF, is equilateral :
But it is also equiangular, since all its Angtes do.
stand A upon equal Arches, every one of which d 27. 3-
is of the whole Circumference. Therefore
&c ' ,
A Circle T 4,8,i 6, &c. by 6% 4, and 9,1.")
maybeGe- 13,6, i2, &c. by i5,4, and P,i/p
ometrically ^5, i0,20, & ii,4,and5>,i.f cs
difided into C i 5 > 3 o,6o, &c. by i 6,4 and i . J

But- the Division of the Circumference into any

given Number of equal Parts cannot be done by
help of a streight Line and Circle; and for effect
ing the fame, there are several mechanical ways
jn Books of Practical Geometry.

- End of the Fourth Book.

( i08 ).

E U C L I Ds


B O O K V.


Part is a lesser Magnitude in respeEl of

a greater, wj;en the lejfer one measures
the greater.
II. A Multiple is a great Magnitude
in refpeSl of a less, ivhen the less measures the greater.
III. Ratio is a certain mutual Habitude, orRespetl
tf two Magnitudes of the fame kind according to
Quantity. '"t^^C''^
That Quantity, in every Ratsfcvth'at:! is refer'd to
the other, is callI'd the Antecedent of the Ratio ; and
that to which the other is refer''d, is call'd the Conse
quent of the Ratio ; as in the Ratio of 6 to 4, the
Antecedent is 6, and Consequent 4.
The Quantity of every Ratio is found, by dividing
the Antecedent by the Consequent, as the Ratio of i2
to ; is expressed by also the Quantity of the Ratio

Book IV. Euclid'^ Elements. 109
of A to B (A express1ng any Line, Surface, Solid, &c.
{and B the like) is expressed by - Whence very often
for brevity fake, the Quantities of Ratios are denoted
thus cr or =, or _3 CD ; that is, the Ratio of
A so B is greater than the Ratio of C to D, or equal
to it, or else less. And this I would have well ob
serv'd by every one that designs to read -whatfollows.
IV. Proportion is a Similitude or Lihness of Ra~
Note, This Word would be better express'd,
by Proportionality, or Analogy, because by
many it signifies the fame as Ratio.
V. Magnitudes are faid to have a Ratio to one
another, which being multiplied can exceed the one the
E, 12, I A, 4. B, 6. |G, 24. W.Mag-

- la1d to be 1n
the fame Ratio the first A to the second B, and
the third C to the fourth D, when the Equimul
tiples E, F of the first A and third C compared
with the Equimultiples G, H of the second B,
and fourth D, according to any Multiplication
soever, either both together (E and FJ are less
than G, H, or both together equal to them, or
both together greater, if those Magnitudes E,G,
and F, H be taken, which answer to each other :
that is, when G is less than H, E is less than
F ; when G exceeds H, E exceeds F ; and when
G = H, E shall be = F. And this shall always
When Quantities are in the fame Ratio, for
brevity fake they are express'd thus ; A5:
B : : C : D. that is, as Ato B, so is C to D. And
sometimes we write them thus = ^ that is,
A:B ::C: D.
u c l i d'x Elements.
VII. Quantities that have the seme Ratio
CA : B : : C : D) are call'd Proportionals.
, n Z VIII. Bai
E, 30. A, 6. B, 4. B, 28. 0f Equimuu
F, 6o. I C, i2. D, p. I H, 63. tjples when
E the Multiple of the first Magnitude A shall
be greater than G, the Multiple of the second
B; but F the Multiple of the third C does
not exceed H, that ot the fourth D: then the
first A is said to have a greater Ratio to the
second B, than the third C to the fourth D.
A- C
If be cr g- it is not necejsary front this De
finition that E always exceeds G, when F is less
than H ; but that it is possible for it to do so.
IX. Analogy at least consists of three Terms.
X. When three Magnitudes A, B, C, are pro
portional, the first A is said to have to the third C,
a duplicate Ratio to what it has to the second
B j and when four Magnitudes A, B, C, D, are
proportional, the first A shall have a triplicate
Ratio to the fourth D of what it has to the se
cond B ; and so always one more in order, ac
cording as the Proportion shall be extended.
Duplicate Ratio it thus expressed = ^ twice.
That is, the Ratio of A to C is the Duplicate of the
Ratio of A.toB, and triplicate Ratio thus, g- f
thrice. I'llAt is, the Ratio of A to D, is triplicate of
the Ratio of A to B.
XI. Homologous Magnitudes, or Magnitudes
of a like Ratio, are faid to be such whose Ante*
cedents are to the Antecedents, and Consequents
to the Consequents.
As if A : B : : C : D ; then A and C, and
B, D, are call'd Homologous Magnitudes.

Book IV. Euclid'* Elements.
XII. Alternate Ratio, is the Comparison qf
the Antecedent with the Antecedent, and the
Consequent with the Consequent.
As if A : B : : C: D. then alternately A : C : :
B:D, by 16. y.
In this Definition and the fire following ones,
you have the Names of the six ways of Reason
ing used frequently by Mathematicians ; the
Sense of which Inference depends on the pro
positions of this Book, which are cited in their
XIII. Inverse Ratio, is when the Consequent
is taken as the Antecedent, and so compared
with the Antecedent as Consequent.
As A : B : : C : D. Therefore Inversely B :
A : : D : C. by Cor. 4; 5.
XIV. Compounded Ratio, is when the An
tecedent and Consequent taken both as one is
compared to the Consequent or Antecedenr.
As A : B : : C : D, then by compounding
A + B: B (or A) :: C + D : D (C). by i8. 5.
XV. Divided Ratio, is when the Excess
whereby the Antecedent exceeds the Consequent
is compar'd with the Consequent.
As A : B : : C : D. then by Dividing AB :
B: : CD:D. by i7. 5.
XVI. Converse Ratio is when theAntee-
dent is compared with the Excess, whereby the
Antecedent exceeds the Consequent.
As A : B : : C: D. then conversely A:
A--B : : C : CD. by Car. 19. y.
XVII. Ratio of Equality, is where there are
taken more than two Magnitudes in one Or
der, and a like number of Magnitudes in a-
nother Order, comparing two to two, being in
the fame Proportion ; and it shall be in the first
Order of Magnitudes, as the first is to the last,
so in the second Order of Magnitudes is the
Euclid'j Elements.
first to the last : or otherwise it is the Compari-*
son offthe Extremes with one another, the Means
being omitted.
XVIII. Ordinate Proportion, is when, as the
Antecedent is to the Consequent, so is the An
tecedent to the Consequent } and as the Conse
quent is to any other, so is the Consequent to
any othen
Asif A:B::E;G.alsoBiCt:E:F.then
by Equality A : C : : D : F. by 22. 5.
XIX. Perturbate Proportion is when there
are three Magnitudes, and others also that are
equalto these in Multitude : As in the first Mag-
nitudes the Antecedent is to the Conseqenr,
so in the second Magnitudes is the Antecedent
to the Consequent ; and as in the first Magni
tudes, the Consequent is to some other, so in
the second Magnitudes is some other to the An
As if A : B : : F : G. also B : C : : E : F.
then by perturbated Equality A : C : : E : G. by
23. J.
XX. If there are any number of Magnitudes
placed in Order, the Proportion of the first to
the last, is compounded of the Proportions of
the first to the second, and of the second to the
third, and of the third to the fourth ; and so
on, as long as the Proportions (hall be conti
Let there be any Number of Magnitudes
A,B,C,D;bythisDef. = | x J x |-

Equimultiples of the fame, or of equal Mag
nitudes, are equal to each other.

BookV. EuolidV Elements. nj

prop. i.
If there be any number of Magnitudes AB, CD,
Equimultiples of the fame number of Magnitudes E,
F, each of each .whatsoever Multiple any one os
the former Magnitudes (AB) is of its correspondent
one E, the fame Multiple is all theformer Magnitudes
AB + CD of all the latter E+F.

i Q:
i H
1 * Bi t E *
C I KB , V .
i t 1 1 I:i

Let AG, GH, HB be parts of the Quantity

AB equal to E. Also CI, IK, KD parts of the
Quantity CD equal to F. Now the Number
of these is equal to the Number of them.
Whence since AG + CI a = E + F; and a 2 ax.
GH + IK = E + F ; and HB -f KD a =
E + F ; therefore AB + CD does contain
E + F the fame Number of times as one Mag
nitude AB does its correspondent one E. Q. E. D.


If the first AD is
thefame Multiple ofthe
second C, as the third
DE is of the fourth F,
and if the fifth BG le
the fame Multiple of
the second C, as the fixth EH is of the fourth F ;
thenshall thefirst compounded with the fisth (viz.. AG)
be the same Multiple of the second C, as the third
compounded with the fixth (viz,. DH) is cf ths
fourth F.'
I The
Euclid'j Elements.
The number of Parts in AB equal to C is
suppos'd equal to the number of Parts in DE
equal to F. Also the number of Parts in BG is
supposed equal to the Number of Parts in EH.
Therefore the number of Parts in AB -f- BG is
* equal to the number of Parts in DE + EH :
That is, the whole AG is the fame Multiple of
C, as the whole GH is of F. Q.E.D,

prop. in.

E Cf h I V thejrfi A
be the fame Mul
tiple of the second
B as the third C
=T is of thefourth D,
and there be taken
Equimultiples El,
FM of the first and third ; then will each of the
Magnitudes taken be Equimultiples of the second B
and fourth D.
Let EG, GH, HI be parts of the Multiple
El equal to A ; and FK, KL, LM parts of the
Multiple FM equal to C.
The Number of these is b equal to the Num
ber of them. Moreover A, that is, EG or
GH, or GI, is supposed the fame Multiple of
B as C or K,&c. is of D j therefore EG -f GH.
is c the fame Multiple of the second B, as FK
+ KL is of the fourth D. By the fame way of
reasoning, El (EH + Al) is d the fame Multi
ple of B, asFM (FL +LN) is of D. Q. E.D.

Eook V. E u c h i d's Elements. us


If thefirst Magnitude A
has the fame Proportion to
the second B as the third C
to the fourth D ; then also
shall E, F the Equimultiples
of the first A and third C,
have thefame Proportion to
G, H, the Equimultiples of
the second B and fourth D,
1 according to any Multiplied-
I tion -whatsoever, if they be
K so taken as to answer each
other, (viz. as E : G : : F :
4. Take I and K ; *nd L,
M, Equimultiples of E,F;
i * {- and of G, H. Then shall
T a I be the fame Multiple
3. #
j of A as K is of C ; so like
wise is L the fame Mul
tiple of B, as M is of D.
Therefore since b A : B : : C : D ; according to ** Uyf>
Def. 6. if I be cr, = or L ; consequently in
like manner, (hall K Fi =, than M.
Therefore since I, K are taken Equimultiples of
E and F ; and L, M, of G and H ; therefore
according to Def. 7. shaH E : G : : F : H.
Q,E. D.

C 0 R 0 L.
Prom hence may Inverse Ratio be demonstrated.
For because A : B : : C : D, if E be r, =a,
or -3 than G, in like manner shall F be a <=",
6 rfcf. j
=, or "3 than H. Therefore it is manifest that
if G be cr, =, or s than E ; H (hall be t=\
I a
ji6 Euclid 's Elements.
6 def. 5. = or ^1 than F. Whence a B : A : : D : C
Q E. D.


~ A E B lfoneMagni-
0:1 ^ 1 tude AB be the
1 CD fame Multiple of
another CD, as apart AE takenfrom the one, is of
a part CF taken from the other\then shall the remain
ing pan EB be the fame Multiple of the remaining
. part FD, as the whole AB is of the whole CD. .
Take some other Magnitude GA, such a
Multiple of the remaining one FD, as the
whole AB is of the whole CD, or the Part ta
ken away AE of the part taken away CF. Then
'i.j. shall the whole GA + AE be " the fame Mul
tiple of the whole CF + FD, as one Magnitude
AE is of one (CF) ; that is, as AB is of CD.
* 6 ax. Therefore GE b = AB. And so c if the common
" 3 ax. Fart AE be taken away, there shall remain GA
= EB ; therefore, &c.

A q If two Mag-
J~~ 1 1 nitudes AB,CD,
I E ' ^ 'D be Equimultiples
of two Magni-
r tudes E,F ; and
S 1 fefome Magnitudes
C> E ' -i+1 iD , AG, CH E-
i ' quimultipIesofE,
1-1 Fj be taken a-
way ; then the residues GB, HD are either equal
to those Magnitudes E, F, or else Equimultiples of
For since the Number of Parts in AB equal
to E is supposed equal to the Number of Parts in
i CD
BookV. Euclid'.? Elements. 117
CD equal to Fi aiso the number ofParts in AG
equal to the Number of paits in CH : If from
hence you take away AG, and from therrce
CH, there will remaio a a number of Parts in a 5 ax.
GB equal to the number of Parts in HD.
Therefore if GB be = E ; then (hall. HD ^e
also = F. And if GB be any Multiple of E;
HD shall also be the fame Multiple of F.

jy Equal Mag-

1 :i 1 11
1 have the fame
, B < t F
Proportion to
nitudeC; and the fame C to the equal ones A and
Take D and F Equimultiples of the equal
Magnitudes A and B, and let E be -any Multi-'-
pie of C ; then shall Db = F. Whence if D be b 6 ax.
c-, =, or ~n than E, then shall F be cr, =,
or -a than E. Therefore c A : C : : B : G And c * M- 5-
inversely d C : A : : C : B. Q.E.D. rt 4. 5-

S C H 0 L.
If you take two Equimultiples instead of the
Multiple F, it may be proved after the fame
manner that equal Magnitudes have the fame
Proportion to equal ones.

prop. vm.
E G K F The greater AB of
* i 1 two unequal Mag-
Ai nitudes AB, AC,
, S i has a greater Ra
th to fme third
< I 3 Mag-
18 E u c l i t>s Elements'.
Magnitude D than a lejfer AC, and that third Mag
nitude D, has a greater Ratio to AC the lejfer of
those' Magnitudes than to AB the greater.
Take EF, EG Equimultiples of AB, AQ so
that EH a Multiple of D be greater than EG,
and less than EF, (which will easiy fall out, if
EG, GF be taken greater than D.) Then, by
def. 8. 5. shall cr and lo -=t
-5. &E.D.
Again,' because EH cr EG3 but EH ta EF,
A/ 5- (as has been already fa'd) therefore 1 "q1^

. Magnitudes that have thefame
. 1 Proportion to one and the fame
, c , Magnitude, are equal to one ano-
B ther ; and if a Magnitude has the
fame proportion to other Magni
tudes, these Magnitudes are equal to one another.
i. Hyp. Let A : C :: B : C; I fay A = B.
5- For if A be er, or -3 than B, then shall b . be

cr or -a than -g-. Which is cortrary to the

2. Hyp. Let C : B : : C : A ; I fay A = B. For
5- let A cr B. Then shall c ~ c ~. Which is
contrary to the Supposition. L

BookV. Euclid'/ Elements. ii9
A Of Magnitudes having Propor-
* 1 tion to the fame Magnitude, that
1 1 which has the greater Proportion is
B , the greater Magnitude, and that
Magnitude to which thefame I/ears
a greater Proportion, is the lesser Magnitude.
i. Hyp. Let ^ c- ~ 5 I say A tr- B. For
is you fay A = B ; then shall a A : C : : B : C. * 7- 5-
which is contrary to the Hyp. Buc if A -p B,
then shall b A
~ -3 B contra. Hyp. b 8. 5.

2. Hyp. Let - cr ? . I fay B ~=i A- For if
you say that A = B j then e C : B : : C : A. * 7. 5.
which is contrary to the Hyp. Or if you fay that
B cr A. then shall d C~ c- C-g. contra. Hyp. - 8- *

Proportions that are one
? and the fame to any third, are
3; the fame the one to the other.
j Let A : B : : E : F. also
-j I 7 C:D::E:F. I fay that
it ! A : B : :C:D. Take G,
H, I, Equimultiples of A,
C, E ; and K, L, M of B,
D, F. Then because c * hh
A : B : : E : F. If G be
cr, =, or j than K, in
Hire manner shall f I be fcr, *6def. j.
x = or -? than M. So like-
. i il EfM wise since * E : F : : C : D 5
if I cr, ~, or J than M,
then shall f H be likewise
G AB K cr, =s -=>, than L. There-
I 4 fore
Euclid'/ Elements.
fore if G cr-, K, in like manner shall H
,t=-, or -=! then L. Whence a A B : : C :

S C H 0 L.
Proportions that are the fame to the fame
Proportions, are the fame to each other.

If any Number of Magni
tudes A,B j C and D ; E, F;
The Proportional : as one of the
Antecedents A is to one of the
Consequents B ; so are all the
_ j.
Antecedents A, C, E to all
the Consequents B, D, F.
Take G; H, I, Equimul
JftCDL J. tiples of the Antecedents,
and K, L, M, of the Con
sequents. Now because one
of the Magnitudes as G is
the fame Multiple of ano-
! IEBM therasA, as all of them,
viz,. G, H, I, is a of all
A, C, E ; and likewise one
G AB X of them as K is a the fame
Multiple of another as B, as all of them K, L,
M, are of all Bt D, F. and moreover since b A :
B::C:D::E:R If G be cr, =, or J
than K, in like manner shall H be cr, = or
than L, and I <=-, or than M, and there
fore if G 1^-, =, K, in like manner shall G +
H + I, be cr, =, or -=> than K + L -f- M.
Whence cA: B:: A + C-fE :B + D + F.
C 0 R 0 L.
Hence if like Proportionals be added to }ike
ones, the Wholes shall be ProportionaJs.
BookV. Euclidj Elements.

If the A has the farqe
Proportion to she second B, as
the third C to tile fourth D ;
and if the thirthC has a great
er Proportion to tht fourth D,
than the fifth E to thesixth F :
then (hall the first A have a
j greater Proportion to the second
HCDLi, j B, than the fifth E has to the
sixth F.
Take G, H, I, Equimul
tiples of A, C, E, and K,- L,
M of B, D, F. Because
^jlEFM A:B::C:D; ifaHtr-, ! 6 des. 5.
L, then G cr K. But be-
cause ~ 1 pos- b8 def. 5.
fible thatH may be c- than L, and I not great
er than M. Therefore it is possible that G may
be greater than K, and I not greater than M.
Whence c ~ c ^. Q_. E. D. S def. 5.
d r

S C H 0 L.
And if g ^ y * then also shall -a
a f
Also if
B F-
Atidrf -a p ; thenwHl

1 22 Euclid'; Elements.

f -A /fo yfr/Z Magnitude A
T B &w the fame Proportion to the
<3 second B, slf the third C so f
*" -1 jfcarrA D ; and ifthe first k be
1 1 greater than the third C ; then
shall the second B greater than thefourth D. f
f j?r/2 A fe f^THa/ to the third C, {hall the
second B k equal to the fourth D ; and if thefirst be
less than the third, the second will be less than the
A C Ab
b ? Let A be cr C, then ' cr . But 5- =
hyp. . B B B
*V Therefore f ~ tr % Whence B d cr D ;
In like manner if A be -=3 C, then shall d B D.
f but if A = C, then will e C: B : : A : B : :
'n&9.5.C( :D. Whence *B = D. Q.E.D.

.A C
By a more powerful Reason is ~^ ~, and
A cr Gfcr shall B be D. Also is A = B ; C
shall be = D, And if A be cr, or ~=1 B; Q
shall be likewise ronD.


C ' fame Proportion as

1 their like Multiples
.Df~^T-t ^ -E. ABi DE. // taken
*~ - Correspondents ( viz.
Let AG, GK, KB, be parts of the Multiple
AB equal to C j and DH, HL, LE parts of the
EfiokV. Euclid'j Elements'. ' 123
Multiple DE equal to F. Now the Number of
those is a equal to the Number of these. There * hyp.
fore since b AG i DH : : C : F ; : GK : HL . : 7. 5.
KB : LE j then shall c AG -f GK-f KB : (AB) : * I2. 5,
DH+ HL + LE(DE) ::CrF. Q. E.D.

If four Magnitudes
A, B, C, D are pro
portional, they shall be
alternately proportio
nal, (Viz. A : C : :
B: D.)
Take E and F E-
quimultipFes of A
and B ; and G, H
Equimultiples of C
and D. Now E :'
Fa:: A:B: :C: De ::Gf:H. Whence if E A '5- 5-
be cr-y =, G, then shall likewise 8 F c-, =, efhh
-a, H. Whence * A : C : : B : D. Q.E.D. & \*f,

S C,H 0 L. .
Here you must observe that alternate Ratio
pnly takes place, where the four Proportionals
are all of the fame kind ; for if they are not, a
Comparison cannot be admitted.

E u c l i jy's Elements.

O If Magnitudes compounded are
'' Proportional (AB : CB : : DE : FE)
-- they shall also be Proportional when
Mi divided, (AC ; CB : : DF : FE).
*l Take GH, HL, IK, KM re-
j spectively Equimultiples of AC,
f CB, DFt FE. Also LN, MO
{ Equimultiples of CB, FE. Then
the whole GL is n the fame Mul-
i tiple of the whole AB, as one of
Ht I the Magnitudes GH is of AC
another of them ; that is b as IK
is of D F ; that is, c as the whole
IM is of the whole DE : also
B HN (HL + LN) is d the fame
Multiple of CB, as KO (KM
+ MO) is of FE. Therefore
since, by the hyp. AB : BC : :
G A D IDE: EF. if GL be err, =-, -a
*S' ** HN, in like manner shall e IM cr, =, -a KO.
Therefore taking from both, the common parts
HL, KM. if the remainder GH be cr, = or ~=i
than LN, in like manner (hall f IK becr, = oc
d than MO. Whence 6 AC : CB : : DF : FE.
<es. 5.
Q. E. D.
IfMagnitudes divided be
B vC
Proportional (AB : BC : '
G j DE: EF) these frail be
1 Proportional when com
pounded, (viz.. AC : CB : : DF : FE).
For if possible, let AC : CB : : DF : FG "3
FE. then by division b AB : BC : : DG : GF.
that is ; DG : GF : : DE : EF. Therefore since
DGcr DE; then shall k GF be ~ EF. which
BookV. EucLit>\s Elements. 125
is absurd. The like absurdity 3 will follow if it a 9 "*
be said that AC : CB : : DF : GF cr FE.

If the -whole
A, 3 Magnitude AB
^ fe *0 //;e -uj/>o/e
DE as a fart
AC fslJ away, is to the part DF taken away ;
then /ball the part remaining CB be to the part
remaining FE, as the whole AB is to the whole DE.
Because b AB : DE : : AC : DF ; then by c " hyp.
Permutation, AB : AC : : DE : DF. Therefore c 5-
d by Division AC : CB :: DF : FE. whence d n- 5-
again by permutation e AC : DF : : CB : FE. e bP- &
that is, AB:DE::CB:FE. &E.D.

C O R 0 I.
1. Hence if similar Proportionals be taken,
from similar Proportionals, the remainders shall
be Proportional.
2. Hence also is converse Ratio demonstrated.
For let AB : CB : : DE : FE. then shall AB:
AC : : DE: DF. for by Permutation f AB : 1 16. j.
DE : : CB : FE. therefore B AB : DE : : AC: ' 19. 5.
DF. and so again by Permutation, AB : AC : :
P R O P. XX.
A 1 Is there be three Mag-
' ~ 1 tudes A, B, C, and
p -, others D, E, F, equal
K 5 , to them in Number,
which being taken two
Y 1 and two in each Order,
\~ 1 are in the Jame Ratio,
1 1 , (mix.. A : B : : D : E.
' and B : C:: E :Fj)
iz6 E is c l i d's 'Elements'.
and if the first Magnitude kbe greater than the third
C ; then shall the fourth D be greater than the sixth
F. But if the A first belequal to the third C; then the
fourth will be equal to the sixth F ; and if the first
be less than the third, the fourth will be less than the
a i. Hyp. If A be -=i C. because a E : F : : B : C.
b cor. 4. 5. '
c bP- & by Inversion shall b F : E : : C : B. but c -a
8. 5. 3 . B
*fiM.ii. A . Therefore d -3
FAD sr or Whence e D
5. B to. d tot
I0. j. tr- F. Q E. D.
2. Hyp. By the like Arguments if A be m C,
we prove that D ~=J R Q. E. D.
If A = C. because F? E :: C : B
f 7- > A f : B : : D : E. Therefore shall 8D-R
sn.5.ep p E. D.


A Ifthere be thte Mag'

~Z " 1 nitudes A, B, C, and
others D, E, F, equal
1 c , to them in Number,
which taken two and
twt, are in the fame
1 l Proportion, (A : B : :
1 ^ h E : F. and B : C : t
, D : E). and the Pro
portion be perturbate, if the first Magnitude A be
greater than the third C, then will the fourthly be
greater than thesixth F. But if the first A be equal
to the third B, then the fourth D fttall be equal to the
sixth Fj but if less, less.

b hyp. I Hyp. Let A be tr- C. because b D : E : : S -

C, by Inversion it sliall be as E : D : : C : B.
BookV. Euclid'.* Elements. 117

But a C- -= A> Therefore b E- -a A that is a 8. 5.

oi a i B 'Veto/. 13,
|. Whence e D c- F. ..>. c5'I0. $.
2 fyp. In like manner, if A C, shall D be
-= F. Q. E. D.
3 Hyp. If A = C because D d : E : D : : C : d 7- 5
B : : A c : B : : E f : F. Therefore is ' D = F. ef
&E.D. 9'S

If there be any Number of
Magnitudes A, B, C, and
ethers D, E, F, equal to them
in Number, which taken two
and two, are in the fame Ra
tio, (viz,. A : B : : D : E and
B:C:: E : F) they shall be
in thefame Proportion by equal
ity, viz.. A :C : : D: F.
Take G,H;I,K;L,M;
tt I Iy HKM respectivelyEquimulcipIes of
A,D; B, Ej C,F.
Because b A : B : : D : E. *'hyp.
therefore 1 G : I : : H : K. 4. 5.
In like manner shall I : L : :
K : M. whence if G
AB ClfDEF O =, on L, H shall be k K 20. 5.
likewise cr, =, or "3 M. Therefore 1 A : C : : 1
D:F. in like manner. If moreover C:N: :F:
O, by equality shall A : N : . D : O. Q. E. D.

128 EucLib'j Elements.
If there be three Magnitudes
A, B, C, and others D, E, F,
equal to them in Number, -which
taken two and tivo are in the fame
Proportion, and if their Propor
tion be perturbate, viz,. A r'B : :
E : F. and B : C : : D : E, then
<r H I KL M shall they also be in the fame Pro*
. 1 portion by equality A : C : : D :
Take G, H, I ; as also K,
L, M, Equimultiples of A, B,
1 15- D, and C, E, F. then shall *
G :H : : A: B : : Eb:F:: a
L : M. Again, because bB : C : :
D : E. therefore c H : I j : K :
L. Whence G, H, K; and I,
L, M, have the Conditions ac
cording to Prop. 21. of this
Book. Therefore if G be =, or K,
* 6 des. S. in like manner will I cr, = or.-z1 M. therefore d,
A:C.:: D:F. Q.E.D.
After the fame manner, if there were more
than three Magnitudes, . &c.

C 0 R 0 L.
From Prop. 22d, 23d, as also 5tb, & 20tb, of
this Book, it follows that Ratio's compounded
of the fame Ratio's, are the fame among them
selves. Also the fame parts of those Ratio's
are the fame among themselves.

Book VI. Euclid'* Elements, 129

A B _ w- If the first Mag-
. ^ J*" AB has the
i r /rtwe Proportion to
D E thesecondC, as the
*~" 1 'H tf/rd DE to the
1 - f /owrrh F; and if the
fifthBG be to the
second C, as thesixth EH to thefourth F; then shall
the first compounded with thefifth, viz,. AG, be to
the second C, at the third compounded with tht sixth
Viz., DH, is to the fourth R
For because a AB : C : : DE : F; but from the ijp,
Hyp. and Inversely C : BG : : F : EH ; therefore
by equality b AB : BG : : PE : EH. and so by b 5-
compounding AG : BG :: DH : EH. also c BG : c hP-
C :: EH : F. therefore again by equality b AG :
C::DH:F. Q.E.D.

A G B Iffour Magnitudes be Pro-
^ 1 fwtionals (AB : CD : : E :
5 P F) the greatest AB : and
t Ei the least F, (ball be greater
F than CD and E, the other
1 . . two.
Make AG= E, and CH = F. c Because * fyp.
AB : CD: : E : F :: AG d : CH. therefore e is d 7- 5-
AB : CD : : GB : HD. but f AB CD. whence fe I9.
GB tr- HD. but AG + F m E -f CH. there- 8 7t lA
fore AG cr F -f GB cr-E + CH -f- HD, that
is, AB + Fc-E + CD.

End of the fifth Book.

< HO)

E U C L I Ds




I. raggM^Tmilar right-lined Figures, as ABC,

M^^m DCE, are such that have each
ijWBS|Hri Angle of the one equal to each
TT7J Angle of the other, and the Sides
about the equal Angles proportional.

the Ang. B= DCE ; and AB : BC : : DC :

CE. also the Ang. A = D ; and BA : AC : :
CD : DE. and finally the Ang. ACB = E. and
Book VI. E u c l i dV Elements. 131
II. Reciprocal Fi*
gures (as BD, BF)
are such where the
Antecedents and
Figure are the
Terms of the Ra
tio's j as if AB :
BG : : EB : BC, then the Antecedents are AB
and EB, one of which is in each Figure, and
the Consequents are BG, BC ; one of which is
likewise in each Figure.

III. A right Line AC

A B C is faid to be- divided
into extreme and mean
Proportion, when the whole AC is to the great
er Segment AB, as the greater Segment AC
is to the lesser one CB. that is AC : AB : :
AB : CB. \

IV. The Altitude of any

Figure ABC, is a Perpendi
cular Line AD drawn from
the Vertex A to the Base
V. A Ratio is faid to be
compounded of Ratio's,
when the Quantities of the
Ratio's multiplied into each other, beget some
new Ratio.
As the Ratio of A to C is compounded of
the Ratio's of A to B, and of B to C, for
A A" = AB
1 SO des. 5.
B C C BC '15. J.

i}2 Euclid'j Etements.

'triangles ABC, FCD, and Parallelogram
BCAE, CDFA, that have the fame altitude,- are
to one another as their Bases BC, CD.

a i- Take a any Number of Lines on BC, as BG,

HG, each equal to BC, also DI = CD, and
join AG, AH, FL
38. 1. The Triangles ACB, ABG, AGH are b equal ;
also the Triang. FCD = FDI. Therefore the
Triangle ACH is the fame Multiple of the Tri
angle ACB, as the Base HC is'of the Base BC;
and the Triangle FCI is the fame Multiple of
the Triangle FCD, as the Base CI is of the Base
CD. But if HC be try. =, or -a than CI, in
'fibU. iike manner shall c the Triang. AHC be =,
f' )' or *a FCI ; and therefore d BC : CD : : Triang.
c Jf* & ABC : Triang. FCD : : Pgr. ! CE : CF.
*5- J- * Qc^D.

Book VI. Euclid'* Elements.

Hence the Triangles ABC, HKM, and the Pa
rallelograms AGBC, DKHM, that have equal Ba
ses BC, KM, are to one another as their Altitudes
Al, HF.

a Take IL = CB, and EF = KM ; and join i 3. i.

LA, LG, ED, EH ; ic is manifest b that the k 7. 5.
Triang. ABC i KHM : : ALI : HEF : : Al c : 1. 6.
HF : : Pgr. d AGBC : DKHM. 4 4i. i.
If any right Line DE be drawn
parallel to one Side BC of a
Triangle ABC ; this shall cut or
divide the Sides of that Triang.
proportionally, viz,. AD : BD : :
AE : EC. And if the Sides of a
Triangle be cut or divided pro
portionally, viz.. AD : BD : :
AE : EC. a right Line DE
joining the Points D, E, of Di-
visions, will be parallel to the other Side BC of the
Draw CD, BE.
1 Hyp. Because the Triang. DEB e = DEC ; 37. .
then shall f the Triang. ADE : DBE : : ADE : f 7. 5-
ECD ; but the Triang. ADE : DBE : : AD 8 : f i. 6.
K 3 DB.
134 Euclid's Elements^. 1
DB. and the Triang. ADE : DEC : : AE :
" Ii. 5 EC j therefore a AD : DB : : AE : EC.
1. o. 2 Hyp. Because AD : DB : : AE : EC. that b is
the Triang. ADE : DBE :: ADE : ECD; the
Triang. DBE shall be c~ ECD. Therefore d DE,
d 39- 1- BC, are parallel. Q. E. D.

If several right Lines DE,
FG, be parallel to one Side BC,
all the Segments of the Sidesshall
be proportional.
For DF:FAe:: EG:GA;
? a. 6.
and by compounding and in
verting, FA : DA : : CA :
EA; and DA :DB e : : EA :
EC. therefore by Equality
C O R O L.
If DF: DB: : EG:EC j then shall e BC,
DE, FG be parallel.

If an Angle ~&kC
ef a 'Triangle BAC
be bisefted by a right
Line&D futtingtfre
Base also ; then the
Segments <f theBase,
will ie in the same
Proportion as the
other Sides of the
'Triangle, viz-. BD :
DC : : AB : AC.
And if the Segments of the Base have the fame Pro
portion as the other Sides of the Triangle, (BD :
DC:: AB : AC) then a right Line AD drawn
2 from
Book VI. Euclid'.* Elements. 135
from the Vertex AwD the Point of SeStion, will
tisett the Angle BAC of the Triangle.
Continue oat BA, and make AE ss AC, and
join CE.
1 Hyp. Because AE = AC, the Ang. ACE a is ' 5-
= E b = i BAC c = DAC. therefore d DA, CE , %:u
are Parallel ; whence e BA : AE (AC) :: BD: a Jf I
DC D. '1.6.'
2 Hyp. Because BA : AC : (AE) : : BD : DC,
therefore shall f DA, CE be parallel : f whence f 29. 1.
. the Ang. BAD = E, and the Ang. DAC f =
ACE * = E. therefore b the Ang. BAD = DAC : J-
And so the Ang. BAC is bisected. Q.E.D. b 1 "*>

P R O P. IV.
The Sides of equiangular Triangles ABC, DCE,
that are about the equal Angles, B, DCE, are
Proportional, viz. AB : BC : : DC : CE, &c. and
the Sides AB, DC, &c. that subtend the equal
jingles ACB, E, &c. are Homologous or of like Ratio's,

Set the Side BC in the fame right Line with

the Side CE, and continue ouC BA, ED, till
they meet 1 one-another. - 1 32.1.6s
Because * the Ang. B = ECD, the Sides BF, '3 **
CD are 1 parallel > also because the Ang. k BCA !
= CED, the Lines CA; EF are 1 parallel,
therefore the Figure CAFD is a Parallelogram,
whence ra AF = CD, and AC m = FD.There- m 34.
fore it is manifest " that AB : AF (: CD) : : a- 6,
K 4 BC :
i$6 \ Euclid'* Elements'.
BC : CE- and so by permutation * AB : BC :"i
H . 6. CD : CE. also n BC : CE : : FD (AC) : DE.
f l6. y. whence by Permutation a BC : AC : : CE : DE.
**2. 5. and therefore by Equality b AB: AC:: CD:
DE. Therefore, &c

C O R 0 L.
Pence AB : DC : : BC : CE : ; AC : DE.

S C H 0 L.
Hence if a Line AC be drawn in a Triangle
(FBE) parallel to one Side FE ; the Triangle
ABC shall be similar to the whole one FBE.

if the Sides of two Triangles ABC, DEF, are
proportional, viz.. AB : BC : : DE : EF. and AC:
BC : ; DF : EF. also AB : AC : : DE : DF. the
faidlriangles are Equiangular, and their Angles un
der which the Homologous Sides are subtended, are
equal. .

At the Points E and F, with the Side EF

c2 make c the Ang, FEG = B, and the Aug. EFG
*32,, = C, and so is d the Ang. G sr A. therefore
'i 6 GE : EF e : : AB : BC : : DE f : EF. whence
f hyp.' GE 8 = DE. also GF : FE e : : AC : CB : :
* ii- 5- DF f ? FE. therefore 8 GF = DF. Therefore the
Triangles DEF, GEF, are mutually equilateral
Book VI. Euclidx Elements. 137
to each other, and consequently the Ang, D
G = A. and 4 the Ang. FED = FEG = B. a 8. 1.
whence b the Ang. DFE = C. Therefore, &c. b 52. 1,

If two Triangles ABC, DEF, have one Angle B
of the one equal to one Angle DEF of the other, and
if the Sides about the equal Angles B, DEF, be fro-
portional, viz. AB : BC : : DE : EFj the Triangles
ABC, DEF shall be equiangular, and have those
Angles equal, under which are subtended the Homo
logous Sides, 7


At the Points E, F, with the Line EF make

the Ang. FEG *e B, and the Ang. EFG = C.
whence also is the Ang. c G = A. therefore e$I. r.
GE : EF " : : AB : BC :: DE e : EF ; therefore d 4. 6.
f DE = GE. But the Ang. DEF * = B b = f 9. 5.
GEF. Whence the Ang. D 5 = G = A. and * II. 5.
fo the Ang. EFD k =: C. Q.E.D. b const.
1 4. I.
PROP. VII. k 32. I.
If there are two
Triangles ABC,
DEF, having one
Angle A of the
one equal to one
Angle D of the
other, and the
Sides about the 0-
I38 Euclid'j Elements.
ther Angles ABC, D, proportional, viz,. AB : BC : :
DE : EF. and if the remaining third Angles C, F,
are either both less or both greater than right Angles ;
the Triangles ABC, DEF shall be equiangular, and
have those Angles equal about which are the propor
tional Sides. ... \ *\ -
For if possible, let the Ang. ABC be =" E.
'byp. then make the Ang. ABG = E. therefore since
b 52. I the Ang. aA=D ; the Ang. AGB shall be b = F.
c4- 6. Therefore AB c : BG : : DE : EF : : AB : BC.
d9. 5-
es j whence d BG = BC ; therefore e the AiIg. ABC
tcor.'1-I.j. = BCG. And so the Ang. f BGC, or C, is less
than a right,one j whence s the 'Ang. AGB or
F is greate/ than -a right one, arid so the Angles
C and F /re not of the fame kjjid; which is con
trary to theJiipothesis.

If a Perpendicular AD
be drawn in a right- an
gled Triangle ABC, from
the right Ang. BAC to
the Base BC ; it will
B D C idivide the whole Trian
gle into two others ADB, ADC, which will be si
milar to each other, as likewise to the whole Triangle
ABC/ - O - -, -,\
For because b the Angles BAC, ADBb are
' 12. ax right Angles ; and so 1 equal, and B is common ;
K 52. 1 2p the Triangles BAC, ADB arek similar. After the
4- *- fame manner are the Triangles BAC, ADC si-
lSeez1.6. milar, and consequently ADB, ADQ fljall 1 be
similar. Q.E.D. \
, - t / \
C 0 R 0 L. '
1 des. 6. Hence, 1. BD : DA m : : DA : BC.
2. BC : AC : : AC : DC. and GB : BA : ;
Book VI. Eucli d'j Elements.

PROP. IX. Probl.

C To cut off any
part required (AG)
from a given right
Line AB, suppose the
f part.
From the Point A
draw any indefinite
right Line AC any
how, in which take
a any how the three parts AD, DE, EF, equal a j
to each other , join the Points F, B, by the Line
FB, to which draw 6 DG parallel, and the thing b3
is done. r
For GB : AG c : : FD : AD. therefore d by c a.
compounding AB : AG : : AF : AD. Whence d1
since AD = AF> the part AD shall be =
AB. Q.-E.F.

P R O^P. X, Trohl.
yi.C - To divide a given un-
i b divided right Line AB
/\ 1 in the Points F, and G,
/ \ ' as another given right
5 1j\ ' lH Line AC is divided in
/ , I DandE.
/ I I Joi n the Extremities
j- r q^ of the Lines -by the
Line BC, and from the
Points E, D, draw e the right Lines EG, DF, e 5
parallel to BC, meeting the undivided right Line
AB in the Points G and F; I fay the thing re
quired is done. 1 A/
For draw ' DH parallel to AB. then is f AD * 2.
DE : : AF : FG, and DE f : EC : : DI : IH " : ; ,
FG :GB. Q.E.D.
140 EuclidV Elements]

SC H 0 L.
Hence we are taught
the manner ofdividing
a given right Line
AB into any Number
of equal farts (sup
pose j)
Draw the Infinite
Line ADt and the
Infinite Line BHL
parallel to it. From
both of which cat
off the equal Parts
AR, RS, SV, VN j
and BZ, ZX, XT, TL, in each one less than
are wanted in AB. Then draw the right Lines
LR, TS, XV, ZN, which will divide the gi
ven Line AB into five equal Parts.
ss. 1. For RL, ST, VX, NZ, are parallel.
const. Therefore since AR, RS, SV, VN are 6 equal ;
c2.6. AM, MO, OP, PQ, are c also equal. In like
manner because BZ = ZX, BQ_ shall be =
QP. therefore AB is divided into five equal
parts. Q: E. F.

PROP. Probl.
7o find a Line
DE that shall be
a third Propor
tional to two gi
ven right Lines
Join BD and
in AB continued out take BC = AD ; thro* C
draw CE parallel to BD, and let AD continu
ed out meet it in E ; then (hall DE be the Line
Book VI. E u c L i T5'j Elements. 141
For AB3 : BC (AD) : : AD : DE. Q. E. F. 2. 6.
Or thus make the
Ang. ABC a right
one, and the Ang.
ACD also a right
one ; then b shall b 8. 6.

PROP. XII. Probl.

To find a Line GH
that /ball be afourth
Proportional to three
given right Lines DE,
Join the Points E
and G by a streight
Line EG, and draw
FH parallel to EG, and let DG continued out
meet it in H. then it is manifest that DE : EF c
z. 6*
: : DG : GH. Q. E.F.

PROP. XIII. Probl.

To find a Line EF
that shall be a mean
Proportional between
tvio given streight
Lines AE, EB.
Describe a Semi
circle AFB upon the
whole Line AB as a Diameter, and from E raise
the Perpendicular EF meeting the Circumference
in F:, then I say AE : EF : : EF : E B. For draw
AF, FB, the right Line FE is 6 drawn perpendi- <> 31. 5.
cular from the right Angle of a righc-anvled
Triangle AFB, to the Base AB ; therefore eAE: (, g> tt
FE: :FE:EB. Q.E.F.

I4Z Eu c l i d'j Elements. _
. Or in the fame Figure let AB, BF be the
* a*. 8. 6. two given Lines j it is e manifest that AB : BF : r
Hence a right Line drawn in a Circle from
any Point of a Diameter at right Angles or
perpendicular to the faid Diameter until it
meets the Circumference, is a mean Proportional
between the two Segments of the Diameter.

Equal Parallelo
grams halving one An
gle ABC of the one
equal to one Angk
EBG of the other ;
have the Sides about
the equal Angles re-
^ ciprocally proportionals
that is AB : BG : : EB : BC. And those Parallelo
grams BD, BF, that have one Angle ABC of the one
equal to one Angle EBG of the other, and the Sides
that are about the equal Angles reciprocally propor
tional, are equal.
For let the Sides AB, BG about the equal An-
*/M. 15. gles, make one streight Line : whence a EB,
1' BC, will likewise be in one streight Line. Pro
duce FG, DC, till they meet.
bI-6. 1 //#.AB:BGb::BD:BHc::BF:BHd::
c 7- 5- BE : BC. Therefore % &c.
f 1 6- 2 Hyp. BD : BH f : : AB : BG ' : : BE : BC b : :
f J.1}* BF : BH. Therefore S the Pgr. BD =BF.
* hyp.' > D.
b i1s6.
5 II.&9.
5' PROP.
Book VI. Euclid'* Elements. 14 J

^ t. Equal Triangles

V \y/J v'tt& me -Angle ABC

1 1 / of the one equal to
\ ^^^r^ y ew* DBE of
\ / the other, have their
^SfcX Sides about the equal
A. D Angles reciprocally
proportional'., viz..
AB: BE: : DB : BC. and those Triangles ABC,
DBE that have one Angle ABC equal to one Angle
DBE, and have also the Sides about the equal An
gles reciprocally proportionals viz.. AB : BE : : DB :
BC, are equal to each other.
Set the Sides CB, BD, about the equal An
gles in one streightLine. Then ABE is a a'/cbol.Ij,
right Line.AB
i Hyp. Draw
: BE CE.
b : : Triang. ABC : CBE c : : b
Triang. DBE : CBE. Therefore d, &c. J *'
i Hyp. Triang. ABC : CBE e : : AB : BE f : : e
DB : BC g : : Triang. DBE : CBE. Therefore b the f hyp. '
Triang. ABC = DBE. ''Q.E.D. I 1.e.


If four right Lines be proportional, viz.. AB :
FE : : FG : CB, the Rectangle AD comprehended
under the Extremes, AB, CB, is equal to the Reftan-
gle EH contained under the Means FG, EF. And if
the ReBangle AD contained under the Extremes AB,
CB be equatto ttre ReEiangle EH contain d under the
Means FG, EF ; then are thefour right Lines pro
portional, viz,, AB : EF : : FG : CB.
144 Euclid'j Elements\

1 Hyp. The Angles, B, F are right ones, and

* Max. so are * equal ; and from the Hyp. AB : FE : 5
b i4- 6. GF: CB. Therefore b the Rectang. AD = EH.
2 Hyp. The Rectang. c AD = EH ; but the
4 i4. 6. Ang. B = F; therefore " AB : EF : : FG :
CB. Q.E.D.

If three right Lines be proportional, viz. AB :
EF : : EF : CB the ReSiangle AC comprehended

B-r F
-t C
t Br G

E F C E F p

under the Extremes AB, CB, is equal to the Square
EG described upon the Mean EF. And if the
Book VI. Eucli d's Elements. i-
Re&angle AC contain'd under the Extremes AB, CB,
be equal to the Square EG described upon the Mean
EF j then the three right Lines are proportional, viz,.
AB : EF : : EF : CB. Take FC = EF.
i Hyp. AB : EF * : : EF (FG)j_ CB. there- hyp.
forebtheRectang.AC = EGc = EF*. &E.D. \l6-6.\
_2 Hyp. The Rectang. AC " = Square EG= A '
EF*. Therefore eAB : EF : : EF : FG (EF) : BG e 6.
C 0 R 0 L. I.
Let A drawn into B be = C". then will A
Upon a given right Line AB to describe a right-
lined Figure AGHB similar, and similarly situate
to a right'lined Figure given CEFD.

Resolve the given right-lined Figure int

Triangles, and make f the Aug. ABH = D>
and the Ang. BAH = DCF; and the Ang.
AHG = CFE ; and the Ang. f HAG = FCE. f
then is the right-lined Figure AGHB that
which is required.
For the Ang. ER=D, and the Ang. BAHS= S
DCF. whence b the Ang. AHB = CFD, also
the Ang. HAG= FCE, and the Ang.8 AHG
= CFE. Therefore b the Ang. G = E, and the .
whole Angle GAB = ECD ; and the whole
one GHB = EFD. Whence the Polygons are
mutually Equiangular with respect to each other.
Again, because of the Equiangular Triangles,
i+ . EuclidV Elements.
AB : BH a :: CD: DF; and AG : GHa !
CE : EF. also AG : AH a : : CE: CF. and AH
AB::CF:CD. Whence by equality b AG
AB : : CE : CD. In like manner, GH : HB :
EF: FD. therefore the Polygons ABHG, CDEE
e 6 def' 6- are c similar and similarly situate. . . D.

Similar Trian
gles ABC, DFE,
are in the Dupli
cate Proportion of
their Homologous
Sides BC, FE.
U.S. Make rt BC:
- EF::EF:BG,
and draw AG.
cor. 4. 6. because AB:DF (e BC:EF) :: EF f : BG.
conjl. and the Ang. B F. therefore shall 8 the Triang.
i5. 6.
ABG be = DEF. But the Triang. ABC:
i. 6. ABG*::BC:BG; & ^ twice ;
i0. def.$ EF
'ii. J. ABC1'
therefore the Triang. j~qq, that is,
BC .
= lp tw,ce. . E. D.


Hence if three Lines BC, EF, BG are Pro

portional, as the first is to the third, so is a Tri
angle describ'd upon the first BC, to a Triangle
described upon the second EF, being similar and
alike situate to the other. Or so is a Triangle
describ'd upon the second EF to a Triangle
described upon the third, similar and similarly si
tuate to it.
ook VI. Euclid's Elements. 147
Similar Polygons ABCDE, FGHIK are divided
into similar 'Triangles ABC, FGH ; and ACD,
FHI and ADE, FIK, equal in Number and Homo
logous to the Wholes (ABC: FGH : : ABCDE 1
FGHIK :: ACD : FHI :: ADE : FIK) and
the Polygons ABCDE, FGHIK, are in that pro
portion duplicated, that one Homologous Side BC has
to another GH.

I. For the Ang.' Ba = G ; and AB : BC a : :

FG : GH. therefore the Triangles ABC, FGH
are equiangular. After the fame manner we\ 6--
prove that the Triangles AED, FKI, are simi
lar. Therefore 'since the Aug. BCA b = GHF,
and the Aog. ADE b = FIK ; and the whole
Ang. BCD =? GHI ; and the whole CDE, HIK
are equal ; there will remain the Ang. ACD =
FHI, and the Aug. ADE = FIH. Whence c al- '32. 1.
so the Ang. CAD = HFI. therefore the Tri
angles ACD, FHI are similar. Whence, &c.
2. Therefore because the Triangles BCA,
GHF are similar ; - shall be d = - twice. * 5- **.
urlr ViH.
For the fame Reason -;- sr- = 9,P twice.
Htl HI
Lastly, the Triang. -=g=, == twice. Whence
since BC : GH e : : CD : HIC : : DE : IK : s there 'hyp.
fore the Triang. BCA : GHF : : CAD : HFI : : .16. m5.
L 2 DfiA j.
E u c l i n's Elements.
DEA. : IKF : : polyg. a ABCDE : FGHIK : :
BC . .
^ tw1ce. &E.D.
C 0 RO L.
I. Hence if there are three right Lines pro
portional, as the first is to the third, so is a
Polygon described upon the first to a Polygon de
scribed upon the second, similar and alike si
tuate, or so shall the Polygon described upon the
second, be to a Polygon described upon the third,
similar and alike situate.
From hence we have a way of augmenting or
diminishing any given right-lined Figure in a given
Ratio. As suppose you would make a Penta
gon five times greater than a given one whose
Side is CP ; between AB and five times AB find
a Mean Proportional, upon which * make a Pen
tagon similar to the given one, which will be five
times the given one.
II. Hence, likewise, if you know the Homo
logous Sides of similar Figures ; you may like
wise have the Proportion of the Figures ; viz.
by finding a third Proportional.
Right-lined Figures ABC, DIE that are similar
to the fame right-lined Figure HFG, . aresimilar t
me another.
Book VI. Euclid'j Elements. *49
also * AB : AC : : HF : HG : : DI : DE. and * i def.
b AC : CB : : HG : GF : : DE : El. and AB :
BC :: HF : FG : : DI : IE. Therefore ABC,
DIE, are b similar. Q. E. D.

Iffour right Lines be proportional, viz. AB : CD : :
EF : GH ; the right-lined Figures described upon
them similarly, and similarly situate, will be also pro
portional (ABI : CDK : : EM : GO). And if the
similar right-lined Figures similarly described upon the
Lines be proportional, (ABI : CDK : : EM : GO)
then the right Lines (hall also be proportional (AB :

j^a twice. Therefore d AB : CD : : EF : GH. I

< 2.
2-E D. L j SCHO I. 5
I jO Eu clip's Elements.

Hence is deduced and demonstrated the way of mul
tiplying surd Quantities.
For Example, let \/j be to be multiply'd by
s/3 ; I fay the Product will be sjI^. For by
the Definition of Multiplication, it is as i : s/3 - :
-v/5 : to the Product. Whence (by this Prop.) as
the Square of 1 is to the Square of so is the
Square of V5 to the Square of the Product ; that
is, 1 : 3 : : 5 : to the Square of the Product.
Whence the Square of the Product is Iy ; and so
s/15 is the Product of s/3 into >/$, Q.E. D.
7* H E 0 R.

If a right Line AB be any how divided in D, then

shall the Re&angle under the \ arts AD, DB, be a
Mean Proportional between the Squares of them, and
the ReSiangle under the whole AB and one part AD,
or DB, is a Mean Proportional between the Square of
AB and the Square of the faid part AD or DB.
Describe a Semicircle upon the Diameter AB,
and raise a Perpendicular from D, r.q meet the
> - Periphery in E, and draw AE1 IB-
*cor. 8. 6. Then it is manifest that AD ' : DE : : DE :
22.<S. DB. Therefore b AD^DE* : : DE1 r DB\
c 1 7- 6. that is c, ADT:?ADB : : DB1; & E. D. ' 0,'j
* zz. 6. ^Again^BA : AEa :_^AE : AD. Therefore d
BA* : AE1 : : Atfj AD1- That is BA1 :
BAD : : BAD : AD1. In like manner ABX :

ABD : ; ABP. ; BD\ Q. E. .

Book VI. Euclid'j Elements.

Equiangular Parallelo
grams AC, CF have that
Proportion to each other, that
is compounded of their Sides.
^AC _ BC DC \
Sec a the Sides about a j-M
the equal Angles C so as 15. 1.
they be in the ' fame
streight Lines ; and com-
pleat the Parallelogram CH
~, n - ACb AC CH^
The Rat1o -r - m - 0 1. 6.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence (and from 34.1.) it is manifest, (1.) that
Iriangles having one Angle (at C) equal, have a
Ratio to each other compounded of the Ratio's of the
Right Lines AC to CB, and EC to CF, containing
the Equal Angle. ' ;
^ (i.j Jt M man1jejt
that Rectangles, and t
* consequently any Pa 35- '*
- X
rallelograms,are to each
A other , in a Ratio ,
compounded of the Ra
/Z tio's of the Base of the
one to the Base of the
other, and of the Alti
. 1 r
tude of the one, to the
Altitude of the other.
And you may rel m after the fame manner about
L 4 (3-) *
152 Euclid 's Elements.
(3.) It is manifest how to express the Proportion of
'Triangles, and Parallelograms. Let there be two
Parallelograms X & Z, whose Bases are AC
CB, and Altitudes CL, CF. Make CL ; CF : :
*H.6. CB: Q ; thenshall*X:Z:: ACrO.
& 1. 6.

In every Parallelogram
ABCD, the Parallelo
grams EG, HF, thai are
about the Diameter AC
are similar to each other
and to the -whole Paral
lelogram ABCD.
'. ' For the Parallelograms
EG, HF, have each one Angle common with the
* *9- 1 whole one. Therefore they are a mutually Equi
angular to each other, and to the whole Paral
lelogram. Also the Triangles ABC, AEI, IHC ;
as likewise ADC, AGI, IFC, are Equiangular.
4. 6. Therefore b AE : El : : AB : BC but b AE : Al
::AB:ACi Sc Al b : AG : : AC : AD. Whence
e 22. 5. by c Equality, AE : AG : : AB : AD. Therefore
* 1 des. 6. the Pgr. EG, BD are 4 similar. In like manner,
HF, BD are similar. Therefore, &c.


To describe a right-lined Figure P similar and simi

larly situate to a given right-lined Figure ABEDC,
145-1 and equal to another given right-lined Figure F.
Make a the Rectang. AL = ABEDC. also up-
tb 44* x. on BL, make b the Rectang. BM = F. and be-
t g ' tween AB BH, find c a mean Proportional NO j
1 ' upon which make d the Polygon P similar to the
given Square ABEDC. and this shall be equal to
Book VI. Euclidj Elements. 153

the given Figure F. for ABEDC (AL) : p
AB ' : BH : : AL f: BM. Therefore P 8 = BM b
cor. t.
= F. Q. E. D. ^ 6.
f 1.6.
PROP. XXVI. i4- 5-
j If from a 'Parallelo
gram ABCD, be taken a
milar to the whole, and
similarly situate, having
the Angle EAG com
mon to both ; this Pa
rallelogram is about the
fame Diameter AC with the whole.
If you deny that AC is the common Diameter,
let it be the Diameter AHC cutting EF in H,
and draw HI parallel to AE. The Parallelo
grams El, DB are ' similar. Therefore AE : a 24. 6.
EH b : AD : DC c AE : EF. and so d EH = ) 1 def. 6.
FE i which is e absurd. A hyp.
9. 5.
9 **

I56 E u c l 1 d's Elements.
[j.1. one D or EG. Make c FEL = IH ; and FGM
= IK, and thro' L, M draw the Parallels RN,
MN ; and AR parallel to NM. Also continue
out ABP, GBO, and draw the Diameter FBN :
then is the Parallelogram AN that which is
b const. For the Parallelograms D, HK, LM, EG
.are b similar. Therefore c the Pgr. OP is similar
* *4- 6- to the Parallelogram LM or D. Also LM d =
' % ax. HK d = EG 4- C. therefore e C = Gnom. ENG.
f 36. 1. But AL f = LB S = BM whence b C = AN.
45. 1. &E.F.
b 2& 1


To tut a given ter-

minate right Line AB
into mean and ex
treme Proportion. (AB
: AG:: AG : GB.)
1 Cut AB in G, so
that AB x BG =
* 17. 6. AG* then is k BA :
AG::AG:GB. & E. F.


Any Figure BF described upon the Side BC of a

right-angled Triangle subtending the right Angle
BAC, is equal to the Figures BG, AL, described
upon the Sides BA, AC, containing the right Angle,
being similar and alikefituate to theformer Figure.
Let fall the Perpendicular AD from the right
1 r.r 8.*. Angle BAC ; then because DC : CA 1 : : CA :
r Io 6 CB 5 therefore is * AL : BF : : DC : CB. Also
; ' ' since DB : BA : : BA 1 : BC, therefore is ro BG :
Book VI. Eucli v's Elements. 157

BF : : DB : BC. Whence a AL + BG : BF : : a *4- 5-

DC + DB (BC) : BC j therefore AL + BG =
BF. Q.E.D.

C 0 R 0 L.
From this Prop, you may add and substract
any similar Figures, after the fame manner as
Squares are added and substracted in the Scbol. of
If two Triangles ABC, DCE, having two Sides
proportional (AB : AC : : DC : DE) be so com-

pounded or set together at one Angle ACD, that their
Homologous Sides are likewise Parallel (AB to DC,
E u c L 1 b's Elements.
and AC M DE) /5w// fife of^r Sides BC, CE,
0/ fhose Triangles be in thefame streight Lint.
1 19. r. For the Ang. Aa= ACDa = D; and ABb :
AC : : DC : DE. therefore the Ang. B = DCE.
: 1 ax. therefore the Ang. B -f- Ad = ACE. But the
1 32. 1. Ang. B + A + ACBd = 2 right Ang.Whence
: 1 ax- the Ang. ACE + e A.CB = two right Ang.
f14- r.
Therefore BCE is f a right Line. Q. E. D.

In equal Circles DBCA, HFGP, the Angles
BDC, FHG , have the fame Proportion as the Cir
cumferences of the Circles BC, FG, on vihich they
stand, whether the Angles be at the Centres (as BDC,
FHG) er at the Circumferences A, E ; and so like
wise are the SeBors BDC, FHG, as being at the

Draw the right Lines BC, FG, and apply

CI = CB ; and GL = FG = LP ; and join
f28. 3. The Arch BC f = CI, also the Arches FG,
**7- 3- GL, LP are f equal ; therefore 1 the Ang. BDC
= CDI, and the Ang. FHG g = GHL =
LHP. Whence the Arch BI is the fame Multi
ple of the Arch BC, as the Ang. BDI is of the
Ang. BDC. In like manner the Arch FP is the
fame Multiple of the Arch FG as the Ang.
FHP is of the Ang. FHG. But if the Arch BI
Book VI. Euclid'j Elements. i50
bee-, =or -a than FP ; in like manner a shall * *7- 3-
the Ang. BDI be cr, =, or than FHP. there
fore the Arch BC : FG b: : Ang. BDC : FHG : : b 6 def. 5.
BDCe FHG c5-5.

Again, the Ang. BMC e = CNI ; and there- 27. 3.

fore the Segment BCM f .= CIN. Also the f 24. 3.
Triang. BDC 8 = CDI ; whence the Sector * 4. i.
BDCM b = COIN. In like manner the Sectors b2 ax.
FHG, GHL, LHP, are equal; therefore since
when the Arch BI is cr, =, or ~^ than FGP,
the Sector BDI is likewise er-, =, or than ; , .
FGP. therefore shall 1 the Sector BDC : FHG : : 6 5'
the Arch BC : FG. >. E. D.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence, (i.) As SeBorto Setter, so is Angle to An
(2.) The Angle BDC at the Centre is to four right
Angles, as the Arch BC on -which it stands, is to the
whole Circumference.
For as the Ang. BDC to one right Angle, so is
theArch BC to a Quadrant ; therefore BDC is to
four right Angles as the Arch BC to four Qua
drants, that is, to the whole Circumference. Also
the Ang. A : two right Ang. : : Arch BC :
Hences (3.) 'the Arches, IL, BC, of unequal Cir
cles -which subtend equal Angles, -whether Uhey be at
the Centre, as IAL, BAC, or at the Periphery, are
For IL : Periph. : : Ang. I AL (BAC): four
right Ang. Also the Arch. BC : Periph. : : Ang.
BAC :sour right Ang. Therefore IL : Periph. : :
. BC
Euclid's Elements.
BC : Periph. And so the Arches IL, and BC
are similar. Whence,

(4.) TIvo Semidiameters AB, AC, cut off s1milar

Arties IL, BC, from concentrkk Peripheries.

End of the Sixth Book.

E U-
( 161 )

E U C L I >'s




Solid is that which has Length,

Breadth, and Thickness.
II. 'the Bound or Bounds of a
Solid, is one or more Superficies.
III. A Right Line
AB is perpendicular to
a Plane CD, when it
makes Right Angles,
with all the Lines BG,
BE, BF, that touch
it, and are drawn in
that Plane.

EuclidV ElementSi
IV. A Plane AB is
perpendicular to a Plane
CD, -when the Right,
Lines FG, UK, drawn
in one Plane AB at
Right Angles to EB,
the common Section of
the two Planes, are
perpendicular to the 0-
ther Plane CD.
V. The Inclination oj
a Right Line AB to
a Plane CD, is the
acute Angle ABE con
tained under that Linei
and the Line BE,
drawn in the Plane
from that endB of the
inclining Line, -which
is in the Plane to the Point y w]]ere a Rjght Line
AE Jails from tyt other End A of the inclining
Line perpendicular t0 the faid Plane.
VI. "the Inclination of
a Plane AB to a Plane
CD is the acute Angle
FHG contained under
the Right Lines FH,
GH, drawn in both
the Plants AB, CD to
the fame Point H of the
common SeElion BE, ma
king the Right Angles FHB, FHE.
VII. Planes are said to be inclinedsimilarly, -when
the said Angles of Inclination are equal.
VIII. Parallel Planes aresuch, which being pro*
duced, never meet.
IX. Similar solid Figure's are such that are cott*
tained under equal Numbers of similar Planes.
Bodk XI. Eucli d'jt kltthents.
X. Equal and similar solid Figures, are those
that are contained under equal Numbers ofsimilar
aud equal Planes.
XI. A solid' Angle, is the Inclination of more
than two Right Lines that touch one another, and are
not in the fame Superficies : Or, a solid Angle is <
that which is contained under more than two plane
Angles which are not in thefame Superficies, but being
all at one Point.
XII. A Pyramid is a solid Figure contain'd under
Planes set upon one Plane, and put together dt one
XIII. A Prism is a solid Ftgufe contained under
Planes, whereofthe two opposite are equal, similar,
and parallel, and the others Parallelograms.
XIV. A Sphere is a solid Figure, made -when
the Diameter of a Semicircle, remaining at reft, the
Semicircle is turned about till it returns to thefame
Place from whence it began to move. .
XV. The Axis of a Sphere is that fixed Line
about which the Semicircle is turned.
' XVI. The Centre of A Sphere is the fame with
that of the. Semicircle.
XVII. The Diameter of a Sphere, is a Right
Line drawn thro' the Center, and terminated on ei
ther Side by the Superficies of the Sphere.
XVIII. A Cone is a Figure described when one of
ihe Sides vf a Right-angled Triangle, containing
the Right Angle, remaining fixed, the Triangle is
turned about till it returns to the Place from whence
it first began to move. And if the fixed Right
Line be equal to the other that contains the Right
Angle, then the Cone is a rectangular Cone ; but if
it be less, it is an obtuse-angled Cone ; if greater,
an acute-angled Cone;
XIX. The Axis of d Cone is thiIt fixed Right
Line about which the Triangle is moved.

M z ' XX.
Euclid'/ Elements.
XX. The Base of a One is the Circle described
by the Right Live moved about. ,
XXI. A Cylinder if a Figure described by the
Motion of a Right-angled Parallelogram, one os the
Sides containing the Right Angle, remaining fixed,
while the Parallelogram is turned about to the fame
Placefrom whence it began to be moved.
XXII. The Axis of a Cylinder is that fixed
Right Line about which the Parallelogram is turned.
XXIII. And the Bases of a Cylinder are the Circles
that be described by the Motion of the two opposite
Sides of the Parallelogram.
XXIV. Similar Cones and Cylinders are such,
whose Axes and Diameters of their Bases are pro
XXV. A Cube is a solid Figure contained under
fix equal Squares.
XXVI. A Parallelepipedon is a Figure contain
ed under fix quadrilateral Figures, whereof those
which are opposite are parallel.
XXVII. A Polyhedron is a Solid of many Sides
< or Faces. .../..
One part AC of a Right
Line cannot be in a Plane,
and another part CB with
out the fame.
Continue out AC in
the Plane to F ; then if
CB be in the fame
streight Line with AC,
two right Lines AB, AF will have a common
.4 Segment AC ; which is 1 absurd.

Book XL Euclid'j Elements.

PROP. II. . v
If two Right Linet
AB, CD, ; mutually cut
one another &ey are in
one Plane ; land every
Triangle -DEB/ is in one
Plane. ,
For suppose the Part
EGF.-of the Triangle
DEB to be in one Plane, and the part GDFB
to be in another ; then the part EF of the
Right Line EB *is in one Plane, and the part
FB in another, which is a absurd. Therefore
the Triangle EDB is in one Plane. And so like
wise are the Right Lines ED, EB ; consequently
theWholes AB,DC are ' in one Plane. Q, E. D.

If two Planes AB,
CD mutually cut each
other, their common
SeBion EF is a Right
If the common Sec
tion EF be (Tot a
D Right. Line, b draw b
the Right Line EGF in the Plane AB, and the
Right Line EHF in the Plane CD. Therefore
two Right Lines EGF, EHF, include a Space,
which is c absurd. <

If the Right Line EF stands at Right /ingles to
two Right Lines AB, CD, mutually cutting one ano
ther, in the common SeBion E ; it shall also be at
Right Angles to the Plane ACBD drawn thro' them.
M 3 Take
16(5 Euclid'* Elements.
F Take EA, EC, EB,
ED, equal, and join the
Right Lines AC, CB,
BD, AD, and thro* E
A draw any Right Line
GH ; and join FA,FC,
Because AE ^^= EB ;
and DE 9 a= EC 5 and
b 15. 1. theAng. AEDb=CEBj
4.1. therefore AD c == CB.
and in like manner c AC
= DB. whence AD d is
34. 1. parallel to CB, and AC parallel 3 to DB ; and
e 29. 1. so the Ang. GAE e = EBH. and the Ang.
* const. AGE = EHB. But also AE f = E B. whence
% 26. I. . GE g = EH, and AG e = BH. Wherefore be
cause os the Right Angles (from the Hyp.) and
so consequently equal ones at E, the Bases FA,
b4*I* FC, FB, FD are b equal. Therefore the Trir
angles ADF, FBC, are mutually Equilateral
1 8. 1. to each other ; and so the Ang. DAF 1 = CBF.
Therefore in the Triangles AGF, FBH, the
k 4. 1. Sides FG, FH are k equal , and consequently
likewise the Triangles FEG, FEH, are mutu
ally equilateral. Therefore the Angles FEG,
1 8. 1. FEH, are 1 equal ; and accordingly m right ones.
m1o<fc/.1. jn ijjjg manner FE is at right Angles to all
Lines drawn thro' E in the Plane ADBC. and
"Idef.11 therefore it is "at right Angles to that fame
Plane. & E. D.

If a Right Line AB {lands at Right Angles to
three Right Lines AC, AD, AE, mutually cutting
me another, on their common SeEiion ; tbofo three.
Right Lines are in one Plane.


Book XI. Euclid'; Elements. 16
For AC, AD are * in a * u.
one Plane FC. Also
AB, AE are a in one
Plane BE. If you fay
that AE is without the
Plane FC ; then let
the Right Line AG be
b the Intersection of the b 3- i1.
Planes. Now because BA, by the Hypoth. is
perpendicular to the Right Lines AC, AD, it
is c perpendicular to the fame Plane FC, and c 4- 11.
consequently to d the Right Line AD. There- A
fore (since AB is a also in the fame Plane AE,
as AG is) the Angles BAG, B AE are right
ones, and so equal, the Part to the Whole,
which is absurd.

P. VI.
If two Right Lines AR,
DC, be at Right Angles to .
the fame Plane EF, those
Right Lines, AB, DC,
are Parallel. - t
Draw AD, to which let
DG = AB be perpendi
cular in the Plane EF ;
and join BD, 3G, AG.
In the Triangles, BAD,
ADG, because the Angles DAB, ADG c are < hyp.
right ones ; and AB f = DG ; and AD is com- f conji.
mon ; therefore shall BD = AG $ wherefore in
the Triangles AGB, BGD mutually equilateral
to each other, the Ang. BAG b = BJ>Gffc8*1*
whereof BAG being a right one, BDG shall
be so also. But the Ang. GDC is supposed to be
a right one ; therefore the right Line GD is
perpendicular to three right Lines, DA, DB,
CDj which therefore are 5 in one Plane, in 5 j. n.
M 4 which
1 61 Euclid'* Elements.
2. li> which AB is a. Whence, since AB, CD are in
one Plane, and the Internal Angles BAD, CDA
ka8. u are right ones, the Lines AB, CD shall be b pa
rallel. Q E. D.

// there be two parallel
E, B / Lines AB, CD, and the
Points E, F be taken in
lie them ; the Line EF j til
j F ! ing those Points, shall be
in the fume Plane ABCD
as the Parallels.
Let some other Plane passing through the
Points E, F, cue the Plane wherein is AB, CD.
Now if EF be not in the Plane ABCD, it (hall
not be the common Section. Tneref >re let
j. ii. EGF be it. Whence this is ca ripht Line, con
sequently two right Lines EF, EGF includes a
4 ox. Space. Which is d absur'd.

Cl " Ij there be two parallel
Right Lines AB, CD,
one of which AB- is per
pendicular to some Plane
EF ; then shall the other
CD be perpendicular to
ihe said Plane EF.'
, , "See the Preparation
and Demonstration of
Prop. VI. of this Book; where the Angles GDA,
and GDB are right ones. Therefore the right
* 4. ii . ' Line GD is e in the Plane drawn through AD,
'Mi. DB ; in which f likewise areAB, AD- Whence
iI GD * is perpendicular to CD. But the.Ang.
k s> i CDA k is also a right one, whence CD Is 1 ac
right Angles to the Plane EF. Q. E. D.'
Book XI. Euclidj Elements.

Right Lines AB, CD,
that tire parallel to tht
fame Right Line EF, but
not in thtfame Plane with
it, are also parallel to each
In the Plane of the Pa
rallels AB, EF draw HG perpendicular to EF.
also in the Plane of the Parallels EF,CD, draw IG
perpendicular to EF. then the right Line EG is
perpendicular to the Plane passing through HG, a 4. i 1.
GI. and the right Lines AH and CI are also l8. ir.
perpendicular to the fame Plane. -Therefore
AH and CI are c parallel. Q.E.D. cf. if.

If two Right Lines AB, AC
touching one another be parallel to
two other right Lines ED, DF, but
not in the fame Plane, these right
Lines contain equal Angles BAC,
Let AB, AC; DE, DF be equal,
and draw AD, BC, EF, BE,
CF. Because AB' DE~are d pa AbP- Of
rallel and equal ; therefore e are confi.
BE, AD parallel and equal. In 33- 1
like manner CF, AD arp paral
lel and equal. Therefore likewise BE, FC, are
f parallel and equal. Whence BC, EF, are equal. f z ax. r,
Whence since the Triangles BAC, EDF 8 are ii.
mutually equilateral, the Angles BAC, EDF " M-
shall be b equal. Q. ED. ' b * *-

170 E tj c l i d's Elements.

XL Probl.
From a Point A giyt*
over a. Plaue&C,tAJet/fall
a Perpendicular Al Mthat
Plane. "
Draw - any rtghtjlsine
DE in the Plane. BQjfeD
which ^Iraw a from A
12. r,
the Perpendicular AF,
' 12. I. and draw b through F in
the Plane BC the Per
pendicular FH, to the
said DE. then to FH let fall 3 the Perpendicu
lar Al ; and Al shall be perpendicular to the
Plane BC
s 3I, I. For draw c KIL thro* I, parallel to DE. Be
A const. cause DE is d perpendicular to AF, and FH ;
c 4. n. the Line DE shall be c perpendicular to the
*S. 11. Plane IFA ; and so KL is f also perpendipj^ar to
*5 des.11 the fame Plane. Therefore the Ang. jIA * js
*/. a right one. But the Ang. AIF is.* also a right,
Angle. Therefore Al is 1 perpendicular to the
Plane BC. &E.F. * i '
1 *
PROP. XII. Prohl. (
To ereil a R1ght Ltae
AF perpendicular to a
given Plane BC, from,
the Point A given in
From any Point D
without the Plane draw
11. 11. k the Line DE per
pendicular to the Plane
BC ; and join EA,and
J j 1. 1. draw 1 AF parallel
W8. 11. to DE ; it is m plain
Book XI. EueLiD'i Elements. 171
that AF is perpendicular to the Plane BC.
Q. E. F.
Artificers perform this and the proceeding
Problem, by applying a Square tp the given
Point, as is manifest from 4. is.

Two Right Lines CD
CE cannot be ere&ed at
right Angles (the fame
.way) to a given Plane
AB from a given Point C
in it.
For CD, CE would
be perpendicular to the
Plane AB, and so a they 6. it
would be parallel, which
is contrary to the Defi-
nition of Parallels. Q. E. D.

Those Planes CD,
EF, to which the
fame Right Line A B
. is perpendicular, are
If this be deny'd,
let the Planes CD,
EF meet, so thac
the right Line GH
be their coYnmon
Section ; in this
take any Point I, to
which draw the
right Lines IA, IB in the proposed Planes.
Then the Triangle IAB has b two right Angles, * &>
which is c absurd.. 5 He's n*
ciy. i.
172. Euclid'j Elements.
If two Right Lines
AB, AC touching
one another be pa
rallel to two right
Lines DE, DF
touching one another,
and not being drawn
in the fame Plane
with them ; the
Planes BAC, EDF
drawn through them are parallel.
Draw 3 the right Line AG from A perpendi
* II. II. cular to the Plane EF ; and let GH, GI b be
b 31. 1. parallel to DE, DF. These shall be c also pa
c 9. 1 r. rallel to AB, AC. Therefore since the Angles
IGA, HGA are ' right ones ; also the Ang.
" ; des.u CAG, BAG, are e right Angles ; whence
e 29. 1. GA is f perpendicular to the Plane BC : bat
f 4. 11. the fame right Line is 9 perpendicular to the
B cD/7/Z. Plane BF. whence the Planes BC, EF are pa-
" 14. II. rallel. E. D.

If mo Parallel Planes
AB, CD, are tut bjany
/VslseHEIGF; their
common SeEliom EH,
GF are parallel.
For if they be
said not to be Paral
lel, since they are in
the same cutting
Plane , they will
somewhere meet,
which let be in I.
Then because the whole Lines HEI, FGI 1 are
1. 11. in the Planes AB, CD continued out, these will
Book XI. Euclid'j Elements. I7>
also meet. Which is conrrary to the Hypothesis.
If two Right Lines ALB.
CMD be cut by parallel
Planes, EF, GH, ,IK ;
they shall be cut in the
fame Proportion.
Draw the Right. Lines
AC, BD in the Planes
EF,IK. Also draw AD
meeting the Plane GH
in N ; and joist KL,
KM. The Planes of the
Triangles ADC, ADB
make the Sections BD,
LK j and AC, KM pa
rallel a. Therefore AL : 1 6. II.
LB b : : AK : KD b : :
CM : MD. . E. D. s. 6.
If a Right Line
AB be . at Right
Angles to any Plane
CD ; then all
Planes (EF, See.)
pass1ng through that
Line , shall be at
Right Angle; to the
faid Plane CD.
Draw some Plane EF through AB, making
the Section. EG, with the Plane CD, from
some Point H whereof, draw c HI in the
j1. 1.
Plane EF parall. to AB ; then shall d HI be per 1 8. 11.
pendicular to the Plane CD ; and so likewise
shall any other Perpendiculars. Therefore the
Plane EF is * perpendicular to the Plane CD, f4<fef. 11.
and by the fame Reason, any other Plane
*74 . u crib's Elements.
drawn thro' AB shall be perpendicular to the
Plane EF. Q. E. D.
AB, CD mutu
ally cutting each
other y be at
right Angles td
some Plane GH,
their common Sec
tion EF shall al
so be at Right
Angles to the
faid Plane GH.
Because the Planes AB, CD, are supposed at
right Angles to the Plane GH, from Des. 4. il.
it is manifest that from the Point F, a Perpend,
may be drawn in each Plane AB, CD to the!
i'j.r. Plane GH; and there can a be but one only:
therefore it shall be their common Section;
O. E.D.
Isa solid An
gle * AB CD
be contain d un
der three plant
Angles BAD,
any two of them,
howsoever ta-
keny are greater
than the third.
If the three Angles be equal, the Assertion is
manifest ; if they be unequal, let BAC be the:
* Note, That thefrsi of the Letters exprejfinfa [oDsTm-
gle, is at the Angular Point ; but the last Letter that denotes d
Pyramid, is at the Vertex of the Pyramid.

Book XL E tr c L i d's Elements'. t7
greatest: from which take a BAE=BAD; and 1 23- i-
make AD = AE, and draw BEC, BD, DC. b
Because the Side BA is common, and ADb= "W-
AE; and the Ang.BAE b = BAD ; therefore
shall c BE = BD. But BD + DCd cr BC. >i.
therefore DC e cr EC. Whence since AD b = e a* ^
AE, and the Side AC is common, and DC f cr- f 2. 'u
EC, the Ang. CAD shall be cr EAC. There
fore the Ang. BAD + CAD 8 cr BAC. 8 4 "* i
& E. D.
Every solid An
gle A,is contain d
under plane An
gles together less
than four right
For let the
Sides of the so
lid Angle A a-
ny how cutting a Plane make the Triangular
Figure BCD. and the Triangles ABC, ACD,
ADB. Now let us call all the Angles of the
Triangle BDC, X ; and the Sum of the Angles
at the Bases of the Triangles Y. then X +
four right Angles b = Y + A. But because b Jt. i.
(from the Angles at BJ the Ang. ABE + &fiM.
ABC is 1 cr CBE ; and since the fame is true
of the Angles at C, D, it is manifest k that ^ a*.u
Y cr X. And consequently A ru four right
Angles. QE.D.
If there he three plane Angles A, B, HCI, any
twojff which together are greater than the third,
and the right Lines AT), AE, FB, &c. are equal;
thtn ti is possible .*e make a Triangle os the Right
1 7*5 Euclid'; Elements.
Lines DE, FG, HI, joining those equal Right Lines-
that form the Angles.

A Triangle may be a made of them, if 'any

two taken together be greater than the third j
* 12. i. but that the thing is so, . make b the Ang. HCR
= B, and CK = CH, and draw HK, IK.
k 13. i. then KH e = FG. and because the Ang. KCI d
tr- A ; the Line KI cr DE. But KI e -5 HI +
4. i. HK (FG) ; therefore DE 73 HI + FG. In like
Afyp- manner, we demonstrate that any two are
20' '- greater than the third', and consequently a
Triangle may be a made of them. Q. E. D.
Probl. PR O P. XXIII.
To make a solid Angle MHIK of three plane
Angles A, B, C, -whereof any two howsoever taken
Book XI. E u c l i v's Elements. 177
are greater than the third ; * but these three Angles n 21. ii.
muji be less than four right Angles.
Make AD, AE, BE, BF, CF, CG equal to f
one another, and make f the Tnang. HKI of the 22. i.
three right Lines HI = DE, IK = EF, KH = 8
FG, about which describe 8 a Circle LHKI. 5.4.
Now AD c- HL, the Point L being the
Centre ; for if AD be =, or ~3 HL, tiien wili
the Ang. Ab = or er- 1 HLI. In like manner *cmfi. S.
shall B be =, or c- HLK, and C =, or c- (.
KLI. Whence A + B -f- C are k either equal k 2i. i.
4 cor.
to four right Angles, or else exceed four right i3. i.
Angles, which is contrary to the Hypochefis ;
therefore AD <=~ HL.
Again, let AD* be l = HL* + LM*> and i Scbtl.
let LM be * perpend, to the Plane of the Circle 4"- i.
HKI, and draw HM, KM, IM. Then be-"1'*-ii'
cause the Ang. HLM is n a right one ; there- n ld'f-il'
fore 0 MH* = HL* + LM* = p AD*. There- . 47. r.
fore MH = AD. By the like Argument MK, p const.
MI, AD (that is, AE, EB, &c.) are equal ;
whence since HM == AD, and MI = AE, and 8. i.
DE p = HI j therefore is q the Ang. A =
HMI ; and in like manner the Ang. q IMK
= B, and the Ang. HMK q = C. Whence
the solid Angle at M is made of three given
Plane Angles. Q. E. F.


. If a Solid AB be
contained under fix
parallel Planes ; the
opposite Planes (AG,
DB, &c.) are Simi
lar and Equal.
The Plane AC cut
ting the parallel
N Planes
i78 EuclidV Elements.
itf.'u. Planes AG, DB, makes ' the Sections AH,
DC parallel. By the fame Reason AD, HC are
parallel. Therefore ADCH is a Parallelogram.
And in like manner, the other Planes of the
b 35 des. i. Parallelepipedon are b Parallelograms. There
fore h'nce AF is parallel to HG, and AD to
c io. h. HC, the Ang. FAD shall be c = CHG ; whence
4 34- i. because AF d = HG, and AD d = HC, and
7- 5- consequently e AF : AD : : HG : HC ; therefore
f6.6. the Triangles FAD, GAH are f Similar and
* 4- i. Equal e j and so the Parallelograms AE, HB are
*<<tx. i. Similar and b Equal. And the fame may be
prov'd of the other parallel Planes. Therefore,
If a solid Parallelepipedon ABCD be cut by a
Plane EF parallel to opposite Planes AD, BC ;
it {hall be as the Base AH is to the Base BH, so is
the Solid AHD to the Solid BHC.
a D F C P

Conceive the Parallelepip. ABCD to be conti

nued out both ways, and take Al = AE, and
BK= EB, and put the Planes I Q, KP, parallel
to the Planes AD, BC. The Parallelograms 1M,
i jd. AH, and f DL, DG, and k IQ, AD, EF, &c.
i. def. 6. are i Similar and Equal. Whence the Ppp.
i io'J,f AQJ = AF ; and for the fame Reason the Ppp.
ii. " BP=BF. Therefore the Solids IF and EP are
Book XI. Eu clid'x Elements. 179
Equimultiples of the Solids AF, EC, and the
Bases IH, KH of the Bases AH, BH. And if
the Base IH tr-, = or than KH, in like man
ner (hall a the Solid IF rr, = or J EF. a 24. 1r.
Therefore b AH :BH:: AF: EC Q. E. D. &9d'f-
All this may be apply'd to any Prism. Whence I^^ * ^

If any Prism be cut by a plane Parallel to
opposite Planes, the Section shall be a Figure
Equal and Similar to the opposite Planes.

PROP. XXVI. Probl.

To make a solid Angle AHIL equal to a given
solid 'Angle CDEF, at a Point A, in a given Right
Line AB.

From any point F, let fall c FG perpend, to c 11. lI

the Plane ; and draw the right Lines DF, FE,
EG, GD, CG. Make AH = CD, and the
Ang. HAI = DCE, and Al = CE ; and in
the Plane HAI make the Ang. HAK = DCG,
and AK = CG ; then raise KL perpend, to the
Plane HAI, and let KL be = GF, and draw
AL. Then shall the solid Angle AHIL be equal /
to the solid Angle CDEF given.^
i so E u c l 1 d'j Elements.

From a right Lim given AB to describe a Pardl-
hlepipcdon AK Similar, and in like manner fituatt
to a solid Parallelepipedon given CD.

26. 11. Make a a solid Angle A of the plane Angles

BAH, HAI, BAI, which are equal to FCE,
ECG, FCG I also make b FC : CE : : BA:
* '2- 6- AH. And b CE : CG : : AH : Al, (whence by
eaa- 5- Equality it (hall be c FC : CG : : BA : Al)
and compleat the Ppp. AK, which shall be si
milar to the given one.
* 1 *f. 6. For by Constr. the Pgrs. BH, FE d ; and HI,
'24.11. EG ; and d BI, FG, are similar ; and e so
the opposite Planes of these to the opposite
Planes of those : therefore the -six Planes of the
Solid AK are similar to the six Planes of the
f 9- des.1 1* Solid CD, and consequently AK, CD are f simi
lar. QE.E

Book XI. Euclid'; Elements. la I


the Plane FGCD.

For because DC, FG * are equal and paral- a 24. iu
lei, the Plane FGCD is b a Pgr. and so the Pgrs. b 34. t.
AE, HB are a similar and equal : also the Tri
angles AFD,HGC, CGB, DFE, are a equal and
similar. But the Pgrs. AC, AG, are a equal and
similar to FB, FD i therefore all the Planes of
the Prism FGCDAH are a also equal and simi
lar to all the Planes of the Prism FGCDEB ;cdrf.9.iu
and therefore this- Prism is c equal to that.
O. E. D.
Solid Parallelepipedons AGHEFBCD, AGHE
MLKI, standing upon the fame Base AGHE, and

having thefame Altitude ; that is, standing between

the parallel Planes AGHE, FLKD, tofiefe insiftent
N i Lines
182 E u c l i d 's Elements.
Lines AF, AM, are in the fame right Lines' KGt
FL, and equal to each other.
For if AFMEDI, GBLHCK, the Solid
AGNEHP be added to the Equal Prisms ;
then shall the Ppp. AGHEFBCD be = Ppp.
Solid Parallelepipedons ABCDEFGH and
ABCDKlML, that stand upon the fame Base
ACBD, and have the fame Altitude, whose insistent
Lines CF, CI, DE, DM, BG, BK, AH, AL,
do not fall in the fame streight Lines, are equal to
each other.

For let ML, GH, and IK, FE continued out,

meet in N and P, and FE, IK in O, Q, and
joinCN, DO, BQ, AP.
.ii. Now the Parallelepip. ABCDEFGH c =
ABCDLKNO, they being both upon the same
Base AC, and their insistent Lines CF, CN,
DE, DO, BG, BQ.fall in the fame right Lines
FO, GP. And for the fame Reason, the Paral
lelepip. ABCDONPQ_ = Parallelepip. ABC
DIMLK ; for they have the fame Base AC,
and the insistent Lines CI, CN, BK, BQ,
DM, DO, AL, AP, are in the fame streight
Book XI. Euclid'j Elements. I8j
Lines. Therefore the Parallelepip. ABCDEF
GH = Parallelepip. ABCDKIML. Q. E. D.

Solid Parallelepipedons ALEKGMBI, CPeO
HQDN standing upon equal Eases ALEK, CPoO,
and * having the fame Altitude, are equal to one

N D d

(I.)Let the Parallelepipedons AB.CD have their
Sides perpend1cular to the Planes of the1r Bases,
and at the Side CD continued out, make a the a jg *
Pgr. PRTS equal and similar to the Pgr.KELA ;
and consequently b the Ppp. PRTSQVYX is 27.11.
eqnal and similar to the Ppp. AB. Produce Or>E, 10 its.
NDi, oPZ. DQF, ERB, dVg, TSZ, YXF ;
and draw Ed, Bg, ZF.
The Planes OE^N, CRVH, STYF c are M
parallel; and the Pgrs. ALEK, CPoO, PRTS, J'

* The Altitude is a Perpendicular drawn from the Plane of

the Base to the opposite
J Plane. N4 PRBZ
i 34 Euclid'* Elements.
* hyp. & PRBZ are a equal ; therefore since the Ppp.
3 5-i. CD : PVdo b : : Pgr. Ca (PRBZ> Ko . :
k 2f ii.
<9. 5- Ppp. PRBZQV^F : PVdo ; the Ppp. CD shall
* 29. i2. be c = PRBZQyF$F d = e PRVQSTYX =
* ctrnjlr. AB. Q. E. D,
But it the Ppps. AB, CD have their Sides
oblique to their Bases ; set Parallelepipedons up
on those Bases, that have the fame Altitude,
and have their Sides parallel to their Bases :
* 29. ii. these shall be equal f to one another, and to rhe
oblique ones j and consequently the oblique ones
8 i ax. i. AB, CD, are equal * to one another. Q E. D.

Solid Parallelepipedons ABCD, EFGL, having,
thefame Altitude, are to one another as their Bases.

Continue out EHI, and make b the Pgr.

45. i.
3i. i. EF = AB, and compleat 1 the Ppp. FINM; ic
3i. ii. is manifest that the Ppp. FINM (ABCD k) EPGL l FI:(AB)EF.
171 f A n^ vc r 7-k
Q E. D.
J '


Similar solid Parallelepipedons ABCD, EFGH

are to one another in the triplicate proportion of their
Homologous Sides Al, EK.
. .
Book XI. Euclid j Elements. i8j

Continue out the right Lines AIL, DIO,

BIN, and make IL, IO, IN equal to EK,
KH, KF, and so the Ppp. IXMT is equal and
similar to the Ppp. EFGH. and compleat a the 1.
Ppps. IXPB, DLYQ. then shall b Al : IL (EK) b hyp.
: : DI : IO (HK) : : BI : IN (KF) ; that is, c the e 1. 6.
Pgr.AD : DL : : DL : IX : : BO : IT ; that d is, .* 31. n.
the Ppp. ABCD : DLQY : : DLQY : IXBP : : e *st.
IXBP : IXMT (EFGHe). Therefore thef Ra- f 1orf/..
tio of ABCD to EFGH is triplicate of the
Ratio of ABCD, to DLQY, or of 1 Al to EK. * 1.
Q. E. D.
C 0 R 0 L.
Hence if there be four right Lines continu
ally Proportional, as the first is to the fourth, '
so is a Parallelepipedon deferib'd upon the first
to a similar Parallelepipedon similarly deferib'd
upon the second.

"The Bases and Altitudes of equalsolid Paralleled
pipedons ADCB, EHGF, are reciprocally propor
tional ;
i86 E u c l i n's Elements.
tional ; viz. AD : EH : : EG : AC. and those
solid ParaMepipedons ADCB, EHGF whose Ba
ses and Altitudes are reciprocally proportional, are

(i.) Let the Sides CA, GE be perpend, to

the Bases ; now if the Altitudes of the Solids
be equal, their Bases shall be also equal ; which
is manifest enough. But if the Altitudes be
unequal, from the greater EG take a away El
= AC, and draw b the Plane IK through I,
'jr. i-
parallel to the Base EH. ;
c 52. i1 I Hyp. Then AD :EH c :: Ppp. ADCB d :
*i7- 5- EHIK : : Ppp. EHGF : EHIK c : : GL : IL e
e i. 6. : : GE : IE (AC f)- Therefore it is manifest
that AD : EH : : GE : AC. . E. D.
s ii. 5. f 2 Hyp. ADCB : EHIK 8 : : AD : EH b : :
32. ii. EG : El 1 : : GL : IL k : : Ppp. EHGF : EHIK.
Hyp. . whence the Ppp. ADCB l = EHGF. Q. E. D.
i i.6.
k 12. ii Again, let the Sides be oblique to the Bases,
l9- 5- upon these Bases erect Parallelepip. of the fame
height, whose Sides are at right Angles to the
Bases ; then shall the obliqueParallelepipedons be
equal to these. Whence since these (by Parri.)
have their Bases and Altitudes reciprocally pro
portional, therefore those will be reciprocal.
& E D.
\C 0-
Book XI. EuclidV Elements.
IVIiat has been demonstrated in Prop. 2p, 30,
3i, 32, 33, 34, may likewise be apply d to trian
gular Prisms, which are the halves of Parallelepipt-
dons, as is manifest from Prop. 28. Therefore,
i. Triangular Prisms of equal Altitudes are
to one another as their Bases.
2. If they have the fame or equal Bases, and
the fame Altitudes, they are equal.
3. If they be similar, their Proportion is tripli
cate of the Proportion of their Homologous Sides.
4. If they be equal, their Bases and Altitudes
are reciprocally proportional ; and if the Ba
ses and Altitudes be reciprocally proportional,
they are equal.
If there be two equal plain Angles BAC, EDF,
and from the Vertices A, D of those Angles, two
right Lines AG, DH be elevated above the

Planes, in which the Angles are, containing equal

Angles with the Lines first given, each to its Corre
spondent one, viz. the Ang. GAB = HDE, and
GAC = HDF ; and if in these elevated Lines AG,
DH, any Points G, H, be taken, from which the
Lines GI, HK be drawn perpendicular to the Planes

i85 ( Euclid'j Elements.

BAC, EDF, in -which jhi Angles BAC, EDF,
first givtn are ; and right Lines Al, DK, be drawn
to the Angles first given, from the Points I, K, made
by the Perpendiculars in the Planes ; these right
Lines wiS contain equal Angles GAM, HDK>
with the elevated Lines AG, DH.
Make DH, AL equal, and GI, LM parallel ;
and MC perpendicular to AC ; MB to AB ;
KF to DF ; and KE to DE ; and draw the
right Lines BC, LB, LC, and EF, HF, HE;
a8. 11. and let LM be a perpendicular to the Plane
BAC ; and so the Angles LMC, LMA, LMB
b 3 <fe/.11. are; and by b. the lame Reason, the Angles HKF,
HKD,_HKE are right ones. Therefore AL
c47. 1. = c LM* +AM1 = cLMl + CM1 + AC*
48. 1. " = c LC1 + AC"' ; whence the Ang^ ACL d is
47. 1. a right one. Again, AL1 = e LM* + MA'
= EM1 -f BM* 4- BAl = BL1 + BA1.
Therefore the Ang. ABL is d also a right one
By the like Argument, the Angles DFH, DEH
fa6. 1. are right ones. Therefore AB f = DE ; and
BLf= EH j and AC f DF; and CL = FH ;
4- x- whence also BC * = EF, and the Ang. ABC g
= DEF, and the Ang. ACB g = DFE. There
fore the remainders of the right Angles CBM,
f 3tfx. t. BCM are b equal to the remainders FEK,
* * 1 , EFK. Therefore CM 1 = FK, and so k AM
= DK- Whence if from LA1 1 = HD* be
47. 1* ta^etl away AM* = DK , there will m remain
3 ax'.' LM1 = HK\ Wherefore the Triangles LAM,
HDK, are mutually equilateral to each other.
8.1. Therefore the Ang.
ta LAM" = HDK. & E. D.
C 0 R 0 L.
Hence if there be r.wo plain Angles equal,
and from the Vertices of those Angles, two
right Lines be elevated, containing equal Angles
Book XI. Euclid'.? Elements. 189
with the Lines first given, each to ach ; then
shall Perpendiculars let fall from the extreme
Points of the elevated Lines to the Planes of
the Angles first given, be equal to one another,
viz.. LM = HK.
If three right Linesk (DE), B (DG)C(DF) b*
proportional, asolid Parallelepip. DH made of them,
is equal to the solid Parallelepipedcn IN made of
the mean or middle Line DG (IL) ifit be an equila
teral one, and equiangular to the aforefaid one DH.

B' 1
O '-*
Because DE : IK1 :: IL : DF ; therefore the , hyp,
Pgr. LKb = FE, and on account of the Equa- * 14, &
lity of the Plain Angles at E and I, and of the
Lines GD, IM, the Altitudes of the Paralle-
lepipedons are equal (from the preced. Corol.)
therefore the Parallelepipedons themselves c are c 3i. ir.
equal to one another. Q. E. D.

If four right Lines A, B, C, D, be proportional,
the SolidParallelepipedpns A,B,QD, similar, and in
ike manner describedfrom them, will beproportional ;
190 Euclid's Elements.

and if solid Paraiklepipedons beingfimilar and alike

described, be proportional, (A : B : : C : D) then fiall
the right Lines A, B, C, D, they are described from,
be proportional.
35. ii. For the Ratio's of the Parallelepipedons a are
triplicate of the Ratio's of the Lines to one
another. Therefore if A : B : : C : D, then shall
fc the Ppp. A : Ppp. B : : Ppp. C : Ppp. D. and
5- contrary-wise.
If the Plane AB
be at right Angles to
the Plane AC, and
a Line EF be drawn
m from a Point E in
- F D one of the Planes
(AB) perpendicular
ti the other Plane
AC ; that Perpendi
cular EF, shall faU
in AD the Common
If possible, let F fall without the Intersection
e12. i.
AD, 'draw FG in che Plane AC perpendicular
3 t0.
Book XI. Euc lid'j Elements. 191
To AD, and join EG. Now the Angle FGE
is a r1ght a one ; and EFG is suppoled to be a a 4 & 5.
right Ancle. Therefore in one Triangle EFG, *f*
there are two right Angles ; which is b absurd. b17-1

AME # the Siies AE,
FC, AF, EC, slKi
0/ opposite Planes
AC,DB, bebifefod;
and thro the SeElions
are drawn the Planes
the common SeElion
ST of the Planes,
and the Diameter
AB of the solid Pa-
rallelepipedon shall
d1vide each other into two equal Parts.
Draw the right Lines, SA, SC, TD, TB.
Now because the Sides DO, OT, are c equalto c 34. 1.
the S1des BQ, QT, the alternate dAngles TOD, d 29. 1.
TQB are so also ; therefore the Bases DT, TB,
as also the alternate Angles DTO, BTQ, e are' ! * 1.
equal to each other. Therefore VTB is f a
right Line. In like manner, ASC is a right Line, c 54.1.
Again, AD is 6 equal and parallel to FG, FG b 9-"
* to CB, and consequently AD b to CB, and AC & 1.
* to DB. Therefore AB, ST are k in the same l'
Plane ABCD. And so since the Angles AVS,
BVT, at the Vertex, and the alternate Angles
ASV, BTV, are equal ; and AS '= BT ; there 7 ax.
fore shall AV=BV, and SV m =VT. & E. D. '2*5.1

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence all Diameters of a Parallelepipedon do
mutually bisect one another, in one Point, as V.
192 EuclidV Elements.

P R O P. XL.
If there be two Prisms ABCEFD, GHMLIK'
of the fame Altitude, one of -which has a Parallelo
gram ABCF/or iti Base, and the other a 'Triangle
GHM ; and if the Parallel gram ABCF be the
Double of the Triangle GHM ; the faid Prisms
ABCEFD, GHMLIK are equal.

For if the Parallelepipedons AN, GQ be

* 5i. ii. compleated, these shall be 3 equal 011 account
b34- i. of the Equality of the Bases b, and Altitudes c;
& 7 ix. therefore A likewise these Prisms, the Halves e of
I hyp. them, shall be equal.
e 7 ax. i. S C H 0 L.
From what has been hitherto demonstrated, vie
have the Dimensions of Triangular, or Quadran
gular Prisms or Parallelepipedons ; which is done by
drawing or multiplying the Base into the Altitude.
As if the Altitude be 10 Feet, and the Base
*oo square Feet, ( which is measured by
chol. 3 5. I. or by 4i. 1.) multiply i00 by i0 ;
and thence will arise i000 Cubical Feet for the
Solidity of the given Prism.
For as a Rectangle,- so likewise is a rectangu
lar Parallelepipedon, produced by multiplying or
drawing the Altitude into the Base. Therefore
Book XI.. Eu clid'; Elements.
any Parallclepipedon is produced by multiplying
the Altitude inco the Base, as is manifest from
the 51st Prop, of this Book.
Moreover, since the whole Parallelepipedon
is produced by Multiplying the Altitude into
the whole Base, the half thereof, that is the
Triangular Prism, is produced by multiplying
the Altitude into half the Base.

End of the Eleventh Book.

Euclid's Elements.

PROP. I. Lib. X. being necessary

to demonstrate some Things in this
Book, I thereforestall insert it here.

H T V t^ere be two
' 1 1 *lB m unequal Magni-
, , tudes AB and C
w , propo1'd , and
u F G E from the greater
AB be taken a
fart AH greater than its Half and if from HB
what remains, there be taken again a part HI
greater than half this remainder ; and if this be done
continually, there w1ll at last remain feme Magnitude
IB, that shall be less than the proposed leff r Mag
Take C such a Number of times, that DE
a Multiple of it shall nearest exceed AB ; and
let DF = FG = GE = C. Now take AH
from AB greater than its half, and HI from
the remainder HB, more than its half, and
so on until the Parts AH, HI, IB are the
fame in Number with the Parts DF, FG,
GE. Now it is manifest, that FE, which is not
less than half DE, is greater than HB, which
is less than half AB ~=1 DE. In like manner
GE, which is not less than half FE, is great
er than IB s half HB. Therefore C, or
GE^IB. & E. D.
The fame is demonstrated, if from AB you
take AH its half, and from the Remainder
HB, again its half HI, and so on.
. w >

E U C L I Ds




Imilar Polygons ABCDE, FGHIK de
scribed in Circles ABD, FGI, are to one
another as the Squares of the Diameters
AL, FM of the Circles.

- ...

Draw AC, BL, FH, GM. Because the Ang:

ABC a - FGH, and a AB : BC : s FG : GH * 1 *f.(.
Oz Therefore
196 Euclid'/ Elements^
b 6. 6. Therefore the Ang. ACB (ALB) shall be b
lzt }' FHG (FMGe). But the Angles ABL, FGM \
}i- '- are right Angles, and so equal to each other.
j. 5. Therefore e theTriangles ABL,FGM are Equi-
f eor. 4.6. angular, whence fAB : FG : : AL: FM. There-
' 21, 6' fore * ABCDE : FGMIK : : AL* : FM*.

C 0 R 0 L.
Because AB : FG : : AL : FM : : BC : GH,
&c. therefore the Area's of similar Figures de-
b i. iz.& scribed In a Circle, are b in the Ratio of the
is. j. Diameters.

Circles ABT, EFN, have the fame Proportion to
one antther as the Squares of their Diameters. AC,

For first, if possible, let I be less than the

Circle EFN, and let K be the Excess or Dif
ference. Inscribe: the Square EFGH in the
* ; Circle

1 -
Book XII. Euclid'* Elements. 197
Circle EFN, which will be a equal to one 7.
half of the circumscribed Square, and so 4-
greater than the Semicircle. Bisect.b theArchrs J0, 3-
EF, FG, GH, HE, and at the Points of Di
vision join the right Lines EL, LF, &c. At
L draw the Tangent PQ> and continue out
HEP, GFQ (which will be c parallel to EF). schi 27.
Then the Triangle ELF will be A half of the j.
Parallelogram EPQF, and so greater than the
half of the Segment . ELF. And after the fame
manner, the other Triangles do exceed the
halves of the other Segments. And if the
Arches EL, LF, FM, &c. be again bisected,
and right Lines drawn, the Triangles will
likewise exceed the halves of che Segments.
Whence if the Square EFGH be taken from
the Circle EFN, and the Triangles from .the
other Segments, and this be done continually,
there will cat last remain some Magnitude less * i> i0.
than K. Let us have gone so far, viz,, to the Seg
ments EL, LF, FM, &c taken together.
Therefore I (Circ. EFN K) 1 Polyg. f hyp. &
ELFMGNHO (Circ. EFK Segm.EL^LF, 1 -
&c.) inferib'd in the Circle ABT 8 fuppos'd 1 30- J-
similar to the Polygon ARBSCTDV, y*m&J0 &t"fi' *-
since ARBSCTDV : ELFMGNHO bJVAC1 : b 12.
EG* : : Circ. k ABT Space I. And the Polyg- * hyp.
ARBSCTDV >- -a Circ. ABT. - the Pqlyg. l 9 . t.
ELFMGNHO shall be m *a I. '"But we had u u
before I ~a ELFMGNHO, which; is absurd.
Again, (2.) if possible, let I tr- Circ' EFN,
then because AC*: EG* " :: Circ.' ABT :nhyp.
Space I. and Inversly the Space I : Circ. ABT :: .
EG* : AC*. Now let it be' as L* Circ. ABT : :
Circ. EFN : Kjjhen the Circ. ABT shall . be 14. 5.
c- K, but p EG* : AC* : : Circ. EFN : K.p u.5.
which is contradictory, as has been already
demonstrated. O 3 There-
198 Euclid'* Elements.
Therefore we must conclude that I =5 Circ.
EFN. Q. E. D.

. . C O R 0 L.
Hence as one Circle is to another, so is a
Polygon described in the one, to a similar Po
lygon described in the other.

Every Pyramid
ABDC having a
Triangular Base,
is divided into two
equal Pyramids
having triangular
Bases, being jimi-
B Y ~*jj lar to the whole
one ABDC ; and
into two equal Prisms BFGEHI, FGDIHK ;
-which two Prisms together are greater than the half
of the whole Pyramid ABDC.
Bisect the Sides of the Pyramid in the Points
E, F, G, H, I, K ; . and join the Points by the
right Lines, EF, FG, GE, El, IF, FK, KG,
Now because the Sides of the Pyramid are
cut proportionally, therefore HI, AB ; and GF,
AB? and IF, DC ; and HG, DC, &c. * are
parallel ; consequently also HI, FG, and GH,
FI, are parallel. Whence it is manifest, that
the Triangles ABD, AEG, EBF, FDG, HIK
29. i. are s equiangular; and the four last are cequal.
26. . In like manner the Triangles ACB, AHE, EIB,
HIC, FGK, are equiangular, and the four last
are equal ; likewise the Triangles BFI, FDK,
IKC, EGH j and at length the Triangles
XII. E u c l i d's Elements. 199
AHG, GDK, HKC, EFI, are equal and si
milar. But the Triang. HIK, is a parallel to* i5. it,
ADB, and EGH to BDC, and EFI to ADC,
and FGK to ABC. From whence it plainly
follows, (i.) that the Pyramids AEGH, HIKC,
are equal ; and similar b to one another,, and to * lo des.
the whole one ABDC. Again, the Solids BFG -
EIH, FGDIHK, are Prisms of equal Alti
tudes, viz,, situate between parallel Planes
ABD, HIK. but the Base BFGE, is c the " 2 ax. i.
Double of the Base FDG. And so the faid
Prisms are d equal. One whereof BFGEIH is <
40. ii.
greater than the Pyramid BEFI, that is AEGH,
theWhole than the Part ; and consequently the
two Prisms are greater than the two Pyramids,
and so greater than the half of the whole Pyra
mid ABDC Q. E. D.

If there be two Pyramids ABCD, EFGH, of
the fame Altitude, having 'triangular Bases ABC,

B k c p a G
EFG, and each of them be divided into two Pyra
mids (AILM, MNOD ; aftd EPRS, STVH)
equal to one another, and similar to the whole, and
into two equal Prisms, IBKLM, KLCNMO ;
and PFQRST, QRGTSV. And if in like
manner, each of the two Pyramids made by the for
mer Division, be divided, and this be done continu
ally j then as the Base of one Pyramid is to the Base
O 4 ./
200 E u c l i d *s Elements.
of the other Pyramid, so are all the Prisms that are
in one Pyramid, to all the Prisms that are in the
other Pyramid being equal in Number.
For (using here the Construction of the last
iS. T. Problem) BC : KC * : : FG : QG. Therefore
b aa. 6. the Triang. ABC is b to the Triang. LKC
s1milar to it, as EFG is to the Triang. RQG
c a. 6.SP< similar 0 to it. Whence, by Permutation
*M 34- ABC : EFG d LKC : RQG e :: Prism
H KLCNMO QRGTSV (for these have the
7-5- fame Altitude ) : : IBKLMN : f PFQRST.
1 12. 5-
Whence the Triang. ABC : EFG : : Prism
And if the Pyramids MNOD, AILM ;
and EPRS, STVH be in like manner further
divided ; the four new Prisms here made to the
four there made, will be as the Bases MNO and
AIL to the Bases STV, aud EPR, that is as
12. J. LKC to RQG ; or as " ABC to EFG. Where
fore all the Prisms of the Pyramid ABCD to
all the Prisms of EFGH, shall be as the Base
ABC to the Base EFG. Q. E. D.
. P R O P. V. \
Pyramids ABCD- EFGH of the fame Altitude
having Triangular Bases ABC, EFG, are to on*
another as those Bases ABC, EFG.

Book XII. Euclid'; Elements. zai
Let the Triang. ABC : EFG : : ABCD i X.
I fay X =3 Pyr. EFGH ;; for, if possible, let
X^Pyr. EFGH j and let Y be the Excess, -t <" '
Divide the Pyramid EFGH into Prisms and
Pyramids, and the remaining Pyramids in like
manner * until the remaining Pyramids EPRS, i. i0.
STVH, become less chan the Solid . There
fore since the Pyr. EFGH = X -f- Y ; it is ma
nifest that the remaining Prisms PFQRST, <
QRGTSV, are greater than the Solid X. Now
conceive the Pyramid ABCD to be divided in
like manner : then- 'will * the Prism IBKLMN b 4- la
ABC : EFG c : : Pyr. ABCD : X. Therefore d fa*
X^- Prism PFQRST + QRGTSV : which *7 5.
is contrary to what was first affirmed.
Again, let X cr Pyr. EFGH, and suppose
the Pyr. EFGH : Y :: X : Pyr. ABCD e :: c ht-&
EFG : ABC- Because EFGH f -a X, there- f% 1 5r'
fore shall V 8 Pyr. ABCD. which is impos- 8 JJf
sible from what has been faid. Therefore we
are to conclude that X = Pyr. EFGH. Q.E.D.

Pyramids ABCDEF* GHIKLM, having plj-
goneous Bases ABCDE, GHIKL, are to one another
as the Bases ABCDE, GHIKL.
'Euclid's Elements. ;
Draw the right Litres AC, AD, GI, GK.
then the Base ABC : ACDa : : Pyr. ABCF:
ACDF. And so by Composition b, ABCD :
ACD : : Pyr. ABCDF : ACDF. But * likew1se
ACD : ADE : : Pyr. ACDF : ADEF. There
fore by Equality c ABCD : ADE : : ABCDF :
ADEF. Therefore by Composit1on b, ABCDE :
ADE : : Pyr. ABCDEF : ADEF. Again
ADE: GKLd : : Pyr. ADEF : GKLM ; and,
as ar first, and inversely, GKL : GHIKL : :
Pyr. GKLM: GHIKLM. Therefore c acain
by Equality, ABCDE : GHIKL :: Pyr. AB
CDEF^ GHIKLM. E, D. .', ,

If the Bases have unequal Numbers of Sides,

the Demonstration is th&s. The Base ABC :
GHI e : : Pyr. ABCF : GHIK. But c ACD :
GHI : : Pyr. ACDF : GHIK. Therefore
the f Base ABCD :. GHI : : Pyr. ABCDF :
GHIK ; but l1kewise6 the Base ADE :'GHI : :
Pyr. ADE?.-: GHIK. Therefore the Base
E. D./

Every Prism ABCDEF having a Triangular
Base, may be divided into three Pyramids, AGBF,
ACDF, CDFE, equal , to one another; and having
Triangular Bases.
Book XII. Euclid'* Elements. 203
Draw the Diameters AC,
CF, FD, of the Paralle
lograms. Nofc the Tri-
ang. ACB a =s ACD. 34- i.
Therefore the Pyramids
ACBF, ACDF of * equal 5. ii.
Altitude, are equal. In like
manner, the Pyr. DFAC
= Pyr. DFEC. But
ACDF, and DFAC are
one and the fame Pyramid.
Therefore the three Pyra
mids ACBF, ACDF, DFEC, into which the
Prism is divided, are c equal Co each other. * i ax* \J.
& E. D.
C 0 R 0 L.

Hence, any Pyramid is

the third part of a Prism
of the fame Base and Alti
tude : or any Prism is the
triple of a Pyramid of the
fame Base and Altitude.
For suppose the Polygo-
neous Prism ABCDEG
HIKF to be divided into
Triangular Prisms, and
the Pyramid ABCDEH in
to Triangular Pyramids ; then each part of
the Prism shall be d the Triple of each part ofd
7. i2.
the Py ramid : and consequently the whole
Prism ABCDEGHIKF shall e be the Triple *
i. 5-
' of the whole Pyramid ABCDEH. Q. E. D.


204 E u c l i dV Elements.

Similar pyramids ABCD, EFGH, having
'Triangular Bases ABC, EFG, are in the Tripli
cate proportion of the Homologous Sides AC, EG.

Compleat n the Parallelepipedons ABICDM
KL, EFNGHQOP; which are b Similar and
-28 1 1. Sextuple c, of the Pyramids ABCD, EFGH ;
& -j.1z. and so are d in the same Ratio to each other
d15'5* with them. That U, in the Triplicate "Ratio
of the Homologous $ides. Q. E. D.

C 0 R 0 L.
Hence, likewise similar Polygoneous Pyra
mids are to one another in the triplicate Pro
portion of their Homologous Sides, as may be
easily demonstrated by dividing these Polygone
ous Pyramids into Triangular ones.

The Bkfes and Altitudes of equal Pyramids
ABCD, EFGH having Triangular Bases ABC,
EFG are reciprocally Proportional ; and those Py
ramids, whose Bases and Altitudes are reciprocally
Proportional, are equal.
Book XII. Euclid'j Elements. 10$
a o


ify/). 1. Compleat the Parallelepipedons ARI

CDMKL, EFNGHQOP, whichfare each six
times a their respective equal Pyramids ABCD, * 2S. It.
EFGH, and so equal to each other. There Sf 7. 12.
fore the Alt. (H) : Alt. (D) b : : ABIC : c EFNG b 34-
: : ABC : EFG. & E. D. = 15. 5.
Hyp. 2. Alt. (H) : Alt. (D) d :: ABC : 'hyp.
EFG e : : ABIC : EFNG. Therefore f the
f Son
Parallelepipedons ABICDMKL, EFNGHQ
OP are equal ; and consequently the Pyramids
ABCD, EFGH, the Sixtuples 8 of these, are s 6 ax. 1.
equal. Q. E. D.
This is applicable likewise to Polygoneous
Pyramids : for these may be divided into Tri
angular ones.
CO R 0 L.
What has been demonstrated in Prop. 6, 8, 0, of
Pyramids, likewise extends to any kinds of Prisms,
fince these are the trifles of Pyramids having the fame
Bases and Altitudes.
Therefore, (1.) Prisms that have the fame
Altitude, are to one another as their Bases.
(2.) The Proportion of Similar Prisms is the
triplicate of the Proportion of the Homolo
gous SideSk
-. (?) The
*20<5 E u c l i d*/ Elements.
(3.) The Bases and Altitudes of equal Prisms,
are reciprocally Proportional ; and those Prisms*
whose Bases and Altitudes are reciprocally Pro
portional, are equal.

S C H 0 L.
From what has been demonstrated, we may
have the Dimension of any Prisms and Pyramids.
a Cor. I. The Solidity of a Prism is gotten a by mul
/ tb1s, tiplying the Altitude into the Base : and so
epfibol. that b of a Pyramid by ' of the Akitude into
40. n.
b j. 12. the Base.

Every Cone is the third,
part ofaCylinder, having
the fame Base A BCD,
See F1g. of and Altitude.
tbe zd of If you deny it, first
tb1s. let the Cylinder exceed
the triple of the Cone
by the Magnitude E.
Now a Prism standing
upon the Square ABCD
inscrib'd within the
*fcM. 7. Circle , is c the one
4, fiP r.
9.12. half of the Prism stand
1ng upon the Square circumscribing the fame
C1rcle, and the Cylinder of the fame Altitude.
Therefore;, a Prism standing upon the Square
ABCD does exceed the half of the Cylinder.
In lilsfumanner, the Prism standing upon the-
d 27. Base AEB, being of the fame Altitude as the
5. 8f*r Cylinder, iV greater than the half of the Seg
ment of the-Cylinder AFB. Now continue
on the Bisect$8|P6f the Arches, and takeaway
the Prisms till at length there be left the Seg
ments whose Bajes are AF, FB, &c. of the
Boo&ook Xlt. EuclidV Element
Cylinder 1 * PROP. XII.
Hnd. '.-fftHar Cones and Cylinders ABCDK,PFGHM
on the Baiw the trjpi;cate Proportion of the Diameters
Cylind. pHj of their Bases ABCD, EFGH.
the Pyran
said Pnsm
ving the K
of the fan
for its Base
which is a
And if
part of the
be E.*
From the
before you
until at leng
Bases are AF,
. Therefore i
Pyr.AFBGCHLne Abe tQ some s0i,d K^ntne
&c.) Whence thWtion of Tx t0 FH j say
Pyramid (of the.GHM_ for if possiblJLet N
greater than a C>.nd letthe xcess beQ Tneil
the Part than the p sitions> N Pyr. SPFQ
whence tne Cylini. LM be the AxfeJ of< the
triple of the Cone. :he right Lines V, CK, VI,
P R M, QL, RL. Because the
therefore 1 VI : K ; : GL : 3 z$def.
Cylinders and Cones -les VIK, GLM' 'e b right ,,iSii. rf ,
fame Altitude, are to he Triangles V1K, GLM .
ABCD, EFGH. Whence VC : W I R : 1 6. 6.
Let the Circ. ABCL; . : GL : GU A tut fo d 4
ABCDK : Solid N. I K : : GR t QjHcwnt also
For if possible, let^\L Thereior^agaiti by 7. y.
and let the Excess be th GR : RMi t Whence the
pose the fame preparatr^arc f simjlg^and by.the f 5. 6.
ingas in the last Prop^ the rertKjg Triangles
than the Conic Segme remai|^g*T1,>ang!es
muunj of
and so the Solid N '/ramidsWierqselves
3s Whe 8 are f 9 <f?/. i i.
f 1
206 E u c l i d j Elements.
(3.) The Bases and Altitudes of equa'
are reciprocally Proportional ; and thosi
whose Bases and Altitudes are reciproci
portional, are equal.

SC H 0 L.
From what has been demonstrated,
have the Dimension of any Prisms and E
* Cor. i. The Solidity of a Prism is gotten 4
#/ this, tipiying the Altitude into the Base
BPschol. that b of a Pyramid by * of the Al
40. ii.
k 7. i2. the Base. - <

" PROP. X. ^CXDT in

Every Co/yfe ^he-Pyr.
fart o/sl%g. ATBVYr
the /ctWf.'Circ. EFGH."
Fig. of and Altiyr. EPFQGRH
the zd of It yo1 which is absurd,
this. let theGHM, and let
the. trQ :: N : Cone
by til : ABCD. Then
No;h is absurd, from
upoiistrated in the for-
*fchol 7. exclude that ABCD:
4, 6i rer.
9.i2. hal; j Cone EFGHM.
ing upon the Square circt
Circle, and the Cylinder c
Therefore a Prism slandi O *~
ABCD does exceed the solidity of any Cones and,
In likinnanner, the Pristy of a right Cylinder
dye-*o/. 27. Base AEB, being of the1C4 Circular Base into
5. sor. Cylinder, iV greater th likewise of any other
9. J2 ment of the Cylinder . r~-t
on the BisectioVof the Aof a Cone is 'l had by
the Prisms till at length the Altitude into the
ments whose Bafts are ;
Book XII. Euclid'/ Element
Similar Cones and Cylinders ABCDK, PFGHM
are in the triplicate Proportion of the Diameters
TX, FH, of their Bases ABCD, EFGH.

Let the Cone A be to some sol1d N in -the

triplicate Proportion of TX to FH JaNfsay
N = Cone PFGHM. for if possibMK N
PFGHM ; and let the Excess be O. Then
as in the former Propositions, N ~=> Pjjr. SPFQ_
GRHM. let IK, LM be the Ax of, the
Cones, and draw the right Lines VlfjCK, VI,
CI ; and RM, GM, QL, RL. Because the ^
Cones are similar, therefore a VI : JK : : GL .- ' "4
LM. But the Angles VIK, GLM are b right I \'8
ones. Therefore the Triangles VIK, GLM lu
are c Equiangular. Whence VC: mk* :: GR: 1 6.
GL. Also VI : VK :: GL : GM. And so d 4-
- by Equality VC : VK : : GR I flHimt aho
VK : CK : : MG : RM. Therefor?again by 7.
Equality VC : CK : : GR : RM* < Whence the
Triangles VKC, GMR are f sirnjtatfand bythe f 5.
like way of Argument, the reifl|Bg Triangles
of this Pyramid to the remauun^Triangles of
that. And so the Pyramids llhemseives s are t9d
P similar.
210 Euclid'; Elementsi
* Cos. 8. similar. But these are a in the triplicate Pro~
11. portion of VC to GR ; that is, b of VI to GL,
*4.<f. or of e TX to FH. Therefore the Pyr. ATB
* 15. J- VCXDYK : Pyr, SPFQGRHM d : : Cone
* typ. 8* ABCDK : Solid N. Whence e the Pyfam.
II. 5.
' before and SFQGRHM N ; which is contrary to
what was before faid.
Again let, if possible, N tr- Cone PFGHM,
and let the Cone PFGHM : Solid O : : Solid
*before and N : Cone ABCDK f s : Pyr. PFRM : ATCK
Inversely. : g GR : VC thrice : : FH b : TX thrice. There
6 cor. 8. 12.
b 4. 6. fore O 1 -= ABCDK ; which is repugnant, as
4. y has been already demonstrated. Therefore
N = Cone PFGHN. Q, E. D.
But since Cylinders that are the Triples of the
Cones, have the fame Proportion as the Cones,
likewise the Proportion of Cylinder to Cylinder
will be the triplicate of the Diameters of the

If a Cylinder ABCD be cut
by a Plane EF parallel to the
opposite Planes BC, AD;
then -will the Cylinder AEFD
be to the Cylinder EBCF, as
the Axis GI to the Axis IH.
3* Continue out the Ax is, and
take* GK =GI, andHL
= 1H = LMj and conceive
Planes to be drawn thro'
the Points K, L, M, paral
lel to the Circles AD, BC.
Then shall the Cylinder
ED = Cylinder AN, and the Cylind. EC 1
11. 1s - = BO 1 ='OP. And so the Cylinder EN is
the fame Multiple of the Cylinder ED, as the
Axis IK is of the Axis IG, and likewise the Cy-
2 linder
Book XII. Euclid'x Elements'. 21
Under FP is the fame Multiple of the Cylinder
BF as the Axis IM is of the Axis IH. But if
IK be =, cr-, or than IM, in like manner
shall 1 the Cylinder EN be =, n-, or -3 than a n. *
FP. Therefore b the Cylind. AFED : Cylind. b * def.
EBCF : : GI : IH. Q, E. D.

Cones AEB,
CFD, and Cy
linders , AH,
CK, upon the
Equal Bases
AB, CD, are
to each other
as the Altitudes
Continue ouc
the Cylinder
HA, and the
Axis EM, and
take ML =
FN; and draw a Plane thro the Point L pa-
then shall
rallel to the Base AB, d Cylind. AH the Cylind. c u.
APc = CK. But the : AP : * 1j.
(CK) : ME: ML: (NF.) Q. E. D.
What has here been faid concerning Cones
which are the third parts of Cylinders, l1kewise
is true of Prisms and Pyramids.

"The Bases and Altitudes of equal Cones BAC,
EDF, and Cylinders BH, EK, are reciprocally pro
portionals viz. BC : EF : : MD : LA. And those
Cones and Cylinders -whose Bases and Altitudes are
reciprocally proportional, are equal.
a 1*. EuclipV Elements.
,K If the Altitudes
be equal, the Ba
ses shall also be
equal, as is very
manifest. But if
the Altitudes be
unequal, take a-
way MO == LA.
1 Hyp. Then
a 14. 12. MD:MO(aLA)
b constr. : : Cylind. EK
Cc BH) EQ.d : :
d II. IZ.
Circ. BC : EF.
JF . E. D.
2 Hyp. BC :
EF ' : DM :
1 14. 12. OM (LA) <*: : Cyl. EK : EQ* : : BC':EF b : :
S M. 5.
b II. 12. BH : EQ; Therefore the Cylind. EK 5 = BH.
HE. D.
The fame way pf Reasoning will do for Cones.
O P. XVI. Probl.
Two Circles AB
C , EFD be
ing given about
the fame Centre.
M ; to inscribe in
the greater Circle
jC ABC an Equi
lateral Polygon of
an even Number of
Draw the Right
Line CD through
the Center M> a&#lso HG, from the Point F at
Right- Angles to ,CD, which produce to G;
1t- 3. this Line will k touch the Circle EFD. Then,
bisecting the Semicircle ABC, and again
' ~ bi
Book XII. Euclid'.* Elements. iij
bisecting the half BC thereof, and doing this
continually, we shall have a a Circumference left a i- i0-
at last less, than HC. Let this Circumference be
IC, and draw LI from the Point L perpendi
cular to AC, which produce to K ; and join
CI, CK. And then CI b is equal to CK. And ; J|- 3-
since IK is c parallel to HG, and HG d touches a co^ 1'6>
the Circle EFD, IK will not e touch the 3.
Circle EFD. And much less do the Right e
Lines CL CK, touch the Circle. And if
Right Lines, each equal to /CI, be applied
round the Circle ABC, we shall have a Poly
gon inscribed therein of equal Sides, even in
Number, that does not touch the lesser Circle -
EFG. & E. D.


To describe- a solid Polyhedron BOPRXYTSK

in BCDE the greater os two Spheres, having the
fame Centre A, which shall not touch the Superficies
of the lesser Sphere FGH.
Cut the Spheres by a Plane paffing thro' the
Centre A, and the Sections will be concentrick . ji
Circles BCDE, FGH. For since a Sphere is
made f by turning a Semicircle about the Dia- f dis. i4.
meter at rest ; in whatsoever Position the Se- -
micircle is conceiv'd to be, the Plane in which
it is, will make a Circle in the Superficies of
the/Sphere. It is also manifest that this Circle
is one of the greatest Sections of the Spheres
. because the Diameter of the Sphere, that is, of
the Circle, is 8 the greatest Line that can be e iJf 3.
drawn in the Circle or Sphere. ,
Draw the Diameters BD, CE, at right Angles
to each other, and at the Point G draw GL at
right Angles to BD, and join AL, and inscribe
she b Equilateral Polygon BKLME; <SV. in the * 16, iz,
. . 1 Cir-
**4 Euclid** Elements.

Circle BCDE, hot touching the lesser Circle.

ia. ii. Continue out KA to N, and from A a raise
AX perpend, to the Plane of the Circ. BCDE,
and draw Planes thro' AX, BD ; AX, NK,
making the Semicircles BXD, KXN in the
Superficies of the Sphere, which will b be per
pendicular to the Plane of the Circle BCDE.
Again, the Quadrants BE, BX, KX of the equal
Semicircles BED, BXD, KXD, are equal j and
so if the Sides of a Polygon BO, OP, PR;
RX, KS,ST, TY, YX, may be drawn ia
the Quadrants BX, KX, so that their Num
ber be equal to the Number of Sides in the
Quadrant BE', each equal to BK, draw them
and join SO, TP, YR.

Book XII. 1 tf c 1 1 d's Elements. zij
Again, from the Points O, S, draw Perpendi
culars OV, SQ. to the" Plane of the Circle
BCDE, which will a fall in the Sections BD, 38.11}
KN. join VQ. Now because the Arch BO =
Arch SK, and OV, SQ^are perpendicular, and
OV = SQ, and BV = KQ, and BA = KA,
' therefore AV= AQ. and so BV : VA : : KQ_:
QA. Whenee VQ is b parallel to BK, and since b 2. f.
OV is equal to SQ, and both are perpend, to
the fame Plane BCDE, they shall be c pa- c 6, it.
rallel, and QV, SO are also equal d and pa- d $?- *
rallel. Whence SO is c parallel to BK, and so e 9. iu
RBOS f is a Quadrilateral Figure in one Plane; f 7. iu
and for the fame Reason each of the Quadrilate
ral Figures SOPT, TPRY, and the Triangle
YRX 6 are in one Plane. Therefore if right S2-
Lines be drawn from the Points O, S, P, T,
R, Y, to the Point A, there will be constitu
ted a solid Polyhedron within the Arches BX,
KX, composed of Pyramids, whose Bases are
the Quadrilateral Figures KBOS, SOPT,
TPRY, and the Triangle YRX, and Vertices at
the Point A ; and if there be made the fame
Construction on each of the Sides KL, LM,
ME, as on the Side KB, as also in the other
three Quadrants, and the other Hemisphere,
there will be constituted a Polyhedron in the
Sphere, composed of Pyramids, and Triaogles,
which does not touch the Superficies of the
lefler Sphere.
From the Centre A draw b AZ perpend, to b i. iu
the Plane KBOS, and join BZ, ZK. Now since
* AZ is 1 perpend. to BZ, ZK, and-A^ g= AKV i^.j.i.
therefore^AZ1 + ZB* k = AB*. =* Aff = * 47. i.
AZ1 k -f~ ZK*. and taking awaft the common
Square AZ\ and then ZK* = ZB* ; and so
a1 4 EuclidV Elements^.
ZK =ZB. In like manner we demonstrate
thac Lines drawn from Z to O and S, are equal.
* Therefore a Circle,, whose Centre is Z, may
, pass thro' the Points, O, S, B, K, that is, ic
may be described about the Quadrilateral Fi-
, const. gure OSBK. And since OB, BK, KS a are
equal, and OS -=>.BK, the Angle at the Cen-
*28.j. tre'BZK shall be "obtuse, and so BKnr-BZ.
& 33.6. But GL cr BK, cr BZ. Again, since AL c =
cdef. 15. ^B, and the Triangle AGL right angled ac
1* G therefore^ AG + GL* = ALl = AB'
k ' ,. =_k AZ*_+ BZ*. But BZ* "^GL1, whence
ZA1 cr AG1, and so ZA cr AG. But AZ is
perpend, to one Base of the Polyhedron, and AG
to the Superficies. Therefore the Superficies
BOSK does not touch the Superficies of the
lefler Sphere ; and the fame may be demonstran.
ted of the other Planes of the Polyhedron.
O. E. D.
CO R 0 L.
Also if a solid Polyhedron be described in some
other Sphere, similar to that which is described in the
Sphere BCDE ; the solid Polyhedron described in the
Sphere BCDE, to the solid Polyhedron described in
that other Sphere, shall have a triplicate Proportion
es that which the Diameter os the Sphere BCDE
bath to the Diameter of that other Sphere.
For the Solids being divided into Pyramids,
equal in Number, and of the fame Order, the
said Pyramids shall be similar. But similar Py
ramids are to each other in a triplicate Propor- -
tion of theif homologous Sides. Therefore the
Pyramid whose Base is the quadrilateral Figure
KBOS, and Vertex the Point A, to the Pyra
mid of the fame Order in the other Sphere,
has a triplicate Proportion of that which the ho
mologous Side of one, has to the homologous
* Side
Book XII. EuclidV Elements. 21
Side of the other, that is, which AB, drawn
from the Centre A of the Sphere to that Line
which is drawn from the Center of the other
Sphere. In like manner every one of the Py
ramids, that are in the Sphere whose Center is
A, to every one of the Pyramids of the fame
Order in the other Sphere, hath a triplicate Pro
portion of that which AB has to that Line
drawn from the Center of the other Sphere.
And as one of the Antecedents is to one of the
Consequents, so are all the Antecedents to all
the. Consequents. Wherefore the whole solid
Polyhedron, which is in the Sphere described
, about the Center A, to the whole solid Polyhe
dron that is in the other Sphere, hath a triplicate
Proportion of that which AB hath to the Line
drawn from the Center of the other Sphere,
that is, which the Diameter BD has to the Di
ameter of the other Sphere.


Spheres BAC/ EDF are to one another in the

-Triplicate Proportion of their Diameters BC, EF.

X f\

For if -you deny if, let the Sphere EAC be

to the Sphere G in the triplicate Proportion of
the Diameter BC to the Diameter EF. I fay
G = EDF. For if possible let G s EDb*.
2ig Euclid'j Elements.
And suppose the Sphere G to be Concentrical
* i7- with the Sphere EDF. Inscribe a a Polyhedron
in the Sphere EDF, not touching the Sphere
G, and a similar Polyhedron in the Sphere BAC.
cor. i7. These Polyhedrons are b in the triplicate Pro-^
i3. portion of the Diameters BC, EF, that is e of
\hyt- the Sphere BAC to G. And d consequently
i4' the Sphere G is greater than the Polyhedron in-
serib'd within the Sphere EDF ; the Part to
the Whole. Again, if possible, let the Sphere
G c~ EDF. And suppose as the Sphere EDF
to some other Sphere H, so is G to BAC. That
hyp. In- is, e in the triplicate Proportion of the Diame-
tersEFtoBCj therefore since BAC f=~H,
i4- 5- We fall into the Absurdity of the former part,
and so the Sphere G = EDF. Q. E. D.

C 0 R 0. L.
Hence, as one Sphere to another, so is a Po
lyhedron described in the one, to a similar Poly?
hedron described in the other.

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