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ACI 435R-95

(Reapproved 2000)
(Appendix B added 2003)

Control of Deflection in Concrete Structures

Reported by ACI Committee 435
Edward G. Nawy A. Samer Ezeldin
Chairman Secretary

Emin A. Aktan Anand B. Gogate Maria A. Polak

Alex Aswad Jacob S. Grossman Charles G. Salmon
Donald R. Buettner Hidayat N. Grouni* Andrew Scanlon
Finley A. Charney C. T. Thomas Hsu Fattah A. Shaikh
Russell S. Fling James K. Iverson Himat T. Solanki
Amin Ghali Bernard L. Meyers Maher K. Tadros
Satyendra K. Ghosh Vilas Mujumdar Stanley C. Woodson

Acknowledgment is due to Robert F. Mast for his major contributions to the Report, and to Dr. Ward R. Malisch for his extensive input to the various chapters.
The Committee also acknowledges the processing, checking, and editorial work done by Kristi A. Latimer of Rutgers University.

This report presents a consolidated treatment of initial and time-dependent shrinkage; slabs; strains; stresses; tendons; tensile strength; time-depen-
deflection of reinforced and prestressed concrete elements such as simple and dent deflection.
continuous beams and one-way and two-way slab systems. It presents the
state of the art in practice on deflection as well as analytical methods for CONTENTS
computer use in deflection evaluation. The introductory chapter and four
main chapters are relatively independent in content. Topics include Deflec- Chapter 1Introduction, p. 435R-2
tion of Reinforced Concrete One-way Flexural Members, Deflection of
Two-way Slab Systems, and Reducing Deflection of Concrete Members.
Chapter 2Deflection of reinforced concrete one-way
One or two detailed computational examples for evaluating the deflec- flexural members, p. 435R-3
tion of beams and two-way action slabs and plates are given at the end of 2.1Notation
Chapters 2, 3, and 4. These computations are in accordance with the current 2.2General
ACI- or PCI-accepted methods of design for deflection.
2.3Material properties
2.4Control of deflection
Keywords: beams; camber; code; concrete; compressive strength; cracking;
creep; curvature; deflection; high-strength concrete; loss of prestress;
2.5Short-term deflection
modulus of rupture; moments of inertia; plates; prestressing; preten- 2.6Long-term deflection
sioned; post-tensioned; reducing deflection; reinforcement; serviceability; 2.7Temperature-induced deflections

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, Appendix A2, p. 435R-16

and Commentaries are intended for guidance in plan- Example A2.1Short- and long-term deflection of 4-span
ning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. beam
This document is intended for the use of individuals who Example A2.2Temperature-induced deflections
are competent to evaluate the significance and limita-
tions of its content and recommendations and who will Chapter 3Deflection of prestressed concrete one-way
accept responsibility for the application of the material flexural members, p. 435R-20
it contains. The American Concrete Institute disclaims 3.1Notation
any and all responsibility for the stated principles. The 3.2General
Institute shall not be liable for any loss or damage 3.3Prestressing reinforcement
arising therefrom. 3.4Loss of prestress
Reference to this document shall not be made in
contract documents. If items found in this document are ACI 435R-95 became effective Jan. 1, 1995.
desired by the Architect/Engineer to be a part of the Copyright 2003, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
contract documents, they shall be restated in mandatory means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
language for incorporation by the Architect/Engineer. mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduc-
tion or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in
writing is obtained from the copyright proprietors.


3.5General approach to deformation considerations strength concrete with reinforcing bars and prestressed rein-
Curvature and deflection forcement, coupled with more precise computer-aided limit-
3.6Short-term deflection and camber evaluation in state serviceability designs, has resulted in lighter and more
prestressed beams material-efficient structural elements and systems. This in
3.7Long-term deflection and camber evaluation in turn has necessitated better control of short-term and long-
prestressed beams term behavior of concrete structures at service loads.
This report presents consolidated treatment of initial and
Appendix A3, p. 435R-42 time-dependent deflection of reinforced and prestressed
Example A3.1Short- and long-term single-tee beam concrete elements such as simple and continuous beams and
deflections one-way and two-way slab systems. It presents current engi-
Example A3.2Composite double-tee cracked beam neering practice in design for control of deformation and
deflections deflection of concrete elements and includes methods
presented in Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Chapter 4Deflection of two-way slab systems, Concrete (ACI 318) plus selected other published approaches
p. 435R-50 suitable for computer use in deflection computation. Design
4.1Notation examples are given at the end of each chapter showing how to
4.2Introduction evaluate deflection (mainly under static loading) and thus
4.3Deflection calculation method for two-way slab control it through adequate design for serviceability. These
systems step-by-step examples as well as the general thrust of the report
4.4Minimum thickness requirements are intended for the non-seasoned practitioner who can, in a
single document, be familiarized with the major state of prac-
4.5Prestressed two-way slab systems
tice approaches in buildings as well as additional condensed
4.6Loads for deflection calculation
coverage of analytical methods suitable for computer use in
4.7Variability of deflections deflection evaluation. The examples apply AC1 318 require-
4.8Allowable deflections ments in conjunction with PCI methods where applicable.
The report replaces several reports of this committee in
Appendix A4, p. 435R-62 order to reflect more recent state of the art in design. These
Example A4.1Deflection design example for long-term reports include ACI 435.2R, Deflection of Reinforced
deflection of a two-way slab Concrete Flexural Members, ACI 435.1R, Deflection of
Example A4.2Deflection calculation for a flat plate Prestressed Concrete Members, ACI 435.3R, Allowable
using the crossing beam method Deflections, ACI 435.6R, Deflection of Two-Way Rein-
forced Concrete Floor Systems, and 435.5R, Deflection of
Chapter 5Reducing deflection of concrete members, Continuous Concrete Beams.
p. 435R-66 The principal causes of deflections taken into account in
this report are those due to elastic deformation, flexural
5.2Design techniques
cracking, creep, shrinkage, temperature and their long-term
5.3Construction techniques effects. This document is composed of four main chapters,
5.4Materials selection two to five, which are relatively independent in content.
5.5Summary There is some repetition of information among the chapters
in order to present to the design engineer a self-contained
References, p. 435R-70 treatment on a particular design aspect of interest.
Chapter 2, Deflection of Reinforced Concrete One-Way
Appendix BDetails of the section curvature method Flexural Members, discusses material properties and their
for calculating deflections, p. 435R-77
effect on deflection, behavior of cracked and uncracked
members, and time-dependent effects. It also includes the
relevant code procedures and expressions for deflection
B3Cross-sectional analysis outline computation in reinforced concrete beams. Numerical
B4Material properties examples are included to illustrate the standard calculation
B5Sectional analysis methods for continuous concrete beams.
B6Calculation when cracking occurs Chapter 3, Deflection of Prestressed Concrete One-Way
B7Tension-stiffening Members, presents aspects of material behavior pertinent to
B8Deflection and change in length of a frame member pretensioned and post-tensioned members mainly for
B9Summary and conclusions building structures and not for bridges where more precise
B10Examples and detailed computer evaluations of long-term deflection
B11References behavior is necessary, such as in segmental and cable-stayed
bridges. It also covers short-term and time-dependent deflection
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION behavior and presents in detail the Branson effective
Design for serviceability is central to the work of struc- moment of inertia approach (Ie) used in ACI 318. It gives in
tural engineers and code-writing bodies. It is also essential to detail the PCI Multipliers Method for evaluating time-
users of the structures designed. Increased use of high- dependent effects on deflection and presents a summary of

various other methods for long-term deflection calculations CHAPTER 2DEFLECTION OF REINFORCED
as affected by loss of prestressing. Numerical examples are CONCRETE ONE-WAY FLEXURAL MEMBERS*
given to evaluate short-term and long-term deflection in A = area of concrete section
typical prestressed tee-beams. Ac = effective concrete cross section after cracking, or
Chapter 4, Deflection of Two-way Slab Systems, covers area of concrete in compression
the deflection behavior of both reinforced and prestressed As = area of nonprestressed steel
two-way-action slabs and plates. It is a condensation of ACI Ash = shrinkage deflection multiplier
Document 435.9R, State-of-the-Art Report on Control of b = width of the section
c = depth of neutral axis
Two-way Slab Deflections, of this Committee. This chapter
Cc ,(CT)= resultant concrete compression (tension) force
gives an overview of classical and other methods of deflection Ct = creep coefficient of concrete at time t days
evaluation, such as the finite element method for immediate Cu = ultimate creep coefficient of concrete
deflection computation. It also discusses approaches for d = distance from the extreme compression fiber to
determining the minimum thickness requirements for two- centroid of tension reinforcement
way slabs and plates and gives a detailed computational D = dead load effect
example for evaluating the long-term deflection of a two- Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete
way reinforced concrete slab. Ec = age-adjusted modulus of elasticity of concrete at
time t
Chapter 5, Reducing Deflection of Concrete Members,
Es = modulus of elasticity of nonprestressed reinforcing
gives practical and remedial guidelines for improving and steel
controlling the deflection of reinforced and prestressed concrete EI = flexural stiffness of a compression member
elements, hence enhancing their overall long-term serviceability. fc = specified compressive strength of concrete
Appendix B presents a general method for calculating the fct, ft = splitting tensile strength of concrete
strain distribution at a section considering the effects of a fr = modulus of rupture of concrete
normal force and a moment caused by applied loads, fs = stress in nonprestressed steel
fy = specified yield strength of nonprestressed reinforc-
prestressing forces, creep, and shrinkage of concrete, and ing steel
relaxation of prestressing steel. The axial strain and the h = overall thickness of a member
curvature calculated at various sections can be used to calculate I = moment of inertia of the transformed section
displacements. This comprehensive analysis procedure is for Icr = moment of inertia of the cracked section trans-
use when the deflections are critical, when maximum formed to concrete
accuracy in calculation is desired, or both. Ie = effective moment of inertia for computation of
The curvatures and the axial strains at sections of a
Ig = moment of inertia for gross concrete section about
continuous or simply supported member can be used to centroidal axis, neglecting reinforcement
calculate the deflections and the change of length of the K = factor to account for support fixity and load
member using virtual work. The equations that can be used conditions
for this purpose are given in Appendix B. The appendix Ke = factor to compute effective moment of inertia for
includes examples of the calculations and a flowchart that continuous spans
can be used to automate the analytical procedure. ksh = shrinkage deflection constant
K(subscript)= modification factors for creep and shrinkage
It should be emphasized that the magnitude of actual effects
deflection in concrete structural elements, particularly in l = span length
buildings, which are the emphasis and the intent of this L = live load effect
Report, can only be estimated within a range of 20-40 percent M(subscript)= bending moment
accuracy. This is because of the large variability in the prop- Ma = maximum service load moment (unfactored) at
erties of the constituent materials of these elements and the stage deflection is completed
Mcr = cracking moment
quality control exercised in their construction. Therefore, for
Mn = nominal moment strength
practical considerations, the computed deflection values in Mo = midspan moment of a simply supported beam
the illustrative examples at the end of each chapter ought to P = axial force
be interpreted within this variability. t = time
In summary, this single umbrella document gives design Ts = force in steel reinforcement
engineers the major tools for estimating and thereby controlling wc = specified density of concrete
through design the expected deflection in concrete building yt = distance from centroidal axis of gross section,
neglecting reinforcement, to extreme fiber in tension
structures. The material presented, the extensive reference lists = thermal coefficient
at the end of the Report, and the design examples will help to c = creep modification factor for nonstandard
enhance serviceability when used judiciously by the engineer. conditions
Designers, constructors, and codifying bodies can draw on the sh = shrinkage modification factor for nonstandard
material presented in this document to achieve serviceable
deflection of constructed facilities. *
Principal authors: A. S. Ezeldin and E. G. Nawy.

= conditions time-dependent deflections at service load levels under

4 = cross section curvature static conditions for one-way non-prestressed flexural
= strength reduction factor concrete members. It is intended to give the designer
#) cracked - curvature of a cracked member
= enough basic background to design concrete elements
4 mean = mean curvature that perform adequately under service loads, taking into
4 uncracked = curvature of an uncracked member account cracking and both short-term and long-term
% = strain in extreme compression fiber of a deflection effects.
member While several methods are available in the literature
% strain in nonprestressed steel for evaluation of deflection, this chapter concentrates on
('SHh = shrinkage strain of concrete at time, t days the effective moment of inertia method in Building Code
hH)u = ultimate shrinkage strain of concrete Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318) and the
P = nonprestressed tension reinforcement ratio modifications introduced by ACI Committee 435. It also
pb = reinforcement ratio producing balanced strain includes a brief presentation of several other methods
conditions that can be used for deflection estimation computations.
P = reinforcement ratio for nonprestressed com- 2.2.3 Significance of defection observation-The
pression steel working stress method of design and analysis used prior
E = time dependent deflection factor to the 1970s limited the stress in concrete to about 45
8 = elastic deflection of a beam percent of its specified compressive strength, and the
6 CT = additional deflection due to creep stress in the steel reinforcement to less than 50 percent
SL = initial deflection due to live load of its specified yield strength. Elastic analysis was applied
= total long term deflection to the design of reinforced concrete structural frames as
s,_T = increase in deflection due to long-term effects well as the cross-section of individual members. The
ssh = additional deflection due to shrinkage structural elements were proportioned to carry the
iiSMS = initial deflection due to sustained load highest service-level moment along the span of the mem-
= y-coordinate of the centroid of the age- ber, with redistribution of moment effect often largely
adjusted section, measured downward from neglected. As a result, stiffer sections with higher reserve
the centroid of the transformed section at to strength were obtained as compared to those obtained by
*fAtJ = stress increment at time to days the current ultimate strength approach (Nawy, 1990).
*fJtl to> = stress increment from zero at time to to its With the improved knowledge of material properties
full value at time t and behavior, emphasis has shifted to the use of high-
(*+)creep = additional curvature due to creep strength concrete components, such as concretes with
(A@ shrinkage = additional curvature due to shrinkage strengths in excess of 12,000 psi (83 MPa). Consequently,
3, = deflection multiplier for long term deflection designs using load-resistance philosophy have resulted in
Ir = multiplier to account for high-strength con- smaller sections that are prone to smaller serviceability
crete effect on long-term deflection safety margins. As a result, prediction and control of
77 = correction factor related to the tension and deflections and cracking through appropriate design have
compression reinforcement, CEB-FIP become a necessary phase of design under service load
2.2-General Beams and slabs are rarely built as isolated members,
2.2.1 Introduction-Wide availability of personal com- but are a monolithic part of an integrated system. Exces-
puters and design software, plus the use of higher sive deflection of a floor slab may cause dislocations in
strength concrete with steel reinforcement has permitted the partitions it supports or difficulty in leveling furniture
more material efficient reinforced concrete designs or fixtures. Excessive deflection of a beam can damage a
producing shallower sections. More prevalent use of partition below, and excessive deflection of a spandrel
high-strength concrete results in smaller sections, having beam above a window opening could crack the glass
less stiffness that can result in larger deflections. panels. In the case of roofs or open floors, such as top
Consquently, control of short-term and long-term floors of parking garages, ponding of water can result.
deflection has become more critical. For these reasons, empirical deflection control criteria
In many structures, deflection rather than stress such as those in Table 2.3 and 2.4 are necessary.
limitation is the controlling factor. Deflection com- Construction loads and procedures can have a signi-
putations determine the proportioning of many of the ficant effect on deflection particularly in floor slabs.
structural system elements. Member stiffness is also a Detailed discussion is presented in Chapter 4.
function of short-term and long-term behavior of the
concrete. Hence, expressions defining the modulus of 2.3-Material properties
rupture, modulus of elasticity, creep, shrinkage, and The principal material parameters that influence con-
temperature effects are prime parameters in predicting crete deflection are modulus of elasticity, modulus of
the deflection of reinforced concrete members. rupture, creep, and shrinkage. The following is a presen-
2.2.2 Objectives- T h i s chapter covers the initial and tation of the expressions used to define these parameters

as recommended by ACI 318 and its Commentary Normal strength concretes are those with compressive
(1989) and ACI Committees 435 (1978), 363 (1984), and strengths up to 6,000 psi (42 MPa) while higher strength
209 (1982). concretes achieve strength values beyond 6,000 and up to
2.3.1 Concrete modulus of rupture-AC1 318 (1989) 20,000 psi (138 MPa) at this time.
recommends Eq. 2.1 for computing the modulus of rup- ACI 435 (1963) recommended the following expres-
ture of concrete with different densities: sion for computing the modulus of elasticity of concretes
with densities in the range of 90 pcf (1445 kg/m3) to 155
fr = 7.5 X K, psi (2.1) pcf (2325 kg/m3) based on the secant modulus at 0.45 fc
(0.623 X g, MPa) intercept

where X = 1.0 for normal density concrete [145 to 150 E = 33 MQ*~ K, psi (2.4)
pcf (2325 to 2400 kg/m3)] )$) 1.5
(ocO43 c g9 MPa)
= 0.85 for semi low-density [ll0-145 pcf
(1765 to 2325 kg/m3)] For concretes in the strength range up to 6000 psi (42
= 0.75 for low-density concrete [90 to 110 pcf MPa), the ACI 318 empirical equation for the secant
(1445 to 1765 kg/m3)] modulus of concrete EC of Eq. 2.4 is reasonably appli-
Eq. 2.1 is to be used for low-density concrete when cable. However, as the strength of concrete increases, the
the tensile splitting strength, fct, is not specified. value of EC could increase at a faster rate than that
Otherwise, it should be modified by substituting fc_ t/6.7 for
generated by Eq. 2.4 (EC = wclo5 K), thereby under-
fl, but the value of fct/6.7 should not exceed \/fc'. estimating the true EC value. Some expressions for E,
ACI Committee 435 (1978) recommended using Eq. applicable to concrete strength up to 12,000 psi (83 MPa)
2.2 for computing the modulus of rupture of concrete are available. The equation developed by Nilson (Carra-
with densities (wc) in the range of 90 pcf (1445 kg/m3) to squillo, Martinez, Ngab, et al, 1981, 1982) for normal-
145 pcf (2325 kg/m3). This equation yields higher values weight concrete of strengths up to 12,000 psi (83 MPa)
of fro and light-weight concrete up to 9000 psi (62 MPa) is:

fr = 0.65 ,/c, psi (2.2) EC = (40,000 K + l,OOO,OOO) 2 , psi (2.5)

1. i 1
(0.013 ,/G, MPa)
(3.32 K + 6895) & , MPa
The values reported by various investigators ACI 363, ( 1
1984) for the modulus of rupture of both low-density and where w, is the unit weight of the hardened concrete in
normal density high-strength concretes [more than 6,000 pcf, being 145 lb/ft3 for normal-weight concrete and 100 -
psi (42 MPa)] range between 7.5 K and 12 g. ACI 120 lb/ft for sand-light weight concrete. Other investi-
363 (1992) stipulated Eq. 2.3 for the prediction of the gations report that as fi approaches 12,000 psi (83 MPa)
modulus of rupture of normal density concretes having for normal-weight concrete and less for lightweight con-
compressive strengths of 3000 psi (21 MPa) to 12,000 psi crete, Eq. 2.5 can underestimate the actual value of E,.
(83 MPa). Deviations from predicted values are highly sensitive to
properties of the coarse aggregate such as size, porosity,
fi = 11.7 K, psi (2.3) and hardness.
Researchers have proposed several empirical equa-
The degree of scatter in results using Eq. 2.1, 2.2 and tions for predicting the elastic modulus of higher strength
2.3 is indicative of the uncertainties in predicting com- concrete (Teychenne et al, 1978; Ahmad et al, 1982;
puted deflections of concrete members. The designer Martinez, et al, 1982). ACI 363 (1984) recommended the
needs to exercise judgement in sensitive cases as to which following modified expression of Eq. 2.5 for normal-
expressions to use, considering that actual deflection weight concrete:
values can vary between 25 to 40 percent from the calcu-
lated values. E C = 40,000 g + l,OOO,OOO , psi (2.6)
2.3.2 Concrete modulus of elasticity -The modulus of
elasticity is strongly influenced by the concrete materials Using these expressions, the designer can predict a
and proportions used. An increase in the modulus of modulus of elasticity value in the range of 5.0 to 5.7 x lo6
elasticity is expected with an increase in compressive psi (35 to 39 x lo3 MPa) for concrete design strength of
strength since the slope of the ascending branch of the up to 12,000 psi (84 MPa) depending on the expression
stress-strain diagram becomes steeper for higher-strength used.
concretes, but at a lower rate than the compressive When very high-strength concrete [20,000 psi (140
strength. The value of the secant modulus of elasticity for MPa) or higher] is used in major structures or when de-
normal-strength concretes at 28 days is usually around 4 formation is critical, it is advisable to determine the
x lo6 psi (28,000 MPa), whereas for higher-strength con- stress-strain relationship from actual cylinder com-
cretes, values in the range of 7 to 8 x lo6 psi (49,000 to pression test results. In this manner, the deduced secant
56,000 MPa) have been reported. These higher values of modulus value of EC at an fc = 0.45 fi intercept can be
the modulus can be used to reduce short-term and long- used to predict more accurately the value of EC for the
term deflection of flexural members since the compres- particular mix and aggregate size and properties. This
sive strength is higher, resulting in lower creep levels. approach is advisable until an acceptable expression is

Table 2.1 - Creep and shrinkage ratios from age 60 days to the indicated concrete age (Branson, 1977)

Concrete age
Creep, shrinkage ratios
2 months 3 months 6 months 1 year 2 years > 5 years

C* JCU 0.48 0.56 0.68 0.77 0.84 1.00

(ES,, )t /(ES,, ), -M.C. 0.46 0.60 0.77 0.88 0.94 1.00

(f, )f /(E, ), -S.C. 0.36 0.49 0.69 0.82 0.91 1.00

M.C. = Moist cured

S.C. = Steam curd

available to the designer (Nawy, 1990). Each K coefficient is a correction factor for conditions
2.3.3 Steel reinforcement modulus of elasticity-AC1 318 other than standard as follows:
specifies using the value Es = 29 x 106 psi (200 x 106 Khc = relative humidity factor
MPa) for the modulus of elasticity of nonprestressed re- K/ = minimum member thickness factor
inforcing steel. KS = concrete consistency factor
2.3.4 Concrete creep and shrinkage-Deflections are KC = fine aggregate content factor
also a function of the age of concrete at the time of C
= air content factor
loading due to the long-term effects of shrinkage and K;: = age of concrete at load applications factor
creep which significantly increase with time. ACI 318-89
does not recommend values for concrete ultimate creep Graphic representations and general equations for the
coefficient Cu and ultimate shrinkage strain (E&. modification factors (K-values) for nonstandard condi-
However, they can be evaluated from several equations tions are given in Fig. 2.1 (Meyers et al, 1983).
available in the literature (ACI 209, 1982; Bazant et al, For moist-cured concrete, the free shrinkage strain
1980; Branson, 1977).ACI 435 (1978) suggested that the which occurs at any time t in days, after 7 days from
average values for C, and (QU can be estimated as 1.60 placing the concrete
and 400 x 106, respectively. These values correspond to
the following conditions: (2.8)
- 70 percent average relative humidity
- age of loading, 20 days for both moist and steam and for steam cured concrete, the shrinkage strain at any
cured concrete time t in days, after l-3 days from placing the concrete
- minimum thickness of component, 6 in. (152 mm)
Table 2.1 includes creep and shrinkage ratios at dif- (2.9)
ferent times after loading.
ACI 209 (1971, 1982,1992) recommended a time-de- where (E&, Mar = 780 x 10-6 ysh
pendent model for creep and shrinkage under standard x sh = Kh Kds K; Kbs K,,
conditions as developed by Branson, Christianson, and = 1 for standard conditions
Kripanarayanan (1971,1977). The term standard condi-
tions is defined for a number of variables related to Each K coefficient is a correction factor for other than
material properties, the ambient temperature, humidity, standard conditions. All coefficients are the same as de-
and size of members. Except for age of concrete at load fined for creep except K,9, which is a coefficient for
application, the standard conditions for both creep and cement content. Graphic representation and general
shrinkage are equations for the modification factors for nonstandard
a) Age of concrete at load applications = 3 days conditions are given in Fig. 2.2 (Meyers et al, 1983). The
(steam), 7 days (moist) above procedure, using standard and correction equations
b) Ambient relative humidity = 40 percent and extensive experimental comparisons, is detailed in
c ) Minimum member thickness = 6 in. (150 mm) Branson (1977).
d) Concrete consistency = 3 in. (75 mm) Limited information is available on the shrinkage be-
e ) Fine aggregate content = 50 percent havior of high-strength concrete [higher than 6,000 psi
f ) Air content = 6 percent (41 MPa)], but a relatively high initial rate of shrinkage
has been reported (Swamy et al, 1973). However, after
The coefficient for creep at time t (days) after load drying for 180 days the difference between the shrinkage
application, is given by the following expression: of high-strength concrete and lower-strength concrete
/ CO.6 \ seems to become minor. Nagataki (1978) reported that
Ct = IlO+ to.6J cu (2.7)
the shrinkage of high-strength concrete containing high-
range water reducers was less than for lower-strength
where Cu, = 2.35 YCR concrete.
yCR = Khc Kdc K KF K,, KIOc = 1 for stan- On the other hand, a significant difference was re-
dard conditions. ported for the ultimate creep coefficient between high-

K t0 Kch
0.5 l k 1 1 1 1 1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 70 80 90 100
Age at loading days (b) Relative humidity, kf o/o


W l 0.6
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15 20
cm cm
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 2 4 6 8
Minimum thickness, d, in. Slump, s, in.
(c) (d)

(f) Air content, A%

Fig. 2.1-Creep correction factors for nonstandard conditions, ACI 209 method (Meyers, 1983)

Table 2.2-Recommended tension reinforcement ratios for nonprestressed one-way members so that deflections will
normally be within acceptable limits (ACI 435, 1978)

Members Cross section Normal weight concrete Lightweight concrete

Not supporting or not attached to nonstruc- Rectangular p 5 35 percent pb p S 30 percent pb

tural elements likely to be damaged by large T or box I% 5 40 percent Pb pw S 35 percent pb

Supporting or attached to nonstructural ele- Rectangular p I 25 percent pb p 5 20 percent pb

ments likely to be damaged by large deflec- T or box p,,, 5 30 percent &, pW 5 25 percent Pb

For continuous members, the positive region steel ratios only may be used. pl: Refers to the balanced steel ratio based on ultimate strength.

Table 2.3-Minimum thickness of nonprestressed beams and one-way slabs unless deflections are computed (ACI
318, 1989)

Minimum thickness, h

Simply supported One end continuous Both ends continuous Cantilever

Member Members not supporting or attached to partitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large

Solid one-way slabs et20 l/24 et28 e/lo

Beams or ribbed one- e/16 ei18.5 erzi ei8
way slabs

e = Span length
Values given shall be used directly for members with normal weight concrete (w, = 145 pcf) and grade 60 reinforcement. For other conditions. the values
shall be modified as follows:
a) For structural lightweight concrete having unit weights in the range 90-120 lb per cu ft. the values shall be multiplied by (1.65 - 0.005 WJ but not less than
1.09, where wC is the unit weight in lb per cu ft.
b) Forf, other than 60,000 psi, the values shall be multiplied by (0.4 + fJlOO,oOO).

strength concrete and its normal strength counterpart. have been modified by ACI 435 (1978) and expanded in
The ratio of creep strain to initial elastic strain under Table 2.4 to include members that are supporting or at-
sustained axial compression, for high-strength concrete, tached to non-structural elements likely to be damaged
may be as low as one half that generally associated with by excessive deflections. The thickness may be decreased
low-strength concrete (Ngab et al, 1981; Nilson, 1985). when computed deflections are shown to be satisfactory.
Based on a large number of computer studies, Grossman
2.4-Control of deflection (1981, 1987) developed a simplified expression for the
Deflection of one-way nonprestressed concrete flex- minimum thickness to satisfy serviceability requirements
ural members is controlled by reinforcement ratio limita- (Eq. 4.17, Chapter 4).
tions, minimum thickness requirements, and span/deflec- 2.4.3 Computed deflection limitations--The allowable
tion ratio limitations. computed deflections specified in ACI 318 for one-way
2.4.1 Tension steel reinforcement ratio limitations-One systems are given in Table 2.5, where the span-deflection
method to minimize deflection of a concrete member in ratios provide for a simple set of allowable deflections.
flexure is by using a relatively small reinforcement ratio. Where excessive deflection may cause damage to non-
Limiting values of ratio p, ranging from to structural or other structural elements, only that part of
are recommended by ACI 435 (1978), as shown in Table the deflection occurring after the construction of the
2.2. Other methods of deflection reduction are presented nonstructural elements, such as partitions, needs to be
in Chapter 5 of this report. considered. The most stringent span-deflection limit of
2.4.2 Minimum thickness limitations-Deflections of l/480 in Table 2.5 is an example of such a case. Where
beams and one way slabs supporting usual loads in build- excessive deflection may result in a functional problem,
ings, where deflections are not of concern, are normally such as visual sagging or ponding of water, the total
satisfactory when the minimum thickness provisions in deflection should be considered.
Table 2.3 are met or exceeded. This table (ACI 318,
1989) applies only to members that are not supporting or 2.5-Short-term deflection
not attached to partitions or other construction likely to 2.5.1 Untracked members-Gross moment of inertia Ig
be damaged by excessive deflections. Values in Table 2.3 -When the maximum flexural moment at service load in

Table 2.4-Minimum thickness of beams and one-way slabs used in roof and floor construction (ACI 435, 1978)

Members not supporting or not attached to nonstructural Members supporting or attached to nonstructural elements
elements likely to be damaged by large deflections likely to be damaged by large deflection
Simply One end Both ends Simply One end Both ends
Member supported continuous continuous Cantilever supported continuous continuous Cantilever
Roof slab l/22 l/28 1135 U9 l/14 VI8 l/22 115.5
Floor slab, and l/18 V23 l/28 l/7 1112 l/15 l/19 US
roof beam or
ribbed roof
Floor beam or l/14 1118 l/21 l/5.5 l/10 lfl3 l/16 114
ribbed floor

Table 2.5-Maximum permissible computed beflections (ACI 318, 1989)

Type of member Deflection to be considered Deflection limitation

Flat roofs not supporting or attached to nonstructural Immediate deflection due to live load L e
elements likely to be damaged by large deflections 180
Floors not supporting or attached to nonstructural elements Immediate deflection due to live load L e
likely to be damaged by large deflections 360
Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to That part of the total deflection occurring after e#
nonstructural elements likely to be damaged by large attachment of nonstructural elements (sum of 480
deflections the long-time deflection due to all sustained
Roof or floor construction supporting or attached to loads and the innediate deflection due to any 40
nonstructural elements not likely to be damaged by large additional live l o a d ) 240
* Limit not intended to safeguard against ponding. Ponding should be checked by suitable calculations of deflection, including added deflections due to ponded
water, and considering long-term effects of all sustained loads, camber, construction tolerances, and reliability of provisions for drainage.
t Long-time deflection shall be determined in accordance with or but may be reduced by amount of deflection calculated to occur before
attachment of nonstructural elements. This amount shall be determined on basis of accepted engineering data relating to time-deflection characteristics of
members similar to those being considered.
$ Limit may be exceeded if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or attached elements.
9 But not greater than tolerance provided for nonstructural elements. Limit may be exceeded if camber is provided so that total deflection minus camber does
not exceed limit.

a beam or a slab causes a tensile stress less than the loading conditions. M is the maximum flexural moment
modulus of rupture,f, no flexural tension cracks develop along the span. The modulus of elasticity EC can be ob-
at the tension side of the concrete element if the member tained from Eq. 2.4 for normal-strength concrete or Eq.
is not restrained or the shrinkage and temperature tensile 2.5 for high-strength concrete.
stresses are negligible. In such a case, the effective 2.5.2 Cracked members-Effective moment of inertia Ie
moment of inertia of the uncracked transformed section, -Tension cracks occur when the imposed loads cause
II, is applicable for deflection computations. However, for bending moments in excess of the cracking moment, thus
design purposes, the gross moment of inertia, I@ resulting in tensile stresses in the concrete that are higher
neglecting the reinforcement contribution, can be used than its modulus of rupture. The cracking moment, MC,.,
with negligible loss of accuracy. The combination of ser- may be computed as follows:
vice loads with shrinkage and temperature effects due to
end restraint may cause cracking if the tensile stress in (2.11)
the concrete exceeds the modulus of rupture. In such
cases, Section 2.5.2 applies. where yt is the distance from the neutral axis to the
The elastic deflection for noncracked members can tension face of the beam, and f, is the modulus of
thus be expressed in the following general form rupture of the concrete, as expressed by Eq. 2.1.
Cracks develop at several sections along the member
6=KMIZ (2.10) length. While the cracked moment of inertia, Ic,., applies
EcI, to the cracked sections, the gross moment of inertia, Ig,
where K is a factor that depends on support fixity and applies to the uncracked concrete between these sections.

Several methods have been developed to estimate the Eq. 2.12 can also be simplified to the following form:
variations in stiffness caused by cracking along the span,
These methods provide modification factors for the flex-
ural rigidity E I (Yu et al, 1960), identify an effective
moment of inertia (Branson, 1963), make adjustments to
the curvature along the span and at critical sections
(Beeby, 1968), alter the M / I ratio (CEB, 1968), or use a Heavily reinforced members wiIl have an Z, approx-
section-curvature incremental evaluation (Ghali, et al, imately equal to Icr, which may in some cases (flanged
1986, 1989). members) be larger than Zg of the concrete section alone.
The extensively documented studies by Branson (1977, For most practical cases, the calculated Z, will be less
1982, 1985) have shown that the initial deflections q than Zg and should be taken as such in the design for
occurring in a beam or a slab after the maximum deflection control, unless a justification can be made for
moment M, has exceeded the cracking moment M,, can rigorous transformed section computations.
be evaluated using an effective moment of inertia Z, Continuous beams--For continuous mem-
instead of I in Eq. 2.10. bers, ACI 318-89 stipulates that Z, may be taken as the Simply supported beams-ACI 318-89 r e - average values obtained from 2.12 for the critical
quires using the effective moment of inertia Z, proposed positive and negative moment sections. For prismatic
by Branson. This approach was selected as being suffi- members, Z, may be taken as the value obtained at mid-
ciently accurate to control deflections in reinforced and span for continuous spans. The use of midspan section
prestressed concrete structural elements. Bransons properties for continuous prismatic members is con-
equation for the effective moment of inertia Z,, for short sidered satisfactory in approximate calculations primarily
term deflections is as follows because the midspan rigidity including the effect of
cracking has the dominant effect on deflections (ACI
435, 1978).
If the designer chooses to average the effective
moment of inertia Z,, then according to ACI 318-89, the
following expression should be used:
%, = Cracking moment I, = 0.5 4(m) + 0.25 (G(1) + h(2)) (2.14)
Ma = Maximum service load moment (unfactored)
at the stage for which deflections are being where the subscripts m, 1, and 2 refer to mid-span, and
considered the two beam ends, respectively.
Gross moment of inertia of section Improved results for continuous prismatic members
Moment of inertia of cracked transformed can, however, be obtained using a weighted average as
section presented in the following equations:
The two moments of inertia Zg and Z,, are based on For beams continuous on both ends,
the assumption of bilinear load-deflection behavior (Fig.
3.19, Chapter 3) of cracked section. Z, provides a trans- 4 = 0.70 Ze@) + 0.15 (I,(,) + h(2)) G95a)
ition between the upper and the lower bounds of Z and
I,,., respectively, as a function of the level of cracking, For beams continuous on one end only,
expressed as i&/Ma. Use of Z, as the resultant of the
other two moments of inertia should essentially give Z, = 0.85 I+) + 0.15 (I,(,)) (2.15b)
deflection values close to those obtained using the bi-
linear approach. The cracking moment of inertia, I,, can When Z, is calculated as indiuated in the previous dis-
be obtained from Fig. 2.3 (PCA, 1984). Deflections cussion, the deflection can be obtained using the mo-
should be computed for each load level using Eq. 2.12, ment-area method (Fig. 3.9, Chapter 3) taking the mo-
such as dead load and dead load plus live load. Thus, the ment-curvature (rotation) into consideration or using
incremental deflection such as that due to live load numerical incremental procedures. It should be stated
alone, is computed as the difference between these values that the Z, value can also be affected by the type of
at the two load levels. Z, may be determined using M,, at loading on the member (Al-Zaid, 1991), i.e. whether the
the support for cantilevers, and at the midspan for simple load is concentrated or distributed.
spans. Eq. 2.12 shows that I, is an interpolation between Approximate Ie estimation--An approximation
the well-defined limits of Z and I,,. This equation has of the !8 value (Grossman, 1981) without the need for
been recommended by ACI Committee 435 since 1966 calculating Z,, which requires a priori determination of
and has been used in ACI 318 since 1971, the PCI Hand- the area of flexural reinforcement, is defined by Eq. 2.16.
book since 1971, and the AASHTO Highway Bridge Speci- It gives Z, values within 20 percent of those obtained
fications since 1973. Detailed numerical examples using from the ACI 318 Eq. (Eq. 2.12 and could be useful for
this method for simple and continuous beams, unshored a trial check of the Z, needed lor deflection control of
and shored composite beams are available in Branson the cracked sections with minimum reinforcement 200/fy,
(1977). The textbooks by Wang and Salmon (1992), and For MJM, I 1.6: .m
by Nawy (1990) also have an extensive treatment of the
subject. (2.16a)

0 1
Without compression steel With compression steel

B = b/(nAS) r = (n-l)A;/(nA& Ig = bh3/12

Without compression steel

a = (m - 1)/B
I = ba3/3 + nAs(d-a)2
With compression steel
a = [JZdB(l+rdVd) + (l+r)2 - (l+r)]/B
I = ba3/3 + nAs(d-a)2 + (n-l)A;(a-d1)2
(a) Rectangular Sections

--h&- Without compression steel With compression steel

C = bw/(nAs), f = hf(b-bJ/(nA& yt = h - 1/2[(b-bw)h: + bwh2]/[(b-b")h, + bvll

Ig = (b-bJh;/l2 2
+ b,,h3/12 + (b-b,)hf(h-hf/2-yt)2 + b,,h(yt-h/2)

Without compression steel

a = [JC(Zd+hff) + (l+f)2 - (ltf)]/C

I cr = (b-bJh;/l2 + b,a3/3 + (b-bu)hf(a-hf/2)2 + nAs(d-a)2

With compression steel
a = [,/C(2d+hff+2rd') + (f+rtl)'- (f+r+l)]/C

I cr = (b-bJhi/l2 + bwa3/3 + (b-by)hf(a-hf/2)2 t nAs(d-a)2 + (n-l)A;(a-d')'

(b) Flanged Sections

Fig. 2.3-Moments of inertia of uncracked and cracked transformed sections (PCA, 1984)


1 I H
b ta


Fig. 2.4-Bending behavior of cracked sections

For 1.6 5 MJM, I 10: The stresses, f,r, fs2 ,..., corresponding to the strains, cSl,
Q,***, may be obtained from the stress-strain curves.
(2.16b) Then, the reinforcing steel forces, TSl, TS2,..., may be
calculated from the steel stresses and areas. For example:
Tsl = f,l * 41 (2.18)
&= d The distribution of concrete stress, over the com-
pressed and tensioned parts of the section, may be ob-
O*9h 0.4 + [&+A-, (2*16c) tained from the concrete stress-strain curves. For any
given extreme compression fiber concrete strain, cc, the
resultant concrete compression and tension forces, C,
but, Ie computed by Eq. 2.16a and 2.16b should not be and C, are calculated by numerically integrating the
less than stresses over their respective areas.
Eq. 2.19 to 2.21 represent the force equilibrium, the
I, = 0.35 Ke I- (2.16d) moment, and the curvature equations of a cracked sec-
tion, respectively:
nor less than the value from Eq. 2.16b, 2.16c, and 2.16d,
where Ma is the maximum service moment capacity, com- T,, + TS2 + . . . + c, + c, = 0 (2.19)
puted for the provided reinforcement.
2.5.3 Incremental moment-curvature method-Today A4 = C (A& cf,)i [c - (d)J + C, XT + C, A, (2.20)
with the easy availability of personal computers, more
accurate analytical procedures such as the incremental and
moment-curvature method become effective tools for +> (2.21)
computing deflections in structural concrete members
[Park et al, 1975]. With known material parameters, a The complete moment-curvature relationship may be
theoretical moment-curvature curve model for the determined by incrementally adjusting the concrete
cracked section can be derived (see Fig. 2.4). For a given strain, cc, at the extreme compression fiber. For each
concrete strain in the extreme compression fiber, E,, and value of ec the neutral axis depth, c, is determined by
neutral axis depth, c, the steel strains, cSl, eS2,..., can be satisfying Eq. 2.19.
determined from the properties of similar triangles in the Analytical models to compute both the ascending and
strain diagram. For example: descending branches of moment-curvature and load-de-
c-d. flection curves of reinforced concrete beams are pre-
Cl = 2 EC (2.17) sented in Hsu (1974, 1983).

members. Comparative studies have shown that a single

modifier, p, can be used to account satisfactorily for both
effects simultaneously, leading to the following simplified
A= pf (2.24)
1 + 5Opp
where 0.7 I p = 1.3 - 0.00005~ I 1.0.
This equation results in l.r = 1.0 for concrete strength
less than 6000 psi (42 MPa), and provides a reasonable
fit of experimental data for higher concrete strengths.
However, more data is needed, particularly for strengths
O--- between 9000 to 12,000 psi (62 MPa to 83 MPa) and
013 6 12 18 24 30 36 48 60 beyond before a definitive statement can be made.
Duration of load, months 2.6.2 ACI Committee 435 modified method (Branson,
1963, 1977)-For computing creep and shrinkage deflec-
Fig. 2.5-ACI code multipliers for long-term deflections tions separately, Bransons (1963,1977) Eq. 2.25 and 2.26
are recommended by ACI 435 (1966, 1978).
2.6--Long-term deflection
2.6.1 ACI method-Time-dependent deflection of one-
way flexural members due to the combined effects of
creep and shrinkage, is calculated in accordance with
ACI 318-89 (using Bransons Equation, 1971, 1977) by
Ssh = k,h kh l2 = ksh (2.26)
applying a multiplier, 1, to the elastic deflections where
computed from Equation 2.10: 0.85 C,
kc =
A= E 1 + 5Op
1 + 5Op (2.22) C, and (e,h), may be determined from Eq. 2.7 through
2.9 and Table 2.1.
where p = reinforcement ratio for non-prestressed 1P
compression steel reinforcement 4 = &7(p _ p)l I!+ for p - p I 3.0
E = time dependent factor, from Fig. 2.2 (ACI percent ( 1
318, 1989) = 0.7 P*~ for p = 0
= 1.0 for p - p > 3.0 percent
Hence, the total long-term deflection is obtained by:
p and p are computed at the support section for
LT = a, + A, a,, (2.23) cantilevers and at the midspan sections for simple and
continuous spans.
where The shrinkage deflection constant kfh is as follows:
6, = initial live load deflection Cantilevers = 0.50
S sus
o = initial deflection due to sustained load Simple beams = 0.13
Ar = time dependent multiplier for a defined dur- Spans with one end continuous (multi spans) = 0.09
ation time t Spans with one end continuous (two spans) = 0.08
Spans with both ends continuous = 0.07
Research has shown that high-strength concrete mem-
bers exhibit significantly less sustained-load deflections Separate computations of creep and shrinkage are
than low-strength concrete members (Luebkeman et al, preferable when part of the live load is considered as a
1985; Nilson, 1985). This behavior is mainly due to lower sustained load.
creep strain characteristics. Also, the influence of com- 2.63 Other methods-Other methods for time-depen-
pression steel reinforcement is less pronounced in high- dent deflection calculation in reinforced concrete beams
strength concrete members. This is because the substan- and one-way slabs are available in the literature. They
tial force transfer from the compression concrete to include several methods listed in ACI 435 (1966), the
compression reinforcement is greatly reduced for high- CEB-FIP Model Code (1990) simplified method, and
strength concrete members, for which creep is lower than other methods described in Section 3.8, Chapter 3,
normal strength concrete. Nilson (1985) suggested that including the section curvature method (Ghali-Favre,
two modifying factors should be introduced into the ACI 1986). This section highlights the CEB-FIP Model Code
Code Eq. 2.22. The first is a material modifier, p,, with method (1990) and describes the Ghali-Favre approach,
values equal to or less than 1.0, applied to E to account referring the reader to the literature for details.
for the lower creep coefficient. The second is a section CEB-FIP Model Code simplified method-
modifier, p,, also having values equal to or less than 1.0, On the basis of assuming a bilinear load-deflection
to be applied to p to account for the decreasing impor- relationship, the time-dependent part of deflection of
tance of compression steel in high-strength concrete cracked concrete members can be estimated by the fol-

lowing expression [CEB-FIP, 1990]:

L-T = (h/d)3(1 20 cm)g (2.27)

g = elastic deformation calculated with the rigidity EcIg of
the gross cross section (neglecting the reinforcement)
= correction factor (see Fig. 2.6), which includes the
effects of cracking and creep
cm = geometrical mean percentage of the compressive

The mean percentage of reinforcement is determined

according to the bending moment diagram (Fig. 2.6) and
Eq. (2.28):

m = L(lL/l) + c (lC /l) + R(lR /l) (2.28)

L, R = percentage of tensile reinforcement at the
left and right support, respectively
C = percentage of tensile reinforcement at the
maximum positive moment section
lL,lC, and lR = length of inflection point segments as indi-
cated in Fig. 2.6 (an estimate of lengths is
generally sufficient)

Fig. 2.6CEB-FIP simplified deflection calculation method Section curvature method (Ghali, Favre, and
(CEB-FIP, 1990)
Elbadry 2002)Deflection is computed in terms of curva-
ture evaluation at various sections along the span, satisfying
compatibility and equilibrium throughout the analysis. concrete members, with or without prestressing, having
Appendix B gives a general procedure for calculation of variable cross sections.
displacements (two translation components and a rotation) at 2.6.4 Finite element methodFinite element models
any section of a plane frame. The general method calculates have been developed to account for time-dependent deflec-
strain distributions at individual sections considering the
tions of reinforced concrete members (ASCE, 1982). Such
effects of a normal force and a moment caused by applied
analytical approaches would be justifiable when a high
loads, prestressing, creep and shrinkage of concrete, relax-
degree of precision is required for special structures and only
ation of prestressed steel, and cracking. The axial strains and
when substantially accurate creep and shrinkage data are
the curvatures thus obtained can be used to calculate the
available. In special cases, such information on material
properties is warranted and may be obtained experimentally
The comprehensive analysis presented in Appendix B
from tests of actual materials to be used and inputting these
requires more calculations than the simplified methods. It
in the finite element models.
also requires more input parameters related to creep,
shrinkage, and tensile strength of concrete and relaxation of
prestressing steel. With any method of analysis, the accuracy 2.7Temperature-induced deflections
in the calculation of deflections depends upon the rigor of the Variations in ambient temperature significantly affect
analysis and the accuracy of the input parameters. The deformations of reinforced concrete structures. Deflections
method presented in Appendix B aims at improving the rigor occur in unrestrained flexural members when a temperature
of the analysis, but it cannot eliminate any inaccuracy caused gradient occurs between its opposite faces. It has been standard
by the uncertainty of the input parameters. practice to evaluate thermal stresses and displacements in
The comprehensive analysis can be used to study the tall building structures. Movements of bridge superstruc-
sensitivity of the calculated deflections to variations in the tures and precast concrete elements are also computed for
input parameters. The method applies to the reinforced the purpose of design of support bearings and expansion

joint designs. Before performing an analysis for temperature t

= --------- (2.40)
effects, it is necessary to select design temperature gradients. h
Martin (1971) summarizes design temperatures that are
provided in various national and foreign codes. In the case of a uniform vertical temperature gradient
An ACI 435 report on temperature-induced deflections constant along the length of a member, deflections for
(1985) outlines procedures for estimating changes in stiffness
simply supported (ss) and cantilever beams (cont) are
and temperature-induced deflections for reinforced concrete
calculated as:
members. The following expressions are taken from that
2 2
2.7.1 Temperature gradient on unrestrained cross l t l
ss = ------- = --------- --- (2.41)
sectionWith temperature distribution t(y) on the cross 8 h 8
section, thermal strain at a distance y from the bottom of the
section can be expressed by 2 2
l - = t
cont = ------
--------- --- (2.42)
2 h h
t(y) = t(y) (2.33)

The deflection-to-span ratio is given by:

To restrain the movement due to temperature t(y), a stress
is applied in the opposite direction to t(y):
-- = t l
--------- --- (2.43)
f(y) = Ect(y) (2.34) l k h

The net restraining axial force and moment are obtained where k = 8 for simply supported beams and 2 for cantilever
by integrating over the depth: beams.
2.7.2 Effect of restraint on thermal movementIf a
h member is restrained from deforming under the action of
P =
A f dA = [ Ec t ( y )b ( y ) ] dy (2.35) temperature changes, internal stresses are developed.
0 Cracking that occurs when tensile stresses exceed the
concrete tensile strength reduces the flexural stiffness of the
h member and results in increased deflections under subse-
M = A f ( y n ) dA = [ Ec t ( y )b ( y ) ( y n ) ] dy (2.36) quent loading. Consequently, significant temperature effects
0 should be taken into account in determining member stiff-
ness for deflection calculation. The calculation of the effec-
In order to obtain the total strains on the unrestrained cross tive moment of inertia should be based on maximum
section, P and M are applied in the opposite direction to the
moment conditions.
restraining force and moment. Assuming plane sections
In cases where stresses are developed in the member due
remain plane, axial strain a and curvature are given by:
to restrain of axial deformations, the induced stress due to
axial restraint has to be included in the calculation of the

a = --------- = --- [ t ( y )b ( y ) ] dy (2.37) cracking moment in a manner analogous to that for including
AE c A the prestressing force in prestressed concrete beams.


= -------- = --- [ t ( y )b ( y ) ( y n ) ] dy (2.38) Example A2.1: Deflection of a four-span beam
Ec I I A reinforced concrete beam supporting a 4-in. (100
mm) slab is continuous over four equal spans 1 = 36 ft
The net stress distribution on the cross section is given by: (10.97 m) as shown in Fig. A2.1 (Nawy, 1990). It is
subjected to a uniformly distributed load wD = 700 lb/ft
P M(y n) (10.22 kN/m), including its self-weight and a service load
f n ( y ) = --- --------------------- E c t ( y ) (2.39)
A I wL = 1200 lb/ft (17.52 kN/m). The beam has the dimen-
sions b = 14 in. (355.6 mm), d = 18.25 in. (463.6 mm) at
For a linear temperature gradient varying from 0 to t, the midspan, and a total thickness h = 21.0 in. (533.4 mm).
curvature is given by: The first interior span is reinforced with four No. 9 bars

D = 700 Ib/ft

<-36 tMb-36 ftA 36 ft-+----36 ft-+j
t3 C D E


d = 3f in.

4 in.

- -

4 in, (10.4 mm) - - - .


C-14 in.


Fig. A2.1-Details of continuous beam in Ex. A2.1 (Nawy, 1990, courtesy Prentiss Hall)

at midspan (28.6 mm diameter) at the bottom fibers and (3.3 MPa)

six No. 9 bars at the top fibers of the support section.
Calculate the maximum deflection of the continuous For the first interior span, the positive moment =
beam using the ACI 318 method. 0.0772 wl*
Given: + MD = 0.0772 x 700(36.O)*x 12 = 840,000 in.-lb
f, = 4000 psi (27.8 MPa), normal weight concrete
= 60,000 psi (413.7 MPa) + ML = 0.0772 x 1200(36.0)p x 12 = 1,440,OOO in.-lb
percent of the live load is sustained 36 months
on the structure. +(!$-, + ML) = 0.0772x 1900(36,0)*x 12 = 2,280,OOO
Solution-ACI Method
Note: All calculations are rounded to three significant negative moment = 0.107 wf*
figures. - MD = 0.1071 x 700(36.0)* x 12 = 1,170,OOO in.-lb
Material properties and bending moment values
= 57,000 = +y = 57,000 @@i= 3.6 x lo6 psi -ML = 0.1071 x 1200(36.0)* x 12 = 2,000,OOO in.-lb
(24%00 MPa)
k = 29 x lo6 psi (200,000 MPa) - (MD + ML) = 0.1071 x 1900(36.0)*x 12 = 3,170,000
modular ratio n = Es/EC = p = g. 1

3.6~10~ Effective moment of inertia Ie

modulus of rupture f, = 7.5 g = 7.5 e = 474 psi Fig. A2.2 shows the theoretical midspan and support


b = 6, + 16h, = 78 in.

= gross areas for I# calculations


A:, = 6.0 in.2

21 in.
A: = 2.0 in.2


Fig. A2.2-Gross moment of inertia Ig cross sections in Ex. A2.1

(AS = four No. 9 bars = 4.0 in2).

cross sections to be used for calculating the gross To locate the position, c, of the neutral axis, take
moment of inertia Ig. moment of area of the transformed flanged section,
1. Midspan section: b,(c - hjJ2 - 2nA,(d - c) + bh#c - hf) = 0
Width of T-beam flange = b, + 16$ = 14.0 + 16 x 4.0 or
= 78 in. (1981 mm) 14(c - 4.0)2 - 2 x 8.1 x 4.0(18.25 - c) + 78 x 4(2c - 4.0)
Depth from compression flange to the elastic centroid is: 0
Z?r c2 + 4.17~ - 157.0 = 0
y = VlYl + AY2N41 +A,)
= 78(4x2)+ 14x(21-4)x12.5 = 654m
to give c = 3.5 in. Hence the neutral axis is inside the
. . flange and the flange section is analyzed as a rectangular
78x4 + 14 x 17 section.
yI = h -y = 21.0 - 6.54 = 14.5 in. For rectangular sections,
Ig = T + 78 x 4(6.54 - 4f2j2 T + 8.1 x 4 x c - 8.1 x 4 x 18.25 = 0
+ 14C::_4)3 + 14(21-4)
Therefore, c = 3.5 in.
= 21.000 in4
I0 = v + 0.8 x 4 (18.25 - 3.5)2 = 8160 in4
= 690,000 in.-lb
Ratio &,/Ma:

Depth of neutral axis: D ratio = 69o,ooo ~082

840,000 *
D + 50 percent L ratio = 690,000
D + 0.5L: Z, = 0.85 x 9260 + 0.15 x 6940
= 0.44 840,000
o + 0.5 x 1,440,000 = 8900 in.4
D + L ratio = 690,000 = 030 D + L: I e = 0.85 x 8500 + 0.15 x 6910 = 8260 in.4
2,280,OOO *
Effective moment of inertia for midspan sections: Short-term deflection
The maximum deflection for Ithe first interior span is:

1 assumed = 1, for all practical purposes

Z, for dead load = 0.55 x 21,000 + 0.45 x 8160
= 15,200 k4 So
= 0.0065(36 x 12)4 x WAX 1 = 5.240 _
Z, for + 0.5L = 0.086 x 21,000 + 0.914 x 8160 36 x lo6 1. 12 Z,
= 9276 in.4
Z, for D + L = 0.027 x 21,000 + 0.973 x 8160 Initial dead-load deflection:
= 8500 in.4
If using the simplified approach to obtain Z, (Section 8 D = .yz) = 0.26 in., say 0.3 in. values of 14,200 in4(7 percent smaller), 9200 in4
(1 percent smaller), and 8020 in4 (6 percent smaller), are
obtained respectively. Initial live-load deflection:

2. Support section: 8L=sL+D sD

6 = 5.240(1900) 4 5.240(700)
Ig = 10,800 k4 L
12 12 8260 14,000
= 1.21 - 0.26 = 0.95 in., say 1 in.
Y, = 21 = 10.5 in. Initial 50 percent sustained live-load deflection:
A* = 0 (at midspan in this case)
p = bd
M,, = frZJyl = 470 ;o$*m = 483,000 in.-lb
multiplier A. = f/(1 + 5Op)i
Depth of neutral axis: From Fig. 2.5
= six No. 9 bars = 6.0 in. (3870 nun& T = 1.75 for 36-month sustained load
2, = two No. 9 bars = 2.0 in. (1290 mm ) T = 2.0 for 5-year loading
dS = 21.0 - 3.75 = 17.30 in. (438 mm) Therefore,
Similar calculation for the neutral axis depth c gives a Am = 2.0 and A1 = 1.75
value c = 7.58 in.
Hence, The total long-term deflection is
bc3 + nA,(d - c)Z + (n - l)A,(c - d)2
z,, = 3

Ratio MJMO:
D ratio = 0.41
1,170,ooo Deflection requirements (Table 2.5)
D + 50 percent L ratio = 36 x 12
= 2.4 in. >~SL = 1.0 in., O.K
483,000 180 180
= 0.22
1,170,000 + 0.5 x 2,000,000
483,000 l = 1.2 in. > 6, = 1.0 ., O.K.
D + L ratio =
3,170,000 360
Effective moment of inertia for support section:
Z, for dead load = 0.07 x 10,800 + 0.93 x 6900 -1 = 0.9 in. < sLT = 2.4 in., N.G.
= 7170 in.4 480
Z, for D + 0.5L = 0.01 x 10,800 + 0.99 x 6900
= 6940 in.4 - 1 = 1.8 in. < S,, = 2.4 in., N.G.
Z, for D + L = 0.003 x 10,800 + 0.99 x 6900 240
= 6910 in.4 Hence, the continuous beam is limited to floors or
roofs not supporting or attached to nonstructural ele-
Average effective Ie for continuous span ments such as partitions.
average Z, = 0.85 I,,, + 0.15 Z,
dead load: Z, = 0.85 x 15,200 + 0.15 x 7170 Application of CEB-FIP method to obtain long-term
= 14,000 in.4 deflection due to sustained loads:

midspan Q = --z = 4 x 1.0 = 0.0028 =pc = 0.40 in. (10 mm), say 0.5 in.
bd 78 x 18.25 Example (c): Simply supported tee section - Constant
-A temperature over flange depth
6 x 1.0
support p = 2 = = 0.0235 = QL = pR I = 69319 in4 (2.88 x 10 mm4)
14 x18.25 n = 26.86 in (682 mm)
_t = 40 F (4.4 C)
o( = 0.0000055 in./in.p?
($ b; h = 36 in. (914 mm)
L = 60 ft. (18.4 m)
Assuming that the location of the inflection points as
defined by Ir, and ZR for negative moment region, and Zc (a/O po x 96) OI - 2~JwtY
for the positive moment region in Figure 2.16 are as fol-
lows: (88,O;; x 0.0000055)/69319
L//L = L,/L = 0.21 and L&L = (l-0.21 x 2) = 0.58 0.00000698
Also, assume pL = pR s = (+L2)/8 = (0.00000698 x 7202)/8
Hence, 0.45 in. (11.4 mm), say 0.5 in.
lom = 2(0.0235 x 0.2) + 0.0028 x 0.58
= 0.0094 + 0.0017 = 0.0111 = 1.11 percent CHAPTER 3-DEFLECTION OF PRESTRESSED
From Fig. 2.6, 7 = 2.4
From ACI Method Solution: Ig = 21,000 in.4 3.1-Notation
Short-term deflection, Ac = area of section
Ag = gross area of concrete section
6 = o.oo69wz4 = 5240 w As - area of nonprestressed reinforcement
EcZ < AP = area of prestressed reinforcement in tension

+ 5.240(700 + 1200) = 0.47 in., say 0.5 in.
b width of compression face of member
21,000 bw = web width
Long-Term increase in deflection due to sustained load: c = depth of compression zone in a fully-cracked
6 L-T = 2 Ml - 2op,>a cgc = center of gravity of concrete section
0 cgs = center of gravity of reinforcement
= 1.52 x 2.4(1 - 20 x 0.0111)0.5 C = creep coefficient, defined as creep strain divided
= 1.35 in., say 1.4 in. (35 mm). by initial strain due to constant sustained stress
(1.41 in. by the ACI procedure solution) c, = PCI multiplier for partially prestressed section
c, = PCI multiplier for partially prestressed section
Example A2.2: Temperature-induced deflections Ct = creep coefficient at a specific age
Cu = ultimate creep coefficient for concrete at loading
These design examples illustrate the calculation pro- equal to time of release of prestressing
cedures for temperature induced deflections. d = distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
troid of prestressing steel
Example (a): Simply supported vertical wall panel - d' = distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
Linear temperature gradient troid of compression reinforcement
_t = 40 F (4.4 C) dp = distance from extreme compression fiber to cen-
o( = 0.0000055 in./iIl./F troid of prestressed reinforcement
h = 4 in. (101 mm) e, = eccentricity of prestress force from centroid of
a) Single story span: L = 12 ft. (3.66 m) section at center of span
8 = (0.0000055 x 40 x 1442)/(4 x 8) ecr = eccentricity of prestress from centroid of
= 0.14 in. (3.6 mm), say 0.2 in. cracked section
b) Two story span: L = 24 ft. (7.32 m) e, = eccentricity of prestress force from centroid of
s = (0.0000055 x 40 x 2sS2)/(4 x 8) section at end of span
= 0.57 in. (14.5 mm), say 0.6 in. Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete
Example (b): Simply supported tee section - Linear E ci = modulus of elasticity of concrete at time of ini-
Temperature gradient over depth tial prestress
^o_( t == 0.0000055
40 F (4.4 C)
Es = modulus of elasticity of nonprestressed rein-
h = 36 in. (914 mm)
L = 60 ft. (18.4 m) - simply supported
S = (0.0000055 x 40 x 7202)/(36x 8) * Principal authors: A Aswad, D. R. Buettner and E. G. Nawy.

EP = modulus of elasticity of prestressed reinforce- Yg = distance from extreme compression fibers to

ment centroid of A g
ES = stress loss due to elastic shortening of concrete Yt = distance from centroid axis of gross section,
2 = = specified compressive strength of concrete
concrete stress at extreme tensile fibers due to
neglecting reinforcement to extreme tension
unfactored dead load when tensile stresses and a = length parameter that is a function of tendon
cracking are caused by external load profile used
strength of concrete in tension 6 = deflection or camber
calculated stress due to live load E, = maximum usable strain in the extreme com-
stress in extreme tension fibers due to effective pression fiber of a concrete element (0.003
prestress, if any, plus maximum unfactored in./in.)
load, using uncracked section properties E cr = strain at first cracking load
fcc = compressive stress in concrete due to effective Ep = strain in prestressed reinforcement at ultimate
prestress only after losses when tensile stress flexure
is caused by applied external load ESH = unit shrinkage strain in concrete
fp = effective prestress in prestressing reinforce- shrinkage strain at any time r
ment after losses average value of ultimate shrinkage strain
fp; = stress in prestressing reinforcement immediate- ultimate strain
ly prior to release curvature (slope of strain diagram)
fp/ = stress in pretensioning reinforcement at jacking curvature at midspan
(5-10 percent higher than _$J curvature at support
f = specified tensile strength of prestressing ten- Y = correction factor for shrinkage strain in non-
dons standard conditions ( 5 ee also Sec. 2.3.4)
f, = yield strength of the prestressing reinforcement stress loss due to creep in concrete
stress loss due to concrete shrinkage
L = modulus of rupture of concrete 7.5fl
stress loss due to relaxation of tendons
gj-L final calculated total stress in member
specified yield strength of nonprestressed rein-
3.2.1 Introduction-Serviceability behavior of pre-
IL = overall thickness of member
stressed concrete elements, particularly with regard to
If = depth of flange
Icr = moment of inertia of cracked section trans- deflection and camber, is a more important design con-
sideration than in the past. This is due to the application
formed to concrete
I, = effective moment of inertia for computation of of factored load design procedures and the use of high-
strength materials which result in slender members that
may experience excessive deflections unless carefully
Ig = moment of inertia of gross concrete section
designed. Slender beams and slabs carrying higher loads
about centroid axis
crack at earlier stages of loading, resulting in further
I, = moment of inertia of transformed section
reduction of stiffness and increased short-term and long-
&R = coefficient for creep loss in Eq. 3.7
= term deflections.
L span length of beam
3.2.2 Objectives-This chapter discusses the factors
M, = maximum service unfactored live load moment
affecting short-term and long-term deflection behavior of
Mcr = moment due to that portion of applied live
prestressed concrete members and presents methods for
load that causes cracking
calculating these deflections.
ML = moment due to service live load
In the design of prestressed concrete structures, the
M, = nominal flexural strength deflections under short-term or long-term service loads
MSD = moment due to superimposed dead load may often be the governing criteria in the determination
n = modular ratio of normal reinforcement of the required member sizes and amounts of prestress.
(= Es/Ec) The variety of possible conditions that can arise are too
np = modular ratio of prestressing reinforcement numerous to be covered by a single set of fixed rules for
(= ~,K) calculating deflections. However an understanding of the
P, = effective prestressing force after losses basic factors contributing to fhese deformations will
pi = initial prestressing force prior to transfer enable a competent designer to make a reasonable esti-
r = radius of gyration = m mate of deflection in most of the cases encountered in
REL = stress loss due to relaxation of tendons prestressed concrete design. The reader should note that
SH = stress loss due to shrinkage of concrete the word estimate should be taken literally in that the
t, = initial time interval properties of concrete which affect deflections (particu-
t = time at any load level or after creep or shrink- larly long term deflections) are variable and not deter-
age are considered minable with precision. Some of these properties have

values to which a variability of k 20 percent or more in wire and tendon prestressing stegl reinforcement,
the deflection values must be considered. Deflection High-tensile-strength prestressing bars-High-
calculations cannot then be expected to be calculated tensile-strength alloy steel bars for prestressing are either
with great precision. smooth or deformed to satisfy A S T M A 722 require-
3.2.3 Scope-Both short-term and long-term transverse ments and are available in nominal diameters from J/e in.
deflections of beams and slabs involving prestressing with (16 mm) to 13/8 in. (35 mm). Cold drawn in order to raise
high-strength steel reinforcement are considered. Specific their yield strength, these b a r s are stress relieved to
values of material properties given in this chapter, such increase their ductility. Stress relieving is achieved by
as modulus of elasticity, creep coefficients, and shrinkage heating the bar to an appropriate temperature, generally
coefficients, generally refer to normal weight concrete al- below 500 C. Though essentially the same stress-relieving
though the same calculation procedures apply to light- process is employed for bars a s for strands, the tensile
weight concrete as well. This chapter is intended to be strength of prestressing bars has to be a minimum of
self-contained. 150,000 psi (1034 MPa), with a minimum yield strength
Finally several of the methods described in this chap- of 85 percent of the ultimate strength for smooth bars
ter rely solely on computer use for analysis. They do not and 80 percent for deformed bars
lend themselves to any form of hand calculation or ap- 3.3.2 Modulus of elasticity-In computing short-term
proximate solutions. The reader should not be deluded deflections, the cross-sectional area of the reinforcing
into concluding that such computer generated solutions tendons in a beam is usually small enough that the
from complex mathematical models incorporating use of deflections may be based on the gross area of the con-
concrete properties, member stiffness, extent of cracking crete. In this case, accurate determination of the modulus
and effective level of prestress somehow generate results of elasticity of the prestressing reinforcement is not
with significantly greater accuracy than some of the other needed. However, in considering time-dependent deflec-
methods presented. This is because of the range of varia- tions resulting from shrinkage and creep at the level of
bility in these parameters and the difficulty in predicting the prestressing steel, it is important to have a reasonably
their precise values at the various loading stages and load good estimate of the modulus of elasticity of the pre-
history. Hence, experience in evaluating variability of stressing reinforcement.
deflections leads to the conclusion that satisfying basic In calculating deflections under working loads, it is
requirments of detailed computer solutions using various sufficient to use the modulus o f elasticity of the pre-
values of assumed data can give upper and lower bounds stressing reinforcement rather than to be concerned with
that are not necessarily more rational than present code the characteristics of the entire stress-strain curve since
procedures. the reinforcement is seldom stressed into the inelastic
range. In most calculations, the assumption of the modu-
3.3-Prestressing reinforcement lus value as 28.5 x lo6 psi (PCI Design Handbook, Fourth
3.3.1 Types of reinforcement-Because of the creep and Edition) can be of sufficient accuracy considering the fact
shrinkage which occurs in concrete, effective prestressing that the properties of the concrete which are more criti-
can be achieved only by using high-strength steels with cal in the calculation of deflections are not known with
strength in the range of 150,000 to 270,000 psi (1862 great precision. The ACI Code tates that the modulus
MPa) or more. Reinforcement used for prestressed con- of elasticity shall be established by the manufacturer of
crete members is therefore in the form of stress-relieved the tendon, as it could be less than 28.5 x lo6 psi.
or low-relaxation tendons and high-strength steel bars. When the tendon is embedded in concrete, the free-
Such high-strength reinforcement can be stressed to ade- dom to twist (unwind) is lessened considerably and it
quate prestress levels so that even after creep and thus is unnecessary to differentiate between the modulus
shrinkage of the concrete has occurred, the prestress of elasticity of the tendon and that of single-wire rein-
reinforcement retains adequate remaining stress to pro- forcement (AC1 Committee 435, 1979).
vide the required prestressing force. The magnitude of 3.3.3 Steel relaxation-Stress relaxation in prestressing
normal prestress losses can be expected to be in the steel is the loss of prestress that occurs when the wires or
range of 25,000 to 50,000 psi (172 MPa to 345 MPa). strands are subjected to essentially constant strain over a
Wires or strands that are not stress-relieved, such as period of time. Fig. 3.2 relates stress relaxation to time
straightened wires or oil-tempered wires, are often used t in hours for both stress-relieved and low-relaxation ten-
in countries outside North America. dons. Stress-relieved wires and strands-Stress- The magnitude of the decrease in the prestress de-
relieved strands are cold-drawn single wires conforming pends not only on the duration of the sustained pre-
to ASTM A 421 and stress-relieved tendons conform to stressing force, but also on the ratio fpilfw of the initial
ASTM A 416. The tendons are made from seven wires by prestress to the yield strength of the remforcement. Such
twisting six of them on a pitch of 12 to 16 wire diameters a loss in stress is termed intrinsic stress relaxation.
around a slightly larger, straight control wire. Stress- If fpR is the remaining prestressing stress in the steel
relieving is done after the wires are twisted into the tendon after relaxation, the following expression defines
strand. Fig. 3.1 gives a typical stress-strain diagram for fPR for stress-relieved steel:

t Grade 270 strand


t -

9 150
H Grade 160 alloy bar


Strand EP, = 27.5 X lo* psi

Wire Ep, = 29.0 X lo6 psi
Bar Ep, = 27.0 X lo6 psi (166.2 X lo3 MPa)

,l% Elongation

I I I I I I II -
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 in/in

Fig. 3.1-Typical stress-strain diagram for prestressing steel reinforcement

0.1 L I I ,I1111 I 1 f ,,llll I , 1 ,,,I11 I , 1 ,,I( [I I I I IllI&

10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
Time (hours)

Fig. 3.2-Relaxation loss versus time for stress-relieved low-relaxation strands at 70 percent of the ultimate (Post-Tensioning
Institute Manual, fourth edition)

relieved and low-relaxation steels for seven-wire tendons

held at constant length at 29.5 C. Fig. 3.4 shows stress
relaxation of stabilized strand at various tension and
temperature levels.
It should be noted that relaxation losses may be
critically affected by the manner in which a particular
wire is manufactured. Thus, relaxation values change not
only from one type of steel to another but also from
manufacturer to manufacturer. Factors such as reduction
in diameter of the wire and its heat treatment may be
significant in fixing the rate and amount of relaxation loss
that may be expected. Nevertheless, sufficient data exists
to define the amount of relaxation loss to be expected in
10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 ordinary types of prestressing wires or strands currently
Time, hours
in use.

Fig. 3.3-Stress relaxation relationship in stress-relieved 3.4-Loss of prestress

strands (Post Tensioning Manual, fourth edition) 3.4.1 Elastic shortening l o s s - A concrete element
shortens when a prestressing force is applied to it due to
the axial compression imposed. A s the tendons that are
2 = 1 - (S)k - CL,,] (3.1) bonded to the adjacent concrete simultaneously shorten,
they lose part of the prestressing force that they carry.
In pretensioned members, this, force results in uniform
In this expression, logt in hours is to the base 10, and longitudinal shortening. Dividing the reduction in beam
the ratio fpilfw must not be less than 0.55. Also, for low- length by its initial length gives a strain that when
relaxation steel, the denominator of the log term in the multiplied by the tendon modulus of elasticity gives the
equation is divided by 45 instead of 10. A plot of Eq. 3.1 stress loss value due to elastic shortening. In post-
is given in Fig. 3.3. In that case, the intrinsic stress- tensioned beams, elastic shortening varies from zero if all
relaxation loss becomes tendons are simultaneously jacked to half the value in the
pretensioned case if several sequential jacking steps are
(3.2) 3.4.2 Loss of prestress due to creep of concrete-The
deformation or strain resulting from creep losses is a
function of the magnitude of t applied load, its dur-
where fpi is the initial stress in steel. ation, the properties of the co crete including its mix
If a step-by-step loss analysis is necessary, the loss proportions, curing conditions, the size of the element
increment at any particular stage can be defined as and its age at first loading, and the environmental con-
ditions. Size and shape of the element also affect creep
and subsequent loss of prestress. Since the creep
strain/stress relationship is essentially linear, it is feasible
to relate the creep strain ECR to the elastic strain cEL
such that the ultimate creep coefficient C, can be
where tI is the time at the beginning of the interval and defined as
t2 is the time at the end of the interval from jacking to
the time when the loss is being considered. Therefore,
the loss due to relaxation in stress-relieved wires and c, = 3
strands can be evaluated from Eq. 3.3, provided that El4 (3.4)
f,i/f L 0.55, with fm = 0.85fP for stress-relieved strands
anBy0.90fPU for low-relaxation tendons. The creep coefficient at any time t in days can be
It is possible to decrease stress relaxation loss by sub- taken as
jecting strands that are initially stressed to 70 percent of
their ultimate strength fW to temperatures of 20 C to 100
C for an extended time in order to produce a permanent
c, = $yJ@C
elongation, a process called stabilization. The prestressing
steel thus produced is termed low-relaxation steel and has (See Eq. 2.7 of Chapter 2; also Branson, et. al, 1971,
a relaxation stress loss that is approximately 25 percent 1977 and ACI 209, 1971, 1992)
of that of normal stress-relieved steel. The value of C,, usually ranges between 2 and 4, with
Fig. 3.2 gives the relative relaxation loss for stress- an average of 2.35 for ultimate creep. The loss of pre-

20 C Temp 1 day 10 days 1 0 0 day s 1 year 30 year s


Temperature (*C)
100 C 60 C 40 C
11 - 7-
18 - lo-
6 -
16- g-
8- 5-
14- 7 -
12 - 6 - 4-
5 -
l0 - 3-
4 -
*-- 3 - 2 -
6 -
4 - 2 -
2- l-

1 2 3 4 5 6
1 10 10 10 10 10 10
Time in Hours
Fig. 3.4-Stress relaxation of stabilized strand at various tensions and temperatures (courtesy STELCO Inc., Canada)

stress for bonded prestressed members due to creep can fcsd = stress in concrete at the cgs level of the re-
be defined as inforcement due to all superimposed dead
loads applied after prestressing is accom-
AfpCR = C (3.6) KCR should be reduced by 20 percent for lightweight
where fcs is the stress in the concrete at the level of the Fig. 3.5 shows normalized creep strain plots versus
centroid of the prestressing tendon. In general, this loss time for different loading ages while Fig. 3.6 illustrates in
is a function of the stress in the concrete at the section a three-dimensional surface the influence of age at load-
being analyzed. In post-tensioned, nonbonded draped ing on instantaneous and creep deformations. Fig. 3.7
tendon members, the loss can be considered essentially gives a schematic relationship of total strain with time
uniform along the whole span. Hence, an average value excluding shrinkage strain for a specimen loaded at a one
of the concrete stress between the anchorage points can day age.
be used for calculating the creep in post-tensioned mem- 3.4.3 Loss of prestress due to shrinkage of concrete-As
bers. A modified ACI-ASCE expression for creep loss with concrete creep, the magnitude of the shrinkage of
can be used as follows: concrete is affected by several factors. They include mix
proportions, type of aggregate, type of cement, curing
time, time between the end of external curing and the
AfPCR (3.7)
l application of prestressing, and the environmental condi-
tions. Size and shape of the member also affect shrink-
age. Approximately 80 percent of shrinkage takes place
where in the first year of life of the structure. The average value
KCR = 2.0 for pretensioned members of ultimate shrinkage strain in both moist-cured and
= 1.60 for post-tensioned members stream-cured concrete is given as 780 x lo4 in./in. in the
(both for normal weight concrete) ACI 209R-92 Report. This average value is affected by
- = stress in concrete at the cgs level of the re- the duration of initial moist curing, ambient relative
f cs
inforcement immediately after transfer humidity, volume-surface ratio, temperature; and con-


Fig. 3.5-Creep curves for different loading ages at same stress level

Age at loading (days)

Fig. 3.6-Influence of age at loading on instantaneous and creep deformations (3-D surface)

crete composition. To take such effects into account, the adjusting for relative humidity at volume-to-surface ratio
average value of shrinkage strain should be multiplied by V/S, the loss in prestressing in pretensioned members is
a correction factor ysH as follows

= 780 x lo-6 ysH

fpSH = %H t Eps (3.9)
ESH (3.8)
For post-tensioned members, the loss in prestressing
Components of ysH are given in Sec. 2.3.4. due to shrinkage is somewhat less since some shrinkage
The Prestressed Concrete Institute stipulates for stan- has already taken place before post-tensioning. If the
dard conditions an average value for nominal ultimate relative humidity is taken as a percent value and the V/S
shrinkage strain (es&, = 820 x 10 in./in. (mm/mm), ratio effect is considered, the PCI general expression for
(PC1 Handbook, 1993). If eSH is the shrinkage strain after loss in prestressing due to shrinkage becomes

Fig. 3.7-Typical concrete strain versus time curve for constant stress applied at release time

Af@* = 8.2 x 10-6K&dl -0.06-

S )
V (100 - RH) (3.10) -cepted engineering practice. Also, significant variations
occur in the creep and shrinkage values due to variations
in the properties of the constituent materials from the
where KsH = 1.0 for pretensioned members. Table 3.1 various sources, even if the products are plant-produced
gives the values of KsH for post-tensioned members. such as pretensioned beams. Hence, it is recommended
Adjustment of shrinkage losses for standard conditions that information from actual tests be obtained especially
as a function of time t in days after seven days for moist on manufactured products, large span-to-depth ratio
curing and three days for steam curing can be obtained cases and/or if loading is unusually heavy (Aswad, 1985,
from the following expressions (Branson,, 1971): 1989, 1992).
a) Moist curing, after seven days: 3.4.4 Friction losses in post-tensioned beams-Relax-
ation losses are covered in 3.3.3. Loss of prestressing
occurs in post-tensioned members due to friction be-
tween the tendons and the surrounding concrete ducts.
The magnitude of this loss is a function of the tendon
where (Q&,, is the ultimate shrinkage strain, t = time in form or alignment, called the curvature effect, and the
days after shrinkage is considered. local deviations in the alignment, called the wobble ef-
b) Steam curing, after one to three days: fect. The values of the loss coefficients are affected by
the types of tendons and the duct alignment. Whereas
the curvature effect is predetermined, the wobble effect
is the result of accidental or unavoidable misalignment,
since ducts or sheaths cannot be perfectly held in place.
Fig. 3.8 schematically shows shrinkage strain versus Section 186.2 of ACI 318-89 and Table R18.6.2 of the
time. Commentary to the code give the friction coefficients
It should be noted that separating creep from shrink- that apply to the friction loss in the various types of
age calculations as presented in this chapter is an ac- prestressing wires and tendons.

Table 3.1---Values of KsH for post-tensioned members

Time from end of moist curing to

application of prestress, days 1 3 5 7 10 20 30 60
&H 0.92 0.85 0.80 0.7 0.73 0.64 0.58 0.45

Source: Prestressed Concrete Institute

Ultimate E,,
780 to 820 x 10 in/in

l l
1 28 365 /
Time t (days)

Fig. 3.8-Shrinkage strain versus time curve

3.5-General approach to deformation considerations - centricity of the prestress, the length of the span, the size
Curvature and deflections and configuration of the cross section, boundary condi-
In beam-like structures the curvature at any section, tions and the properties of the concrete. More specifical-
defined as + = l/R, is the key element in calculating ly, the effect of critical variables may be summarized by
rotations and deflections. Based on geometry of the de- the magnitude of the strain or stress gradient or the
flected shape, the two following expressions are derived, curvature at a section and its variation along the span.
see Fig. 3.9. The initial curvature at a particular section (Fig. 3.10)
is defined by

(3.12a) bi - %i = bf
= (3.13)
4i h EC1
6 BA = qmi!x (3.12b) in which tensile strains are considered positive, and M is
I the moment at the section.
In most cases, the amount of prestressing steel rein-
where 4 is the curvature, 8 is the rotation and S is the forcement has a negligible effect on section properties
tangential deviation (deflection). These two expressions for short-term deflections due to gravity loads.
are generalizations of the familiar Mohr or moment-areas 3.5.1 Beams subjected to prestressing only-Stress and
theorems, and are applicable whether sections are strain distributions over the depth of a cross section of a
cracked or uncracked. When the material is linearly elas- rectangular bonded beam immediately after application
tic, 4 can be replaced by M/EI. Software programs use of the prestressing force are shown in Fig. 3.10. It is
Simpsons rule to approximate the above integrals. Fig. assumed that there is a linear relationship between con-
3.9(c) shows how the deflection y at any section can be crete stress and strain. Under normal conditions both of
calculated. these assumptions are reasonably correct. The stress at
Based on these fundamental principles, the designer any level is given by the well-known relationships:
can calculate the curvature and rotation incrementally at
f = - A-
any section and hence the deflection or camber of the MY (3.14)
prestressed beam at the critical sections. 7
Short-term deflections are defined as those occurring
instantaneously under the application of any internal or
external force. The time element is assumed to be unim- and A4 = Pe (3.15)
portant, no matter what the rate of loading, provided the
load is applied within a matter of hours.
In general, the principal variables affecting short-term for use in Eq. 3.13 and where P is the prestressing force.
deflections of a prestressed concrete beam are the magni- The stress and strain distributions in Fig. 3.11 depict
tude and distribution of the load, the magnitude and ec- the conditions existing after a given time. The normal

(a) General Beam Deformation (b) Beam Strain at Any Section

Curvature $ =I/R (Curavture 4 =( Eb E,)/h )

(c) Beam Elastic Curve Deflection y and Tangential Deviation s,, 6 Bc,

Fig. 3.9-Beam elastic curve deformation

n d

I 1



& sl



Fig. 3.10-Stress and strain distribution immediately after application of prestress


H -

p-bt_l IEbt,._1
(a) w w
Fig. 3.11-Stress and strain distribution at a time t after initial application of prestress

Aft %

h H


(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 3.12-Stress and strain due to shrinkage

stresses on the section decrease as a result of a reduction ment strain which corresponds to a reduction in the pre-
in the prestressing force while there is a general shift to stress. The loss in prestress causes a change in the stress
the right in the strain distribution accompanied by an in- distribution over the depth of the section as indicated in
crease in the strain gradient. Fig. 3.12c and the corresponding change in the strain dis-
These changes are caused by an interaction between tribution, Fig. 3.12d. Thus, the change in curvature is
creep and shrinkage of the concrete and relaxation of the
reinforcement. All of these effects progress with time and
continuously impact on each other. However, to simplify h
the calculation, it is preferable to treat these three types
of strains separately. The effect of the relaxation losses in the steel rein-
Consider first the effect of shrinkage strains. It is forcement is quite similar to that of shrinkage. At a time
assumed that each element of concrete in the cross-sec- t there is a finite loss in the prestressing force which
tion shrinks equally. Thus, the shrinkage strain distribu- creates a change in the curvature as explained above. The
tion after a time t is given in Fig. 3.12b. The distribution effects of the creep of the concrete are not as simple,
of shrinkage strain causes a reduction in the reinforce- since the reduction in steel stress causes changes in the


Time-Dependent Curvature

lnstanteneous Curvature

I Time

Fig. 3.13-Curvature versus time for a beam subjected to prestress only


(a) (b) (c) (d)
Fig. 3.14-Stress distribution due to prestress and transverse loads

rate of creep strain. It is assumed that the amount of --If the beam considered in t h e preceding paragraph is
creep strain at a given time is proportional to the stress. subjected to gravity load, the stre s distribution across the
Thus, the change in strain caused by creep is directly pro- section at a given point along t e span may be as indi-
portional to the instantaneous strain distribution (Fig. cated in Fig. 3.14d. Provided neither the concrete nor the
3.10c), which is directly related to the stress distribution. reinforcement is strained into the inelastic range, the
This change in the strain distribution involves a contrac- stress distribution caused by the prestressing force (Fig.
tion at the level of the steel, hence, a reduction in pre- 3.14b) can be superimposed on the stress distribution
stress. The reduction in prestress caused by creep, shrink- caused by the transverse load on the uncracked trans-
age, and relaxation decreases the normal stress, which in
formed section (Fig. 3.14c) to obtain the total stress
turn reduces the rate of creep.
A qualitative curvature versus time curve is shown in distribution shown in Fig. 3.14d.
Fig. 3.13. As in the case of short-term deflections, the The strain distribution shown in Fig. 3.15b corresponds
magnitude of the deflection may be estimated by the to the stress distribution in Fig. 3.14c. It depicts the
magnitude of the stress gradient over the depth of the strains that would occur in an uncracked section under
section after release of prestress. If the stress gradient is the influence of only the transverse load. The short-term
very small, then shrinkage and relaxation are bound to curvature is
dominate, in which case the beam may deflect downward.
However, under usual circumstances the stress gradient (3.17)
is large and creep dominates the deflection thus causing
the beam to move upward causing increased camber in
a simply supported case (ACI 435, 1979). where the subscripts b and t define the bottom and top
3.5.2 Beams subjected to prestressing and external loads fibers respectively.


bi bt

(a) (b)

Fig. 3.15-Strain distribution due to transverse loading only


A (Due To Prestress)


- + So

6 (Due To Load)

Fig. 3.16-Deflection versus time due to prestress and transverse loads

The changes in the curvature or in the deflection of vice load level or at a fraction of the service load level.
the beam caused by the combined prestress and the 3.5.3 Moment-curvature relationship--The instantaneous
transverse load are henceforth determined by superposi- moment-curvature relationship r a prestressed cross
tion. Both of these curvature distributions will change section is illustrated in Fig. 3.1 . Concrete can sustain
with time. The deflections corresponding to these two tensile stresses and contribute t o the carrying capacity of
imaginary systems are shown in Fig. 3.16. a member until cracking occurs at a moment MCP A mo-
To get the net deflection, the deflections caused by the ment M, larger than the moment M,, produces
prestress and transverse load can be added as indicated curvature that can be defined a
by the (A-G) curve. It is seen that the magnitude of the
beam deflection (and whether it deflects upward or
downward) depends on the relative effect of the prestress
and of the transverse loads. Ideally, a beam can be
designed to have a small camber at midspan at the ser- where P is the prestressing force, and eC, is its eccentricity


d is eccentricity of
prestress considering
tension stiffening,
"effective 0

M 0
0 0. 0CI

Fig. 3.17 Moment versus curvature relationship in prestressed section

relative to the centroid of the cracked section. The drop or camber, due to the effects of initial prestressing Pi and
in rigidity due to cracking is represented by the horizon- member self-weight is generally in the elastic uncracked
tal line at the M,, level. For the prestressed section, both range. Therefore, the elastic formulas presented in Table
Icr and ycr (and in turn e,,) are dependent on the loading 3.2 could be used to calculate the instantaneous deflec-
level, with the M-4 becoming nonlinear after cracking. It tion of the members. The value of Pi is equal to the
is important to note that the shift in the centroid of the jacking force less the initial prestress loss due to an-
cross section upon cracking results in larger prestressing chorage set, elastic shortening, and the relatively small
force eccentricity, ecr than the uncracked member eccen- relaxation loss occurring between jacking and release
tricity. This fact is particularly significant in flanged time. Since Pi varies from section to section a weighted
members, such as double tees which are characterized by average may be used. An average initial loss of 4-10 per-
the relatively low steel area ratio pf) and because con- cent can be reasonably used in order to get fpi.
crete tensile strength is not zero, cracking does not Unless test results are available, the modulus of elas-
extend to the neutral axis. In addition, uncracked con- ticity of concrete can be estimated from the expression
crete which exists between cracks in the tension zone, recommended in ACI 318 (See Chapter 2, Section 2.3).
contributes to the stiffness of the member (tension For uncracked sections, it is customary to use the gross
stiffening). Taking this into account, the M-4 diagram moment of inertia Ig for pretensioned members and the
becomes continuous, as indicated by line A in Fig. 3.17 net moment of inertia Z, for post-tensioned members
and as is usually accepted in engineering practice (ACI with unbonded tendons.
318, 1989) and verified by numerous tests (Aswad, 1992). 3.6.2 Cracked members - Effective Ie method--In pre-
stressed concrete members, cracks can develop at several
3.6-Short-term deflection and camber evaluation in sections along the span under maximum load. The
prestressed beams cracked moment of inertia I,, applies at cracked sections
Several methods to estimate short-term and long-term while the gross moment of inertia applies in between
deflections of prestressed concrete structural members cracks. ACI 318 (Section 18.4.2c) requires that a bilinear
are presented in this article. Included are procedures for moment-deflection relationship be used to calculate in-
uncracked members and cracked members. stantaneous deflections when the magnitude of tensile
3.6.1 Uncracked members-When a concrete section is
subjected to a flexural stress which is lower than the stress in service exceeds 6&. A value of 12 & is per-
modulus of rupture of concretef,, the section is assumed mitted when the immediate and long-term deflections are
to be uncracked and thus its behavior is linear. Under within the allowable limits. 1s is used for the portion of
this condition, the deflection is calculated by the basic moment not producing such tensile stress, while for the
principles of mechanics of elastic structures. In pre- remaining portion of moment, Icr is used.
stressed concrete construction, the immediate deflection, The effective moment of inertia Ie for simply sup-

Table 3.2-Short-term deflection in prestressed concrete beams (subscript c indicates midspan, subscript e, support)

Load deflection Prestress camber

J-1 w -
e&J - - - - - - I - - - - -
P ec P


.- I --.-a*


6 - (31 2 - 4b2)
=24EI s =-
. 2

'$qI2 + M,-@J 6a2

ec + (e - ec) 3 8
8N C I2

+ 9
- -c9c- - - - - - - - - -
c9s 1
a- P

I -- t-8 J?
. l
Pec12 12
6 = SWI @ 512 6f-V
384EI c48 8EI % 8

Load b,

I Post-cracking i Post-serviceability I

Deflection A

Fig. 3.18-Load-deflection relationship in prestressed beam: Region precracking stage; Region postcracking stage;
Region III, post-serviceability stage

ported beams, cantilevers, and continuous beams between The effective moment of inertia I, in Eq. 3.19a and b
inflection points is given in ACI 318-89, Section, thus depends on the maximum moment M, due to live
but with the modified definitions of M,, and A4, for pre- load along the span in relation to the cracking moment
stressed concrete as follows: capacity M,, of the section due to that portion of the live
load that caused cracking.
In the case of beams with two continuous ends ACI
(3.19a) 318-89 allows using the midspam Z,. However, more ac-
curate values can be obtaine d when the section is
uncracked using the following expressions as discussed in
or Chapter 2, Section 2.5.

Avg. I, = 0.70Im + a.i5(1,, + I&) (3.20a)

and for continuous beams with one end continuous,

where Avg. Z, = 0.85Im + &lS(r,,,. Md) (3.20b)

where I, is the midspan section moment of inertia and

(3.19c) I,. and Zc2 are the end-section ments of inertia.
In this method, I, is first ?etermined and the de-
flection is then calculated by substituting I, for Ig in the
The value of fr in Eq. 3.19c is taken as 7.5E. elastic deflection formulas.
= 3.6.3 Bilinear computation method-In graphical form,
b reduction factor for sand lightweight con-
the load deflection relationship follows Stages I and II of
Fig. 3.18. The idealized diagra reflecting the relation
0.85 and 0.70 for all lightweight concrete
between moment and deflectio for the Is and I,, zones
modulus of rupture = 7.5h& is shown in Fig. 3.19.
total calculated stress in member ACI 318 requires that computation of deflection in the
calculated stress due to live load cracked zone in the bonded tendon beams be based on
moment of inertia of the cracked section, the transformed section whenever the tensile stress f, in
from Eq. 3.21, Section 3.6.3 the concrete exceeds the modulus of rupture fr, Hence,
Ig = gross moment of inertia S,, is evaluated using the transformed I,, utilizing the
MC, = moment due to that portion of unfactored contribution of the reinforcement in the bilinear method
live load moment M, that causes cracking of deflection computation. The cracked moment of iner-
M, = max unfactored live load moment tia can be calculated by the PCI approach for fully pre-
Y, = distance from neutral axis to tensile face stressed members by means of the

Deflection 6

Fig. 3.19-Bilinear moment-defection relationship

Dead Load, 47 = @,A,dp + n,A,dz)(l - .6,/m (3.21b)

Live Load
where n, = EJEc for the nonprestressed steel d = effec-
tive depth to center of mild steel or nonprestressed
strand steel. Table 3.3 (PCI, 1993) provides coefficients
for rapid calculation of cracked moments of inertia.
Fig. 3.19 shows the moment-deflection relationship as
Cracking Moment defined in Eq. 3.19 where I, = average moment of iner-
tia for S,,,, = S, + 8, and where 8, is the elastic
deflection based on the gross moment of inertia Ig. Fig.
Decomu ression t 3.20 is a detailed moment-deflection plot for the various
loading stages (Branson and Shaikh, 1984, 1985) where
a Pe I points A, B, and C refer to the calculation on the live-
3Bpcr load deflection increment for a partially prestressed
beam. The effective moment of inertia I, was applied
using several methods, as detailed with numerical exam-
ples in the two indicated references.
3.6.4 Incremental moment-curvature method--The an-
alysis is performed assuming two stages of behavior,
namely, elastic uncracked stage and cracked stage. Basic
Deflection elastic mechanics of prestressed sections are used to
Camber due obtain the two points defining the linear uncracked stage.
to Prestress Actual material properties are used for analysis of the
cracked section response.
Fig. 3.20-Moment-deflection relationship by different Ie
The cracked moment of inertia can be calculated more
methods. Point A:prestress camber minus dead load deflec-
accurately from the moment-curvature relationship along
tion; Point B: zero defection; Point C: decompression
the beam span and from the stress and, consequently,
(Branson and Shaik 1985, ACI SP-86)
strain distribution across the depth of the critical sec-
tions. As shown in Fig. 3.21 for strain ec, at first cracking,
Ict = npApdi (1 - 1.6/G = Cbd (3.21a)

where C can be obtained from Table 3.3 and np = EpF/Ec

and p, = AJbd. If nonprestressed reinforcement is used
to carry tensile stresses, namely, in partial prestressing, where E, is the strain at the extreme concrete compres-
Eq. 3.21a is modified to give sion fibers at first cracking and M is the net moment at

(a) (c) (d)

Fig. 3.21-Strain distribution and curvature at controlling loading stages (Nawy, 1989): a) initial prestress; b) effective
prestress after losses; c) service load; d) failure. If section is cracked at service load, Fig. 3.21c changes to reflect tensile
strain at the bottom fibers (see Fig. A3.2)

the cracking load (see Eq. 3.18), including the pre- 4) Failure:
stressing primary moment M,, about the centroid (center-
of-gravity of the concrete) of the section under consid-
eration. Eq. 3.21 can be rewritten to give (3.226)

A plus sign for tensile strain and a minus sign for

compressive strain are used, so that the bottom fiber
strains in Fig. 3.21c can be in tension or compression
where f is the concrete stress at the extreme compressive using the appropriate sign (see Fig. A3.3 of Ex. A3.2).
fibers on the section. The analysis is performed assuming Fig. 3.21 shows the general strain distribution and
two stages of behavior, namely, elastic uncracked stage curvature at the controlling loading stages defined in Eq.
and cracked stage. Basic elastic mechanics of prestressed 3.22, in this case an uncracked section at service load. If
sections are used to obtain the two points defining the the section is cracked, as in Ex. A3.2, Fig. 3.21c should
linear uncracked stage. Actual material properties are reflect tensile strain at the bottom fibers using a plus sign
used for analysis of the cracked section response. for tensile strain and a minus for compressive strain. It is
In summary, the distribution of strain across the depth important to recognize that curvatures 4 at various load
of the section at the controlling stages of loading is levels and at different locations along the span can be
linear, as is shown in Fig. 3.21, with the angle of curva- specifically evaluated if the beam is divided into enough
ture dependent on the top and bottom concrete extreme small segments. Because of the higher speed personal
fiber strains E,~ and Q, and whether they are in tension computers today, a beam may be easily divided into 40 or
or compression. From the strain distribution, the curva- 100 sections. The trapezoidal rule would be accurate
ture at the various stages of loading can be expressed as enough, with the only penalty being a few more milli-
follows: seconds in computer execution time.
1) Initial prestress:
3.7-Long-term deflection and camber evaluation in pre-
stressed beams
(3.22a) If the external load is sustained on the prestressed
members, the deflection increases with time, mainly be-
cause of the effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete
2) Effective prestress after losses: and relaxation of the prestressing reinforcement. In such
cases, the total deflection can be separated into two
parts: the instantaneous elastic part (previously discussed)
(3.22b) and the additional long-term part that increases with
3) Service load:
Several methods are available for camber and deflec-
tion calculation, some more empirical and others more

4= E* h Ecb (3.22c) refined. This chapter presents in detail the simplified PCI
multipliers method even though it is sometimes more
conservative, since it is the most commonly used for

Table 3.4-PCI multipliers C, for long-term camber and deflection

Without composite topping With composite topping

At erection: 1.85 1.85
1) Deflection (downward) component-apply to the elastic deflection due
to the member weight at release of prestress
2) Camber (upward) component-apply to the elastic camber due to pre- 1.80 1.80
stress at the time of release of prestress
Final: 2.70 2.40
3) Deflection (downward) component-apply to the elastic deflection due
to the member weight at release of prestress
4) Camber (upward) component-apply to the elastic camber due to pre- 2.45 2.20
stress at the time of release of prestress
5) Deflection (downward)--apply to the elastic deflection due to the 3.00 3.00
superimposed dead load only
6) Deflection (downward)-apply to the elastic deflection caused by the - 2.30
composite topping

Where C, = multiplier; As = area of nonprestressed reinforcement and AP = area of prestressed strands.

deflection and camber calculation in normal size and When such reinforcement is used, a reduced multiplier
span prestressed beams such as double tees, hollow core C, can be used as follows, to reduce the values in Table
slabs and AASHTO type beams. Numerical examples on 3.4,
its use are given in the appendix.
It is worthwhile noting that prestressed building pro-
ducts generally comply with the deflection limits in Table
9.5(b) of ACI 318-89. Industry and local practices, how-
ever, may be more stringent, such as requiring that and
double tee or hollow core slabs should have a slight
camber under half of the design live load. It is also good 6* = qa, (3.23b)
practice to never allow a calculated bottom tension stress
due to sustained loads. 3.7.2 Incremental time-steps method-The incremental
Other selected methods are briefly described and ref- time-steps method is based on combining the computa-
erence made to existing literature for details on camber tions of deflections with those of prestress losses due to
and deflection design examples in those references, that time-dependent creep, shrinkage, and relaxation. The
the designer can choose for refined solutions. design life of the structure is divided into several in-
3.7.1 PCI multipliers method-The determination of creasingly larger time intervals. The strain distributions,
long-term camber and deflection in prestressed members curvatures, and prestressing forces are calculated for each
is more complex than for nonprestressed members due to interval together with the incremental shrinkage, creep,
the following factors: and relaxation losses during the particular time interval.
1. The long-term effect of the variation in pre- The procedure is repeated for all subsequent incre-
stressing force resulting from the prestress losses. mental intervals, and an integration or summation of the
2. The increase in strength of the concrete after re- incremental curvatures is made to give the total time-
lease of prestress and because the camber and deflection dependent curvature at the particular section along the
are required to be evaluated at time of erection. The PCI span. These calculations should be made for a sufficient
Design Handbook, fourth edition, provides a procedure number of points along the span to be able to determine
wherein the short term deflections (calculated using con- with reasonable accuracy the form of the moment-cur-
ventional procedures) are multiplied by factors (multi- vature diagram.
pliers) for various stages of the deflection (erection, The general expression for the total curvature at the
final), for deflections due to prestress dead and applied end of a time interval can be expressed as
loads and for composite and noncomposite sections to
obtain long term deflections. These multipliers vary from (3.24)
1.80 to 3.00, as shown in Table 3.4 (PCI Design Hand-
book, 4th ed., 1993).
Shaikh and Branson (1970) propose that substantial
reduction can be achieved in long-term deflections by the
addition of nonprestressed mild steel reinforcement.

where where
Pi = initial prestress (at transfer) before losses E,,(t) = time adjusted modulus
eX = eccentricity of tendon at any section along the
Subscript n-l = beginning of a particular time step (3.29)
Subscript n = end of the aforementioned time step
cn_l, c, = creep coefficients at beginning and
end, respectively, of a particular time in which
step E,(tl) = modulus of elasticity of concrete at start
= prestress loss at a particular time in- of interval and x is an aging coefficient
terval from all causes c,(t) = creep coefficient at end of time interval

Obviously, this elaborate procedure is usually justified 3.7.3 Approximate time-steps method-The approximate
only in the evaluation of deflection and camber of time-steps method is based on a simplified form of sum-
slender beams or very long-span bridge systems such as mation of constituent deflections due to the various time-
segmental bridges, where the erection and assembly of dependent factors. If C, is the long-term creep coeffi-
the segments require a relatively accurate estimate of cient, the curvature at effective prestress P, can be
deflections. From Eq. 3.24, the total deflection at a defined as
particular section and at a particular time t is
s, = c#+ ke2 (3.25)
@$ = -g +
(pi -

where k is a function of the span and geometry of the

section and the location of prestressing tendon.
It should be stated that because of the higher speed
microcomputers today, a large span structure can be
L 1
Pi + PC ex
- --cu
2 &I,

easily evaluated for deflection and camber using this The final deflection under PG is
incremental numerical summation method. Detailed ex-
ai +
amples are given in the textbooks by Nawy, 1989 and
Nilson, 1987.
The total camber (t) or deflection (4) due to the pre-
stressing force can be obtained from the expression & =
6, = -ai + (a, - Se) -
1 C, (3.31a)

&_1 + #n so that

a,= &kC2 (3.26) bet = i$ - (3.31b)

where k is an aging coefficient which varies from 0 to 1.0

but may be taken as 0.7 to 0.8 for most applications. Adding the deflection S, due to self-weight and super-
Several investigators have proposed different formats imposed dead load S,, which are affected by creep, to-
for estimating the additional time-dependent deflection gether with the deflection due to live load S, gives the
_ So from the moment curvature relationship modified for final time-dependent increase in deflection due to pre-
creep. Tadros and Dilger recommend integrating the stressing and sustained loads, given by
modified curvature along the beam span, while Naaman
expressed the long-term deflection in terms of midspan
and support curvatures at a time interval t (Tadros, 1983; C,, + (bD + b&(1 + CJ (3.32a)
Naaman, 1985). As an example, Naamans expression
gives, for a parabolic tendon, and the final total net deflection becomes

tjT = -6, - -
. l 1
isi + 6,
2 I
cu + (a, + b&l + CJ + 6,
$1(t) = midspan curvature at time t
= The approximate time-steps method originally pre-
$26) support curvature at time in which
sented by Branson and Ozell, 1961, and ACI 435, 1963,
tends to yield in most cases comparable results to the
PCI multiplier method. Detailed examples are given in
the text books by Branson, 1977; Libby, 1984; Nilson,

1987; and Nawy, 1989. to 0.8 and C, is the creep coefficient. Values of x and C,
3.7.4 Axial strain and curvature method (Ghali-Favre)- are given as functions of to and t in ACI 209-92. After
This approach gives a procedure for the analysis of cracking, the concrete in tension is ignored and only the
instantaneous and long-term stresses and strains in rein- area of concrete in the compression zone of depth, c, is
forced concrete cross-sections, with or without pre- included in calculating the properties of the trasformed
stressing but considering cracking. Slope of the strain sections. This method is detailed in Ghali and Favre,
diagram is set equal to curvature (see Section, 1986; Ghali (1986); and Elbadry and Ghali (1989).
Chapter 2), which can be used to calculate the change in 3.7.5 Prestress loss method-It is assumed in this
deflection. The method does not require determination method that sustained dead load due to self weight does
of prestress losses. It introduces, as in the Naaman not produce cracking such that the effects of creep,
approach, an aging coefficient that adjusts the modulus shrinkage, and relaxation are considered only for un-
of concrete E, between time limits t, and t. After cracked cross sections. Additional stress in the concrete
cracking, the concrete in tension is ignored and only the caused by live load may result in cracking when the ten-
concrete in the compression zone of depth c is included sile strength of concrete is exceeded. Whether cracking
in calculating the properties of the transformed section. occurs, and the extent to which it occurs when the live
A cross-section provided with prestressed and non- load is applied depend upon the magnitude of the pre-
prestressed reinforcement of areas Ap and As respec- stress losses.
tively, is subjected at time fa to a flexural moment M and The method recommends stress loss coefficients due
to normal force N. Analysis is required for the stresses to creep, shrinkage and relaxation such that the change
and strains which occur at the initial time to and at t > in the prestressing force AP, is given by the following:
to after development of creep and shrinkage in the con-
crete and relaxation in the prestressed steel reinforce-
ment. M and N are taken as the internal moments and &P, = -A&~ + AfpcR - ApAfpRl (3.34a)
forces due to all external forces plus the prestressing
introduced at time to. The transformed section is com- A set of multipliers, as listed in Table 3.5, are applied
posed of the area of concrete and the areas+$ andA, of to the deflections due to initial prestress, member self
the reinforcement multiplied by the respective modular weight, superimposed dead load, and time-dependent
ratios, npr or n; where prestress loss in a similar fashion to the multipliers used
in the PCI multipliers method. Thus, total deflection
after prestress loss and before application of live load
(3.33a) becomes

6, = (1 + C,) (So + SJ -I- (1 + C&o +

with Ep and E, being the moduli of elasticity of pre-
stressed and nonprestressed reinforcement and E&J the
(1 + XCZJSPL (3.34b)
modulus of concrete at tw where
The term age-adjusted transformed section defines a
sTD = total deflection before live load application
section composed of the area of concrete plus the steel
SD = self-weight deflection
areas Ap and As multiplied by the respective age ad-
justed moduli
si = initial prestress camber
sSD = superimposed dead load deflection, and
SPL = prestress loss deflection
- _ E,orE,
n,orn = _ (3.33b)
E,(r, r,J C,,, C,,, x are taken from Table 3.5. The modulus of
and q(r, r,,) is the age-adjusted modulus of elasticity of elasticity to be used in calculating all of the deflection
components due to the causes considered above is Eci,
concrete. It can be used to relate stress to strain in the
which corresponds to the age of the concrete at prestress
same way as the conventional modulus of elasticity in
transfer, except for the superimposed dead load which is
order to determine the total strain, consisting of the sum
applied at a later age, for which the corresponding elas-
of the instantaneous and creep strains due to a stress
ticity modulus should be used. Examples on the use of
change introduced gradually between to and t. The age-
this method are given in Tadros and Ghali (1985).
adjusted modulus, as in Eq. 3.29 (Naaman, 1985), is
given by: 3.7.6 CEB-FIP model code method-The CEB-FIP
code presents both detailed and simplified methods for
evaluating deflection and camber in prestressed concrete
E,O, $,I elements, cracked or uncracked. The simplified method
EJf, r& = - (3.33c)
1+ xc, is discussed in Sec. Details of this approach as
well as its code provisions on serviceability are given in
where x is the aging coefficient, usually assumed equal CEB-FIP (1990).

Table 3.5-Time-dependent multipliers in Tadros and Ghali, 1985

Load condition A-Erection time B-Final time C = B - A-Long term

Formula Average* Formula Average* Formula Average*
Initial prestress 1 + c, 1.96 1 + c, 2.88 CU - C, 0.92

Prestress loss QLU + XC,> 1.00 1 = xc, 2.32 1.32

LLP, & :a.c.;
Member weight 1 + c, 1.96 1 + c, 2.88 Cl4 - c, 0.92
Superimposed 0 0 1 + C, 2.50 1 + C, 2.50
dead load+

Superimposed 1.00 1.00 1 + C,l 2.50 Cl4 1.50

dead loadS
Note: Time-dependent 6 = elastic 6 x multiplier.
* Assuming C, = 0.96; C,, = 1.88; C,, = 1.50; x = 0.7; and cu, = 0.6, which approximately correspond to average conditions with relative humidty = 70
percent, concrete age at release = 1 to 3 days and erection at 40 to 60 days.
t Applied after nonstructural elements are attached to member.
$ Applied before nonstructural elements are attached to member.

APPENDIX A3 Pi = 405,000 lb (1800 kN) at transfer

P, = 335,000 lb (1480 kN)
Example A3.1 b) Material properties
Evaluate the total immediate elastic deflection and v/s = 2.33 in.
long-term deflection of the beam shown in Fig. A3.1 R H = 70 percent
using (a) applicable moment of inertia Ig or Ie compu- fc = 5000 psi
tation, (b) incremental moment-curvature computation. fci = 3750 psi
The beam (Nawy, 1989) carries a superimposed service f = 270,000 psi (1862 MPa)
live load of 1100 plf (16.1 kN/m) and superimposed dead Jpi = 189,000 psi (1303 MPa)
load of 100 pIf (1.5 kN.m). It is bonded pretensioned, Pe = 155,000 psi (1067 MPa)
with Aps - fourteen YZ in. diameter seven wire 270 ksi f P = 230,000 psi
= 270 ksi = 1862 MPa) stress-relieved tendons = 2.1%u2 flp = 28.5 x lo6 psi (196 x lo6 MPa)
in2 Disregard the contribution of the nonprestressed
steel in calculating the cracked moment of inertia in this c) Allowable stresses
example. Assume that strands are jacked suficiently so fci = 2250 psi
that the initial prestress resulting in the Pi at transfer is f, = 2250 psi
405,000 lb. Assume that an effective prestress P, of fti = 184 psi (support)
335,000 lb after losses occurs at the first external load ft = 849 psi (midspan)
application of 30 days after erection and does not include
all the time-dependent losses. Solution (a)
Data: Note: All calculations are rounded to three significant
a) Geometrical properties figures, except geometrical data from the PCI Design
As = 782 in.2 (5045 cm2) Handbook (4th edition)
Ic = 169,020 in4 (7.04 x lo6 cm4) 1-Midspan section stresses
s, = 4803 in3 $6.69 x 104 cm3) e, = 33.14 in. (872 mm)
s, = 13,194 in. Maximum self-weight moment
w. = 815 plf, self weight
wSD = 100 plf (91.46 kN/m) MD = f-wfm2 x 12
= 5,170,000 in.-lb
WL = 1100 plf (16.05 kN/m) 8
a) At transfer, calculated fiber stresses are:
e, = 33.14 in.
e, = 20.00 in.
Dimensions from neutral axis to extreme fibers:
cb = 35.19 in.
Ct = 12.81 in. =
AJXS = 14 x 0.153 = 2.14 in2 (13.8 cm2)

W, - 1lDOplt 116.06 kN/m)

W, - 100 pit (1.48 kN/m)
------_ _-s-B

2 48
% y

Fig. A3.1-Noncomposite beam geomety Example A3.1 (Nawy, 1989. Courtesy Prentice Hall)

= +500 - 392 = 108 psi (T) < 184 psi, OK Total moment M, = MD + MSD + ML
= 5,170,000 + 7,610,000
= 12,800,000 in-lb. (1443 kN-m)
fb =

= 40%~ l + 33.14 x 35.19

782 216

= -3310 + 1080 = -2230 psi < 2250 psi, OK

b) At service load = +413 - 970 - -560 psi < fc = -2250 psi, OK

100(65)2 12 = 634,000 in.-lb (72 kN-m)


ML = 1100(F)2 l2 = 6970,000 in.-lb (788 kN-m) = 335Jro 1 + 33.14 x 35.19 1 + 12,800,OO

782 216 4803

Live-loadf, = 6~~l\~ = -530 psi (C) = -2740 + 2670 = -70 psi (C), OK
Hence, the section is uncracked and the gross moment
of inertia Ig = 169,020 in.4 has to be used for deflection
Live-load fb = 6,970,000 = 1450 psi (T)

Summary of fiber stresses (psi)

Midspan Support

fl fa fl fb
Prestress Pi only +500 -3310 +100 -2200
At transfer and WD +108 -2230 +100 -2200
At service load -560 -70 +80 -1810
1 psi = 6.895 MPa

calculation. using EC = 4.03 x lo6 psi

2-Support section stresses

e, = 20 in.
Follow the same steps as in the midspan section, with
the moment M = 0. A check of support section stresses = 0.06 in. (1.5 mm) 4
at transfer gave stresses below the allowable, hence O.K. b) Live load deflection
3-Deflection and camber calculation at transfer
= 5(1100) (65 x 12)4 1
From basic mechanics or from Table 3.1, for (1 = Yz,
the camber at midspan due to a single harp or depression j84EcIc 384 x 4.03 x lo6 x 169,020 x12
of the prestressing tendon is
= 0.65 in. 4

ST = pec12 + P(e, - eJl*

A summary of the instantaneous deflection due to
8EI 24EI prestress, dead load and live load is as follows:
Camber due to initial prestress= 1.50 in. (38 mm) t
E,; = 57,000 & = 57,000 m Deflection due to self weight= 0.55 in. (14 mm) 4
= 3.49 x lo6 psi (24.1 MPa) Deflection due to super-
imposed dead load= 0.06 in. (2 mm) &
E, = 57,000 @ = 57,000 m = 4.03 x lo6 psi Deflection due to live load= 0.65 in. (17 mm) J
(27.8 MPa) Net deflection at transfer
= -1.50 + 0.55= -0.95 in. J
6 ,? 405,000 x 33.14 x (65 x 12)*
P 8 x 3.49 x lo6 x 169,020 In addition to the immediate deflections, there will be
additional long-term deflections due to creep and pre-
stress loss after erection. If deflection due to prestress
+ 405,000 x (20 - 33.14) (65 x 12)*
loss from the transfer stage to erection at 30 days is
24 x 3.49 x lti x 169,020 considered, reduced camber is
= -1.73 + 0.23 = -1.50 in. (38 m) = 1 5 405,000 - 335,000
-( 405,000 1
This upward deflection (camber) is due to prestress
only. The self-weight per inch is 815/12 = 67.9 lb/in., and
the deflection caused by self-weight is S, J. = 5wf4/384EI, = 1.5

6, = 5 x 67.9(65 x 12)2/384 x 3.49 x lo6 x 169,020 Hence, camber only at erection (30 days) can be rea-
= 0.55 in.4 sonably assumed
= 1.50 - 0.26 = 1.24 in. t
Thus, the net camber at transfer is -1.50 t + 0.55
Solution (b)
= -0.95 in.? (24 mm).
Alternate solution by incremental moment curvature
4-Total immediate deflection at service load of method
uncracked beam
a) Superimposed dead load deflection: P, at 30 days after transfer is 335,000 lb. So 30 days

prestress loss W = pi - P, = 405,000 335,000 - -17

= 70,000 lb (324 kN) AE, = = -5 x 10-6 inJill.
3.49 x 106
Strains at transfer due to prestressing
ECj at 7 days = 3.49 x lo6 psi
(i) Due to prestressing force (Pi)
Midspan: f, = +500 psi
fb = -3310 psi = 381 psi (T)

ic = +500 AEcb = +381

= +143 x lo& in./in. = +109 x 1oa i&/in.
3.49 x lo6 3.49 x 106

%b = -949 x 10d in./in. Superimposing the strain at transfer on the strain due
to prestress loss gives the strain distributions at service
Support: f, = +lOO psi load after prestress loss due to prestress
_ only, as shown
fb = -2200 psi inn Fig. A3.2.
% = +28 x lo4 in./in. From Fig. A3.2:
%b = -631 x 10 in./in.
Midspan curvature
(1 psi = 6.895 MPa)
-785 - 118 x lo_6
(ii) Due to prestressing and self-weight (Pi + W,) , = = -18.8 x 10m6 rad/in.
Midspan: fi = +108 psi E: = 31 x 10-6 in./in.
fb = -2230 %b = -640 x 1Oa in./in. Support curvature
Support: same as in (i)

Strain change due to prestress loss , = -522 - 23 x 10-6 = -11.4 x lo6 rad/in.
- hp = 70,000 lb
From Table 3.2, for a = t/2, the beam camber after
E,i = 3.49 x 10s6 psi losses due only to P, is

Midspan section:
8, t = 4, $ (4, - 4J 24

= -18.8 x lo-6 @ ;l*)z + (-11.4 + 18.8)

= -86 psi (C)

-86 x 1o--6 (65 x 1*12

AEON = = -25 x lo+ in./in.
3.49 x lad 24

= -1.24 in. f (32 mm) (camber)

Afb = _yyl +~)=+zyl + 33.1;;y
which is identical to the prestressing camber value of
(-1.50 + 0.26) = 1.24 in.? in the previous solution.
= 573 psi (T)
5-Long term deflection (camber)
573 Using the PCI multipliers method for calculating de-
de,, = = +164 x 10s6 in./in. flection at construction erection time (30 days) and at the
3.49 x lo6
final service load deflection (5 years) the following are
Support section: the tabulated values (Nawy, 1989) of long-term deflection
and camber obtained using the applicable PCI multipliers
in Table 3.3.
If the section is composite after erection, Icomp has to
be used in calculating S,, Icomp should also be used in
calculating S, if the beam is shored during the place-
= -17 psi (C) ment of the concrete topping.

+143 -2s +118


-949 +I64
jly -785

Midspan S e c t i o n S t r a i n s E~X 10.~ rad\in.

-5 +23

-631 +109 -522

( b ) S u p p o r t S e c t i o n S t r a i n s E~X 10m6 rad\in.

Fig. A3.2-Strain distribution across section depth at prestress transfer in Ex. A3.1)

PCI multipliers from Table 3.3

Load Transfer S,, (in.) Multiplier Erection 6, (in.) (noncomposite) Final S,, (in.)
(1) (2) (3)

Prestress 1.50 t 1.80 2.70 7 2.45 3.68 t

LVD 0.55 4 1.85 1.02 J 2.70 1.49 &
Net S
o 0.95 ? 1.68 t 2.19 t
L&D 0.06 & 3.00 0.18 1
Net 6 1.62 t 2.01 t
IV, 0.65 4

Final S 0.95 t 1.62 t 1.36 t

If mild steel reinforcement As was also used in this stressed beam,

prestressed beam, the reduced multiplier
C, + AslAp _
2 = 3 x 0.31 = 0.43 giving C, = 2.01
c2 = APJ 2.14
1 + ASlAp
would be used (Shaikh and Branson, 1970). The C, mul- Adjusting the values previously tabulated, the original
tiplier is reduced due to the mild steel reinforcement camber becomes = 3.01 in. t instead of the 3.68 in. t
controlling creep propagation or widening of the flexural shown in the table. Similar adjustments for all deflection
cracks at long-term loading, hence enhancing stiffness. As components can be made by applying the relevant correc-
an example, assume 3 # 5 bars were also used in the pre- tion factor.

PCI section
lOLDT32 + 2
(128 D1)

Fig. A3.3-Double-tee composite beam in Ex. A3.2

Noncomposite Composite

A c , in. 615 (3968 cm*) 855

Ic, in.4 59,720 (24.9 x ld cm4) 77,118

2, in. 97 (625 cm*) 90

C,, in. 21.98 (558 mm) 24.54

C,, in. 10.02 (255 mm) 9.46

S,, in.3 2717 (4.5 x lo4 cm3) 3142

S,, in.3 5960 (9.8 x lo4 cm3) 8152

Yp plf 641 (9.34 kN/m) 891

Example A3.2 Note: All calculations are rounded to three significant

A 72-ft (21.9 m) span simply supported unshored roof figures, except geometrical data from the PCI Design
normal weight concrete composite double-T beam (Fig. Handbook (4th ed.).
A3.3) is subjected to a superimposed topping load W,,
= 250 plf (3.65 kN/m) and a service live load W, = 280 1-Midspan section stresses
plf (4.08 KN/m). Calculate the camber and deflection of fP3 = 200,00 psi at jacking
this beam at prestress transfer by (a) the Z, method (b) fpi assumed = 0.945 fpl = 189,000 psi at transfer
bilinear method, as well as the time-dependent deflec- = 18.73 in. (475 mm)
tions after 2 in. topping is cast (30 days) and the final 5 = 12 x 0.153 x 189,000 = 347,000 lbs
deflection (5 years), using the PCI Multipliers method.
Self-weight moment
Given prestress total losses after transfer 18 percent (see
table above).
M = 64U72) 12 = 4,985,OOO in.-lb
V/S = 615/364 = 1.69 in. (4.3 mm)
RH = 75 percent
Eccentricities e, = 18.73 in. (476 mm) (a) At transfer
e, = 12.81 in. (325 mm)
= 5000 psi (34.5 MPa)
F,. = 3750 psi (25.7 MPa)
Gpping f c' = 3000 psi
_ 18.73 x 10.02 4,980,OOO
ft at bottom fibers = 12 \/ f c' = 850 psi (5.6 MPa) 97 5960
= twelve % in. dia low-relaxation
steel depressed at midspan only = +527 - 836
fu = 270,000 psi (1862 MPa), low relaxation = -309 psi (C), say 310 psi (C) < 0.60f c' < 0.60 (3750)
Pi = 189,000 psi (1303 MPa) = 2250 psi, OK
PPI = 200,000 psi (1380 MPa)
= 28.5 x lo6 psi (19.65 x lo4 MPa)

I + 18.73 x 21.98 = -730 - 211 = -941 psi (C), OK

= 347,m
615 97
fb = +120 + 291809000 = +I20 +694
= -2960 + 1835
= -1125 psi (C) < -2250 psi, OK = + 814 psi (T) (5.4 MPa) < fi = 850 psi, OK

fb) After unshored slab is cast (d) Composite slab stresses

At this load level: Precast double-T concrete modulus is
fPe = 0.82fi = 0.82 x 189,000 = 155,000 psi E, = 57,000&r = 57,000$/~
Pe = 12 x l153 x 155,000 = 285,000 lb.
For the 2 in. slab, W,, = 2/12 x 10 ft x 150 = 250 plf = 4.03 x lo6 psi (2.8 x 10, MPa)

Situ-cast slab Concrete Modulus is

250 (72)2
M,, = x 12 = 1,945,000 in.-lb = 57,ooo@B = 3.12 x lo6 psi (2.2 x lo4 MPa)
8 EC

4,985,000 + 1,945,000 = 6,930,000 in.-lb Modular ratio

MD + %D =
3.12~106 = 077
n, =
4.03 x lo6 *

Scf for 2 in. slab top fibers = 8152 in.3 from data.
s& for 2 in. slab bottom fibers = 10,337 in.3 from
before for top of precast section.
Stress f, at top slab fibers = ns
= +433 - 1163 = -730 psi < 0.45f, < -2250 psi, OK s:

= -0.77 x 2 180ooo = -207 psi (C)

Stressf,b at bottom slab fibers
= -p
285,ooO 1 + 18.73 x 21.98
615 97 = -0.77 x 2180ooo = -162 psi (C)
= -2430 + 2550 = +120, psi (T), OK 2-Support section stresses
Check is made at the support face (a slightly less
This is a very low tensile stress when the unshored slab conservative check can be made at 50 db from end).
is cast and before the service load is applied, < < 3 K. ee = 12.81 in.
{a) At transfer
fc) At service load for the precast section f=
Section Modulus for composite section at the top of
the precast section is
= -182 psi (C) < < -2250 psi, OK
S, = 77,118 = 10,300 in3
9.46 - 2 347,000 1 + 12.81 x21.98
fb =
615 97

M, = 2W72)2 x 12 = 2,180,OOO in.-lb = -2200 psi < OhOf,~ = -2250 psi, OK

(b) After unshored slab is cast and at service load, the
support section stresses both at top and bottom extreme
fibers were found to be below the allowable, hence OK.
3-Camber and deflection calculation at transfer
&SD = superimposed dead load = 0 in this case. Initial E,i = 57,000@% = 3.49 x lo6 psi (2.2 x lo4
From before, 28 days EC = 4.03 x lo6 psi (2.8 x lo4

Summary of midspan stresses (psi)

Transfer P, only +433 -2430

WD at transfer -1163 +2550

Net at transfer -730 +120

External load (W,) -211 +694

Net total at service -941 +814

Due to initial prestress only

I = n,A,d;(l - 1.6,/G> - Cbd;
v%ere coefficient C can bt obtained from Table 3.3.
Pie,12 - eJ12
ai = ~ + Pi (c, Use f, = 5000 psi of the precast section in entering the
8E#.& 24E, Ig table as the neutral axis falls within the precast section at
x = 3.5 in. below the top of the composite section.
= (-347,000) (18.73) (72 x 12)2 C = 0.00318
8 (3.49 x lo> 59,720 = 0.000497
HeZe, I,, = 0.00318 x 120(30.75)3 = 11,100 in.3
n = 28.5 x 106/4.03 x lo6 = 7.07 to be used in
+ (-347,000) (12.81 - 18.73) (72 x 12)2 Eq. Equation 3.21(a) gives I,, = 11,100 in.4
24 (3.49 x 103 59,720 From Eq. 3.19(c), and the stress values previously
= -2.90 + 0.30 = -2.6 in. (66 mm) t

Self-weight intensity w = 641/12 = 53.4 lb/in. %

-= l_~~=l_(81~~~30)=0.591
Self-weight 6D = - 5w14 for uncracked section
384E,, Ig
= (0.591)3 = 0.206
= 5 x 53.4 ( 72 x12)4 = 1.86 in. (47 mm)
384 (3.49 x lo, 59,720 Hence,
Ie = 0.206 (77,118) + (1 - 0.206) 11,100
Thus the net camber at transfer = -2.6 + 1.86 = -0.74 in. = 24,700 in4
(20 mm) t wSD = l/12 (891 - 641) = 20.8 in./lb
wr. = (l/12) x 280 = 23.3 in/lb
4-Immediate service load deflection
(a) Effective I e Method 5w14 5 x 23.3(72 x 12)4
SL = -=
Modulus of rupture 384E& 384(4.03 x 103 24,700

f, = 7.5 K = 7.54%ilRj = 530 p s i = +1.7 in. (45 mm) 4 (as an average value)

fb at service load = 814 psi (5.4 MPa) in tension (from When the concrete 2 in. topping is placed on the pre-
before). cast section, the resulting topping deflection with Ig =
Hence, the section is cracked and the effective Ie from 59,700 iIL4:
Eq. 3.19(a) or (b) should be used.
5x20.8(72~12)~ =063 i n . 4
SD =
dP = 18.73 + 10.02 + 2 (topping) = 30.8 in. (780 mm) 384(4.03 x 10,59,700 - l

APp - 12@153) = 4 97 x 10-4

-_ (b) Bilinear method
, = )jdp 120 x 30.75 *
f net 7.5kK = 814 - 530
= fcb -

From Eq. 3.21(a), = +284 psi (T) causing cracking


PCI multiplier
Load Transfer S p , in. PCI multipliers S
o30, in. (composite) a,,,, in.

(1) (2) (3)

Prestress -2.60 1.80 -4.68 2.20 -5.71t

WD +1.86 1.85 +3.44 2.40 +4.461

-0.74 ^l -1.24 ^l -1.25t

wSD +0.63J. 2.30 +1.45&

+1.88J +1.881

Final S
o -0.74t +1.27.J +2.071

fL = tensile stress caused by live load alone Allowable deflection = span/l80

= +694 psi (T)
WLl = portion of live load not causing cracking = 72 x 12 = 4.8 in. > 2.1 in., OK
694-&=4 x 28Oplf
165 plf = 13.8 lb/in. CHAPTER 4-DEFLECTION OF TWO-WAY
S,, due to uncracked Ig
c, =ultimate creep coefficient
5W,14 4 plate flexural rigidity per unit width, or dead
a,, = -= 5 x 13.8(72 x 12) D =
384EcIg 384(4.03 x 106)77,117 load
d = effective depth of reinforcement
= 0.32 in. J. E = modulus of elasticity
= compressive strength of concrete
WL2 = W, - W,, = l/12 (280-165) = 9.6 lb/in.
2 = modulus of rupture

= -= 5 x 9.6(72 x 12)4 2 1 yield strength of reinforcement
plate or slab thickness
384 E,Z, 384(4.03 x 107 11,110 = moment of inertia
k coefficient
= 1.56 in. 4 L = live load
M = bending moment
Total live load deflection prior to prestress losses = N = number of shored and reshored levels
SLl + %r = 0.32 + 1.56 = 1.88 in. 4 R = applied load/slab dead load ratio
From before, ai = -0.70 t =
Net short-term deflection prior to prestress loss is w, w, = intensity of transverse load per unit area
6 T&d = -0.70 + 1.88 = 1.2 in. & 4Y = coordinate axes
Y, = distance from neutral axis to extreme tension
5-Long-term deflection (camber) by PCI multipliers fiber
When the 2 in. concrete topping is placed on the pre- v Poissons ratio
cast section, the resulting topping deflection with I8 = CY = coefficient
59,720 in.4 is = deflection
; = curvature
5 x 20.8(72 x 12)4 A = long-time multiplier
SD =
= +0.63 in. (16 mm) ultimate shrinkage
384(4.03 x 106) 59,720 Eshm =
P = reinforcement ratio
Using PCI multipliers at slab topping completion stage
(30 days) and at the final service load (5 years), the tabu-
lated deflection values can be gotten from the above
l Principle authors: A. Scanlon and C. T. Hsu.
Hence, final deflection = 2.1 in (56 mm) 4.


4.2-Introduction For rectangular plates with uniformly distributed

Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete loads, the solution of Eq. (4.2) leads to an expression for
(ACI 318) specifies minimum thickness requirements for maximum deflection in the form
control of two-way slab deflections. If the slab thickness
equals or exceeds the specified minimum thickness, de- awi?
flections need not be computed and serviceability in 6 = ~lfv~ =
D Eh3/12(Z - v2)
terms of deflection control is deemed to be satisfied.
Experience has shown that, in most cases, the use of where
ACI minimum thickness equations produces slabs that e = longer span length
behave in a satisfactory manner under service loads. ACI W = uniform transverse load
318 does permit a smaller than minimum thickness to be a = coefficient depending on the boundary con-
used if deflections are calculated and shown to be within ditions and aspect ratio
limits specified by the standard. However, the calculation
of slab deflections requires careful consideration of a It is noted from Eq. (4.3) that the influence of Pois-
number of factors if realistic estimates of deflections are sons ratio, U, on deflections is quite small. Typical values
to be obtained. of u for concrete fall in the range between 0.15 and 0.25.
This chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art for The term (1 - u2) in the flexural rigidity, D, falls in the
control of two-way slab deflections. Methods of calcula- range 0.94 to 0.98. The error involved in neglecting
ting slab deflections are presented. Effects of two-way Poissons ratio is, therefore, approximately 2 to 6 percent.
action, cracking, creep, and shrinkage are considered. Solutions of the plate equation for various geometries
The minimum thickness equations in the current ACI 318 and support conditions have been given by Timoshenko
are examined and recent proposals for alternative and Woinowsky-Krieger (1959) and by Jensen (1938).
methods of specifying minimum thickness are reviewed. Since closed-form solutions of the plate equation are
available for only a limited number of cases, alternative
4.3-Deflection calculation methods for two-way slab solution procedures are required for most practical
systems situations.
4.3.1 Immediate deflection of uncracked slabs-In this Crossing beam methods-Several ap-
section, calculation procedures are given for immediate proaches have been developed in which the two-way slab
deflections based on three approaches, namely, classical system is considered an orthogonal one-way system, thus
solutions, simplified crossing beam analogies, and finite allowing deflection calculations by beam analogy. Some
element analysis. of the earlier approaches were summarized in ACI Classical solutions-Immediate deflection 435.6R.
of uncracked two-way slab systems loaded uniformly can More recently, Rangan (1976) and Scanlon and Mur-
be determined using plate bending theory for elastic thin ray (1982) described calculation procedures in which the
plates. Load-deflection response is governed by the plate column and middle strips are treated as continuous
equation: beams; the middle strip is considered to be supported at
its ends by column strips that are run perpendicular to
a48 +
8s - + -=-
a48 W the middle strip.
(4.1) For two-way systems supported on a rectangular lay-
dn4 a&y2 af D out of columns, the ACI 318 method of design for
where strength involves dividing the slab into column strips and
x,y = orthogonal coordinate axes of the middle surface middle strips in each of the two orthogonal directions.
s = deflection of the plate The total static moment for each span, MO = w,C2tn2/8,
W = transverse load per unit area is divided between positive and negative moment regions
D = flexural rigidity per unit width, Eh3/12(1 - u2) and then between column and middle strips, using either
E = modulus of elasticity the direct design method or the equivalent frame meth-
12 = plate thickness od. Where w, is the intensity of load per unit area, e, is
u = Poissons ratio the effective span and 4?2 is the dimension in the perpen-
dicular direction. The distribution of moments approxi-
The relationship between moments and curvatures is mates the elastic distribution for the given loading and
given by therefore can be used to obtain an estimate of immediate
deflections. However, the applied moments for strength
design use factored loads, while the moments for calcu-
lation of immediate deflections require service loads that
Eh 3
(4.2) are unfactored. The bending moments required to calcu-
12(l -v2) late deflections or curvatures of columns and middle
strips may be the same as the bending moments deter-
Column Strip Oeflection

Middle Strip Oeflection

Fig. 4. l-Crossing beam approach

mined for factored loads according to ACI 318 multiplied Ml> M2 = end moments per unit width
by the ratio of service load to factored load. Mm = midspan moment per unit width
Fig. 4.1 shows a rectangular panel in a column- (Positive M,, A4r, or M2 produce tension at bottom
supported two-way slab system. The dotted areas re- fiber.)
present a set of crossing beams from which column strip Using this procedure the deflection of each column
deflection, S,, and middle strip deflection, &, can be strip (8,) and of each middle strip (6,) can be calcu-
obtained. Each beam can be treated as a strip of unit lated. The mid-panel deflection, a,, is obtained by
width for which end moments, midspan moment, and adding the column and middle strip deflections.
flexural rigidity properties can be obtained. Note that, by
definition, end moments are those at the faces of sup-
ports, such as column or column capital faces, and that
the beam span is the clear span between the faces of For cantilever slabs the rotation at the support must
such supports. be included.
Once the end moments and midspan moment have An earlier version of the equivalent frame method for
been obtained for a column or middle strip, the de- calculating deflections proposed by Vanderbilt, Sozen
flection for the strip can be calculated, using the elastic and Siess (1965) considers the mid-panel deflection as
beam deflection equation: the sum of a column strip deflection, cantilever deflection
of a portion of the middle strip extending from the
5 5 column strip, and the mid-panel deflection of a simply
6 =-- W = O.l(M, = M2)] (4.4) supported rectangular plate. The procedure developed by
48 EI m
Nilson and Walters (1975), based on the equivalent
where frame method, is similar to the method outlined above
en = clear span except that a reference deflection is calculated for the

total panel width. Deflections for column and middle application of classical anisotropic theory to analysis of
strips are then obtained from this reference deflection two-way reinforced concrete slabs is given in the text by
using lateral distribution factors based on relative M/EI Timoshenko and Woinoswky-Krieger (1959). More re-
values. A numerical example (Nawy, 1990) calculating the cently, procedures have been proposed for including
expected deflection limits using this procedure is given in cracking in finite element analysis and in the crossing
Appendix A4.1. The resulting values are applicable in beam analogies for two-way slabs.
lieu of Table 4.2. The effective moment of inertia, Ie, concept devel-
Ghali (1989) calculates the deflection at midspan of oped originally by Branson (1963) for beams can be ap-
a column or middle strip from values of curvature cal- plied directly to the column and middle strips in the
culated on the basis of compatibility and equilibrium at crossing beam analogies described in Section 2.2.2 for
the midspan and supports using the relationship: elastic uncracked plates. In Eq. 4.4 the cross-section
stiffness, El, becomes E$,, using the usual averaging
procedures given in ACI 318 for I,, calculated at both
6 = $ (4L = 104, = 4J (4.6) positive and negative moment locations. Kripanarayanan
and Branson (1976) presented an extension of the Nilson
where +L, c&,, 4R are, respectively, the curvatures calcu- and Walters equivalent frame procedure to include crack-
lated from analysis of sections at the left end, center, and ing using the Ie procedure.
right end of column and middle strips and e is the dis- A review of the more sophisticated cracking models
tance between the two ends. This relationship is based on proposed for finite element analysis of slabs is given in
the assumption that variation of curvature over the the report of an ASCE Task Committee (1982). A simple
length .! is parabolic, The effects of cracking, creep, and generalization of Bransons effective moment of inertia
shrinkage are accounted for in the analysis for + at each concept to two-way systems has been suggested by Scan-
section. In the absence of prestressing, simplification can lon and Murray (1982) and implemented in a modified
be made by use of multipliers and graphs (Ghali, 1989; version of a linear elastic plate bending finite element by
Ghali-Favre, 1986) that also account for the cracking, Graham and Scanlon [1986(a)].
creep and shrinkage effects. 4.3.3 Restraint cracking-In two-way reinforced con-
crete slabs built monolithically with supporting column Finite element method-The finite element and wall elements, in-plane shortening due to shrinkage
method can be used to analyze plates with irregular sup- and thermal effects is restrained. The restraint is pro-
port and loading conditions. Effects of beams and col- vided by a combination of factors, including embedded
umns can be included and a number of general purpose reinforcement, attachment to structural supports, and
computer programs are available for elastic analysis of lower shrinkage rates of previously placed adjacent
plate systems. panels when slab panels are placed at different times.
The plate is divided into a number of sub-regions or Nonlinear distribution of free shrinkage strains across the
elements. Within each element the transverse displace- cross-section may also be a contributing factor.
ment is expressed in terms of a finite number of degrees Service load moments in two-way slabs are often of
of freedom (displacements, slopes, etc.) specified at the same order of magnitude as the code-specified crack-
element nodal points. In other words, the continuous ing moment, i%fcr Deflection calculations made using the
displacement function, a&y), is approximated by another code-specified modulus of rupture will often result in an
function with a finite number of degrees of freedom. uncracked section being used when cracking may actually
Based on the assumed displacement function and the be present due to a combination of flexural stress and
given stress-strain, or moment-curvature relationships restraint stress.
(such as Eq. 4.2 for elastic plates), the element stiffness
ACI 318 specifies the modulus of rupture for deflec-
matrix can be derived. The stiffness matrix of the entire
slab is then assembled. The solution for displacements tion calculations as 7.5 K psi (0.62 K MPa). Labora-
and internal moments proceeds using the standard matrix tory test data, summarized in ACI 209R, indicate values
analysis techniques applicable for solving equilibrium ranging from 6 to 12 E psi (0.5 to 1.0 fl MPa).
equations, as outlined in a number of textbooks (e.g. For slab sections with low reinforcement ratios,
Cook 1974; Gallagher 1975; Zienkiewicz 1977). Although approaching minimum reinforcement, the difference be-
the method is becoming increasingly popular in engineer- tween cracked and uncracked flexural stiffness is signi-
ing practice, some skill is required in selecting an ficant. It is important, therefore, to account for effects of
appropriate finite element model, developing an appro- any restraint cracking that may be present. Unfortunate-
priate mesh, preparing computer input data, and inter- ly, the extent of restraint cracking is difficult to predict.
preting the results. To account for restraint cracking in two-way slabs, Ran-
4.3.2 Effect of cracking--The procedures outlined gan (1976) suggested that column strip deflections be
above are applicable to linear elastic isotropic plate based on the moment of inertia of a fully cracked sec-
systems and must be modified for concrete slabs to in- tion, Zcp and that middle strip deflections be based on (Ig
clude the effect of cracking on flexural stiffness. An early + Z&2. Good agreement was reported between calcu-

lated and field measured deflections. long-term deflections; namely, by detailed computations
A more general approach was proposed by Scanlon and by the ACI multiplier methods.
and Murray (1982). They suggested that the effect of re- Detailed calculations-Effects of creep
straint cracking be included by introducing a restraint deflection and shrinkage warping may be considered
stress,f,, that effectively reduces the modulus of rupture separately using procedures outlined in ACI 209R (82)
for calculating A&+ i.e. (1986), based on the work of Branson, Meyers and Kri-
panapayanan (1970), and Branson and Christiason
Deflection due to creep is obtained from

where f, = f, - f,
scp = kr ct si (4.8)
A value of 4 cpsi (0.33 & MPa), or about half of Ct = time dependent creep coefficient representing
the value specified in ACI 318, was proposed for the re- creep strain at any time t in days after load
duced effective modulus of rupture. This approach was application
investigated by Tam and Scanlon (1986) and has pro- k, = factor to account for compression reinforce-
duced good correlation between calculated deflection and ment and neutral axis shift
reported mean field-measured deflections [Jokinen and immediate deflection due to dead load plus
Scanlon 1985; Graham and Scanlon 1986(b)]. sustained live load, including effects of crack-
Ghali (1989) has also used the idea of reduced mod- ing
ulus of rupture and demonstrates the calculation of re-
straint stress due to reinforcement in the presence of The general form of C, given by ACI 209 is
uniform shrinkage.
An additional consideration is that the moments used
in design for strength are based on some redistribution c, = (o~60 c

of moments. The distribution of design moments does 10 + (t)oem (4.9)

not reflect the high peaks of moment adjacent to col-
where C, = ultimate creep coefficient.
umns that occur in uncracked slabs. Deflection calcula-
ACI Committee report 209R-92 provides typical val-
tions based on moment distributions used for design,
ues of factors applying to moist-cured concrete loaded at
therefore, tend to under-predict the effects of cracking. 7 days or later (see Chapter 2 for details). For slabs
For slab systems in which significant restraint to in-
loaded before 7 days, these values may be used for first
plane deformations may be present, it is recommended
that a reduced effective modulus of 4 @ psi (0.33& In a two-way slab, shrinkage occurs in all directions.
MPa) be used to compute the effective moment of iner- The shrinkage deflection should therefore be calculated
tia, 1,. A procedure for implementing this approach in for orthogonal column and middle strips, and the results
finite element analysis is given by Tam and Scanlon added to give the total mid-panel shrinkage deflection.
(1986). Although there may be a contribution to shrinkage warp-
4.3.4 Long-term deflections-Long-term deflections ing from nonuniform shrinkage strains through the slab
can be estimated by applying a long-term multiplier to cross-section, there is insufficient experimental data
the calculated immediate deflection. Values for the available to make specific recommendations for deflec-
long-term multiplier are specified in design codes such as tion calculations.
ACI 318 where a value of 2/(1+5Op) is applied to the Shrinkage warping deflection for a beam is given by
immediate deflection caused by the sustained load con-
sidered. A number of authors have suggested that the (4.10)
ACI 318 long-term multiplier is too low for application
to two-way slab systems, being based on poor correlation where
between reported calculated long-term deflections and K,,, = coefficient depending on end conditions
field-measured deflections, However, it may be that much = 11/128 (one end continuous)
of the discrepancy between calculated and measured = l/16 (both ends continuous)
deflections is due to the effect of restraint cracking = l/8 (simple beam)
described earlier. There is no obvious reason to infer that = l/2 (cantilever)
creep and shrinkage characteristics of two-way slabs are
significantly different from one-way slabs and beams. On 4s = shrinkage curvature
the other hand, shrinkage warping is more significant in = 0.7q.,(t)~/3/h, singly reinforced member
shallow slab systems than in deeper beam sections. = 0.7E,,(t)(p-p)/3(p-pjp)lR/h, doubly rein-
Two approaches are presented next for estimating forced member

Table 4.2-Maximum permissible computed deflections

Typ e of member Deflection to be considered Deflection limitation

Flat roofs not supporting or attached to Immediate deflection due to live load L
nonstructural elements likely to be damaged
by large deflections
Floors not supporting or attached to non- Immediate deflection due to live load L
structural elements likely to be damaged by
large deflections

Roof or floor construction supporting or That part of the total deflection occurring
attached to nonstructural elements likely to after attachment of nonstructural elements
be damaged by large deflections fi
(sum of the long-time deflection due to all
sustained loads and the immediate deflec- 480
tion due to any additional live load)7
Roof or floor construction supporting or
attached to nonstructural elements not
likely to be damaged by large deflections

* Limit not intended to safeguard against ponding. Ponding should be checked by suitable calculations of deflection, including added deflections due to
ponded water, and considering long-term effects of all sustained loads, camber, construction tolerances, and reliability of provisions for drainage.
t Limit may be exceeded if adequate measures are taken to prevent damage to supported or attached elements.
$ Long time deflection shall be determined in accordance with or, but may be reduced by amount of deflection calculated to occur before at-
tachment of nonstructural elements. This amount shall be determined on the basis of accepted engineering data relating to time deflection characteristics of
members similar to those being considered.
r But not greater than tolerance provided for nonstructural elements. Limit may be exceeded if camber is provided so that total deflection minus camber
does not exceed limit.

based on the ACI 318-specified value of 7.5 K for sion developed by Rangan (1982) for maximum allowable
modulus of rupture, and ACI 209R Eq. 15-17 for creep span-to-depth ratio for beams. Rangans equation in-
and shrinkage deflection. Construction loads due to volves rearranging the basic equation for beam deflection
shoring and reshoring were also considered. calculations,
2) When the calculations were based on a reduced
modulus of rupture to account for restraint cracking, the s = 6, + assus
ACI 318 limit of e/480 on incremental deflection was
exceeded for slab panels with aspect ratios less than 1.5. where
An increase of 10 percent over the current minimum St = deflection due to variable part of live load
thickness value for square panels was suggested to obtain = kw,t4fEJe
calculated deflections within the allowable limits. The 6 szls = total deflection due to sustained load in-
suggested increase in minimum thickness decreases lin- cluding sustained part of live load
early to zero for a panel with an aspect ratio equal to 1.5. = A (kw,@/EF,)
The results of this study suggest that the ACI mini- A# = long-term multiplier
mum thickness equations will provide satisfactory service-
Replacing Ie by cubd3, where the term a! gives an ap-
ability in most cases, confirming the satisfactory perfor-
proximation for I e as a function of the reinforcement
mance of slabs designed and built according to the re-
ratio p, Eq. 4.13 can be rewritten as
quirements in ACI 318 prior to the 1989 edition. When
more stringent than normal deflection limits are required,
a thicker slab should be used. Other means to increase (4.14)
the slab stiffness, such as the addition of beams, can also
be considered.
Recently, attempts have been made to develop criter- If S/e is given as the maximum permissible deflection-
ia for span-to-depth ratios or minimum thickness of slabs to-span ratio, the corresponding maximum span to effec-
that explicitly include the effects of such parameters as tive depth ratio can be obtained from
live-to-dead load ratio, permissible deflection-to-span
ratio, effect of cracking, sustained load level, and time abE,
between construction and installation of nonstructural (4.15)
elements. Two such approaches are described in the WC + Aw,
following paragraphs.
Gilbert (1985) extended to two-way slabs an expres- where

k, = a combination of factors to account for sup- spans, and reduced construction time due to earlier
port conditions and effect of beam flanges removal of form work. In addition, the use of post-ten-
sioning enables the engineer to better control deflections
Gilbert extended Eq. 4.15 by adding a slab system and cracking at service loads.
factor k, to account for two-way action, i.e. 4.5.2 Basic principle for deflection control--The con-
cept of load balancing [Lin (1963)] is often used to make
lb an appropriate choice of tendon profile, prestressing
(4.16) amounts and tendon distribution in two-way prestressed
and post-tensioned floor systems. Service live loads,
rather than total dead plus live loads, should be used to
The factor k2 was developed for a variety of condi- evaluate deflection of the slab. Load balancing from the
tions from parameter studies using a sophisticated finite transverse component of the prestressing force would
element model. Eq. 4.16 involves an iterative procedure have to be used to neutralize the dead-load deflection or
since the reinforcement ratio required to determine LY, even induce camber if the live load is excessively high.
and the dead load are initially unknown. ACI 318 requires that both immediate deflection, due to
A somewhat simpler expression for beams was devel- live load and long-term deflection due to sustained loads
oped by Grossman (1981, 1987); it was based on a large be investigated for all prestressed concrete.
number of computer-generated beam deflection calcula- 4.5.3 Minimum stab thickness for deflection control--In
tions. Grossmans minimum thickness equation is given choosing the slab thickness, the engineer must consider
by deflection control, shear resistance, fire resistance, and
corrosion protection for the reinforcement. While ACI
318 requires deflection calculations for a preliminary
(4.17) estimate of the two-way slab thickness, it is usual to
determine a minimum thickness for deflection control
Correction factors are given for variations in support based on traditional span-depth ratios as suggested by
conditions, d/h, fy, and concrete density. The term c was the Post-Tensioning Institute (1976). As an approximate
developed from the computer analyses and depends on guideline, a span-to-depth ratio of 50 and 45 may be
the load levels and construction methods used. For heavi- used for two-way continuous slabs with and without drop
ly-loaded members, a limiting value of c = 4320 was pro- panels, respectively. A minimum drop panel of l/6 span
posed by Grossman for heavily loaded members. Smaller length each way is recommended. A span-to-depth ratio
thicknesses can be obtained if the required reinforcement of 55 for a two-way slab with two-way beams is reason-
ratio for less heavily loaded members is known and is able. For waffle slabs, a lower value of 35 is recom-
used to obtain a larger revised value of c from mended. Gilbert (1989) also gave a simple formula to
Grossmans data. express the maximum span-to-depth ratio of two-way
The term C,, given by post-tensioned floor systems. The expression provides an
initial estimate of the minimum slab thickness required
ID + L to limit deflections to some preselected maximum value.
c, = (4.18) 4.5.4 Methods for defection calculations-Control of
D + L
deflection in a two-way prestressed and post-tensioned
accounts for both the live-load-to-dead-load ratio, L/D, floor system is dealt with in Section 9.5.4 and Chapter 18
and the net long-term multiplier X, for deflections of ACI 318. However, unlike the two-way slab construc-
occurring after installation of partitions in buildings. tion in a nonprestressed case, there are no provisions
Although developed for beams only, the equation containing requirements to determine a minimum thick-
could be extended to two-way systems using a slab ness for two-way post-tensioned slabs. To compute the
system factor similar to that given by Gilbert (1985). deflections, the engineer may apply the methods pro-
posed for nonprestressed construction with appropriate
4.5-Prestressed two-way slab systems treatment of the effects of prestressing.
4.5.1 Introduction-Two-way post-tensioned concrete The accurate determination of deflections of two-way
slabs are widely used for the floor systems of office post-tensioned slabs is a complex operation involving
buildings, parking garages, shopping centers, and lift slabs considerations of the boundary conditions, loading pat-
in residential buildings. Due to its general economy and terns and history, changes of stiffness due to local
ability to satisfy architectural requirements, the post- cracking, and loss of prestress due to creep, shrinkage,
tensioned concrete flat plate has been widely adopted in and relaxation. For practical design purposes, it is usually
the United States as a viable structural system. This type adequate to use simple approximate expressions to esti-
of construction has grown over the past 25 years, despite mate the deflection, such as the crossing beam methods
competition from other floor systems. The popularity of including the equivalent frame approach described earl-
this type of construction is primarily due to the econ- ier, The mid-panel deflection can be approximated as the
omies that result from reduced slab thickness, longer sum of the center-span deflections of the column strip, in

Fig. 4.2-Definition of 6, and 6, for monotonic moment-deflection curve

one direction, and that of the middle strip, in the ortho- to total load minus that due to dead load. Under mono-
gonal direction. A detailed numerical example is given in tonic loading, two effective moment of inertia values
Nawy (1989). The use of gross stiffness values to co- should be used to calculate the deflections at the two
mpute deflections is justifiable only if the tensile stresses different load levels, as shown in Fig. 4.2.
in the concrete remain below the cracking stress. If For multistory slab construction, however, since the
cracking is predicted, then the effective moment of iner- load imposed on the slab during construction often ex-
tia may be used to estimate the influence of cracking on ceeds that due to the specified dead plus live load
the deflection, as discussed in Chapter 3, Section 3.6.2. (Grundy and Kabaila, 1963; etc.), the extent of cracking
Deflections of two-way prestressed systems can also is usually determined by the construction loads resulting
be computed by evaluating curvatures at sections based from shoring and reshoring procedures. Under these con-
on compatibility and equilibrium as described in Section ditions all values of immediate deflection should be cal- The time-dependent changes in strains in pre- culated using the effective moment of inertia correspond-
stressed sections are caused by relaxation of prestressed ing to the construction load level, as illustrated in Fig.
steel in addition to creep and shrinkage of concrete. The 4.3. This calculation procedure usually results in a
sections are subjected to normal force N and bending smaller live load deflection and larger dead load deflec-
moment M, producing axial strain as well as curvature. tion, with correspondingly larger sustained load deflec-
The position of the neutral axis after cracking is depen- tion.
dent on the value (M/N) in addition to geometric proper- A typical load-time history is shown in Fig. 4.4 for a
ties. Analysis details and a computational example are slab in a multistory structure. During construction, the
given in Ghali,1990. load on the slab increases as new slabs are placed above.
When construction above is no longer supported by the
4.6-Loads for deflection calculations slab under consideration, the load decreases to a value
ACI 318 stipulates that calculated deflections must corresponding to the slab self-weight plus an allowance
not exceed certain permissible values, expressed as frac- for superimposed dead load and sustained portion of live
tions of span length. Components of deflections to be load (load level at tl in Fig. 4.4).
considered are immediate live load deflection and incre- A simple procedure to determine slab loads during
mental deflection, including that due to live load, after construction was proposed by Grundy and Kabaila
installation of nonstructural elements. The live load com- (1963). More refined analysis procedures reported subse-
ponent of deflection is normally considered as that due quently [e.g., Liu et al (1985), Aguinaga-Zapata and


Fig. 4.3-Definition of 6, 6, and 6,,,t when construction loads exceed specified dead plus live load

Load, W

Installation of Non-structural Elements


Tf, V/L(var)
w sust
I I +.

Fig. 4.4-Schematic load-time history

Bazant (1986)] give results that are quite similar to the baila procedure
original Grundy and Kabaila procedure. The maximum Wdab = slab dead load
load during construction, including loads due to shoring WCL = construction live load
and reshoring plus an allowance for construction live N = number of shored and reshored levels
load, can be estimated using the following relationship:
Gardner (1985) recommends k, = k2 = 1.1. The con-
struction live load may be taken as 50 psf (2.4 kPa) as
(4.19) recommended by ACI 347R. The factor k, accounts for
errors in computing R due to variations in stiffnesses
where between the stories in the supporting system. The factor
k, = allowance for error in theoretical load ra- R has been shown to vary from 1.8 to 2.2, depending pri-
tio R marily on the number of stories of shores and reshores in
k2 = allowance for weight of formwork the system. If the shoring system to be used is unknown,
R = applied load/slab dead load ratio a value of R = 2.0 can be used in the calculation. Instead
= load ratio calculated by Grundy and Ka- of a factor k, for formwork weight, a value of 10 psf is



eflection, g

S const
o 63
6 ^
'3 Time

Fig. 4.5-Simplified load-time histoly and corresponding deflection-time history

considered to be a reasonable allowance for most form- tion load deflection, aconst.
work systems. 3. Calculate the live load deflection by scaling the
At time t, in Fig. 4.4, a slight increase in the sus- construction load deflection.
tained load occurs as nonstructural elements are in-
stalled. The variable portion of live load may be con-
sidered as applied intermittently thereafter. One
application of live load is shown at time t3.
An analysis procedure based on this type of loading where E,(Const) and Ec(L) are modulus of elasticity val-
history and ACI 209R creep and shrinkage functions was ues at application of construction load and live load,
developed by Graham and Scanlon (1986a), using the respectively.
principle of superposition. Effects of partial creep 4. Scale the construction load deflection to the sus-
recovery were considered. Analyses were also made for tained load level. Sustained load includes dead load plus
the simplified load-time history shown in Fig. 4.5 with the any portion of the live load assumed to be sustained.
corresponding displacement-time history. Long-term sus-
tained load deflections were obtained using multipliers
61 = wmst 6
calibrated with the more complex history of Fig. 4.4. wco~(max) l coMf l E&SW)
Resulting multipliers are included in Table 4.1.
Based on the procedures suggested by Sbarounis where E,(Sust) is the modulus of elasticity at the time
(1984) and Graham and Scanlon (1986a), the following sustained load is applied (i.e., at end of construction
approach based on the simplified load-time history can period).
be used to estimate long-term deflections in multi-story 5. Calculate sustained load deflection at time of
slab systems. installation of non-structural elements.
1. Estimate the maximum construction load expected
[ %wd~crx)l based on usual procedures for multi-story 62 = vz
2. Calculate the corresponding immediate construc- where X, = multiplier corresponding to time interval tl

to t2. (The time function given in Eq. 2.16 can be used to ity is evident, both during the construction period (first
determine 1, i.e., 35 days) and at approximately one year thereafter.
A histogram of one-year deflections, shown in Fig.
4.7, indicates a coefficient of variation of 29.9 percent for
these slabs and a range of deflections from approximately
the mean minus 50 percent to the mean plus 70 percent.
Calculated deflections at one year based on three as-
6. Calculate ultimate sustained load deflection. sumed values of modulus of rupture, and long-term mul-
tipliers proposed by Graham and Scanlon [1986(b)], are
63 = A, s, shown in Fig. 4.6. These results indicate that the best
estimate of the mean deflection was obtained using an
where AI = long-term multiplier (Table 4.1). effective modulus of rupture of 4E psi (0.33 E MPa).
7. Calculate the deflection due to the variable portion
The calculated deflection based on the ACI 318 specified
of live load, i.e., that portion of live load not assumed as
sustained. value, 7.5E psi (.62g MPa) was found to lie at the
low end of the range of measured deflections. The cal-
S&zr) = KSL (from step 3) culations incIuded effects of construction loads.
Sbarounis (1984) reported on deflection measure-
where ments taken after one year on 175 bays of a multi-story
building in Chicago. Measured deflections had a mean
value of 1.35 in. (34.3 mm) and a coefficient of variation
K variable live load w4w
= = - of 21.2 percent. The range in measured deflections was
total live load WL 0.53 in. to 2.16 in. (13.5 to 54.9 mm), i.e., from the mean
minus 60 percent to the mean plus 60 percent. Calcu-
8. Calculate increment in deflection after installation lated values were close to the mean deflection.
of nonstructural elements. A number of case studies of large deflections re-
ported in the literature has been summarized in ACI S3
= o + S&w) - S
o2 435.8R. These case studies, including examples from
Australia, Scotland, Sweden, and the U.S., highlight the
9. Compare calculated deflections with appropriate large number of factors that can cause variability in
permissible values. in-situ slab deflections.

4.7-Variability of deflections 4.8-Allowable deflections

ACI 435.4R, Variability of Defections of Simply Sup- ACI 318 specifies limits on calculated deflections for
ported Reinforced Concrete Beams, reported that the var- live load and incremental deflection after installation of
iability of actual deflections under nominally identical nonstructural elements. No limit is specified for total
conditions is often large. For simply supported beams deflection. However, on the assumption that nonstructur-
under laboratory conditions it was reported that, using al elements will be installed shortly after construction of
Bransons I-effective procedure, there is approximately a the slab, the specified limit on incremental deflection
90 percent probability that actual deflections of a par- indirectly controls the total deflection.
ticular beam will range between 80 percent and 130 per- The specified deflection limits apply to calculated
cent of the calculated value. The variability of deflections deflections. By calculating deflections based on unfac-
in the field can be even greater. tored design loads and expected material properties, the
Based on Monte Carlo simulation, Ramsay et al. calculated deflection should be interpreted as an estimate
(1979) indicated that the coefficient of variation for of the mean deflection. Recognizing the variability of
immediate deflection of beams ranged from 25 to 50 per- actual deflections as measured in the field, some varia-
cent. The major source of variation was found to be flex- tion from the calculated deflection is to be expected. If
ural stiffness and tensile strength of concrete, particularly the calculated deflection is close to the allowable def-
when the service load moment is close to the calculated lection, there is a high probability that the actual deflec-
cracking moment. Similar trends could presumably be ex- tion will exceed the allowable limit.
pected for two-way slabs. Other sources of variability in- Since the deflection limits are based on experience
clude variations of slab thickness and effective depth of and past practice resulting in generally satisfactory be-
reinforcing steel. havior, it must be assumed that the variability of actual
Jokinen and Scanlon (1985) presented results of an deflections is accounted for indirectly in the specified
analysis of field-measured two-way slab deflections for a limits.
28-story office tower in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Fig. The primary concern of ACI 318 is public safety. The
4.6 shows a plot of deflection versus time measurements serviceability provisions are of a general nature intended
for 40 nominally identical slab panels. The high variabil- to provide adequate serviceability for the majority of de-

DEFLECTION (mm) ( 25.4 mm = 1 in.)

50 l Measured Value
@I Mean Measured Value
. Calculated
/ \
\_/ Value
40 e l


@< t=0.32&MP,
30 l

.0 04 fr =O.GJzMPc
7.5 f: psi


0 I I I I I,,,, I I I111111 I I I I IIll

2 3 4 5678910 20 30 50 100 2 0 0 300 1000

TIME (days)

Fig. 4.6-Field-measured deflections for 40 nominally identical slab panels in 28-story building (Jokinen and Scanlon,

sign situations. Individual cases may require more strin- 15 in. x 24 in. in the N-S direction (381 mm x 610 mm).
gent requirements than the limited treatment given in The floor is subjected to a time-dependent deflection due
ACI 318. Guidance on appropriate deflection limits for to an equivalent uniform working load intensity w = 450
a range of applications is given in ACI 435.3R (1984). psf (21.5 kPa). Material properties of the floor are:

APPENDIX A4 4000 psi (27.6 MPa)

60,000 psi (414 MPa)
Example A4.1-Deflection design example for long-term 3.6 x lo6 psi (24.8 x lo6 kPa)
deflection of a two-way slab
The following example (Nawy, 1990) illustrates the Assume
application of the Equivalent Frame approach developed 1. Net moment M, from adjacent spans (ft-lb)
by Nilson and Walters (1975), along with the modulus of E-W N-S
rupture and long-term multiplier given in ACI 318. Support 1: 20 x lo3 Support 1: 40 x lo3
A 7-in. (178 mm) slab of a five panel by five panel Support 2: 5 x lo3 Support 4: 20 x lo3
floor system spanning 25 ft in the E-W direction (7.62 m)
and 20 ft in the N-S direction (6.10 m) is shown in Fig. 2. Equivalent column stiffness K,, - 400 E, lb-in. per
A4.1. The panel is monolithically supported by beams 15 radian in both directions. Find the maximum central de-
in. x 27 in. in the E-W direction (381 mm x 686 mm) and flection of the panel due to the long-term loading and


20 -

l 8-

l6 -
n = 40
l 4- -x = 32.53 mm
* s = 9.72mm
l2 - V = 29.9 %

I 0-


6- ( 25.4 mm = 1 in. )

4- r +

5 l5 25 35 45 55 65

Fig. 4.7-Histogram of one year deflections (Jokinen and Scanlon, 1985)

determine if its magnitude is acceptable if the floor E-W direction deflections (span = 25 ft)
supports sensitive equipment which can be damaged by Long-term w, = 450 psf
large deflections. 450 x 20(25)4 x 123
3. Cracked moment of inertia: s2; = 0.069 in.
384 x 3.6 x lo6 x 63,600
E-W: I,, = 45,500 in.4
N-S: I,, = 32,500 in.4
sC = 0.069 x 0.81 63,600 = 0.066 in.
Solution: 53,700
Note: All calculations are rounded to three significant
figures. sS = 0.068 x 0.19 x !!?@!!f = 0.243 in.
Calculate the gross moments of inertia (in.4) of the
sections in Fig. 8, namely, the total equivalent frame Its Rotation at end 1 is
in part (b), the column strip beam I, in part (c), and the
middle strip slab Is in part (d). These variables are: Ml 20 x ld x 12 = 1.67x 10m4 rad
8 z-z
Ics Ic Is l &c 400 x 3.6 x lo6
E-W 63,600 53,750 3430 45,500 and the rotation at end 2 is
N-S 47,600 40,000 4290 32,500

Next, calculate factors c~#~/4?t and cy2$/e2. In both M2

5xldx12 = 0.42 X 10 -4 rad
cases they are greater than 1.0. Hence, the factored mo- 400 x 3.6 x lo6
ments coefficients (percent) obtained from the tables in
where 8 is the rotation at one end if the other end is
Section 13.6 of ACI 318
s N = deflection adjustment due to rotation at supports
Column strip Middle strip
1 and 2 = M/8
(+ and -) (+ and -)
E-W 81.0 19.0 S" = (1.67 + 0.42) X 1~ X 300 = 0.08 in
O in.
N-S 67.5 32.5 8

u3 -
-- 4 -
e-----m 20 ft
(240 in.) ---*---



Fig. A4.1-Long-term deflection of two-way multi-panel slab on beams in Ex. A4.1, equivalent frame calculation method
(Nawy, 1990 -courtesy Prentice Hall)

Therefore, 40 x 103 x 12 = 3.3 10m4 rad

net SCs = 0.066 + 0.008 = 0.074 say 0.07 in. rotation 6, = 4
Kcc 400 x 3.6 lo6
net 6, = 0.243 + 0.008 = 0.251 say 0.25 in.
N-S direction deflections (span = 20 ft) M4 20 x ld x 12 = 1.67 x 10B4 rad
rotation 0, = K =
So 20' = 450 ~25(20)~ ~12~ =oo48 in cc 400 x3.6 x lo6
384 x 3.6 x lo6 x 47,000 l

47,000 sN 0~ (3.3 + 1.67)10-4 x240 =oo15

-m-E . in .
= 0.048 x0.675x- = 0.038 in. 8 8
6, 4WoO
So s 479m = 0.171 in.
= 0.048 x0.325x- net 6, = 0.038 + 0.015 = 0.053 say 0.05 in.

So9) = 0.171 + 0.015 = 0.186 say 0.19 in. I e = 0.037 x 63,600 + (1 - 0.037)45,500 = 46,200 in.4

total central deflection _ = as + iSq = $, + 6, N-S effective moment of inertia I4

_ E-W = aa + s, = 0.25 + 0.05 = 0.30 in.
^_ N-S = ar + s, = 0.19 + 0.07 = 0.26 in.
^ Hence, the average deflection at the center Mcr 0-97 x l@ = 0.345
of the
interior panel ?4(AEBw + ANss) = 0.28 in. (7 mm). Ma 2.81 x 105 l

Adjustment for cracked section: Use Bransons effective Mcr 3 = 0.041

moment of inertia equation,
i I Ma

M3 Mcr 3 I e = 0.041 x 47,000 + (1 - 0.041)32,500 = 33,100 in.4

Ie= 2
il 1 Ig + l-
Ma I
4 +
= 1.40
Calculation of ratio A4JIa: K l

Adjusted central deflection for cracked section effect

Mcr = 3 fr
= 1.40 x 0.28 = 0.39 in. (10 mm)
Q 25Jt x 12
where f, = modulus of rupture of concrete -= = 769 > 480 allowed in Table 4.2.
So 0.39
Yt = distance of center of gravity of section from
outer tension fibers
Hence, the long-term central deflection is acceptable.
E-W (240-in. flange width): yt = 21.5 in.
N-S (300 in. flange width): y, = 19.2 in.
Example A4.2-Deflection calculation for a flat plate
using the crossing beam method
f, = 7.5g = 7.4JZiRB = 474 psi An edge panel of 6 in. (150 mm) flat plate with
multiple panels in each direction is shown in Fig. A4.2.
Hence, The plate is supported on 16 in. x 16 in. (406 mm x 406
mm) columns. The slab is designed for an unfactored live
Mcp-w) = 474 x 63 , 600 = 1 17 x105 ft-lb
load of 60 psf (2.87 kPa) in addition to its self-weight of
21.5 xE
75 psf (3.59 kPa). Assume that the slab is subjected to
significant in-plane restraint. Check the live load de-
flection and incremental deflection at mid-panel if non-
M,(N-s) = 474 x 47, 000 = 0 .9 7105x ft-lb structural components are installed one month after re-
19.2 xE

moval of shoring. Material properties are:

wp fc' = 3000 psi (20.7 MPa)
20 x 450(25)2
interior panel hIa = - = forE-W fy = 60,000 psi (414 MPa)
16 16 EC = 3.12 x 10d psi (21,500 MPa)
= 3.52 x lo5 ft-lb
25 x 450(20)2 Using Eq. 4.4, deflection of column and middle strips
for N-S
16 can be obtained from
= 2.81 x 10 ft-lb
Note that the moment factor l/16 is used to be on So E-
5 -n [Mm + 0.1 (M, + MO)]
48 EcZe
the safe side, although the actual moment coefficients for
two-way action would have been smaller. in which moments and Ie are computed for a strip of unit
E-W effective moment of inertia Ze The mid-panel deflection is computed as the sum of
the column strip deflection in the N-S direction and the
Cr 1.17 x lo5 = 0.332 middle strip deflection i the E-W direction. Moments at

Ma unfactored load level due to dead plus live load are given
3.52 x lti l

in Table A4.1.
Cracking moment (A&,.)

( Mcr- - I3 = 0.037 fr = 4 K (significant restraint)

= 219 psi

Mid-panel deflection

So = SC + Sm = 0.69 in.

Live load deflection

16 x 16 Column (Typ)
I SL = (0.69) = 0.31 in.

Span length on diagonal

= /iii??%? = 20.94 ft. = 251 in.

Permissible live load deflection

= 4
-=- 251
360 360

Fig. A4.2-Plan of flat plate edge panel in Ex. A4.2, beam = 0.70 in.
crossing calculation method > 0.31 in . . . OK for short-term deflection

Incremental deflection
Mcr = 8
Use long-term multiplier = 2.5 applied to sustained
y* load deflection.
g = l/12 (12) (6)3 = 216 in.4
Assume sustained load = 75 + 20 = 95 psf
yt = 6/2 = 3 in.

Instantaneous deflection = (0.69) = 0.49 in.

Mel. =
Additional long-term deflection = (2.5)(0.49) = 1.23
= 1.314 ft. kips/ft
Effective moment of inertia (1J Long-term deflection at one month =
0.31 in.
Incremental deflection = 1.23 - 0.31 = 0.92 in.

Additional live load deflection =

(See Table 4.1 for tabulated values)
Total = 1.12 in.
Average 1e for column strip = 52.2 in.4

Average I& for middle strip = 216 in.4 251

Permissible deflection = -!- = - = 0.53 in.
480 480
Column strip deflection < 1.12 in. . . . NG for long-term deflection
Hence, camber the slab or revise the design if non-
(5) (16.7 x 12)*
structural components are supported.
s c -- [2.93 + 0.l(-2.45 -
(48) (3,120,000) (52.2)
4.94)](12,000) OF CONCRETE MEMBERS*
= 0.67 in.
Middle strip deflection
Building structures designed by limit states approach
may have adequate strength but unsatisfactory service-
_ (5) (12.7 x 12)* ability response. Namely, they may exhibit excessive
So m- [0.63 + 0.l(-0.72 -
( 48) (3,120,000)(216) -
deflection. Thus, the size of many flexural members is in
0.72)] (12,000)
= 0.02 in. * Principle author: R. S. Fling.

Table A4.1-Calculation of 1, for column and middle strips

N-S column strip E-W middle strip

Ext. Neg. (M1) Pos. (M,) Int. Neg. (M2) Neg. (Ml) Pos. (M,) Neg. (M,)
Moments (hf,) ft 2.45 2.93 4.94 0.72 (< Mcr) 0.63 (< M,) 0.72 (< M
kips/ft) cr

0.154 0.09 0.02 - - -

I,, (in.4) 26.8 34.3 46.7 - - -
Z, 56.0 50.6 50.1 216 (= Z,) 216(=Z) 216 (= Ig)
I, (average) 52.2 216

many cases determined by deflection response rather of deflection, and appropriate situations in which the
than by strength. This Chapter proposes design pro- option should be considered. The options are arranged
cedures for reducing the expected deflection that will in three groups; Design techniques, Construction tech-
enable design engineers to proportion building structures niques, and Materials selection.
to meet both strength and serviceability requirements.
The result could be more economical structures com- 5.2-Design techniques
pared to those designed with unnecessarily conservative 5.2.1 Increasing section depth-Increasing the depth
deflection response. The discussion assumes that a may not be possible after schematic design of the pos-
competent design is prepared in accordance with Building sible after schematic design of the building has been
Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318) and established because such dimensional changes may affect
construction follows good practices. the architectural and mechanical work. However, there
To properly evaluate options for reducing deflection, are many instances where beam depth can be increased.
a design engineer must know the level of stress in The reduction in deflection is approximately proportional
the member under consideration, that is, whether the to the square of the ratio of effective depth, d, for
member is uncracked, partially cracked or fully cracked. cracked sections and to the cube of the ratio of total
Heavily reinforced members tend to be fully cracked concrete depths for uncracked sections. This is based on
because of the heavy loads they are subjected to. In this the fact that the cracked moment of inertia, I,, is ex-
Chapter, only two limiting conditions are considered, pressed as,
uncracked members and fully cracked members. If the I,, = nA,(l-Qd2 in reinforced concrete and
applied moment in the positive region is more than twice Icr = n#d2(1-1.6 \/npp,) in prestressed concrete.
the cracking moment, considering the effect of flanges, Hence,
the member may be considered as fully cracked. Fre- 1,, = @d2 or Z,, = @dP2 and the gross moment of
quently, a member is only partially cracked (M, < M, < inertia Jg = bh3/12 for a rectangular section, namely lg =
2M,,) and the statements about both limiting conditions @)d3. For example, if an l8 in.-deep, rectangular beam
are not strictly applicable. Engineering judgement and with an effective depth of 15.5 in. is increased to 20 in.
appropriate calculations should be made to assess the deep, and all other parameters are kept the same, the
actual serviceability conditions of the beam. Chapter 2 cracked stiffness will increase by 27 precent [(17.5/15.5)2
and 3 of this report outline methods for computing the = 1.27], and the uncracked stiffness will increase by 37
degree of cracking in a member. percent [(20/18)3 = 1.37]. For heavily reinforced mem-
In addition to the stress conditions, there may be bers, if the amount of reinforcement is reduced when the
physical or nonstructural constraints on the use of some depth is increased, the cracked stiffness is increased only
options such as limits on increasing concrete dimensions. in proportion to the increase in depth or by 13 percent
All options must be evaluated in terms of cost since some for this example. This can be seen from substituting for
may increase the cost, and some may have offsetting con- the reinforcement area its equivalent value Mfljd in the
siderations that reduce the cost, while still others may expression Icr= A#-Qd2 giving I = f(d). The increase
have little effect on cost. For each option presented, in stiffness of an uncracked T-beam when it is made
there is a discussion on the effect of implementation on deeper will be less than that for a rectangular beam
deflection, the approximate range of potential reduction because the flanges do not change. Flanges tend to have

a fixed influence rather than a proportional influence on reinforcement. If the T-beam has a thin slab subiect to
uncracked stiffness. higher than normal shrinkage because of its high surface-
If, by increasing the depth, the concrete tensile stress to-volume ratio, then compression reinforcement will be
in a member is reduced sufficiently so that it changes more effective than for a rectangular beam. This will be
from a cracked, or partially cracked, to an uncracked true for ribbed slabs or joist systems as well.
member, the stiffness could increase dramatically. The 5.2.4 Addition of tension reinforcement-For un-
uncracked stiffness can be as much as three times the cracked members, addition of tension reinforcement has
partially cracked stiffness (Grossman, 1981). hardly any effect on deflection. For fully cracked mem-
5.2.2 Increasing section width-This option is not bers, addition of tension reinforcement reduces both
applicable to slabs or other members with physical immediate and long-term deflection almost in proportion
constraints on their width. Where beams cannot be made to the increase in the steel reinforcement area. This can
deeper because of floor to floor height limitations, but be seen from the cracked moment of inertia, I,,, defined
can be made wider, the increase in stiffness is propor- in Section 5.2.1. For all practical purposes IO = 0.9A,
tional to the increase in width if the member is un- since the variation in the term (1-k)j is usually small. For
cracked. If the member is cracked and remains cracked example, if the total deflection of a cracked member is
after increasing the width, the increase in stiffness is very 1.50 in. as in the previous example, increasing the tension
small. However, if a cracked member becomes uncracked reinforcement by 50 percent will reduce the deflection to
because the width is increased, its stiffness increases about 1.10 in. However, the increased reinforcement area
appreciably, possibly by as much as a factor of three should still be less than the maximum permitted by AC1
(Grossman, 1981). 318, namely a maximum of 0.75 times the balanced ratio
5.2.3 Addition of compression reinforcement-Using pb. This option is most useful for lightly reinforced solid
ACI 318 procedures, compression reinforcement has and ribbed slabs. The option of adding more tension re-
some effect on immediate deflection as it can influence inforcement is not available or is limited for heavily
IC,; thus I, will be affected, as will the initial deflection, reinforced beams unless compression reinforcement is
however small the influence is. But it can reduce addi- also added to balance the increase in tension bar area in
tional long-term or incremental deflection up to about 50 excess of 0.75 pb.
percent (ACI 318, 1989). The effect on total deflection 5.2.5 Prestressing application-Dead load deflection of
is somewhat less. The addition of compression rein- reinforced concrete members may be reduced substantial-
forcement reduces the additional long-term deflection in ly by the addition of prestressing. However, deflections in
the example to 0.50 in. or by 50 percent and the total prestressed concrete members due to live load and other
deflection to 1.00 in. or by 33 percent. transient loads are about the same as those in reinforced
Long-term deflection has two components, creep de- concrete members of the same stiffness, EI. If prestress-
flection and shrinkage warping. Compression reinforce- ing keeps the member in an uncracked state, without
ment reduces deflection because concrete creep tends to which it would otherwise crack, the live load deflection
transfer the compression force to the compression rein- would be considerably smaller. If, however, the pre-
forcement which does not itself creep. The closer the stressed member size is reduced, as is usually the case in
reinforcement is to the compression face of the member, order to take advantage of prestressing, then the live
the more effective steel reinforcement is in reducing load deflection becomes larger.
long-term creep deflection. Thus, compression reinforce- Consequently, the span/depth ratio in post-tensioned
ment is more effective in deeper than in shallower beams two-way floors is normally limited to 48 in lower floor
or slabs if the concrete cover to the compression face of slabs with light live load and 52 in roof slabs (ACI 318
the member is of constant value. For some very shallow Section R18.2.3, 1989). If the member has a high ratio of
members, due to the requirements of minimum bar live to dead load, then the span/depth ratio must be
cover, compression reinforcement could be at or near the proportionally reduced in order to give satisfactory
neutral axis and be almost totally ineffective in reducing deflection performance. A prestressing force sufficient to
long-term creep deflection. produce satisfactory deflection response should always be
Shrinkage warping occurs where the centroids of the provided, regardless of whether the member is uncracked
steel reinforcement and the concrete do not coincide and at service load or it is designed as partially prestressed
the shrinkage of concrete, combined with the dimensional with tolerable flexural crack width levels which are con-
stability of steel reinforcement, warps the member in a trolled by additional mild steel reinforcement.
fashion similar to a piece of bimetal subject to temper- 5.2.6 Revision of structure geometry-Common solu-
ature variations. Compression reinforcement reduces tions to reduce deflections include increasing the number
shrinkage warping because it brings the centroid of the of columns in order to reduce the length of the spans,
tension and compression reinforcement closer to the con- adding cross members to create two-way systems, and in-
crete neutral axis. While compression reinforcement re- creasing the size of columns to provide more end re-
duces shrinkage and warping of all flexural members, it straint to flexural members.
is especially effective for T-beams where the neutral axis 5.2.7 Revision of deflection Limit criteria-If deflection
is close to the compression face and far from the tension of a member is excessive, the deflection limits may be

re-examined to determine if they are unnecessarily re- slabs were not all built level or at the specified grade or
strictive. If experience or analysis indicates that those the method and timing of form stripping was not uni-
limits (see Chapters 2 and 3) can be relaxed, then other formly applied. Also, construction loads may not have
action might not be required. Many building codes do been applied uniformly.
not set absolute limits on deflection. An engineer might 5.3.4 Delay of the first loading-This allows the con-
determine that the building occupancy, or construction crete to gain more strength before loading or helps to
conditions, such as a sloping roof, do not require the reach its design strength. Both the modulus of elasticity
normal deflection limits. EC and the modulus of rupture& will be increased. An
increase in E, increases the flexural stiffness. An increase
5.3-Construction techniques in the modulus of rupture value, f, reduces the amount
5.3.1 Concrete curing to allow gain in strength- of cracking or even allows the member to remain un-
Deflection response is determined by concrete strength cracked with an increase in flexural stiffness EI as noted
at first loading, not by final concrete strength. If the in the next section.
construction schedule makes early loading of the con- 5.3.5 Delay in installation of deflection-sensitive
crete likely or desirable, then measures to ensure high- elements or equipment-Such delay in equipment installa-
strength at first loading or construction loading can be tion will have no effect on immediate or total deflection,
effective. For example, if at the design compressive except as previously noted in 5.3.1. But incremental de-
strength fc of 4000 psi, the member would beuncracked flection will be reduced, namely the deflection occurring
as designed, but it is loaded when concrete strength is from the time a deflection-sensitive component is in-
2500 psi, it could be excessively cracked due to a lower stalled until it is removed or the deflection reaches its
modulus of rupture at the time of loading. Even though final value. For example, if the additional long-term
its final load-carrying capacity was satisfactory, the deflection is 1.00 in., and installation of partitions is
cracked member could still deflect several times more delayed for 3 months, the incremental deflection will be
than a similar uncracked one. Furthermore, the modulus approximately 0.50 in. or about one-half as much as the
of elasticity of a 4000 psi concrete is higher than that of total deflection.
2500 psi concrete (see Section 5.4 of this report for the 5.3.6 Location of deflection-sensitive equipment to
effects of material selection on these parameters). avoid deflection problems-Equipment such as printing
5.3.2 Concrete curing to reduce shrinkage and creep- presses, scientific equipment and the like must remain
Immediate deflection will not be greatly affected by level and should be located at mid-span where the
concrete curing but additional long-term deflection will change in slope is very small with the increase in
be reduced. Assuming the long-term component of de- deflection. On the other hand, because the amplitude of
flection is evenly divided between shrinkage and creep, if vibration is highest at mid-span, vibration-sensitive
shrinkage is reduced 20 percent by good curing, the addi- equipment may be best located near the supports.
tional long-term deflection due to shrinkage will be re- 5.3.7 Provision of architectural details to accommodate
duced by 10 percent. The effect will be most pronounced expected deflection-Partitions that abut columns, as an
on members subject to high shrinkage such as those with example, may show the effect of deflection by separating
a high surface/volume ratio (smaller members), those horizontally from the column near the top even though
with thin flanges, and structures in arid atmospheres or the partition is not cracked or otherwise damaged. Archi-
members which are restrained. The effect of good curing tectural details should accommodate such movements.
on creep is similar to its effect on shrinkage. Likewise, windows, walls, partitions, and other non-
5.3.3 Control of shoring and reshoring procedures- structural elements supported by or located under de-
Many studies indicate that the shoring load on floors of flecting concrete members should be provided with slip
multi-story buildings can be up to twice the dead weight joints in order to accommodate the expected deflections
of the concrete slab itself. Because the design super- or differential deflections between concrete members
imposed load is frequently less than the concrete self above and below the non-structural elements.
weight, the slab may be seriously overstressed and 5.3.8 Building camber into floor slabs-Built in camber
cracked due to shoring loads instead of remaining un- has no effect on the computed deflection of a slab. How-
cracked as assumed by calculations based on design ever, cambering is effective for installation of partitions
loads. Thus, the flexural stiffness could be reduced to as and equipment, if the objective is to have a level floor
little as one third of the value calculated assuming design slab after deflection takes place. For best results, de-
loads only. Furthermore, the shoring loads may be im- flection must be carefully calculated using the appro-
posed on the floor slabs before the concrete has reached priate modulus of concrete E, value and the correct
its design strength (see discussion in Section 5.3.1). moment of inertia I. Overestimating the deflection value
Construction of formwork and shoring should ensure can lead the designer to specify unreasonable overcam-
that a sag or negative camber is not built into the slab. bering. Hence, the pattern and value of cambering at
Experience indicates that frequently the apparent deflec- several locations has to be specified and the results
tion varies widely between slabs of identical design and monitored during construction. Procedures have to be
construction. Some reasons for this may be that such revised as necessary for slabs which are to be constructed

at a later date. crete and Commentary, ACI 318, American Concrete

5.3.9 Ensuring that top bars are not displaced down- Institute, Detroit, Michigan, 1989, 353 pp.
ward-Downward displacement of top bars always re- Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature
duces strength. The effect on deflection in uncracked Effects in Concrete Structures, SP-27, American Con.
members is minimal. But its effect on cracked members, crete Institute, Detroit, 1971, pp. 51-93; SP-76, 1982, pp.
namely those that are heavily loaded, is in proportion to 193-300.
the square of the ratio of change in effective depths for Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature
cantilevers but much less for continuous spans. This re- Effects in Concrete Structures, American Concrete
duced effect in continuous members is because the flex- Institute, ACI-209R-92, Manual of Concrete Practice,
ural stiffness and resulting deflection of the member is 1994, pp. l-47.
determined primarily by member stiffness at the midspan State-of-the-Art Report on High Strength Concrete,
section. Thus, the deflection of cantilevers is particularly ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V. 81, No. 4, July-August
sensitive to misplacement of the top reinforcing bars. 1984, pp. 364-410.
Deflection could increase, in continuous members, if the State-of-the-Art Report on Temperature-Induced
reduction in strength at negative moment regions results Deflections of Reinforced Concrete Members, SP-86,
in redistribution of moments. American Concrete Institute, Detroit, 1985, pp. 1-14.
ACI Committee 435, Building Code Subcommittee,
5.4-Materials selection Proposed Revisions by Committee 435 to AC1 Building
5.4.1 Selection of materials for mix design that reduce Code and Commentary Provisions on Deflections, ACI
shrinkage and creep or increase the moduli of elasticity and JOURNAL , Proceedings, V. 75, No. 6, June 1978, pp. 229-
rupture-Materials having an effect on these properties 238.
include aggregates, cement, silica fume, and admixtures. ACI Committee 435, Subcommittee 7, Deflections of
Lower water/cement ratio, a lower slump and changes in Continous Concrete Beams, ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings,
other materials proportions can reduce shrinkage and V. 70, No. 12, Dec. 1973, pp. 781-787.
creep or increase the moduli of elasticity or rupture. ACI Committee 435, Subcommittee 2, Variability of
5.4.2 Use of concretes with a higher modulus of elas- Deflections of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete
ticity-Using AC1 318 procedures, the stiffness of an Beams, ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings, V. 69, No. 1, Jan.
uncracked member increases in proportion to the elastic 1972, pp. 29.35.
modulus which varies in proportion to the square root of Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature
the cylinder strength. (ACI 318, 1989, Sections Effects in Concrete Structures, SP-27, American Con-
and 8.5) The stiffness of a cracked section is affected crete Institute, Detroit, 1971, pp. 51-93.
little by a change in the modulus of elasticity. ACI Committee 435, Subcommittee 1, Allowable
5.4.3 Use of concretes with a higher modulus of rupture Deflections, ACI JOURNAL , Proceedings, V. 65, No. 6,
-Concrete with a higher modulus of rupture does not June 1968, pp. 433-444.
necessarily increase the stiffness of uncracked members ACI Committee 435, Deflections of Reinforced Con-
and highly cracked members. Stiffness of partially crete Flexural Members, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V.
cracked members increases because of the reduction of 63, No. 6, June 1966, pp. 637-674.
the degree of cracking. The increase in stiffness (decrease Ahmad, S.H., and Shah, S.P., Stress-Strain Curves of
in deflection) depends on steel reinforcement percentage, Concrete Confined by Spiral Reinforcement, ACI
the increase in modulus of rupture, and the magnitude of JOURNAL, Proceedings, V. 79, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1982, pp.
applied moment. 484.490.
5.4.4 Addition of short discrete fibers to the concrete Al-Zaid, R., Al-Shaikh, A.H., and Abu-Hussein, M.,
mix--Such materials have been reported to reduce Effect of Loading Type on the Effective Moment of
shrinkage and increase the cracking strength, both of Inertia of Reinforced Concrete Beams, ACI Structural
which might reduce deflection (Alsayed, 1993). Journal, V. 88, No. 2, March-April 1991, pp. 184-190.
ASCE Task Committee on Finite Element Analysis
5.5-Summary of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Finite Element
Table 5.1 summarizes some of the preventive mea- Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, ASCE, 1982, New
sures needed to reduce or control deflection. This table York, 545 pp.
can serve as a general guide to the design engineer but Bazant, Z.P, Panula, L., Creep and Shrinkage
is not all inclusive, and engineering judgement has to be Characterization for Analyzing Prestressed Concrete
exercised in the choice of the most effective parameters Structures, PCI Journal, V. 25, No. 3, May-June 1980,
that control deflection behavior. pp. 86-122.
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Table 5.1-Deflection reducing options

Option Effect on section stiffness

Cracked Uncracked
Design techniques
1. Deeper members (hfi)3 for rectangular beams. Less for T- (d/d)2 or (do/d). If change to uncracked
beams. section, up to 300 percent.
2. Wider members @*lb) Small unless changed to uncracked section.
3. Add As' Up to 50 percent for ALP No effect for Ai. 1 Up to 50 percent for ALP NO effect for Ai.
4. Add As No effect. A,*/!,.
5. Add prestress Reduces dead load deflection to nearly zero. Reduces dead load deflection to nearly zero
and member to uncracked.
6. Structural Large effect. Large effect.
7. Revise criteria See text. See text.
8. Cure: f, Same as higher E, and f, Same as higher E, and f, and could change to
uncracked section.
9. Cure: E, and E, For long-term deflection (Esh*/Es,,) and For long-term deflection (E&*/IQ and
(%r*E& (%r*Gr)*
10. Choring Large effect, see text. Large effect, see text.
11. Delay first Similar to options in Section 5.4. Similar to options in Section 5.4.
12. Delay installation Up to 50 percent+ depending on time delay. Up to 50 percent+ depending on time delay.
13. Locate equipment See text. See text.
14. Architectural See text. See text.
15. Camber See text. See text.
16. Top bars No effect. Up to (d/d)2 for cantilevers.
17. Materials See. Section 5.4. See Section 5.4.
18. Mix design See Sections 5.4.2 and 5.4.3. See Sections 5.4.2 and 5.4.3.
19. Higher E, (Ec*/Ec) or cfc*lf,)os. Small.
20. Higher f, None. Significant.
21. Use fiber See Sections 5.3.2 and 5.4.4. See Sections 5.3.2 and 5.4.4.
* = a superscript denoting parameters that have been changed to reduce deflection.
_ = deflection.
E = strains; ESh = shrinkage strain; and E, = creep strain.
Other symbols are the same as those specified in the ACI 318-89 (Revised 1992) code.

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Measured and Computed One-Year Deflections, Con- 1965, pp. 77-101.
crete International, V. 6, No. 8, August 1984, pp. 31-35. Zienkiewicz, O.C., The Finite Element Method,
Scanlon, A., and Murray D. W., Practical Calculation McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1977.
of Two-Way Slab Deflections, Concrete International,
November 1982, pp. 43-50. Chapter 5
Simmonds, S.H., Deflection Considerations in the Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Design of Slabs, ASCE National Meeting on Transporta- Concrete (ACI 318-89)(Revised 1992) and Commen-
tion Engineering, Boston, Mass., July 1970, 9 pp. tary-ACI318R-89 (Revised 1992), American Concrete
Tam, K.S.S., and Scanlon, A., Deflection of Two- Institute, Detroit, 1992, 345 pp.
Way Slabs Subjected to Restrained Volume Change and Alsayed, S.H., Flexural Deflection of Reinforced
Transverse Loads, ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings, V. 83, Fibrous Concrete Beams, ACI Structural Journal, V. 90,
No. 5, 1986, pp. 737-744. No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1993, pp. 72-76.
Timoshenko, S. and Woinowsky-Krieger, S., Theory of Grossman, Jacob S., Simplified Computation for
Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, Effective Moment of Inertia, Ie and Minimum Thickness
1959. to Avoid Deflection Computations, ACI JOURNAL , Pro-
Thompson, D.P., and Scanlon, A., Minimum Thick- ceedings, V. 78, Nov.-Dec. 1981, pp. 423-439.
ness Requirements for Control of Two-Way Slab Deflec-
tions, ACI Structural Journal, V. 85, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. * This report was submitted to letter ballot of the committee and approved in
1986, pp. 12-22. accordance with Institute balloting procedures.

APPENDIX BDETAILS OF THE SECTION considered in the analysis of displacements (see Section B7).
CURVATURE METHOD FOR CALCULATING A linear stress-strain relationship is also assumed for the
DEFLECTIONS* reinforcement. The method in this appendix can be applied
This appendix presents a general method for calculating not only for steel reinforcement but also for other reinforce-
displacements (translations and rotations) in prestressed and ment materials, such as fiber-reinforced polymers (Hall and
nonprestressed reinforced concrete plane frames and beams. Ghali 1997; ISIS Canada 2001)
The method is based on analysis of strain distribution at indi-
Cracking changes the distribution of internal forces in stati-
vidual sections to determine axial strain and curvature under
cally indeterminate structures. For example, sections that
prescribed loading conditions.
crack over the supports of continuous beams result in reduced
negative moments at these sections and increased positive
B1Introduction moments at midspans. This redistribution of bending
The body of this report discusses control of deflection by
moments can be important in deflection calculations.
different means, including the choice of thickness of
The procedure presented in this appendix is intended to
members, the selection of the material, and the construction
compute deformations in service; it does not track the
techniques. It also discusses simplified calculation methods.
behavior as the load approaches ultimate. Approximations
The method in this appendix represents a more comprehensive
are involved for nonlinear effects when the concrete stress
method for the calculation of deformations in plane frames.
exceeds one-half its compressive strength and when
Starting with the calculation of axial strain and curvature at
unbonded post-tensioning is used. Strain compatibility of
individual sections, the variation of these parameters over
unbonded tendons and the adjacent concrete is not satisfied
the length of members is determined and used to calculate
(Ariyawardena and Ghali 2002).
the translations or the rotations at any section. Thus, the
B1.1 Notation
comprehensive analysis requires more calculations than the
simplified methods; it also requires more given (or assumed) A = cross-sectional area
data. It accounts for the time-dependent effects of creep and B = first moment of cross-sectional area
shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of prestressing steel, Ct = ratio of creep strain to the initial strain (occurring
using time-dependent material parameters that need to be immediately after stress application)
included in the given data. The comprehensive analysis is dA = elemental area
recommended when the deflection is critical and accuracy is E = modulus of elasticity
necessary. In this case, the analysis gives at any section of a fct = tensile strength of concrete
plane frame strain distribution that can be used to calculate I = second moment of cross-sectional area
displacement components, composed of translations in two Ie = effective second moment of cross-sectional area
orthogonal directions and a rotation. Thus, the analysis can l = member length
give vertical deflections as well as horizontal drifts. M = bending moment
The general method in this appendix determines the N = normal force
displacements (translations and rotations) in prestressed and n = ratio of modulus of elasticity of reinforcement to
nonprestressed reinforced concrete plane frames. The modulus of elasticity of concrete
general method is based on an analysis of strain distribution P = absolute value of prestressing force
at a section considering the effects of a normal force and a t = time
moment caused by applied loads, prestressing, creep and
y = distance measured downward from a horizontal x-axis
shrinkage of concrete, and relaxation of prestressing steel.
= coefficient to account for the effects of bond quality
The calculated axial strain and the curvature at various
of reinforcement, cyclic loading, and sustained
sections of the frame can then be used to calculate displace-
loading on tension stiffening
ment by virtual work or other classical techniques. The
sectional analysis can accommodate the effects of creep and = d/dy = slope of stress diagram
shrinkage of concrete and relaxation of the prestressing steel. = deflection or camber
A sensitivity analysis of the uncertainties can be performed = strain
to determine the effect of varying the time-dependent param- O = strain at reference point O
eters on the calculated displacements. SH = unrestrained shrinkage of concrete
The sectional analysis is intended for service conditions. A = dimensionless coefficient used to calculate curva-
linear stress-strain relationship can be assumed for the tures due to creep and shrinkage in reinforced non-
concrete under service conditions, provided that the concrete prestressed sections (See Section B5.3)
stress does not exceed about half the compressive strength. = stress
At a crack location, the concrete section in tension is O = stress at reference point O
ignored. At an uncracked location, reinforcement bonded to = aging coefficient
the concrete causes increased stiffness, which should be r = reduction multiplier of the intrinsic relaxation
= curvature (= d/dy = slope of strain diagram)
p = intrinsic relaxation
435R Appendix B became effective January 10, 2003. For a list of Committee
membership at the time of the creation of this section, please see the end of the Appendix. pr= reduced relaxation

Subscripts the initial deflection to give the deflection due to creep and
1 and 2 = uncracked state and cracked state, with concrete shrinkage combined.
in tension ignored, respectively The analysis method can determine the upper and the lower
c = concrete bounds of probable deflections by varying the input parame-
cr = cracking ters and repetition of the calculation. In statically indetermi-
g = gross concrete cross section nate structures, the time-dependent effects can develop
m = mean value interpolated between States 1 and 2 changes in the stress resultants; computation of these changes
ns = nonprestressing steel is discussed in Ghali, Favre, and Elbadry (2002).
ps = prestressing steel
B3Cross-sectional analysis outline
B2Background Cross-sectional analysis is applicable for initial and
Calculation of deflections of prestressed or nonprestressed time-dependent strains and stresses in prestressed and
reinforced concrete members is complicated by several nonprestressed reinforced concrete structures. Cracking
factors, including shrinkage and creep of concrete, relaxation may occur depending on the amount of prestressing
of prestressing reinforcement, and cracking. The analysis provided. The analysis assumes that structures are
presented in this appendix can be used to determine the initial composed of members, for which plane cross sections
and the time-dependent stresses, strains, and displacement at remain plane after deformation. The strain distribution over
service loads for prestressed or nonprestressed reinforced the cross section, or a part of the cross section in the case of
concrete members for which the internal forces are known. composite cross section, can be defined by two parameters:
The procedure accounts for cracking; equilibrium and the normal strain O at an arbitrary reference point O and the
compatibility requirements of basic mechanics are satisfied. curvature , that is, the gradient of the strain over the depth
The accuracy of deformation calculations for reinforced of the section. The parameters O and can be used to calculate
concrete structures depends upon the thoroughness of the displacement (translations and rotations) by established struc-
analysis method and the accuracy of the parameters used as tural analysis methods, such as virtual work or moment area.
given data. These parameters include the moduli of elasticity
of concrete, nonprestressing and prestressing reinforce- B4Material properties
ments, the creep coefficient of concrete, the unrestrained This section defines the material parameters required as
shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of the prestressing rein- input in the calculation of displacement. The parameters are:
forcement, and, when cracking occurs, the tensile strength of Ec = the modulus of elasticity of concrete;
the concrete. It is impossible to eliminate the error caused by Ct = the creep coefficient;
the uncertainty of the input parameters because they depend = the aging coefficient;
upon variables, such as the properties of the concrete, the SH = the free shrinkage of concrete; and
ambient temperature, and the relative humidity. An analysis p = the intrinsic relaxation of the prestressing steel.
satisfying the two basic requirements of mechanics, equilib- Guidance on the values of Ec, Ct, SH, , and p to be
rium and compatibility, can reduce the error in the calculations. used in design are given in ACI 209R, CEB-FIP (1990), and
This appendix presents such a method for structural concrete Magura, Sozen, and Siess (1964). Refer to Section B10 for
frames. A study of the sensitivity of the calculated displace- example values of these parameters.
ments to the values of the input parameters is presented in
B4.1 CreepThe lines AB and BC in Fig. B4.1(a) repre-
Ghali, Favre, and Elbadry (2002); a website for this book
sent the variation of a stress increment c, introduced on
provides three computer programs to assist in the calculations.
concrete at time t0, and sustained to time t. The corre-
For statically determinant structures, the equilibrium sponding variation of strain is represented by curve EFG in
requires that the stress resultants at any cross section are not Fig. B4.1(b). The total corresponding strain, instantaneous
to be changed by the time-dependent effects of creep, plus creep, at time t can be expressed by:
shrinkage, and relaxation, and that the stress resultants be
equal to the known normal force N and the bending moment
M. Compatibility requires that the strains in bonded rein- c
c ( t ) = -------------- [ 1 + C t ( t, t 0 ) ] (B4-1)
forcement and concrete are equal. For prestressing steel, this Ec ( t0 )
requirement applies to the change in strain occurring after
transfer of the prestress force to the concrete. Most of this where Ec(t0) is the modulus of elasticity of concrete at time
appendix deals with the analysis of stress and strain distribu- t0. Ct(t,t0) is the creep coefficient, which is equal to the creep
tions in a cross section of a member. After the strain distri- strain in the period t0 to t divided by the instantaneous strain.
bution has been determined, calculation of the deflected When the stress increment c is introduced gradually over
shape of the structure represents a geometry problem that has the period t0 to t, represented by Curve ADC in Fig. B4.1(a),
been covered in many textbooks (Ghali and Neville 1997); the total strain at time t is (refer to Curve EHI in Fig. B4.1(b)):
also refer to Section B8. The procedure of analysis presented
in this appendix can be used to evaluate the validity of
simplified analyses that do not adhere to the requirements of c ( t ) = -------------- [ 1 + C t ( t, t 0 ) ] (B4-2)
equilibrium and compatibility, such as use of a multiplier to Ec ( t0 )

Fig. B5.1Stress and strain distribution in a cross section

subjected to normal force N and a bending moment M. This
figure also defines positive directions for all parameters.

properties of the steel and the magnitude of the initial stress

in the tendon. In concrete members, relaxation in a
prestressing tendon is less than the intrinsic relaxation
because of the additional reduction in stress due to creep and
shrinkage that occur simultaneously with stress relaxation.
Fig. B4.1Variation of stress and strain with time: (a) The reduced relaxation value to be used when calculating
stress; and (b) strain. time-dependent stresses and deformations is

c pr = r p (B4-5)
c ( t ) = ------------------
- (B4-3)
E c ( t, t 0 )
where r is a function of the initial steel stress and the total
prestress change (Ghali et al. 2002); a value of r = 0.8 is a
where is the aging coefficient, and Ec (t,t0) is the age- reasonable value to use in practice.
adjusted modulus of elasticity of concrete.
Examples of stresses that are introduced gradually include B5Sectional analysis
time-dependent effects of shrinkage, prestress loss, and The procedure in Section B5.2 satisfies equilibrium and
support settlement. The aging coefficient is mainly a function strain compatibility at all reinforcement layers and applies to
of t0 and t (Ghali, Favre, and Elbadry 2002); a value of 0.8 can prestressing and nonprestressing reinforcement in cracked or
be used in most cases because varies between 0.7 and 0.9. uncracked sections. In a section post-tensioned by a
Tabulated values of are given in ACI 209R. The aging coef- unbonded internal or external tendon, the change in strain in
ficient is used as a multiplier to the creep coefficient, Ct(t, t0), the tendon due to loads applied after prestressing or due to
as shown in Eq. (B4-2). The aging coefficient was introduced creep, shrinkage, or relaxation is not compatible with the
by Trost (1967) and Baant (1975) to calculate the total strain, change in strain in the adjacent concrete. The procedure
including creep, due to a gradually introduced stress incre- presented in Section B7.2 ignores this incompatibility; thus,
ment, as represented by Curve ADC in Fig. B4.1(a). it implies an approximation when applied to a structure
B4.2 ShrinkageThe strain that results from unrestrained having unbonded internal or external prestressed tendons
shrinkage of concrete between time t0 and t, SH(t,t0), (Ariyawardena and Ghali 2002).
depends mainly upon the size and the shape of the member, B5.1 Review of basic equationsThe following is the
the properties of concrete, the ambient air humidity, and the derivation of equations for the distribution of stress and
ages of concrete at t0 and t (ACI 209R). The same parameters strain over a homogeneous elastic cross section subjected
also influence the value of the creep coefficient Ct (t,t0). For to a normal force N at an arbitrary reference point O
the analysis of deformations in a specified period t0 to t, the combined with a moment M about a horizontal axis through
given data include the value of the hypothetical shrinkage O (Fig. B5.1). Assuming that a plane cross section remains
that would occur in the period if the concrete were free to plane, the stress and strain variations over the depth are
shrink. This value is: expressed by equations of straight lines:

SH(t,t0) = SH(t,ts) SH(t0,ts) (B4-4) = O + y (B5-1a)

where the time ts is the start of drying shrinkage. When the = O + y (B5-1b)
analysis is for ultimate shrinkage and creep, t = .
B4.3 Relaxation of prestressing steelThe loss of tensile where y is a distance of any fiber, measured from the reference
stress in a tendon that is elongated and then maintained at a horizontal axis through O, and and are strain and stress
constant length and temperature is referred to as the intrinsic at any fiber. The strain parameters O and define the strain
relaxation and is denoted p. The value p depends on the distribution; O is the strain value at O; = d/dy = curvature.

Similarly, the stress parameters O and define the stress M

= ----- (B5-7b)
distribution; O is stress value at O; = d/dy is the slope of I
the stress diagram. Assuming a linear stress-strain relation-
ship, the strain and the stress parameters are related by
O = ------- (B5-8a)
O = EO (B5-2a)

= E (B5-2b) = ------ (B5-8b)
where E is the modulus of elasticity of the homogeneous
material. Choosing O at a fixed point (for example, the top fiber)
rather than the centroid has the advantage that the location of
The stress resultants are:
the centroid does not have to be determined for the
uncracked and cracked stages. The equations in this section
N = dA (B5-3a) will be used for the structural concrete section, with A, B, and
I being properties of the transformed section, which is the
area of the concrete plus the area of the reinforcement multi-
M = y dA (B5-3b) plied by the modular ratio (Ens or Eps for reinforcement
divided by Ec or Ec for concrete); where Ens and Eps are the
Substitution of Eq. (B5-1a) and (B5-1b) into (B5-3a) and moduli of elasticity of nonprestressing and prestressing rein-
(B5-3b), respectively, gives the stress resultants forcement, respectively; and Ec and Ec are modulus and age-
adjusted modulus of concrete, respectively. The transformed
section has modulus of elasticity equal to that of concrete.
N = AO + B (B5-4a)
When cracking occurs, only the area of concrete in compres-
sion is included in the transformed section.
M = BO + I (B5-4b)
B5.2 Instantaneous and time-dependent stress and
strainThis section describes a procedure to analyze imme-
where A, B, and I are the cross-sectional area and its first and diate increments of strains (t0) and stresses (t0) in a
second moments about a horizontal axis through O, respec- prestressed or nonprestressed section and the changes in
tively. Thus, these values in a period t0 to t. The times t0 and t represent
instances in multistage construction when a load or
prestressing is applied, or when the support conditions are

A = dA; B = ydA; I = y2dA. modified. The term immediate means initial before occur-
rence of creep, shrinkage, and relaxation.
When N and M are known, the corresponding strain and The given data are as follows (Fig. B5.2):
stress parameters can be determined by solution of Eq. (B5-4a) Gross concrete dimensions of the section, areas Aps and
and (B5-4b) and by using Eq. (5-2a) and (5-2b): Ans (with subscripts ps and ns referring to prestressing
and nonprestressing reinforcement, respectively);
O = --------------------
- (B5-5a) Coordinates y defining the location of each area;
AI B Magnitudes of normal force N and bending moment M
introduced at t0;
BN + AM Elasticity moduli Ec(t0), Eps , and Ens;
= --------------------------- (B5-5b)
2 Creep and aging coefficients of concrete Ct(t,t0 ) and
(t,t0), respectively; and
Unrestrained shrinkage of concrete SH(t,t0), and
IN BM reduced relaxation pr.
O = --------------------------
E ( AI B ) The values of N and M, respectively, represent the total
normal force at the reference point O, and the bending
BN + AM moment introduced at t0 including any statically indeterminate
= --------------------------- (B5-6b) effects of loads and prestressing. It is assumed that just
E ( AI B )
before introducing N and M, the section is subjected to linearly
varying strain and stress defined by the values at O and the
When O is chosen at the centroid, B = 0, and Eq. (B5-5a), derivatives with respect to y.
(B5-5b), (B5-6a), and (B5-6b) take the more familiar forms As an example, consider the cross section at the midspan
of the post-tensioned, simple beam subjected at time t0 to a
N prestressing force P, and the member self-weight per unit
O = ---- (B5-7a)
A length q in Fig. B5.3(a) illustrates the meaning of the

Fig. B5.3Examples explaining the meaning of symbols N

and M, Eq. (5-9a) and (5-9b): (a) post-tensioned simple
beam; (b) pretensioned simple beam; and (c) continuous
post-tensioned beam.

If the beam is continuous over two symmetrical spans

(Fig. B5.3(c)), the values of N and M introduced at midspan
at t0 are
Fig. B5.2Analysis of instantaneous and time-dependent
strain and stress in a cross section for a single time interval N = P (B5-10a)
in a multistage construction.

symbols N and M. The values of N and M introduced at M = yps P + ql

------- + M (B5-10b)
midspan section at t0 are
where M is the statically indeterminate moment due to
N = P (B5-9a)
prestressing. N and M are resultants, at t0, of the stress
change in concrete and nonprestressing steel.
ql The analysis, which assumes cracking does not occur, is
M = ypsP + ------- (B5-9b)
8 performed in four steps. Figure B5.2 indicates additional
analysis required to account for cracking, as discussed in
where P is the absolute value of the jacking prestress force Section B6.
less friction loss; and yps and l are defined in Fig. B5.3(a). Step 1Calculate the instantaneous strain parameters,
The parameters N and M are resultants of the instantaneous O(t0) and (t0), using Eq. (B5-6a) and (B5-6b) and
stress change in concrete, excluding the cross-sectional area substituting for A, B, and I the properties of a transformed
of the prestressing duct, and in the nonprestressing steel. section composed of Ac plus nns(t0)Ans and nps(t0)Aps, where
If the beam is pretensioned (Fig. B5.3(b)), Eq. (B5-9a) and nns or nps is the ratio of modulus of elasticity of nonpre-
(B5-9b) give values of N and M, but with P being the absolute stressing Ens or prestressing Eps, reinforcement divided by
value of the force in the tendon at t0, immediately before the Ec(t0); Aps includes only the cross-sectional area of rein-
prestress transfer. Furthermore, N and M represent resultants forcement prestressed earlier than t0. The instantaneous
of stress changes at transfer in the concrete and in the changes in stress parameters O(t0) and (t0) are calcu-
nonprestressing and the prestressing steels. lated by Eq. (B5-2a) and (B5-2b), substituting Ec(t0) for E.

Fig. B5.4Properties of the transformed section at t0 and the age-adjusted trans-

formed section: (a) cracked section at t0; and (b) age-adjusted transformed section.

Step 2Determine parameters for the hypothetical strain Determine the stress resultants that cancel the effect of the
change that would occur, in the period t0 to t, if creep and prestressing steel relaxation
shrinkage were unrestrained, using:
Nrelax = Apspr (B5-15a)
O free(t,t0) = SH (t,t0) + CtO(t,t0) (B5-11a)
Mrelax = Aps yps pr (B5-15b)
free = Ct(t,t0)(t0) (B5-11b)
The sum of the two normal forces and the two bending
If the initial stress is not zero, creep due to stresses intro- moments calculated in this step (Eq. (B5-14) and (B5-15))
duced earlier than t0 should be added, and the creep coefficients represent fictitious forces N and M, which would prevent
should be included in the input. ACI 209R, Ghali, Favre, and deformations due to creep, shrinkage, and relaxation.
Elbadry (2002), and CEB-FIP (1990) give guidance on creep- Eliminate the fictitious restraint by application of N and
coefficient values. M on the age-adjusted transformed section (whose properties
are A, B, and I). The age-adjusted transformed section is
Step 3Calculate the two parameters defining the distri-
composed of Ac , nns Ans and nps Aps; where nns or nps is the
bution of a hypothetical stress gradually introduced between
modulus of elasticity of reinforcement divided by Ec(t,t0).
t0 and t to prevent the strain change calculated in Step 2,
Calculate the changes in strain and stress parameters (changes
using Eq. (B5-2a) and (B5-2b).
in O, , O, ) by substitution of N, M, Ec(t,t0), A, B,
and I in Eq. (B5-5a), (B5-5b), (B5-6a), and (B5-6b).
Orestraint = Ec O free (B5-12a) Update the initial stress parameters by adding the stress
parameters determined in Steps 1, 3, and 4. Update the initial
restraint = Ec free (B5-12b) strain parameters by adding the strain parameters determined
in Steps 1 and 4.
where Ec is the age-adjusted modulus of elasticity of concrete. B5.3 Commentary on the general procedure and on a
special case (nonprestressed sections subjected to M without
Ec(t,t0) = Ec(t0)/[1 + Ct(t,t0)] (B5-13) N)The general procedure gives the two parameters O,
defining the strain distribution in an uncracked prestressed or
nonprestressed section subjected to N and M. When cracking
Step 4Calculate A, B, and I for concrete alone, without occurs, an additional step is required; refer to Section B6.
reinforcement, and substitute these values together with Calculation of displacement in a plane frame from the strain
O restraint and restraint in Eq. (B5-4a) and (B5-4b) to obtain parameters is a classical geometry problem that can be
the resultants of stress required to prevent creep and solved more easily by virtual work or other methods. Trans-
shrinkage deformations verse deflection in beams can be determined from the curva-
ture only (without the need for O). The equations
Ncreep, shrinkage = Aconcrete O restraint + (B5-14a) presented below, which are derived from the general proce-
dure in Section B5.2, give the immediate and the long-term
Bconcrete restraint curvatures at nonprestressed reinforced concrete sections
subjected to bending moment M.
Consider a nonprestressed reinforced concrete cross
Mcreep, shrinkage = BconcreteO restraint + (B5-14b)
section (Fig. B5.4) subjected at time t0 to a bending moment
M, without normal force. The general procedure of analysis
Iconcrete restraint in Section B5.2 reduces to Eq. (B11-1) to (B11-3) for initial

curvature (t0 ) and the curvature changes ()creep and neutral axis at t0 (the centroidal axis of the trans-
()shrinkage due to creep and shrinkage occurring between formed section at t0); and
t0 and t. The long-term curvature at time t is the sum of the yc = the y-coordinate of the centroid of Ac , measured
curvatures determined by the three equations downward from the centroid of the age-adjusted
transformed section.
I In most cases, the tension steel area As near the bottom
(t0 ) = ---g- c (B5-16)
I fiber is larger than the compression steel area As and the
values of y and yc are positive and negative, respectively
()creep = (t0 )Ctcreep (B5-17) (Fig. B5.4(a) and (b)).
The symbol Ac means the active area of concrete at time t0.
Thus, when the previous equations are used for a cracked
()shrinkage = ----- (B5-18) section, Ac is the area of concrete within the compression zone
d shrinkage at time t0. Derivation of the equations in this Appendix from
the general procedure in Section B5.2 and graphs for the coef-
where c is the instantaneous curvature at an uncracked ficients creep and shrinkage are available (Ghali, Favre, and
homogenous concrete section (without reinforcement) Elbadry 2002).

M B6Calculation when cracking occurs

c = ------------------- (B5-19)
E c ( t 0 )I g If at the end of Step 1 of the general procedure it is deter-
mined that cracking occurs (the extreme fiber stress exceeds
where the tensile strength of concrete), the calculations indicated in
Ec(t0) = the modulus of elasticity of concrete at time t0; Fig. B5.2 become necessary. Partition M and N into two
Ct and SH = the creep coefficient and the unrestrained parts, such that M = M1 + M2 and N = N1 + N2. The pair N1
shrinkage of concrete in the period t0 to t, and M1 (decompression forces, a part of the pair M and N)
respectively; represents the stress resultants that will bring to zero the
concrete stresses existing before the introduction of M and
d = the distance from extreme compression fiber
N; the pair N2 and M2 represents the remainder. With N1 and
to the centroid of the tension reinforcement;
M1, the section is uncracked. Cracking is produced only by
Ig = moment of inertia of the gross concrete
N2 combined with M2. For the analysis, two loading stages
section about its centroidal axis, neglecting
need to be considered: 1) N1 and M1 applied on an uncracked
reinforcement; and
section; and 2) N2 and M2 applied on a cracked section, in
creep and shrinkage = dimensionless coefficients depending which the concrete outside the compression zone is ignored.
on properties of the section. The strains in the two stages are added to give the total
instantaneous change. The values of N1 and M1 can be calcu-
I c + A c y c y lated by Eq. (B5-4a) and (B5-4b), substituting for and ,
creep = ---------------------------
- (B5-20)
I the initial stress parameters with reversed sign and for A, B,
and I properties of the uncracked transformed section. After
N1 and M1 have been determined, N2 and M2 are calculated
Ac yc d
shrinkage = -------------
- (B5-21) by N2 = N N1 and M2 = M M1.
I Performing Steps 2, 3, and 4 for the cracked section gives
the time-dependent changes in strain and stress. Numerical
where examples and a computer program based on the detailed
I = the moment of inertia about the centroidal axis of method of analysis presented previously can be found in
the transformed section composed of concrete Section B10 and in Ghali, Favre, and Elbadry (2002); a
area Ac plus n[= Es /Ec(t0)] multiplied by the area computer program can be used to perform the analysis
of reinforcement; (Ghali and Elbadry 1986 and 2001).
I = moment of inertia about the centroidal axis of the
age-adjusted transformed section composed of Section B7Tension-stiffening
concrete area Ac plus n(= Es /Ec) multiplied by areas The normal strain O2 and the curvature 2 calculated for
of reinforcements; a cracked section represent the state at a crack location.
Ic = moment of inertia of the concrete area Ac about the Away from the crack location, concrete bonded to the rein-
centroidal axis of the age-adjusted transformed forcement tends to restrain deformations and reduce the
section; normal strain and the curvature. This is called tension-stiff-
Ec = the age-adjusted modulus of elasticity of concrete ening. Empirical approaches have been proposed to account
(Eq. (B5-13)); for the tension stiffening effect on the displacements. These
y = the y-coordinate of the centroid of the age-adjusted procedures use the mean values of strain parameters Om and
transformed section, measured downward from the m to calculate displacements. The mean parameters have

intermediate values between the strain parameters in B7.3 Other tension stiffening approachesThe complete
uncracked and the cracked states. stress-strain curve for concrete in tension has been used by
B7.1 Bransons effective moment of inertiaFor a many researchers to model the tension-stiffening effect
member subjected to bending moment without a normal (Gilbert and Warner 1978; Polak and Vecchio 1993; Scanlon
force, only the curvature m is required to calculate trans- and Murray 1974). This approach can be incorporated into
verse deflection. For a nonprestressed reinforced concrete the section curvature procedure by appropriate modification
section subjected to bending moment M without normal of the transformed-section properties. Introduction of the
force, Bransons equations (Branson 1977) for mean curva- nonlinear stress-strain relationship would involve an itera-
ture are: tive solution. Gilbert and Warner (1998) have modeled the
effect by increasing the effective stiffness of the reinforcing
m = -------- (B7-1a) steel, while Kaufmann and Marti (1998) have introduced a
EI e tension-chord model based on assumed bond stress distribu-
tion between cracks.
M cr 4 M cr 4
I e = --------
- I g + 1 --------
- I (B-7-1b)
M M 2 B8Deflection and change in length of a frame member
The following equation can be used to calculate the trans-
where verse deflection center at midlength of a straight member of
Ie = the effective moment of inertia; a frame
Ig = the second moment of gross concrete area about its cen-
troidal axis, ignoring the presence of reinforcement; l
I2 = the second moment of area of the transformed center = ------ ( m1 + 10 m2 + m3 ) (B8-1)
cracked section about its centroidal axis;
Mcr = cracking moment; and
M = the moment on the section. where
B7.2 CEB-FIP approachFor any prestressed or nonpre- l = the member length; and
stressed reinforced section, the mean strain parameters Om m1, m2 , and m3 = mean curvatures at one end, at the cen-
and m can be determined by interpolation between ter, and at the other end, respectively.
uncracked and cracked states Similarly, the rotation at member ends end and the
change in member length l can be determined by:
Om = (1 )O1 O2 (B7-2a)
m = (1 )1 + 2 (B7-2b) end1 = --- ( m1 + 2 m2 ) and (B8-2)

O1 and 1 l
= strain parameters calculated using the end2 = --- ( 2 m2 + m3 )
uncracked transformed section; 6
O2 and 2 = strain parameters calculated using the
cracked transformed section l
l = --- ( Om1 + 4 Om2 + Om3 ) (B8-3)
= an empirical interpolation coefficient, 6
expressed by CEB-FIP Model Code MC-
90 (1990) as follows: where Om1, Om2, and Om3 are mean normal strains at one
end, at the center, and at the other end, respectively.
f ct
= 1 ------------- (when 1 max > fct, cracked) (B7-3) The deflection center and the rotation end are measured
from the chord, which is the straight line joining the two ends.
Equations (B8-1) to (B8-3) assume parabolic or straight
= 0 (when 1 max < fct , uncracked) (B7-4) line variations of m and Om over the length of a frame
member. The method of virtual work (Ghali and Neville
where 1997) gives the translation in any direction and the rotation
fct = the tensile strength of concrete; at any section of a frame having any variation of m and Om.
1 max = calculated tensile stress at extreme fiber when Equations (B8-4) to (B8-6), which are derived by virtual
cracking is ignored; and work, can be used instead of Eq. (B8-1) to (B8-3) with any
= coefficient to account for the effects of bond variation of m and Om over the length of a frame member:
quality of reinforcement, cyclic loading, and
sustained loading on tension stiffening.
In most cases, = 0.5 can be used when deformed bars are 1 l l
employed and cyclic or sustained loads are applied.
center = ---
2 0 m x dx + ---
2 l 2 m 1 -l- dx (B8-4)

l l unrestrained shrinkage, SH(t,t0) = 240 106; Ct(t,t0) = 3;

m 1 -- dx and end2 = m -- dx
x x r = 0.8; reduced relaxation pr = 12 ksi. If the section
end1 =
l l
analyzed is at the center of a simple beam of span 61 ft, what
0 0
are the midspan deflections at time t0 and t? Assume para-
bolic variation of curvature with zero values at the ends.
(This is close to the actual variation when the load is uniform
l = Om dx (B8-6)
and the tendon profile is parabolic with zero eccentricity at
0 the ends.)
Step 1Select the reference point O at top fiber. The
where x is the distance from End 1 to any section of the member. transformed section properties at time t0 are: [gross-section
When m and Om vary as a second-degree parabola (or as area duct + (n 1)Ans ; with n = Ens /Ec(t0)]:
a straight line), Eq. (B8-4) to (B8-6) reduce to Eq. (B8-1) to A = 593.3 in.2
(B8-3). The deflection at end 2 from the tangent to the elastic B = 14,250 in.3
line at End 1 for any member of a plane frame is I = 462,100 in.4
The values of N and M applied at t0 are:
N = 315 kip

End 2 relative to End 1 m ( l x ) dx (B8-7) M = 3450 315 (42.0) = 9780 kip-in.
0 The initial strain and stress parameters are (Eq. (B5-5a),
(B5-5b), (B5-6a), and (B5-6b)):
An example of the use of this equation is to determine the O(t0) = 0.087 ksi
side sway at the top end of a column that is fixed at the (t0) = 0.0185 kip/in.3
bottom (End 1). When cracking occurs at some sections, the O(t0) = 20.0 106
integrals in Eq. (B8-4) to (B8-7) can be conveniently evalu- (t0) = 4.25 106 in.1
ated numerically. Step 2Changes in strain parameters for unrestrained
creep and shrinkage (Eq. (B5-11a) and (B5-11b)):
B9Summary and conclusions O free = 240 106 + 3(20 106) = 300 106
The section curvature method presented in this appendix free = 3(4.25 106) = 12.75 106 in.1
can be used to calculate the immediate and the long-term Step 3The age-adjusted modulus of elasticity (Eq. (B5-
strain distributions in prestressed or nonprestressed reinforced 13)), Ec = 1279 ksi. The stress that can prevent the strain
concrete sections subjected to a normal force and a bending change determined in Step 2 (Eq. (B5-12a) and (B5-12b)):
moment. The strain value O at an arbitrary reference location
O restraint = 1279 (300 106) = 0.3837 ksi
and the slope of the strain diagram (the curvature), when
restraint = 1279 (12.75 106) = 16.3 103 kip/in.3
determined at various sections, can be used to calculate the
Step 4Cross-sectional properties of concrete (gross-
change in length or the deflections of individual members or
sectional area Aps Ans):
the displacements of plane frames.
Aconcrete = 570.4 in.2
The deflections of cracked members are calculated from
Bconcrete = 13,640 in.3
the mean strain Om and mean curvature m determined by
Iconcrete = 434,300 in.4
interpolation between O1 and O2 and between 1 and 2,
Add the resultants of restraint (Eq. (B5-14a) and (B5-14b))
where the subscript 1 refers to values calculated by ignoring
to the forces that cancel the effect of prestressed steel relax-
cracking, and the subscript 2 refers to values calculated by
ation (Eq. (B5-15a) and (B5-15b)) to obtain the total
ignoring the concrete in tension. The interpolation is done
restraining forces.
N = 418.2 kip
The analysis presented in this appendix accounts for the
time-dependent loss of prestress due to creep and shrinkage M = 11,350 kip-in.
without making a prior estimate of the loss. In fact, the analysis Properties of the age-adjusted transformed section [gross-
results include the time-dependent change in stress in the section area + (n 1)(Aps + Ans), with n = (Ens or Eps)/Ec]:
prestressing steel. The analysis procedure involves four steps A = 697.8 in.2
demonstrated by the examples in Section B10. The validity B = 17,800 in.3
of the analysis is demonstrated by comparison with I = 615,800 in.4
published data in Ghali and Azarnejad (1999). Changes in strain and stress due to N and M applied
on the age-adjusted transformed section (Eq. (B5-5a), (B5-5b),
B10Examples (B5-6a), and (5B-6b)):
Example 1Uncracked section: A prestress force P = O(t,t0)= 385 106
315 kip and a bending moment M = 3450 kip-in. are applied (t,t0) = 3.29 106in.1
at age t0 on the rectangular post-tensioned concrete section O(t,t0)= 0.3837 + 1279(385 106) = 0.108 ksi
shown in Fig. B10.1. Calculate the stress, the strain, and the (t,t0) = 16.3 103 + 1279(3.29 106) = 0.0121 kip/in.3
curvatures at age t0 and at a later time t given the following The values O restraint and restraint calculated in Step 3 are
data: Ec(t0) = 4350 ksi; Ens = Eps = 29 103 ksi; uniform included in the last two equations.

The immediate changes in strain parameters assuming no

cracking (Eq. (B5-6a) and (B5-6b)):
O1 = 258 106
1 = 10.57 106 in.-1
Change in stress at the bottom fiber = 1.146 ksi
Stress at the bottom fiber just before live load application
(determined by substituting O(t) and (t) calculated in
Example 1 in Eq. (B5-1), with y = 48 in.) = 0.502 ksi
Updated stress at bottom fiber at time t = 1 max = 0.644 ksi
This stress is greater than fct , which indicates that cracking
occurs. Substituting A1, B1, and I1 and the values of O (t)
and (t) determined in Example 1 in Eq. (B5-4) gives the
decompression forces:
N1 = 212.7 kip
N2 = 212.7 kip
M1 = 5983 kip-in.
Fig. B10.1Beam cross section of Examples 1 and 2. M2 = 6000 5983 = 17 kip-in.
Substitution of A1, B1, I1, N1 , and M1 in Eq. (B5-6a) and
The strain and stress parameters at time t (add the values (B5-6b) gives the immediate changes in strain parameters in
determined in this step and in Step 1): the decompression stage:
O(t) = (20 385)106 = 405 106 O1= 42 106
(t) = (4.25 3.29)106 = 7.53 106 in.1 1 = 1.39 106 in.1
O(t) = 0.087 0.108 = 0.195 ksi With N2 and M2 applied on a reinforced concrete cracked
(t) = 0.0185 + 0.0121 = 0.00641 kip/m3 section, determine the depth of the compression zone; c =
Deflection: The immediate and the long-term deflection at 22.9 in. Determination of c is a standard analysis discussed
the center of span (Eq. (B8-5)): in many books, including Ghali, Favre, and Elbadry (2002).
Properties of the cracked section, ignoring concrete in
tension are:
( 61 12 ) 6 A2 = 308.1 in.2
center ( t 0 ) = ------------------------- [ 10 ( 4.25 10 ) ] = 0.24 in.
96 B2 = 4288 in.3
I2 = 98,240 in.4
( 61 12 ) 6 Substituting A2, B2, I2, N2, and M2 in Eq. (B5-6a) and (B5-
center ( t ) = ------------------------- [ 10 ( 7.53 10 ) ] = 0.42 in.
96 6b) gives the immediate changes in strain parameters, with
the concrete in tension ignored:
The curvatures at the two ends are ignored for simplicity of O2 = 383 106
presentation. If these curvatures are calculated and Eq. (B8-5) 2 = 16.77 106 in.1
is used, center(t) would be 0.40 in. The minus sign means The interpolation coefficient (Eq. (B7-3)):
upward deflections.
Several parameters given as input are dependent upon t0 2
= 1 0.5 ------------- = 0.844
and t. As mentioned earlier, in practice the analysis should be 0.644
preceded by selecting the appropriate values of the parame-
ters (ACI 209R; CEB-FIP [1990]; and Magura, Sozen, and
The mean strain parameters (Eq. (B7-2)):
Siess [1964]).
Om = (1 0.844)(258)106 + 0.844(42 383)106 =
Example 2Cracked Section: For the section of Example 1
328 106
(Fig. B10.1), determine the axial strain and the curvature at
time t immediately after application of an additional bending m = (1 0.844)(10.57)106 + 0.844(1.39 + 16.77)106 =
moment M = 6000 kip-in. (for example, caused by live load). 16.97 106
Assume that at time t, the modulus of elasticity of concrete The updated curvature and deflection at center of span,
Ec (t) = 4600 ksi and fct = 0.36 ksi. immediately after live load application:
The properties of the transformed uncracked section at Curvature after live load application = (7.53 + 16.97) 106 =
time t [gross-sectional area + (n 1) (Ans + Aps); with n = 9.44 106 in.1; and
(Ens or Eps)/Ec (t)]: Deflection after live load application (Eq. B8-5) =
A1 = 605.8 in.2
B1 = 14,800 in.3 (------------------------
61 12 ) - 6
[ 10 ( 9.44 10 ) ] = 0.53 in.
I1 = 484,800 in.4 96

Fig. B10.2Example section subjected to moment: (a) cracked section at age t0 (neutral
axis through centroid of transformed section); and (b) properties of age-adjusted trans-
formed section.

Example 3Nonprestressed section in flexure: Determine Equations (B5-17) to (B5-21) give:

the curvature (t0) and (t) for a rectangular cracked section
shown in Fig. B10.2. Given data: 19, 760 + 144.4 ( 11.16 ) ( 5.11 )
creep = --------------------------------------------------------------------------- = 0.189
Ec(t0) = 3625 ksi (25.00 GPa) 61, 020
Es = 29,000 ksi (200 GPa)
Ct = 2.0
shrinkage = 144.4 ( 11.16 ) ( 36 -) = 0.950
Ec = 1390 ksi (9.59 GPa)
61, 020
SH = 300 106
M = 6000 kip-in. (452 kN-m)
6000 6
- = 26.86 10 in.1
c = ----------------------------------
n = Es /Ec (t0) = 8.00
3625 ( 64, 000 )
n = Es /Ec = 20.86
Ig = 64,000 in.4
The initial curvature at time t0:
Depth of compression zone for a rectangular section
(Fig. B10.2a) is:
64, 000 6 6
( t 0 ) = ------------------ ( 25.86 10 ) 54.25 10 in.1
30, 509
a 2 + a 22 4a 1 a 3
c = ---------------------------------------------
2a 1 ()creep = 54.25 106(2.00)(0.189) = 20.51 106 in.1

where ( 300 10 )
a1 = b/2 ()shrinkage = --------------------------------- (0.950) = 7.92 106 in.1
a2 = nAs + (n 1) As
a3 = nAs d (n 1)Asds The long-time curvature at time t:
This gives:
a1 = 6 in.
(t) = (54.25 + 20.51 + 7.92) 106 = 82.7 106 in.1
a2 = 48.75 in.2
a3 = 1475 in.3 B11References
c = 12.13 in. B11.1 Referenced standards and reportsThe following
The centroid of the transformed section at t0 coincides standards and reports listed were the latest editions at the
with the bottom edge of the compression zone. Other time this document was prepared. Because these documents
geometrical properties of the section are: are revised frequently, the reader is advised to contact the
I = 30,510 in.4 sponsoring group to refer to the latest version.
Ac = 144.4 in.2
The centroid of the age-adjusted transformed section is at: American Concrete Institute
y = 5.11 in. 209R Prediction of Creep, Shrinkage, and Tempera-
I = 61,020 in.4 ture Effects in Concrete Structures
yc = 11.16 in. 318/318R Building Code Requirements for Structural
Ic = 19,670 in.4 Concrete and Commentary

These publications may be obtained from: Press, London and New York, website:
American Concrete Institute Ghali, A., and Neville, A. M., 2003, Structural Analysis: A
P.O. Box 9094 Unified Classical and Matrix Approach, 5th Edition, Spon
Farmington Hills, MI 48333-9094 Press, London and New York, 844 pp.
Gilbert, R. I., and Warner, R. F., 1978, Tension Stiffening
B11.2 Cited references in Reinforced Concrete Slabs, Journal of the Structural
Ariyawardena, N., and Ghali, A., 2002, Prestressing with Division, V. 104, No. ST.
Unbonded or External Tendons: Analysis and Computer Hall, T. S., and Ghali, A., 1997, Prediction of the Flexural
Model, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, V. 128, Behavior of Concrete Members Reinforced with GFRP
No. 12, pp. 1493-1501. Bars, Society for the Advancement of Material and Process
Baant, Z. P., 1975, Prediction of Concrete Creep Effects Engineering, V. 42, pp. 298-310.
Using Age-Adjusted Effective Modulus Method, ACI
ISIS Canada, 2001, Reinforcing New Structures with
JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 69, No. 4, Apr., pp. 212-217.
Fiber Reinforced Polymers, Design Manual No. 3.
Branson, D. E., 1977, Deformation of Concrete Structures,
Kaufmann, W., and Marti, P., 1998, Structural
McGraw-Hill, New York, 546 pp.
Concrete: Cracked Membrane Model, Journal of Struc-
CEB-FIB, 1990, Model Code for Concrete Structures,
tural Engineering, V. 124, No. 12, pp. 1467-1475.
CEB, Thomas Telford, London.
Ghali, A., and Azarnejad, A., 1999, Deflection Prediction Magura, D.; Sozen, M. A.; and Siess, C. P., 1964, A
of Members of Any Concrete Strength, ACI Structural Study of Stress Relaxation in Prestressing Reinforcement,
Journal, V. 96, No. 5, Sept.-Oct., pp. 807-816. PCI Journal, V. 9, No. 2, pp. 13-57.
Ghali, A., and Elbadry, M., 1986 and 2000, Users Manual Polak, M. A., and Vecchio, F. J., 1993, Nonlinear Analysis
and Computer Program CRACK, Research Report CE85-1, of Reinforced Concrete Shells, Journal of Structural
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Calgary, Engineering, V. 119, No. 12, pp. 3439-3462.
Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Feb. Updated and renamed Scanlon, A., and Murray, D. W., 1974, Time Dependent
version: Reinforced and Prestressed Members, Computer Reinforced Concrete Slab Deflections, Journal of the
program RPM, American Concrete Institute, software code Structural Division, V. 100, No. ST9, pp. 1911-1924.
076AG2.CP. Trost, H., 1967, Auswirkungen des Superpositionsprinzips
Ghali, A.; Favre, R.; and Elbadry, M., 2002, Concrete auf Kriech-und RelaxationsProbleme bei Beton und Spann-
Structures: Stresses and Deformations, 3rd Edition, Spon beton, Beton-und Stahlbetonbau, V. 62, No. 10, pp. 230-238.

ACI Committee 435 during creation of Appendix B

Andrew Scanlon* Debrethann R. Cagley-Orsak
Chair Secretary

John H. Allen N. John Gardner* Vilas S. Mujumdar

Alex Aswad Amin Ghali* Hani H. A. Nassif
Abdeldjelil Belarbi S. K. Ghosh Edward G. Nawy
Brahim Benmokrane Anand B. Gogate Maria A. Polak*
Donald R. Buettner Hidayat N. Grouni Madhwesh Raghavendrachar
Finley A. Charney Robert W. Hamilton B. Vijaya Rangan
Ramesh M. Desai Paul C. Hoffman Charles G. Salmon
Luis Garcia Dutari Cheng-Tzu T. Hsu Mark P. Sarkisian
Mamdouh M. El-Badry Shivaprasad Kudlapur Richard H. Scott
A. Samer Ezeldin Peter Lenkei A. Fattah Shaikh
Russell S. Fling Faris A. Malhas Himat T. Solanki
Simon H. C. Foo Bernard L. Meyers Susanto Teng

Members who prepared Appendix B.


To convert from to multiply by


inch ....................................... millimeter (mm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.4Et

foot ......................................... meter (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.3048E
yard ......................................... meter (m) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.9144E
mile (statute) ................................. kilometer (km) ................................... 1.609

square inch .............................. square millimeter (mm2) .............................. 645.1

square foot ................................ square meter (m2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.0929
square yard ................................ square meter (m) .................................. 0.8361
Volume (capacity)

ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..milltiiters(m L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.57

gallon .................................... cubic meter (m 3)).................................. 0.003785
cubic inch ............................... cubic millimeter (mm3) ............................. 16390
cubic foot .................................. cubic meter (m3) ................................... 0.02832
cubic yard ................................. cubic meter (m3)$ .................................. 0.7646

kilogram-force ................................. newton (N) ..................................... 9.807

kip-force ................................... kilo newton (kN) ................................... 4.448
pound-force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . newton (N)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.448
Pressure or stress (force per area)

kilogram-force/square meter. ...................... pascal (Pa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.807

kip-force/square inch (ksi) ..................... megapascal (MPa).................................. 6.895
newton/square meter (N/m2) ...................... pascal (Pa) ..................................... l.000E
pound-force/square foot .......................... pascal (Pa) .................................... 47.88
pound-force/square inch (psi) .................... kilopascal (kPa ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.895
Bending moment or torque

inch-pound-force ........................... newton-meter (Nqtr) ................................. 0.1130

foot-pound-force ........................... newton-meter (N.m) ................................. 1.356
meter-kilogram-force ........................ newton-meter (N.m) ................................. 9.807

ounce-mass (avoirdupois) .......................... gram (g) ..................................... 28.34

pound-mass (avoirdupois) ....................... kilogram (kg) .................................... 0.4536
ton (metric) ................................. megagram (mg) ................................... 1.000E
ton (short, 2000 lbm) ........................... kilogram (kg) .................................. 907.2
Mass per volume

pound-mass/cubic foot .................... kilogram/cubic meter (ks/m3) ............................. 16.02

pound-mass/cubic yard .................... kilogram/cubic meter (kg/m3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.5933
pound-mass/gallon .. ....q ................ kilogram/cubic meter (kg/m3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119.8
Temperature SS

degrees Fahrenheit (F) ....................... degrees Celsius (C) ...................... t, = (tF - 32)/1.8
degrees Celsius (C) ......................... degrees Fahrenheit (F) ..................... tF = 1.8t, + 32

*This selected list gives practical conversion factors of units found in concrete technology. The reference sources for information on SI units and more exact
conversion factors are ASTM E 380 and E 621. Symbols of metric units are given in parenthesis.
t E Indicates that the factor given is exact.
$ One liter (cubic decimeter) equals 0.001 m3or 1000 cm3.
0 These equations convert one temperature reading to another and include the necessary scale corrections. To convert a difference in temperature from Fahrenheit
degrees to Celsius de- divide by 1.8 only. i.e., a change from 70 to 88 F represents a change of 18 F or 18/1.8 = 10 C deg.