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e-ISSN (O): 2348-4470

Scientific Journal of Impact Factor (SJIF): 4.72

p-ISSN (P): 2348-6406

International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research

Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017

A Numerical analysis of Friction Plate on Automotive clutch system

Sreetam Bhaduri & 2N. MuruguNachippan
U. G. Scholar, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vel Tech University, Chennai
Assistant Professor, School of Automobile Engineering, Vel Tech University, Chennai

Abstract: A clutch in automotive transmission systems plays a distinctive role to disengage gearbox from flywheel while
engaged to transmit power from flywheel to entire transmission system with zero percentage slip. It is necessitates to
increase the performance of clutch in transmission systems. The performance of clutch depends on two factors, material of
the clutch system and mechanisms of clutch systems. In this study, Material of the clutch system is taken into account. The
single plate clutch is modelled using CREO parametric 2.0 and analysis is done using ANSYS R15.0 Multiphysics software.
Detailed explanation of clutches and comparison of different material for clutch is analyzed for deformation and maximum
stress. From structural analysis, Aluminium metal matrix composites gives good results.

Keywords: Clutch, Finite Element Analysis, Total Deformation, Von-mises stress, Sintered iron, Aluminium metal matrix.


The clutch is a mechanical device, which is used to connect or disconnect the source of power from the remaining parts of the
power transmission system at will of the operator. [1] Clutch is classified into positive contact clutches, Friction clutches,
electromagnetic clutches and fluid clutches.
Some of the consideration for designing clutch assembly is Suitable Friction Material for friction liner, Sufficient torque
transmitting capacity, Engagement should with minimum Shock and jerking, Weight of rotating parts should be low to
decrease the inertial forces to increase the sensitivity of application of forces, Suitable provision for changing the friction
lining and thermal distribution due to frictional heat should be uniform and the rate of increase of temperature should be less.

In case of clutch the main problem occurs in the clutch material. The material gets damaged and so the maximum
performance cant be achieved further. Some important requirements of clutch material is high co-efficient of friction, co-
efficient of friction should be remain constant throughout the working temperature of clutch plate, good thermal conductivity
for better thermal distribution, remain unaffected by environmental conditions, moisture and dirt particles, high resistance to
abrasive and adhesive wear, good resilience to provide good distribution of pressure at the connecting surfaces.[1]
The analysis on wear and thermal stability of friction material can be done in two ways.
Experimental Way
Numerical Way
Before the analysis was done only by experimental way. This process takes a long time and economically costly. But after the
year 1990 as the computational techniques grown up in a faster manner, so numerical techniques comes into play the major
role in the pre manufacturing analysis. The computational analysis always follows mainly Finite Element Analysis Method.
In this work the analysis has been done by Finite Element Method only. So some basics on FEA has been described now.
FEA: Finite Element Analysis (FEA) also called the Finite Element Method (FEM) is a method for numerical solution of field
problems. [2]

FEA deals with a field, which is divided into piecewise continuous manner. The pieces are separated from each other by
elements or lines which are joined by each other at a point or node. The elements can be expressed in terms of x, x*y and y in
two dimensional plane. They are mainly defined by differential equations and expressions. The finite element term can be
explained from this concept only that calculus deals with infinite terms but here elements have some finite length. When the
FEA starts, it actually does the Meshing. This is nothing but dividing the entity which is under analysis into a piecewise
continuous manner by elements and nodes. Here many types of meshing are available. Some of them are:

Structured Meshing
Unstructured Meshing
Hybrid Meshing
@IJAERD-2017, All rights Reserved 275
International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

2D Meshing
3D Meshing
2.5D Meshing [3]

Here structured meshing means that all the pieces will align in an identical way. Regular alignment gives accurate analysis.
But if the part has some irregular shapes, fillet etc. for that case the meshing becomes unstructured at the edges. So at that
points the sizing of meshing should be reduced to get better accurate analysis. In most the cases we cant get entirely
structured mesh for complicated structures. So practically the mesh sizing should be taken as the smallest dimension of the
entity. For that case probability of formation of unstructured mesh will be less as well as analysis result will come very
accurately. From the previous discussion it is clearer that unstructured meshing is nothing but alignment will not be proper.
Now the term for hybrid meshing which is nothing but combination of structured and unstructured meshing. This comes for
most of the cases. According to orientation of elements and nodes the classification 2D, 3D and 2.5D meshing comes. For 2D
analysis 2D meshing is important. In this type of meshing the elements are distributed on a single 2D plane, which can be
expressed by x and y co-ordinate system. Another comes 3D meshingwhich is nothing but the elements and nodes are
distributed in a 3D space and can be expressed in x, y, and z co-ordinate system. Now comes 2.5D meshing. This is the
surface mesh. As the orientation of surface changes the orientation of elements also changes. Thats why it is not 2D or 3D
meshing, its entity oriented meshing. So its named like 2.5D meshing.
Now the discussion on different types of mechanical properties have been done. In analysis on ANSYS workbench the most
important mechanical properties are discussed below.
Von-Mises Stress and Strain: This is the type of stress-strain principle which is mostly followed by engineers for designing
any structure to find its stability while working.
From Distortion energy principle this can be described as below,
((1-2)2 + (2-3)2 + (3-1)2)/2 v [3]
Here if the material be ductile then the condition can be rewritten as,
yield v [3]
The Von-Mises strain is the corresponding strain value of stress.
Total Deformation: It is deformation found in a target body while the application of load in all directions.
Mathematically this can be expressed as following,
t2 = x2 + y2 + z2
Literature Review:
The damage and difficulties in the clutch plate increases with the increasing limits of speed. At present many works are going
in the field of clutch, especially on clutch plate materials. Rajesh Purohit et al demonstrated that how FEA can deal with an
actual component analysis and for a particular design of a clutch component what will be the Stress, Strain and Factor of
Safety by FEA. The main motive of the work is to designate the safety factor of the components. [3]

O.I. Abdullah et al described how the heat generated due to friction affects the performance and stability of friction
material.Rate of heat rejection is increased by two ways. According to the proposal first is to increase the thickness of
pressure plate and second is to increase the exposed area. But economically increasing the exposed area is most suitable. [4]

Al-Shabibi et al investigated alternative method to solve the thermoelastic contact problem with frictional heat generation.
Two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model built to study the temperature field and pressure distribution of two
sliding disks. Constant and varying speeds were considered in this analysis.[5]

The effect of coefficient of friction on the clutch slips speed, applied force and friction surface temperatures have been
studied. The results of the dynamic thermal model were experimentally validated by Ivanovi et al. [6].

Suyog Vitnor et al proposed a temperature distribution in a clutch assembly and main objective of work is to obtain a
minimum safe stress value & temperature distribution of friction plate by using analytical & numerical calculation [7].
Yasser Aktiret al highlight the axial vibrational modes of the clutch system and its non-linear axial behavior. It provides a
validated finite element model and corresponding methodology to determine the dynamic clutch behavior for studying axial
vibrations [8].

Earlier we have used cork, leather as friction material but it is limited to lower speed. After that asbestos originated will
provide excellent performance as friction material. But the problem is it is not environmental free and it is banned. In this
work four friction materials has taken and structural analysis is done to calculate the total deformation and von-mises stress
@IJAERD-2017, All rights Reserved 276
International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

FEA Model and Analysis:

In this work a comparative study of various materials used as friction material in friction plate of clutch assembly has been
done based on Finite Element Analysis.
First the design parameters of single plate clutch system has been described as follows:
Outer Diameter: D=318mm
Inner Diameter: d=135mm
Intensity of pressure at radius r: p
Total operating force: P
Torque transmitted: Mt
Coefficient of friction:
Max pressure intensity at inner radius: pa
Friction radius: Rf
Material properties are as follows:

Sl. No. Material (Wet) Permissible Stress (MPa) Density(kg/m3)

1. Molded Asbestos 0.08 13.8 2000
2. Sintered Iron 0.10 68.9 6000
3. Al-MMC F3D20S-T5 0.10194 226.761 2820.6
4. Al-MMC F3S20S-T61 0.10194 596.7334 2765.2

In this analysis the boundary conditions are as follows:

Pressure applied: 0.95 MPa
Ambient Temperature: 22 0C

Results for different materials:

Sl. No. Material Total Von-Mises Von-Mises Total Strain Energy
Deformation Stress Strain
1. Molded Asbestos 0.027118mm 0.0053MPa 0.00016147 1.7775 x 10-5 mJ
2. Sintered Iron 0.025873mm 4.4975 MPa 0.00016614 0.0078519 mJ
3. Al-MMC F3D20S-T5 0.022323mm 16.500 MPa 0.00014503 0.0286700 mJ
4. Al-MMC F3S20S-T61 0.022780mm 14.647 MPa 0.00014856 0.0338560 mJ

Graphical images of the analysis are as follows:

1. Sintered Iron:

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

2. Molded Asbestos:

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

3. Al-MMC F3D20S-T5:

Al-MMC F3S20S-T61:

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406

Thereafter the calculation for torque supplied by each material of friction plate is mandatory. So the calculation is given
1. P= p x Area of application of pressure
2. Mt= x P x Rf
3. Rf= (D+d)/4
Here as the design is same for all materials, so the result will vary based on the material dependent parameters. Here this
parameter is Coefficient of friction (). Now the general calculation is as follows:
1. P= 0.95 MPa x 3.14 x ((3182- 1352)/4) = 61821.92925 N
2. Rf= (318+135)/4 = 113.25mm
3. Mt= x 61821.92925 x 113.25 = (7001333.488 x ) N-mm
So considering the materials as follows:
Molded Asbestos Steel:
Mt= 7001333.488 x 0.08= 560106.679 N-mm
Sintered Metal Steel:
Mt= 7001333.488 x 0.10= 700133.3488N-mm
Al-MMC F3D20S-T5:
Mt= 7001333.488 x 0.10194= 713715.9358 N-mm
Al-MMC F3S20S-T61:
Mt= 7001333.488 x 0.10194= 713715.9358N-mm
Considering the above all results on the basis of torque transmission both the Aluminum Metal Matrix are suitable, but on the
basis of amount of total deformationAl-MMC F3D20S-T5 deforms the least (0.022323mm) with the application of same
Hence from the above discussion it has been proved that Aluminum Metal Matrix composite material Al-MMC F3D20S-T5
is the most suitable material can be used in friction lining of friction plate of a single plate clutch system.


Friction plate in friction clutch assembly is modelled using CREO parametric 2.0 Software and finite element analysis is
performed to calculate total deformation and von- Mises stress for four different materials. From total deformation plots,
Aluminium metal matrix composites shows a least deformation when compared to sintered iron and molded asbestos. Toque
transmission capacity is also calculated, it is found that aluminium metal matrix composites shows maximum torque
transmission compared to sintered metal steel and molded asbestos steel. The Von- Mises stress showed that the designed
friction clutch plate is safe.

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International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)
Volume 4, Issue 1, January -2017, e-ISSN: 2348 - 4470, print-ISSN: 2348-6406


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