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Lecture on Analysis of Variance

Lecture on Analysis of Variance

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The statistical method for testing the null hypothesis that the means of several

population are equal is accomplished by F-test. The F-test is based on the

technique of analysis of variance or abbreviated ANOVA. In the present context,

we discuss about one way analysis of variance, in which only one type of treatment

or factor is involved in the experiment.

population mean respectively with common variance . An

appropriate for testing the hypotheses is

.......

.......

....... ....... ....... .......

....... ....... ....... .......

.......

Total .......

Mean .......

Grand Total

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Grand mean

The Total Sum of Squares (SST) measuring the total variability in the data can be

partitioned and resolved into Sum of Squares Between samples (SSB) and Sum of

Squares Within samples (SSW).

( ) ( ) ( )

For calculation:

SSB k-1

SST N-1

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Summary Table for Analysis of Variance:

Variation Squares Freedom Squares f

Between SSB k-1

Samples

Samples

null hypothesis is to be if with and degrees of freedom.

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Example: As head of a department of a consumers research organization, you

have the responsibility for testing and comparing lifetimes of four brands of

electric bulbs. Suppose you test the lifetime of three electric bulbs of each of the

four brands. The data is shown below, each entry representing the lifetime of an

electric bulb, measured in hundreds of hours:

Brand

Brand A Brand B Brand C Brand D

20 25 24 23

19 23 20 20

21 21 22 20

Can we infer that the mean lifetime of the four brands of electric bulbs are equal

with 5% level of significance?

Solution: Let us take the null hypothesis that the mean lifetime of the four brands

of electric bulbs are equal, .i.e.

19 361 23 529 20 400 20 400

21 441 21 441 22 484 20 400

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( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

With the above information the ANOVA table for the given problem:

Variation Squares Freedom f

Between

Samples

39-15 = 24

Total: N-1=12-1=11

significance is . Since the computed value of f = 1.67 is less than the

table value of , therefore we accept our null hypothesis. Hence, the

difference is insignificant and we can infer that the mean lifetime of the four

brands of electric bulbs are equal.

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