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Introduction

Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical


engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, system
engineering and control engineering. As technology advances, the subfields of engineering
multiply and adapt. Mechatronics aim is a design process that unifies these subfields. Originally,
mechatronics just included the combination of mechanics and electronics, hence the word
mechatronics is composed of mecha from mechanism and the tronics from electronics. The
synergistic integration of mechanical engineering, with electronics and intelligent computer
control in the design and manufacturing of industrial products and processes.

Apart from that, mechatronics is the application of complex decision making to the operation of
physical systems. Mechatronics is a methodology used for the optimal design o
electromechanical products. A mechatronic system is not just a marriage of electrical and
mechanical systems and is more than just a control system; it is a complete integration of all of
them. Mechatronics engineering is the analysis, design, manufacturing, integration and
maintenance of mechanics with electronics through intelligent computer control.

In the mechatronics, it consists of five key elements: information systems, mechanical system,
electrical system, sensors and actuators, real-time interfacing. In information systems, it include
all aspects for information exchange like signal processing, control systems and analysis
techniques. Modeling, simulation, automatic control and numerical methods for optimization are
the essential for mechatronics application. Modeling is the process of representing the behavior
of a real system by a collection of mathematical equations and logic. Models can be static or
dynamic. For example, static models produce no motion, heat transfer, fluid flow, travelling
waves or any other changes. Dynamic models have energy transfer which results in power flow.
This causes motion, heat transfer, and other phenomena that change in time. Models are cause-
and-effect structures- they accept external information and process it with their logic and
equations to produce one or more outputs. For example, parameter is a fixed-value unit of
information. Signal is a changing-unit of information. Models can be text-based programming or
block diagrams. For simulation, it is the process of solving the model and is performed on a
computer. In simulation, the process can be divided into three sections; initialization, iteration
and termination.
In mechanical systems are concerned with the behavior of matter under the action of forces. Such
system are categorized as rigid, deformable or fluid in nature. For example, rigid bodies assume
all bodies and connections in the system to be perfectly rigid. Fluid mechanics consists of
compressible and incompressible fluids. Newtonian mechanics provides the basis for most
mechanical systems and consists of three independent and absolute concepts: space, time and
mass. Force is also present but is not independent of the other three. For electrical system, it is
concerned with the behavior of three fundamental quantities: charge, current and voltage.
Electrical systems consist two categories: power system and communication system. An electric
circuit is a closed network of paths through which current flows. Circuit analysis is the process
of calculating all voltages and currents in a circuit given as is based on two fundamental laws:
Kirchhoffs current

Law and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law. In mechatronics, sensors are required to monitor the
performance of machines and processes. Common variables in mechatronic system are
temperature, speed, position, force, torque and acceleration. Intelligent sensor are available that
not only sense information but process it well. Actuation involves physical action on a machine
or process. They can transform electrical input into mechanical outputs such as force, angle and
position. Besides, real time interface provides data acquisition and control functions for the
computer. Reconstruct a sensor waveform as a digital sequence and make it available to the
computer software for processing. The control function produces an analog approximation as a
series of small steps. Real-time interfacing includes: A/D and D/A conversions, analog signal
conditioning circuits and sampling theory.
Theory

Sensor is a device that when exposed to a physical phenomenon (temperature, displacement,


force, etc.) produces a proportional output signal (electrical, mechanical, magnetic, etc.). The
term transducer is often used synonymously with sensors. However, ideally, a sensor is a device
that responds to a change in the physical phenomenon. On the other hand, a transducer is a
device that converts one form of energy into another form of energy. Sensors are transducers
when they sense one form of energy input and output in a different form of energy. For example,
a thermocouple responds to a temperature change (thermal energy) and outputs a proportional
change in electromotive force (electrical energy). Therefore, a thermocouple can be called a
sensor and or transducer.

Actuators are basically the muscle behind a mechatronics system that accepts a control command
(mostly in the form of an electrical signal) and produces a change in the physical system by
generating force, motion, heat, flow, etc. Normally, the actuators are used in conjunction with the
power supply and a coupling mechanism as shown in Fig. 16.7. The power unit provides either
AC or DC power at the rated voltage and current. The coupling mechanism acts as the interface
between the actuator and the physical system. Typical mechanisms include rack and pinion, gear
drive, belt drive, lead screw and nut, piston, and linkages.
Objectives

1. To assemble electro-pneumatic circuit.


2. To use sensors to detect the position of pneumatic actuator.
3. To identify the characteristics of limit switch, reed switch and proximity sensor.

Apparatus

The test rig used in the experiment is the JUARA trainer from Juravic Engineering Sdn. Bhd.
The apparatus used in this laboratory session are:

1. Double acting cylinder.


2. 5/2 way solenoid wave.
3. Proximity sensor.
4. Limit switch.
5. Reed switch.
6. Push button.

Procedures

1. The circuit shown in Figure 1 is assembled correctly and make sure that the connecting
hose and cables fit properly.
2. The circuit is operated and checked if it operates properly.
3. Troubleshoot if necessary.
4. Once the circuit operates study of operation, the sensor and is changed and the process is
repeated. The circuit is modified if necessary to accommodate the sensor.
SENSOR

4 2

A+ A-
5 3
1
+24V 1 2

A-
A+

3 normally open sensor connection


4
Push button to extend
3
4
Push button to retract
4
0V

Figure 1 Experiment Schematics


Discussion

The operation of the circuit (push button) is carried out by using compressor, pressure regulating
component, push button, connecting wire, 5/2 way solenoid valve, and double acting cylinder.
For the compressor, it can compresses air to required pressures. It can convert the mechanical
energy from motors and engines into the potential energy in compressed air. A compressor can
supply various pneumatic components with compressed air, which is transported through pipes
from the cylinder to the pneumatic components. For pressure regulating components are formed
by various component: (i) Filter can remove impurities from compressed air before it is fed to
the pneumatic components. (ii). Pressure regulator to stabilize the pressure and regulate the
operation of pneumatic components. (iii). Lubricator to provide lubrication for pneumatic
components. In a double acting cylinder, air pressure is applied alternately to relative surface of
the piston, producing a propelling force. For the directional control valve ensure the flow of air
between air ports by opening, closing and switching their internal connections. When a double
acting cylinder is not operated, outlet B and inlet P will be connected. In this circuit,
whenever the push button is pushed manually, the double acting cylinder will move back and
forth once. In order to control the speed in both directions, flow control valves are connected to
inlets on both sides of the cylinder. The direction of the flow control valve is opposite to that of
the release of air by the flow control of the single acting cylinder.

Figure 2: Circuit diagram of a double acting cylinder direct control circuit


A cylinder always has to maintain its position in a lot of situations, even after the operational
signal has disappeared. This can be achieved by the use of a circuit that possess the memory
function. As shown in Figure 3, the extension path of a double acting cylinder is activated by
control valve (or push button) (1), while retraction is governed by control valve (or push button)
(2). Control valve (3), on the other hand, maintains the position of the cylinder by maintaining its
own position. Control valve (3), will be changed only when one of manual control valves (or
push button) is pushed. If both control valves (or push button) (1) and (2) are operated at the
same time, control valve (3) will be subject to the same pressure and will remain in its original
position. For the Normally Open Push Button, A Normally Open (NO) Push Button is a push
button that, in its default state, makes no electrical contact with the circuit. Only when the button
is pressed down does it make electrical contact with the circuit. For the Normally Closed Push
Button, in its default state, makes electrical contact with the circuit. When the button is pressed
down, the switch no longer makes electrical contact and the circuit is now open. Therefore,
electricity can no longer flow to the other part of the circuit to turn or power on the respective
part of the circuit the button was made to switch.

Figure 5.1: Circuit that maintains the position of a double acting cylinder
Limit Switch

Presence sensing is the act of detecting the presence or absence of an object with a contact or
non-contact sensing device. The sensors then produce an electrical output signal that can be used
to control equipment or processes.

Limit switch are contact sensing devices widely used for detecting the presence or position of
objects in industrial applications. When an object makes contact with the operator of the switch,
it eventually moves the actuator to the limit where the electrical contacts change state.
Through this mechanical action, electrical contacts are either opened (in a normally closed
circuit) or closed (in a normally open circuit).
Proximity Sensor

The basic purpose of a proximity sensor is to perceive occurrence of any object without being in
contact with it. A proximity sensor makes a field around it by emitting electromagnetic
radiations. The beam of electromagnetic radiations traces any object or hurdle in its way. The
term target is used for the object that a proximity sensor intuits in its path. The sensor looks for
any alteration made in its field. Target usually replaces a certain beam of the field or hurdles its
projection. Different fields or sensors are used to detect different targets.

The lack of physical contact with the target usually makes an increment in the life of a proximity
sensor. The absence of mechanical parts fakes it more reliable and grants it a long life.

Nominal Range is maximum range of the field in which a sensor can detect the presence of any
object. It is the utmost distance through which it map outs the target. Most of these sensors have
an adjustable Nominal range. Its level can be adjusted according to the presence of object.

This sensor has one transmitter and one receiver. The transmitter emits infrared rays which, when
bounces off after hitting some object, are captured by the receiver. On the basis of the time taken
by the rays to come back to sensor, one can determine how far or close is the object from the
sensor. These sensors are mostly used in applications where short range detection is required.

They are used to sense the proximity of an object relative to another object. They usually provide
a on or off signal indicating the presence or absence of an object. Inductance, capacitance,
photoelectric, and hall effect types are widely used as proximity sensors. Inductance proximity
sensors consist of a coil wound around a soft iron core. The inductance of the sensor changes
when a ferrous object is in its proximity.This change is converted to a voltage-triggered switch.
Capacitance types are similar to inductance except the proximity of an object changes the gap
and affects the capacitance. Photoelectric sensors are normally aligned with an infrared light
source. The proximity of a moving object interrupts the light beam causing the voltage level to
change. Hall effect voltage is produced when a current-carrying conductor is exposed to a
transverse magnetic field. The voltage is proportional to transverse distance between the hall
effect sensor and an object in its proximity
Reed Switch

A reed switch is an electromagnetic switch used to control the flow of electricity in a circuit.
They are made from two or more ferrous reeds encased within a small glass tube-like envelope,
which become magnetised and move together or separate when a magnetic field is moved
towards the switch. The switch effectively works like a gate, or a bridge, in an electric circuit so
when the two reeds are in contact, electricity can flow around the circuit operating a device.
Unlike mechanical switches they do not require something or someone to physically flick them
on or off, they are controlled completely by invisible magnetic fields.

The simplest magnetic-field sensor is a reed switch. It contains two ferromagnetic nickel and
iron reed element in an evacuated, hermetically sealed glass to minimize contact arcing When an
axially aligned magnet approaches the switch, its magnetic force closes the reeds. The magnet
typically generates at least a 50 Gauss force to overcome the return force or spring of the reed
elements.
Figure 5.2: Reed Switch
Results

Push Button

A push button is a momentary or non-latching switch which causes a temporary change in the
state of an electrical circuit only while the switch physically actuated. An automatic mechanism
returns the switch to its default position immediately afterwards, restoring the initial circuit
condition. There are two types:

A push to make switch allows electricity to flow between its two contacts when held in.
When the button is released, the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also known as
Normally Open Switch.

Figure 4.1: Symbol of Normally Open Switch

A push to break switch to does the opposite. For example, when the button is not pressed,
electricity can flow, but when it is pressed the circuit is broken. This type of switch is also
known as Normally Closed.

Figure 4.2: Symbol of Normally Closed Switch

Figure 4.3: Push Button

Proximity Sensor
A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical
contact. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic
radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object
being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensors target. Different proximity sensors
targets demand different sensors. For example, a capacitive or photoelectric sensor might be
suitable for a plastic target; an inductive proximity sensor always require a metal target.

The maximum distance that sensor can detect is defined nominal range. Some sensors have
adjustments of nominal range or means to report a graduated detection distance. Some know
these process as thermosensation.

Proximity sensors are commonly used on smartphones to detect (and skip) accidental
touchscreen taps when held to the ear during a call. They are also used in machine vibration
monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing.

Figure 4.4: Infrared Proximity Sensor


Limit Switch

A limit switch is a switch operated by motion of a machine part or presence of an object. They
are used for controlling machinery as part of a control system, as a safety interlocks, or to count
objects passing a point. A limit switch is an electromechanical device that consists of an actuator
mechanically linked to a set of contact with actuator, the device operates the contacts to make or
break an electrical connection.

Figure 4.5: Limit switch

Reed Switch

The reed switch is an electrical switch operated by an applied magnetic field. It was invented at
Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1936 by W. B. Ellwood. It consists of a pair of contacts on
ferrous metal reeds in a hermetically sealed glass envelope. The contacts may be normally open,
closing when a magnetic field is present, or normally closed and opening when a magnetic field
is applied. The switch may be actuated by a coil, making a reed relay, or by bringing a magnet
near to the switch. Once the magnet is pulled away from the switch, the reed switch will go back
to its original position.

Figure 4.6: Reed Switch


Conclusion
A push-button (also spelled pushbutton) or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for
controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard
material, usually plastic or metal.The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the
human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased
switches, though even many un-biased buttons (due to their physical nature) require a spring to
return to their un-pushed state. Different people use different terms for the "pushing" of the
button, such as press, depress, mash, hit, and punch.

A limit switch is an electro-mechanical device that consists of an actuator mechanically linked to


a set of contacts. When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the device operates the
contacts to make or break an electrical connection.

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical
contact. A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic
radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal.

A reed switch is an electromagnetic switch used to control the flow of electricity in a circuit.
They are made from two or more ferrous reeds encased within a small glass tube-like envelope,
which become magnetised and move together or separate when a magnetic field is moved
towards the switch.
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING,
COMPUTING AND BUILT
ENVIRONMENT

ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
DIPLOMA IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

(DIP- EEEM)

EED2024 - Mechatronic System Design

Ms. Nur Azirah binti Abdul Rahim

Laboratory 1-SENSORS USED IN MECHATRONIC SYSTEMS

[ Looi Ching Khang (0191789) ]

DUE DATE : 8th Feb 2017

TOTAL MARKS : [100 MARKS / 5%]

Plagiarism
The assignment is based on an individual response. The report must be completely your own
work and you must not copy from others. Any plagiarized work will be zero-rated. Any reference
material you use (books, journals, Internet, magazines etc.) must be clearly identified in your
report using procedures in the Harvard System of Referencing.