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Figure 8: Liberty ship which was broken in two halves along the

welds (Mechanical metallurgy, SI metric edition, 1988)

In 1912 what happened to Titanic? The steels platters which are manufactured for Titanic would
have been tested at sub- Zero temperature. To reveal the brittle behavior that resulted upon
impact of the hull plate with a huge ice berg at the Atlantic ocean at temperature of -2 C0.

Due to that it can be stated that the importance of determination of toughness in material
selection for engineering applications.

THE IMPORTANCE OF CUTTING A NOTCH IN ALL THREE SPECIMENS IN


ESPECIALLY IN ISOTROPIC MATERIALS.

Both involve striking a standard specimen with a controlled weight pendulum travelling at a set
speed. The amount of energy absorbed in fracturing the test piece is measured and this gives an
indication of the notch toughness of the test material. The notch ensures the amount of plastic
deformation is restricted by the surrounding materials, which remains elastic. The specimen
would not fracture identically without the addition of a notch. They would have different fracture
surfaces with different surface areas. The only variable in the experiment is temperature. Such
that to ensure the other parameters stay constant is a must. By notching the all three specimens
other parameters will be constant and the affection to the final results would be reduced.

THE NEED OF TO USE A STANDARD SIZE AND NOTCH SIZE IN ALL THREE
CASES

Figure 9: standard charpy-v notch specimen, (Hashemi, S. Foundations of materials


science and engineering, 2006, 4th edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 007-125690-3)
The Charpy specimen may be used with one of three different types of notch, a 'keyhole', a 'U'
and a 'V'. The keyhole and U-notch are used for the testing of brittle materials such as cast iron
and for the testing of plastics. The current British Standard for Charpy testing is BS EN ISO 148-
1:2009 and the American Standard is ASTM E23. The standards differ only in the details of the
strikers used. The standard Charpy-V specimen, illustrated in figure .. is 55mm long, 10mm
square and has a 2mm deep notch with a tip radius of 0.25mm machined on one face. By using a
standard size for the specimen, energy observation when breaking the metal will be only cause of
the temperature other vise for different size of specimens the energy observation when breaking
the metal will be increase. Such that to ensure the temperature is the only variable in the test
standard size specimens and notches were used for the all three test times.

THE FORM OF ENERGY THAT THE POTENTIAL ENERGY OF THE HAMMER GET
CONVERTS TO

When the hammer is released the potential energy will convert in the several energy types. After
impacting with the specimen potential energy mainly convert in the kinetic energy. During the
movement of impact a sound was heard such that some of the potential energy was convert in to
sound. Also some sort of potential energy will be converting in to heat, friction of the machine
and work done against the air

DEETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE DUCTILITY

The specimen fracture surface visual analysis the percentage of ductile area and the percentage
of brittle area. The ductile area was presented by a dark frame toward the outer surface of the
specimen.

POSSIBLE ERROS IN THIS PRACTIAL AND HOW TO MINIMIZE THEM

Figure 10: Schematic diagram of contact angle, (KRSS GmbH, 2015)


Figure 11: Different criteria used to determine the transition temperature,
(Hashemi, S. Foundations of materials science and engineering, 2006, 4th
edition, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 007-125690-3)