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13 2006

: . . ... ...

1.

2. .

3. .

4. .

1.

2.

3.

4. ,

5.

6.

. ( .)

5. ...

5.1. ...

5.2. ()

5.3.

5.4.

6.

7.

8.

8.1.

8.2.

9.

10.

1. :


( )
.

1.
(.. soldering)
2.
(.. brazing)
3.
( welding)


, / ,
.


/
,
.


(...),

...

( )

,
.

3
2. :


(
)
( ).


,
.


(, ..)

( ).

,
.

2.1.

4
,

.



( ),
( ).



,

( TIG, MG .).



().

( , ..)
(...).


, ,
, .
.


,
().

3. :

,
:

(1) : . (electric arc)


. (electric resistance)
. (induction)
(2) : . (oxy-fuel gas)
. (plasma arc)
. (thermit)
(3) : . (compression)
. (friction)
. (explosive welding)

5

:

. (no shielding)
.
(mechanical exclusion of air)
. (vacuum)
. (inert gas)
. (active gas)
. - (flux)


.

( ),
, .

OFW (oxy-fuel gas welding)


SAW (submerged arc welding)
SMAW (shielded metal arc welding)
( )
MAG GMAW (metal active gas, gas metal arc welding)
( )
FCAW (flux cored arc welding)
(
) .

.

,
.

4. :


,
,
.

,
:

6
.

- .
- (.. ).
- .
- .
-
.
- ( .).

- ( , .)
- ( .)
-
- (, .).

. (, )

, ,
.
(.. SMAW, SAW, GTAW, GMAW Plasma AW
RSW, EGW ,
).

IV. ()

(
),
.

V.

VI. ( .)

. /

7

(
).

- ( , )
- , , ,
-
-
- , .

AWS D1.1. (Structural Welding Code)


.

SMAW, SAW, GMAW FCAW ,


, , .

-
(
) NDTT
(Nil-Ductility-Transition-Temperature)

-
(
)

-
(

)

- ( ,
, )
-
-
- ()
- (NDT)

,
, .

8
.

ANSI Z49-1, ANSI Z87-1, 288.2, Z89.1 .

,
95/78
(... 20//17-2-1978) :

) .
) , .
) .
) , .
) .
) .
) .
) .
) , ,
, .
) ,
.
.
)
, .
) .
) .
)
.

5. :

9
5.1. ...

.

.


,
1421.1 (2,3) ( ),
.


(.. StIII).

,

(.. StIII)
.

,
( 1421.1)

Mn Cr Mo V Ni Cu
Ceq C
6 5 15

(
% ).

Ceq Ceq<0,50 ( ),
.
Ceq
.


.
(.. )

5.2. ...


...
1421.
...
.

,
,

.

10
5.2.1. ( ) (welding processes)

( )

1) Manual Metal Arc Shielded Metal Arc


Welding Welding (SMAW)

2) Metal Active Gas Gas Metal Arc


Welding (MAG) Welding (GMAW)
(CO2/A)

3) Tubular Cored Metal Flux Cored Arc


Arc Welding with Active Welding (FCAW)
Gas Shield

4) Self-shielded tabular-cored welding


5) Projection Welding (Resistance Welding)


()

6) Flash Welding

7) Friction Welding

8) & Oxy-Fuel Gas pressure Pressure Gas


Welding Welding

9)

5.3.

11

:
[ pr S 17660:2002(E), ].


( )


1) 16mm

(SMAW)
2)
12mm

(MAG GMAW)
3)
5mm-40mm 5mm-40mm
5mm-40mm
(FCAW)
4) 5mm-40mm 5mm-40mm

5mm-40mm
(FCAW
)
5) 5mm-40mm 5mm-16mm
()


6) 5mm-40mm

7) 5mm-40mm

5mm-40mm


8) 5mm-40mm

12
5.4.


...

13
14
6. :


,
.

,
.

,
.

7. :

,
.

( )

SMAW/SAW ( ) GMAW MAG (
).

- ( ,
.)

- ()

- (Welding Engineer).

- .

-
(NDT).

- (NDT).

- / .

15
..

- ,

( , ,
,
.).,

- ,
. ( ...


, .).,

- ,

,
.

-
.
( .. , ,
.).

-
(
).

(
)
... .

(
.), (
, , .,


.).

8. :

8.1.

,

.

16
:

. .
. ,
() .

17

.

,
, .

-
-

( ).

,
(, )
.
( ).

-

.

- ( )
.

Tempcore,
,

() .


650C () .

,
( 1.600C)
, 650C.


(
).


,
... ( ).


, .

8.2.

18

:

19
. (dimensional defects)

, .

- , (excessive concavity, convexity).

- (undercut).

. (structural defects)

- (porosity)
- (non metallic inclusions)
- (lack of penetration)
- (incomplete fusion)
-

- (undercut)

- (lack of penetration, incomplete fusion)

- .



(NDT, , .).

,
,
.

20
9. :

,
, :

- :
AWSD 1.1-Structural welding code)

(
.)

- : AISI 304L AISI 316L



, (
,
.

- :
.



.

.
,



( .).

21
10. :


...

,
.

..

.
( , , .).


, .

22

(1) Metals Handbook Vol.6 Welding, Brazing and Soldering

(2) ..
, ... 1990

(3) Kenneth Easterling Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of welding


(BMM)

23