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Jens Zamanian

March 9, 2014

sions

2 2

a) In two dimensions each state takes up an

Ground-Stat<' uf area

lhl' 4 /L in k-space,35

see Fig. 1. The two dimensional

!<,

imeo""'nal k-sp:u:c of the fo rm J. , =

L Noh: th:ot the:: per point is Jl"l

t he n:lwn.: r<:r point is t:! n L r .

k,

Figure 1: Two dimensional k-space. Each state takes up an area (2/L)2 .

region of k-space tlf \'Olumc: n will contain

n nv

equivalent of the Fermi sphere is a circular area with radius kF . This area must contain all the

(2. 17)

(1rr, L):J

electrons. lfn3 of states in the Fermi circle is the area of the circle multiplied by the the

The= number

number of states per area multiplied by a factor 2 to account for spin. We hence have

f k. equivalently. that the number of allowed k-valucs per unit

L2

lalso known itS the k-sp:.1cc density isF2just

lcvd sl2k 4 2

= N (1)

and hence Jl r

g1t3 . 2N p (2.18)

kF = = 2n, (2)

L2

all deal with k-sp;H:e

where,regions so large

in 2D, it makes sense(-

2

to talk on

I about

ponumber

ints) and so regular

of electrons per area instead of per volume and

we hence use n = N/L .

) that to all intents and purposes (2.17) and (2.1 S) can be regarded

b) In 3D rs is the radius of a sphere which has the same volume as the volume per conduction

l begin to applyelectron.

these important

In 2D it mustcounting formulas

be defined as the radius shortly.

of a circle which has the same area as the area

sume the electronsperare non interacting

conduction electron. Forwe Gill build

N electrons upL the

in an N-clcctron

L solid we have

placing electro ns into the allowed one-electronL2le,els

1

we have j ust

= = rs2(as it does

exclusion principle plays a vital role in thts construction (3)

N n

e states many dcctron atoms} : we may place at most one electron

ctron level. The one-electron levels are specified by the wave vectors

ection of the electron's spin along an arbitrary axis, 1which can take

values f / 2 or - lr 2. Therefore associated w1th each allowed wave

electronic levels, one for each direction of tl1e electron's spin.

ng up the N-electron ground sla te we begin by placing two electrons

which gives

1

rs = p . (4)

n

c) In two dimensions one is often interested in calculating the sum of a function over all states.

We may write

X 2L2 X

2 F (k) = F (k) k (5)

4 2

k k

where the first factor 2 is due to the possible spin states and where k = 4 2 /L2 . We then get

that Z

2 X X k dk

F (k) = 2 F (k) ! F (k) 2 , (6)

L2 4 2 2

k k

in the limit L ! 1. Often one is interested in functions F that only depends on k through the

energy E(k) = ~2 k 2 /(2m), i.e. F (k) = F (E(k)) = F (k). Switching to cylindrical coordinates we

have Z Z 1 Z 2 Z

dk 1 1 1

I= F (E(k)) = dkkF (E(k)) d = dkkF (E(k)) . (7)

4 2 2 2 0 0 0

Now we wish to switch variables to E = ~2 k 2 /(2m). The dierential is found as

~2 m

dE = kdk ) kdk = dE. (8)

m ~2

So that Z 1 Z 1

m

I= dEF (E) = dEg(E)F (E), (9)

~2 0 1

E >0 ~2

g(E) = (10)

0 E < 0.

R1

d) One is often interested in integrals like 1 dEH(E)f (E) where f (E) is the Fermi-Dirac

distribution. In the book they derive the Sommerfeld expansion which is

Z 1 Z 1 2j

X 1 Z 1

d H (E )2j @f (E)

dEH(E)f (E) = dEH(E) + dE . (11)

1 1 j

dE 2j 1

= 1 (2j)! @E

Z 1

n= dEg(E)f (E), (12)

1

where g(E) is the density of state as above. Since this is a constant only the first term in the

expansion survives. We then have

Z Z

m m

n= dEg(E) = dE 2 = 2

, (13)

1 0 ~ ~

which yields

n~2 k 2 ~2 k 2 ~2

= = F = F , (14)

m 2m 2m

where we have used (2) to express n in terms of the Fermi wave vector kF . The last term is

identified as the Fermi energy so we hence have

= EF , (15)

2

independently of temperature! Although this is very close to the exact result, there is a small

correction to this and the Sommerfeld expansion does not give the exact result in this case.

e) If we instead directly use (12) to calculate n we have

Z 1 Z 1

m 1 m 1

n= dE (E )/k T = dE (E ) , (16)

~2 0 e B +1 ~2 0 e +1

where we have defined = 1/(kB T ) for convenience. This integral can easily be solved using

for example tables, but as we are physicist we do it the real way. First we switch variables to

x = e(E ) which yields dE = dx/( x) 1 The integral is then

Z

1 1 1

dx . (17)

e x(x + 1)

This is now solved by the standard method of separating the fraction. If we try to write this as

two separate brackets we get

1 A B

= + , (18)

x(x + 1) x x+1

which gives A + Ax + Bx = 1 which gives us A = 1 and B = A = 1. The integral is now easily

solved

Z

1 1 1 1 1 1

dx = [ln x ln(x + 1)]e = + kB T ln 1 + e /(kB T ) . (19)

e x x+1

Inserting this into Eq. (16) we get

/(kB T )

+ kB T ln 1 + e = EF . (20)

f ) Typically we have kB T EF and then we must also have kB T (try the limit kB T

and see that this lead to nonsens (EF ! 0). For EF kB T we get

EF kB T k T

B

= ln 1 + e /(kB T ) e /(kB T ) , (21)

which is very small.

The reason why the Sommerfeld expansion did not work perfectly is because the function g(E)

has a discontinuity at E = 0 where it jumps down to zero. This means that the function is not

analytical and cannot be Taylor expanded exactly with no amount of coefficients.

a) In the classical limit

(E )/(kB T )

f (E) e . (22)

Furthermore, we know that

1 4rs3

= . (23)

n 3

The density is now calculated from the distribution function as

Z 1 p Z

m3/2 2e/(kB T ) 1 p

n = dEg(E)f (E) = dE Ee E/(kB T )

1 ~ 3 2

0

p Z

y = E/(kB T ) m3/2 2e/(kB T ) (kB T )3/2 1 p y2

= = dy ye =

dE = kB T dy ~3 2 0

p p

m3/2 2e/(kB T ) (kB T )3/2 m3/2 e/(kB T ) (kB T )3/2

= = , (24)

~3 2 2 21/2 ~3 3/2

1A slightly shorter solution is obtained by instead using the variable substitution z = e (E ) .

3

where we have looked up the integral using a table (it is actually related to the -function if you

are interested). Inserting this into Eq. (23) we get

3~3 1/2

rs3 = (25)

23/2 m3/2 e/(kB T ) (k BT )

3/2

or

e /(3kB T ) 1/3 1/6

3 ~

rs = . (26)

(2kB T )1/2

/(kB T )

b) Note that this shows that if e 1 we also have

1/2

~2

rs . (27)

2mkB T

2

mvT

To see the significance of this we define the thermal velocity vT by 2 = kB T or

2kB T

vT2 = . (28)

m

We then have 1/2

~2 ~

rs = , (29)

m2 vT2 mvT

i.e. this says that the typical distance between the electrons rs much be much larger than the

(thermal) de Broglie wavelength of the particle.

c) In terms of the Bohr radius a0 = ~2 /(me2 ) [in SI-units it is a0 = 40 ~2 /(me2 )] we have

1/2

rs me4

. (30)

a0 2~2 kB T

If we now insert the number in CGS units (SI-units in brackets, but not that you need to use a0

in SI-units in that case)

28 31

m = 9.1095 10 g (9.1095 10 kg) (31)

27 34

~ = 1.05459 10 erg s (1.05459 10 Js) (32)

16 23

kB = 1.3807 10 erg/K (1.3807 10 J/K) (33)

10 19

e = 4.80324 10 esu (1.60219 10 C), (34)

where 1erg = 1gcm2 /s2 is what energy is measured in in the CGS-system and 1esu = 1g1/2 cm3/2 /s

is the unit of charge. We then get

1/2 1/2

rs 157888 K 105 K

. (35)

a0 T T

Note that in metals rs /a0 1 and we have Fermi-Dirac statistics up to quite high temperatures.

d) To solve this (which involves a bit of algebra) we use

kF3

n = (36)

3 2

~2 kF2

EF = k B TF = (37)

2m

Now Ill give you the start

m3 m3 n m3 3 2 n

= = = use kF = (2mkB TF )1/2 /~ . . . (38)

4 3 ~3 4 3 ~3 n 4 3 ~3 kF3

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