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REPORT

OF
PROJECT SEMESTER TRAINING
COMPLETED AT

G.H.T.P, LEHRA MOHABBAT


WITH
PROJECT- BOILER MAINTAINANCE

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR AWARD OF DEGREE OF


BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BY
PARDEEP SINGH
(21003122)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SECTION


YADAVINDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
PUNJABI UNIVERSITY, GURU KASHI CAMPUS,
TALWANDI SABO 151302 (PUNJAB), INDIA
MAY 2014

INDEX
Sr. No. Page No.
Topic
Acknowledgement 1.

Brief history of G.H.T.P.LehraMohabbat 2.


Gernal project information 3.

G.H.T.P. Overview 4.
Gernal process of power generation 5. to 6.

Coal Handling Plant 7. to 15.

Coal Pulverising System 16. to 20.

D.M. Plant 21. to 24.

Boiler Feed Water Pump 25. to 29.

Steam Generator 30. to 37.


Boiler Air and Gas Scheme 38. to 41.
Steam Turbine 42. to 49.

Power Generator 50.

Cooling Towers 51. to 52.

Cooling Water System 53. to5 4.

Hydrogen Gas Plant 55. to 57.


Compressor House 58. to 59.
Conclusion 60.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A great many thanks to Er. D.S.BHULLAR who granted me permission to under go


training in G.H.T.P. LEHRA MOHABBAT. It was thankful to Er. JASKARN
SINGH Under whose guidance I underwent our training and that made all the
difference. I am indebted to him because it was he whose constant barrage of questions
kept our gray cells our working overtime and helps us fathom the intricacies of this trade.
Many a posers by them gave us food for thought. We were enlightened on the practical
aspects of engineering.
At the grass root level were the real people who helped us. They were the
machine operators, the shift In charge and other workmen who explained the working of
a variety of instruments and the various mechanisms governing their operation. It was the
informal talk with them which taught us many a nuances of the trade. In the end I would
like to give a big thanks to the whole of the G.H.T.P. LEHRA MOHABBAT family for
their wholehearted support toward this endeavor of ours.

BRIEF HISTORY OF GHTP


Ever widening gap between the power demand and its availability in the state of Punjab
was one of the basic reasons for envisaging a thermal plant at Lehra Mohabbat Dist.
Bathinda. The other factors favoring the installation of this thermal were low initial cost
and less generation period as compared to hydro electric generating station, its good
railway connection for fast proximity to load center. The foundation of the plant was laid
in 1995 and it was named Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant. Guru Hargobind
Thermal Plant has two units of stage I each of capacity 210MW and two units of stage II
each of capacity 250MW. The 220KVswitch yard and boiler was light up 2 nd May 1997
by Sukhdev Singh Handsaw, Minister of Punjab. The maximum power of the plant is
used in agriculture industry load and rural electrification.

Stage I
The first unit was commissioned on 29/12/1997
The second unit was commissioned on 16/10/1998
Stage II
The third unit was commissioned on 16/10/2008
The fourth unit was commissioned on 31/01/2009

The power availability from the plant now meets 20-25% of the total power requirement
in Punjab. It has gone a long way in ushering prosperity in the state by emerging a large
number of agricultural pumping sets, more industrial connections, 100% rural
electrification, increased employment potential reliability and improvement in continuity
of supply and system voltage and removal of power cuts to a great extent. It has also led
to fast development to about 3000 persons. The main companies whose technology
pawed the way of this plant are TATA Honeywell & BHEL in turbine and boiler
control.

The following considerations have to be examined in detail before selection of site for a
plant:-
Availability of fuel such as coal.
Ash disposal facilities.
Space requirements.
Nature of land.
Most important availability of water.
Availability of labor.
Transport facilities.
Public Society problems such as pollution.
Development of backward area

GERNAL PROJECT INFORMATION

Location Between 129 km and 132 km mile stones on Bathinda,


Barnala Road on State Highway No. 12.
Main Features Highest generation during 2000-01
Highest P.L.F. during March, 2001
Lowest Oil consumption during Feb, 2001
Lowest D.M. water make up during August, 2000
No. of Power Houses 4
No. of Units 4
Total Generating Capacity 2 x 210 MW = 420 MW (Stage I)
2 x 250 MW = 500 MW (Stage II)
Total Capacity = 920 MW
Source Of Water Supply Bathinda Branch Of Sirhind Canal
Fuel Used Coal from North Karanpura.
Coal field of Central Coal field Ltd.
A subsidiary Company of coal India Ltd.
L.D.O (Light Diesel Oil)
H.F.O (Heavy Furnace Oil)
Turbines 210 MW and 250MW single shaft reaction turbines, tandem
coupled 3000 rpm double flow exhaust, reheat type with initial
parameters of 150 kg/sq.cm. And 535oC
Generators 247 MVA, 15.75 KV, 0.85 lag, 50 Hz, 3 Phase, double star two
pole, Horizontal, Cylinder rotor type.
294MVA, 16.5 KV, 0.85 lag, 50 Hz, 3 phase, double star two
pole, Horizontal, Cylinder rotor type
Commissioning Stage I
The first unit was commissioned on
29/12/1997
The second unit was commissioned on 16/10/1998

Stage II
The third unit was commissioned on
16/10/2008
The fourth unit was commissioned on 31/01/2009
Cost of Project Stage I - Rs. 1189 Crores
Stage II - Rs. 2123 Crores
Total Energy Contribution 8059.20 Million units
Annually
Cost Per Unit Rs. 3.17

3.1 GERNAL PROJECT INFORMATION

Fig. 4.1 G.H.T.P. THERMAL PLANT PRACTICAL OVERVIEW


GERNAL PROCESS OF POWER GENERATION

In the general process of power generation a generating unit of thermal plant consists of
boiler unit, a turbine unit with accessories a generator unit transformer and other
equipments all arranged to operate as complementary parts of a complete monolithic set.
The coal travels by conveyor belt from the coal handling plant to the boiler
bunkers from where it is fed into pulverizing mills which grind the coal in to powder.
This powdered coal is carried from the mill by stream of air fan to the boiler burners,
where it is blown in to the furnace and burns like a gas. A forced draught fan provides
additional controllable fair to the burners to assist combustion. The product of
combustion are dust and ash. The ash falls to the bottom of the boiler and is periodically
sluiced to the ash settling pits. The dust is carried in the fuel gases to the precipitator
where it is extracted by high voltage electrodes. The dust is then conveyed to setting
logons or removed by rode for sale. The cleared five gases pass via an induced draught
fan to the chimney.

The heat released by burning is absorbed by long lengths of tubing which from
the boiler walls. Inside the tubes, extremely pure water known as boiler feed water is
converted by the heat in to steam at high temperature and pressure. The steam is
superheated in further tubes and passes to high pressure turbine blades make the turbine
rotation. After passing through the HP turbine the steam is then returned to the boiler for
reheating before passing in to the intermediate pressure turbine and from there to low
pressure turbine coupled to the turbine shaft is the rotor of generator, a large cylindrical
electromagnet so that when the turbine rotor rotates the generator rotates with it. The
generator rotor enclose in the stator which consists of large coils of copper bar in which
electricity is produced by the rotation of the magnetic field created by the rotor.

The electricity passes the stator winding to the transformer which increases its
voltage so that it can be transmitted over the power lines in to the grid system.
Meanwhile, the steam which has exhausted its useful energy in turning the turbine blades
is turned back in to water in the condenser to be used again in the boiler. Before entering
the boiler at the economizer the water pumped by condensate extraction pumps, heated in
LP heater, dearated in derated. Increased in pressure by the boiler feed pump and heated
further in HP heaters.
The water through the economizer to the steam drum, then up through the furnace
wall tubing before returning to the steam drug for steam operation. The steam leaves the
drug and is heated further in the super heater on this way to the HP turbine. The
Condenser contains tubings through which the cold water is constantly pumped.

Thermal Plant Process

Fig. 5.1

COAL HANDLING PLANT

RECIEPT AND WEGHTMENT OF COAL:


Coal at GHTP received
from Centre Coal Ltd and Eastern Coal field Ltd of Coal India besides important coal
from China. On receiving coal, it is weighed on the electronic in motion Way Bridge.
There are 2 numbers In motion way bridges. Both can be put into service at a time. The
speed of the train must be less than 10 Km/hr. After weighment the rake is divided into
equal batches consisting of about 15 wagons in each batch for unloading.

Fig. 6.1
WEGON TIPPLER
After dividation in batch the wagon is send to the wagon tippler. Here the coal is
unloaded from the wagon with the help of wagon tippler. Tippler isd esigned as a
way that it will lift the wagon in easy way. In this mechnism, a platform is cut out
of the size of wagon known as tippler table. It is lifted up with the help of a servo
motor connecting with a gear box. That gear box is connected to a shaft that has a
gear attached to it, is connected to a mechanism with tippler table. When the
command is given, the servo motor operates the mechnism. It lifts the table and
unloads the wagon. The coal goes on the Apron delt trough the hopper.

Fig. 6.2WEGON TIPPLER

COAL CONVEYOR:
Coal conveyors are used to move coal around
efficiently. Coal arriving by train can be stocked for later use or taken straight to
the coal bunkers. CHP control room with remote control system helps to ensure
that the conveyors take the coal to the right bunkers.

Fig. 6.3

CONVEYING SYSTEM:
A belt conveyor consists of two or more
pulleys, with a continuous loop of material - the conveyor belt - that rotates about
them. One or both of the pulleys are powered, moving the belt and the material on
the belt forward. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the
unpowered pulley is called the idler. The width of the belt in G.H.T.P. is 2000mm.

CRUSHER HOUSE:
Coal unloaded by the wagon tippler is carried to crusher
house through conveyors for crushing. There are two types of crusher in G.H.T.P. as
given below-
Rotary breaker (primary crusher).
Rotary Breakers are used in the primary and
secondary reduction of ROM coal and in the separation of rock and
mine refuse. This is accomplished through the tumbling action of the
rotating drum, which lifts and drops the feed material repeatedly until
the coal breaks down and exits the drum through the screen plate
perforations while the rock and refuse move through and are rejected
at the discharge end.

Fig. 6.4 ROTARI BREAKER

TECHANICAL DATA
Type : 12*22
roller mounted
Weight : 62 MT
Capacity : 750MT/hr
Material input size : 500mm
Material output size : 125mm
Motor rating : 180 HP,
415 volt
Nos. : 2

Ring granulator (secondary crusher)

Fig. 6.5RING GRANULATOR


TECHANICAL DATA
Type : TRM-54
Capacity : 1000T/hr
Material input size : 300mm (max)
Material output size : 25mm
Motor rating : 737KW, 606 KV, 720 r.p.m
Nos. : 2

The crusher house accommodates the discharge ends of the conveyor 4A, 4B
receiving ends of conveyor 5A, 5B and conveyor 7A and 7B, two crushers. Vibrating
feeders and necessary chute work.
There One crusher works at a time and the other is standby. From the crusher the
coal can be fed either to the conveyors 5A, 5B or 7A, 7B by adjusting the flap provided
for these purpose.
There is built in arrangements of bypassing the crusher by which the coal can be
fed directly to the conveyors bypassing crush.

STACKING / RECLAIMING:

Fig. 6.6 COAL STACKING AREA

In coal stacking area crushed coal is stored for emergency (when no load
comes to power plant). Here a tone of coal is stored with the help of a heavy
machine known as stacker. It contains a bucket wheel, when no load comes to the
plant then by the reverse drive this bucket wheel reclaim the coal and it to the
bunkers.

6.7STACKER

TROLLEY:
Tippler trolley is used to fill the bunkers with coal coming on the
conveyor from the coal handling plant. There are four trolleys in GHTP at the
height of 53 m.

Fig. 6.8 TROLLEY

BUNKER:
It is a very big cylindrical drum. It is used to store the coal which
comes from the CHP. It hanged at the height of 53m it placed right above the raw
coal feeder and connected with it by a large dia. Pipe. Hard coal and brown
coal are the main energy carriers in coal-fired power plants.
Delivered by ship or by train, the coal is unloaded into bunkers
up to 30 m high. The coal is transported from these bunkers to
the stockpiles of the power plant via over ground or underground
conveyor belt systems. Additional conveyor belts feed, often via
intermediate bunkers, purlverizer mills where the coal is
converted into a fine dust for subsequent combustion in the
furnace. Reliable level measurement guarantees uninterrupted
feeding of the furnaces and point level sensors prevent
overfilling in the bunkers.

Fig. 6.9 COAL BUNKER

RAW COAL FEEDER

In GHTP Lehra Mohabbat RC Feeder are used for control the Coal
and this feeder feed the coal to Bowl mills and Bow mills are Grinder the Coal and
Convert into powder shape. Transport coal from RC Bunker to coal mill by belt conveyor
having drive motor connected with dynadrive to control the coal feed. RC Bunker 6
nos. one for each RC feeder fabricated from sheet metal having capacity of 650 Tones
approx. have been provided.
Fig. 6.10 RAW COAL FEEDER
RC Feeder are 6 for each unit 4 RC feeder work at a time and 2 is stand by position. In
GHTP the RC Feeder is control the coal by a conveyor belt and it is operated by 3 phase
electric motor.

COAL FEEDER:
The variable speed coal feeder feeds coal from the bunkers to the mill.
It uses a conveyor to move coal through a fixed gap at a precisely controlled
speed.
Varying the speed controls the amount of coal supplied to the boilers.
These are precision bits of equipment that have to move exact amounts of coal.
They can move 650 Tones approx. of coal in an hour.

Fig. 6.11 coal feed sys.

COAL PULVERISING SYSTEM

At GHTP Bowl Mills have been installed for pulverizing the raw coal.
Coal of maximum size of 25mm is received in Raw Coal Bunkers from Coal Handling
Plant. From the Bunker, this coal is fed into the mill through Raw Coal Feeder. The feed
to the coal mill can be controlled by regulating the speed of the Feeder. In plant total 24
Bowl mills are used each unit used only 4 Bowl mills and 2 Bowl Mills are stand by
position So, at one time 4 Bowl Mills are Running Condition.

Type of Pulvrziser:
BOWL MILL : XRP-803,
Coal pulverizing capacity : 36.9 Ton/hr,
Motor : 340KW, 6.6KV
PARTS OF BOWL MILL

MILL BASE:
This is the lowest position of mill and it contains mill drive system
i.e. worm shaft, oil cooler as main parts. The gear Housing is always filled with
lubrication oil before the pulverize is put into operation. Level of the oil can be checked
from the oil level gauge provided on the mill base. Correct level is indicated only while
the mill is idle. For cooling the oil while mill is in operation, Tube type water cooler have
been installed in the Gear Housing.

MILL SIDE:
This portion is just above the mill base and it contains mill side
liners, Scrapper assembly and Tramp iron spout discharge arrangement & vane wheel
assembly. Heated primary air enters the mill side housing below the Bowl. Any tramp
iron, stone etc. drop in this portion and are scrapped to the tramp iron discharge spout for
empting in the Mill Reject Belt.

MILL OUTLET ASSEMBLY:


This portion contains classifier venture and
deflector regulator. Mill discharge valve assembly is connected at the top of this portion
from where the pulverized coal is agent to each of four coal nozzles at one elevation.

SEPARATOR BODY ASSEMBLY:


This portion is just above the mill
side housing and this is the portion where coal is pulverized. Main parts of this assembly
are Bowl, Journal assembly, Grinding Roll Assembly Bull ring segments, liners, Inner
cone, classifier assembly, Separator body liner assembly and center feed pipe. The
Grinding Rolls do not rotate if the miss is empty. When the raw coal from centre feed
pipe comes in between the Grinding Rolls and revolving bowl, it causes the rolls to turn
and thus, the coal gets pulverized.
Fig. 16.12 Separator

Fig. 7.1 BOWL MILL

MILL LUBRICATION

In coal pulverized system bowl mill is used to pulverize the coal. In this system due
to the friction in the mating parts starts erodes. To eliminate that effect the lubricatin is
done. It is done in the self rotating roller and under the bowl plate, bearings are also
provided here to eliminate the .

Fig. 7.2 MILL LUBRICATION SYS.

COAL TRANSFER SYSTEM TO BOILER

Fig. 7.3 COAL PATH TO BOILER


PARTS OF COAL TRASPOTATION TO THE BOILER:
COAL BUNKER
COAL FEEDER
BOWL MILL
TRANSFER PIPE
FURNANCE

DM PLANT

RAW WATER TREATMENT

The quality of water needed for industries depends upon its intended use. Ultra high
purity Water is required for high pressure steam generating system.

The water impurities can result in serious operating problems caused by deposit
formation. Corrosion of metal. Foaming in steam generating & micro biological foiling &
wood deterioration in cooling water system.

The average raw water quality at GHTP Lehra Mohabbat is as below:

Designed Actual
Turbidity 100ppm 30-
70ppm
Ph 7.3 to 8.3 8-8.5
Alkalinity 100ppm as Ca co3 50-
80ppm
Chlorides 30ppm as Ca co3 20-
30ppm
Total Hardness 120ppm as Ca co3 70-
12ppm
Sulphates 134ppm as Ca co3 50-
70ppm
Calcium Hardness 80ppm as Ca co3 50-
80ppm
Magnesium Hardness 40ppm as Ca co3 20-
40ppm
Dissolved Silica 5ppm as Ca co3 3-5ppm
Colloidal Silica 1ppm 1-2ppm
Total dissolved Solids as such 200ppm 150-
200ppm
Total suspended Solids 50ppm 30-
50ppm

Water Treatment Consists of:

CLARIFICATION:
It is a process applied to surface water for removal of
suspended solids, finer solids which appears as turbidity, color & other colloidal
materials. These processes incorporate coagulation flocculation & sedimentation each is a
distinct procedure which mandate certain requirements to ensure the desired results.
At GHTP Lehra Mohabbat we are having one no. clarifier having capacity 3800
M3/hr for cooling water system and a 180 M3/hr sludge blanket for the operation of D.M.
Plant.
Fig. 8.1 CLARIFIER

DM PLANT

In GHTP Lehra Mohabbat only one DM Plant is used for raw water convert the DM
Water and this dm water is used in boiler because the dm water is very pure and this
water PH quality is very suitable for steam. The dm water is heated up in less time and
boiler compute is free from corrosion.

Fig. 8.2 DM PLANT OVER VIEW

% make up of DM water by GHTP


BOILER FEED PUMP

Each pump set consists of a FA IB 56 Booster Pump, directly drive


from one end of the shaft of an electrical driving motor, and a FK 6D 30 Boiler Feed
Pump driven from opposite end of the motor shaft through a variable speed Turbo
Coupling type R16K.1. The drive is transmitted in each cause through a spacer type
flexible coupling each coupling being enclosed in a split fabrication guard.

Fig. 9.1 BOILER FEED PUMP

BOILER FEED PUMP:

A boiler feed water pump is a FK6D30 type of pump


used to pump feed water into a steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or
returning condensate produced as a result of the condensation of the steam produced by
the boiler. These pumps are normally high pressure units that use suction from a
condensate return system and can be of the centrifugal pump type or positive
displacement type.

The FK6D30 TYPE Boiler Feed Pump is a six stage Horizontal


centrifugal pump of barrel casing design. Inter stage tap off is provide for PRDS and
Reheater spray from 2nd stage.

Fig. 9.2 GENREL LEYOUT OF FEED PUMP


TECHANICAL DATA OF BOILER FEED PUMP

Pump type : FK6d30


No. of stages : 6 (Six)
Direction of rotation : Antic lock - wise
(Viewed from driven end)
Liquid pumped : Boiler Feed Water
Suction temperature : 161.3oC
Sp. Wt. At suct. Temp. : 906.1 Kg/cum
Design flow : 475 cum/hr
Differential head : 2105 mlc
Mini, RC flow : 110 cum/hr
Efficiency : 82 %
Speed : 5145 rpm
Input power : 3008.8 Kw
Inter stage flow : 55.2 cum/hr

Thrust bearing:
Manufacturer : Glacier Metal Co., U.K.
Type : Double thrust, CK range
Size : 8159/2KP-2KP

Coupling between Hydraulic coupling & pump:


Manufacturer : Bharat Forge Ltd., India
Type : HBS 1000-8X

Coupling between Hydraulic coupling & Motor:


Manufacturer Type : Bharat Forge Ltd., India
Type : HBS 3600-8

Hydraulic coupling:
Manufacturer : Voith Turbo GMBH and Co.
Type : R 16 K. 1

Drive motor:
Manufacturer : B.H.E.L.
Type : SCIM
Rating : 4000 kW
Speed : 1485 rpm
Electrical Supply : 6.6 kV, 3-phase, 50 Hz

BOILER FEED BOOSTER PUMP

The Booster is a single stage horizontal axial split casing type having the suction and
discharge branches on the casing bottom half thus allowing the pump internals to be
removed without disturbing the suction and discharge pipe work of the alignment
between the pump and motor.
The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and non drive end by mechanical seals which
are flushed by a supply of clarified water. The rotating assembly is supported by plain
white metal lined journal bearing and axially located by a Glacier double tilting pad
thrust bearing

Application:
Booster pumps are used to cater the requirements of Boiler feed
pumps suction. They are driven by the main BFP drive motor which has shaft extensions
on both ends.

Design features:
Horizontal single stage construction
Axially split casing (volute type)
Double suction impeller
Low NPSH requirement
Tilting pad type thrust bearing
Mechanical seals

TECHANICAL DATA OF BOOSTER PUMP


Type of pump : Single stage,
volute
type with Horizontal
split casing
No. of pumps required per each turbo set : 2+1
Rated speed : 1483 rpm
Design flow : 475 cub. M/hr
Head developed : 103 mlc
Efficiency : 78 %
Input power : 146 kw
Direction of rotation of the pump : Antic
lock wise
(Viewed from
motor side)
Type of journal bearings : Babbitt lined
bush
bearing
No. of bearings : 2 journal + 1
thrust bearing
Type of lubrication : Forced Oil
lubrication
Suction Temp. : 160.8o C
NPSH required : 6.00 mlc
Type of coupling : Flexible
coupling of
diaphragm design
Mechanical Seal:
Type : 4.25 PTO /
503
Manufacturer : Duramet allic /
Sealol

Flexible coupling:
Type : HB4-140X
Manufacturer : Bhart Forge
Ltd.

Thrust bearing:
Type : 8112/2KP-2KP
Manufacturer : M/S Glacier
Boiler feed pump takes supply of water from Deaerator and supplies it to Boiler Drum
against the positive pressure in the drum, the supply of water is regulated by v/vs feed
manifold station and scoop tube of the pump.

Feed control suction has


Main line (100%) Scoop tube variation is from
Bypass line (100%) 30% to 100%
Low load line (30%)

STEAM GENERATOR

The steam generator is of radiant, reheat, natural circulation single drum, dry bottom and
semi-outdoor type unit, designed for firing coal as the principal fuel and the HFO oil
firing capacity is equivalent to 22.5% boiler MCR. 4LDO burners are capable for 7.5%
boiler MCR heat input. AS per layout arrangement the mills are located between Boiler
and ESPs. The complete furnace section is of fusion welded wall type arranged as a gas
and pressure tight envelope. The extended side wall section is covered with water cooled
fin welded walls. The maximum fuel gas velocity in the pressure part system is limited to
10 12 m/sec. At 100% boiler MCR load.

Fig. 10.1 STEAM GENRATOR

All the headers in the pressure part system are provided with necessary hand holes
and hand holes plates arrangement. All headers are located outside the gas path, except
for the economizer inlet and intermediate headers which are located in the low gas
temperature section in 2nd pass. The complete pressure parts are suspended from the boiler
structural steel roof sections and arranged for free expansion downward.

Fig. 10.2 STEAM GENRETOR DETAIL DEGINE

BOILER
Boiler used in the thermal power plant is water tube, internal combustion, coal based. The
height of boiler site at GHTP is STAGE-1 is near about 56m and STAGE-2 is 61m. the
steam dum is located at the hight of 54m at STAGE-1 and 59m at STAGE-2.

SUPERHEATER :
Most of the modern boilers are having super heater and
reheater arrangement. Superheater is a component of a steam-generating unit in which
steam, after it has left the boiler drum, is heated above its saturation temperature. The
amount of superheat added to the steam is influenced by the location, arrangement, and
amount of super heater surface installed, as well as the rating of the boiler. The super
heater may consist of one or more stages of tube banks arranged to effectively transfer
heat from the products of combustion. Super heaters are classified as convection, radiant
or combination of these.

REHEATER :
Some of the heat of superheated steam is used to rotate the
turbine where it loses some of its energy. Reheater is also steam boiler component in
which heat is added to this intermediate-pressure steam, which has given up some of its
energy in expansion through the high-pressure turbine. The steam after reheating is used
to rotate the second steam turbine where the heat is converted to mechanical energy. This
mechanical energy is used to run the alternator, which is coupled to turbine, there by
generating electrical energy.

ECONOMISER :
Flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat.
Function of economiser is to recover some of the heat from the heat carried away in the
flue gases up the chimney and utilize for heating the feed water to the boiler. It is placed
in the passage of flue gases in between the exit from the boiler and the entry to the
chimney. The use of economiser results in saving in coal consumption, increase in
steaming rate and high boiler efficiency but needs extra investment and increase in
maintenance costs and floor area required for the plant. This is used in all modern plants.
In this a large number of small diameter thin walled tubes are placed between two
headers. Feed water enters the tube through one header and leaves through the other. The
flue gases flow out side the tubes usually in counter flow.

AIR PREHEATER :
The remaining heat of flue gases is utilized by air
preheater. It is a device used in steam boilers to transfer heat from the flue gases to the
combustion air before the air enters the furnace. Also known as air heater; air-heating
system. It is not shown in the lay out. But it is kept at a place near by where the air enters
in to the boiler.
The purpose of the air preheater is to recover the heat from the flue gas from the
boiler to improve boiler efficiency by burning warm air which increases combustion
efficiency, and reducing useful heat lost from the flue.
DEAERATOR :
A steam generating boiler requires that the boiler feed water
should be devoid of air and other dissolved gases, particularly corrosive ones, in order to
avoid corrosion of the metal.
Generally, power stations use a Deaerator to provide for the removal of air and
other dissolved gases from the boiler feed water. A Deaerator typically includes a vertical,
domed deaeration section mounted on top of a horizontal cylindrical vessel which serves
as the deaerated boiler feed water storage tank.

There are many different designs for a Deaerator and the designs will vary from
one manufacturer to another. The adjacent diagram depicts a typical conventional
Deaerator. If operated properly, most Deaerator manufacturers will guarantee that oxygen
in the deaerated water will not exceed 7 ppb by weight (0.005 cm/L).
Fig. 10.3 DEAERATOR

TECHANICAL DATA OF BOILER

Furnace Wall System O.D. No. Types of


Joint
Front Wall 63.5mm 181 Fusion
Rear Wall 63.5mm 181 Fusion
Side Wall (per side) 63.5mm 131 Fusion
Extended Wall (per side) 63.5mm 26 Fin welded

Furnace Width 13868 mm


Furnace 10592 mm
Furnace volume (Approx.) 5200 m3
Furnace area effective projected 2100 m2
Reheater Front Rear
No. of assemblies 59 59
No. of element/assembly 6 6
Tube O.D. 544mm 543.6mm
60.34mm 44.54mm
Material SA213-T11 ( Cr MO )
SA213-T22 ( 2 Cr MO )
SA209 T-1 ( MO )
SA 213 T-91
FILLING CAPACITY
Boiler Drum : 35 Ton
Economiser : 25 Ton
Water Wall : 130 Ton
Super Heaters : 95 Ton
Reheater : 50 Ton
Water required for normal light up : 190 Ton
For Hydrostatic test : 335 Ton

SUPER HEATER
Description O.D. No. Type
Furnace Roof 51.0mm 120 Fin
welded
Back pass Roof 44.5mm 120

Back pass front 44.5mm 98
Back pass Rear 44.5mm 120/9(Upper/Lower)
Back pass Side(per side) 44.5mm 66
Back pass extended(per side) 44.5mm 17

Material for above Carbon Steel (5a210 G-C), SA209T-1(


MO)
SA 210 Gr. Carbon steel

ECONOMIER
No. of assemblies 145 No.
O.D. 44.5 m Material Carbon
steel

DRUM I.D. 1778 mm


BOILER PARAMETERS

Superheater outlet Steam flow : 690 T/Hr


(MCR)
Steam Pressure at SH. Outlet : 155 Kg/Cm2(G)
Steam temperature at SH. Outlet : 540 C
Reheater outlet steam flow : 597.5 T/Hr
Steam pressure at RH. Inlet : 37.6
Kg/Cm2(G)
Steam pressure at RH. Outlet : 36.1 Kg/
Cm2(G)
Steam temperature at RH. Inlet : 342o C
Steam temperature at RH. Outlet : 540o C
Feed water temperature entering economiser : 243o C
Ambient air temperature : 40o C
BOILER AIR AND GAS SCHEME:

Air flow is required in boiler mainly for two purposes:


For the combustion of fuel in furnace this air is called secondary air.
For drying and transportation of pulverized coal to the furnace from the mill
called Primary Air Fan.
Secondary Air:
Secondary air is supplied by two forces draft fans are given below:
FORCED DRAUGHT (FD) FAN:
Each unit shall have two forced draught fans.
The fans draw warm air from the top of the boiler house through large air heaters
becoming the primary and secondary air used for the boiler combustion process. The air
heater warms the incoming air by transferring heat energy from the outgoing flue gases

Fig. 11.1

INDUCED DRAUGHT (ID) FAN:


Two induced draught fans draw gases out of
the boiler. The gas has already passed through the air heaters and precipitators before it
has reached these fans. The heat from the flue gases or smoke is used in the air heaters to
heat up the primary and secondary air

Fig. 11.2

TECHANICAL DATA
Type of operation : Continuous
No. of fans : 3 per boiler(2running, 1 stand
by)
Type of operation : Fuel Gas Exhaust
Orientation : Horizontal
Capacity : 230 M3/sec
Total head developed : 350 mm
Temp. of medium : 150o C
Speed : 990 rpm
Motor
Power : 1300 kW
Electric supply : 6.6 kV
Speed : 990 rpm

PRIMARY AIR FAN:


Each unit shall have two primary air fans. Air to blow the coal
from the mill to the boiler, called the primary air, is supplied by a large fan driven by a
variable speed motor. When mixed with a stream of air the powdered coal behaves more
like a gas than a solid. Primary air does two jobs heating the coal powder and secondly
lifting it into the furnace through pipelines

PARTS OF PA FAN:
Stator
Rotor
Coupling
Drive
Lop system

TECHANICAL DATA
Type of operation : Continuous
No. of Fans : Two per boiler
Medium handled : Atmospheric
Orientation : Vertical suction bottom
horizontal delivery
Fan Capacity : 70 M3/sec
Total head developed : 1210 mm
Speed : 1480 rpm
Temperature : 50o C
Motor
Power : 1250 kW
Electric supply : 6.6 kV
Speed : 1480 rpm
Boiler light-up
Boiler light-up means the starting of the boiler or flaming the furnace. There
are two types of boiler light up sys.
Cold light-up
Hot light-up

Cold light-up
When the boiler starts up takes at atm . temperature. At this time first
L.D.O(light diesel oil) is given to the furnace with high temp. steam. The reason to give
the steam is that because at atm. Temp. the state of L.D.O. is hard. so to liquefy the oil
steam is given to it. The oil is send to the furnace with the help if oil guns. Near the tip of
the oil gun a lighter or spark plug is provided. When the oil is fed to the furnace then
lighter is ignited and oil catches the fire and starts burning. After proper burning the
H.F.O.(Hot furnace oil) is fed to the furnace and H.F.O. is stopped. After that the
pulverized coal is fed to the furnace and combustion starts.
Hot light-up
When the boiler start up takes place after a trip case that time the temp. of
the boiler is sufficient to skip the first step of H.F.O. and directly L.D.O. is used to light-
up the boiler.
Spark plug provides the initial ignition. Light Diesel oil is then fed to the burner
and it catches fire
This is followed by heavy furnace oil (HFO)
Once a stable flame is established the coal/air mix is blown through the burner
where it lights spontaneously
The oil are then shut off. Burner position, coal flow and air flow are controlled to
achieve desired output of temperature, pressure and flow and hence the electricity
At full output 4,000 MW power station can burn more than 50,000 tons of coal a
day
STEAM TURBINE

In GHTP Lehre Mohabbat 210MW and 250MW single shaft reaction turbines, Tandem
Coupling 3000 R.P.M. double flow exhaust, reheat type with initial parameters of 150
Kg/sq.cm. and 535oC. A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal
energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion. Its modern
manifestation was invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884.

Fig. 12.1 STEAM TURBINE

The first device that may be classified as a steam turbine was little more than a
toy, the classic Aeolipile, described in the 1st century by Hero of Alexandria in Roman
Egypt. A thousand years later, a steam turbine with practical applications was invented in
1551 by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt, who described it as a prime mover for rotating a
spit. Another steam turbine device was created by Italian Giovanni Branca in year 1629.

A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from


pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work.
It has almost completely replaced the reciprocating piston steam engine primarily
because of its greater thermal efficiency and higher power-to-weight ratio. Also, because
the turbine generates rotary motion, it is particularly suited to be used to drive an
electrical generator; about 80% of all electric generation in the world is by use of steam
turbines. It doesn't require a linkage mechanism to convert reciprocating to rotary
motion.
The steam turbine is a form of heat engine that derives much of its improvement in
thermo dynamic efficiency through the use of multiple stages in the expansion of the
steam (as opposed to the one stage in the Watt engine), which results in a closer approach
to the ideal reversible process.
High Pressure Turbine:
High pressure steam at 560C and 160ksc
pressure passes through the high pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from this section is
returned to the boiler for reheating before being used in the next section of the turbine set.
The blades in the high pressure turbine are the smallest of all the turbine blades; this is
because the incoming steam has very high energy and occupies a low volume. The blades
are fixed to a shaft and as the steam hits the blades it causes the shaft to rotate
Intermediate Pressure Turbine:
On leaving the boiler Reheater,
steam enters the intermediate pressure turbine at 560C and 40 ksc pressure (1 ksc =
14.22 psi ). From here the steam goes straight to the next section of the turbine set. The
steam has expanded and has less energy when it enters this section, so here the turbine
blades are bigger than those in the high pressure turbine. The blades are fixed to a shaft
and as the steam hits the blades it causes the shaft to rotate
Low Pressure Turbine:
From the intermediate pressure turbines, the
steam continues its expansion in the three low pressure turbines. The steam entering the
turbines is at 300C and 6 ksc pressure. To get the most work out of the steam, exhaust
pressure is kept very low, just 50 mille-bar above a complete vacuum. The tip speed of
the largest blades with the shaft spinning at 3,000 revolutions per minute is 2,000 kmph

Boiler Reheater:
After expanding through the high pressure turbine the exhaust steam is returned to
the boiler at 360C and 40 ksc pressure for reheating before being used in the
intermediate pressure turbine
The Reheater reheats the steam from a temperature of 360C back to 560C
TECHANICAL DATA

Make : B.H.E.L.
Type of turbine : Horizontal type
No. of Cylinder : Three (3)
Steam is used : Dry Steam
Coolant : Water & Hydrogen
Gas Pressure : 3.5Kg/Cm Sq

STAGE-I STAGE-II
Rated out put 210 MW 250 MW
Rated Speed 3000 R.P.M. 3000 R.P.M.
Inlet Steam Pressure 150 Kg/cm2 150 Kg/cm2
Inlet Steam Temperature 535o C 535o C

Fig. 12.2Modern steam turbine generator for a coal fired steam plant

Fig.12.3 HP AND IP CASING


CONDENSER

Surface condenser is the commonly used term for a water-cooled shell and tube heat
exchanger installed on the exhaust steam from the steam turbines that drive the electrical
generators in thermal power plants. These surface condensers are heat exchangers which
convert steam from its gaseous to its liquid state at a pressure below atmospheric
pressure.
PURPOSE:
In thermal power plants, the primary purpose of a surface
condenser is to condense the exhaust steam from a steam turbine at as low a pressure as
possible and to obtain pure water (referred to as steam condensate) so that it may be
reused in the steam generator or boiler as boiler feed water.

The steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to mechanical work. The
difference between the enthalpy of the inlet steam to a turbine and the enthalpy of the
exhaust steam represents the heat which is converted to mechanical work. Therefore, the
larger the enthalpy difference between inlet steam and exhaust steam, the higher is the
amount of work delivered by the turbine. Condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a
pressure below atmospheric pressure increases that enthalpy difference and therefore
increases the work output of turbine. The water-cooled surface condensers used on the
steam turbine exhausts in large power plants usually operate at an absolute pressure of
about 35 to 40 mmHg which is far below the typical atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg.

Most of the heat liberated by condensing the exhaust steam is transferred to and carried
away by the cooling medium (water or air) used by the surface condenser.

Fig. 13.2 Condenser


SHELL:
The shell is the condenser's outermost body and contains the heat
exchanger tubes. The shell is fabricated from carbon steel plates and is stiffened as
needed to provide rigidity for the shell. When required by the selected design,
intermediate plates are installed to serve as baffle plates that provide the desired flow
path of the condensing steam. The plates also provide support that help prevent sagging
of long tube lengths.

At the bottom of the shell, where the condensate collects, an outlet is installed. In some
designs, a sump (often referred to as the hot well) is provided. Condensate is pumped
from the outlet or the hot well for reuse as boiler feed water.

For most water-cooled surface condensers, the shell is under vacuum during normal
operating conditions.
VACUUM SYSTEM:

VACCUM SYSTEM
Schematic diagram of a typical injector or ejector. For a steam-jet ejector, the motive
fluid is steam.

The internal vacuum in the shell of a water-cooled surface condenser is most


commonly supplied by and maintained by an external steam-jet ejector system. Such an
ejector system uses steam as the motive fluid to remove any non-condensable gases that
may be present in the surface condenser.

The Venturi effect, which is a particular case of Bernoulli's equation, applies to


the operation of steam-jet ejectors.

Motor driven mechanical vacuum pumps, such as liquid ring type vacuum pumps,
are also used for this service

TUBE SHEETS:
At each end of the shell, a steel sheet of sufficient thickness is
provided, with holes for the exchanger tubes to be inserted. The inlet end of each tube is
also bell mouthed for streamlined entry of water. This is to avoid eddies at the tube inlets
giving rise to erosion, and to reduce flow friction. To take care of length-wise expansion
of the tubes, some designs may have expansion joints (pleated steel bellows) between the
shell and the tube sheets allowing the latter to move longitudinally.

TUBES:
Generally the tubes are made of stainless steel, copper alloys such
as brass or bronze, cupro nickel, or titanium depending on various criteria. The tube
lengths range up to about 55 ft (17 m) for modern power plants, depending on the size of
the condenser. The outer diameter of the condenser tubes typically ranges from 3/4 inch
(19 mm) to 1-1/4 inch (32 mm), based on condenser cooling water friction considerations
and overall condenser size.

COOLING WATER INLET AND OUTLET:


Each end of the
condenser shell is closed by a box cover referred to as a water box, connected to the tube
sheet or condenser shell by a flange. The water box is usually provided with manholes on
hinged covers to allow periodic inspection and cleaning.

The inlet and outlet water boxes also have flanges for connecting to the inlet and
outlet water lines. They also have small, valve air vents at the top of the boxes and valve
drains at the bottom of the boxes for use during periodic maintenance shutdowns.

CONTROL VALVE

Control valves are valves used within industrial plants and elsewhere to control
operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, liquid level and flow rate by fully or
partially opening or closing in response to signals received from controllers that compare
a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value is provided by independent sensors that
monitor changes in such conditions.

Control valves are an integral part of the hundreds (or even thousands) of control loops
networked together in industrial plants to produce their various end products.

A control valve is part of an assembly that typically includes a valve body (and its
internal parts), an actuator to provide the motive power for opening and closing the valve,
and a variety of additional accessories such as positioners, transducers, manual operators
and limit switches. The motive power provided by the actuators may
be electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic.

Fig. 13.4 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF CONVENTIONAL CONTROL


VALVE WITH A PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR
Applications:
Control valves are used in industries such as petroleum refining, chemical and
petrochemical manufacturing, nuclear power plants and fossil fuel power
plants, natural gas processing and many others.

In such industries, control valves are an essential component of the systems used
to control important operational parameters like pressure, temperature, liquid
levels and flow rates.
Pressure control valves may be used to reduce liquid or gas pressures or they may
be used to maintain a back-pressure (i.e., a pressure upstream of the valve). They
may also be used to maintain a pressure difference between two points in a
process.
Temperature control valves are used to maintain liquid or gas temperatures within
process vessels or to control the heat transfer within heat exchangers and process
heaters or furnaces.
Level control valves are used to maintain liquid levels within a desired range in
process vessels or tanks. In some cases, they may also be used to maintain levels
of solid particles.
Flow control valves are used to control the volumetric or mass flow rate of liquids
and gases. They may also be used to maintain a desired ratio between two flows,
in which case they are part of what is called a flow ratio controller.

POWER GENRETOR

Generation is the process of generating electric energy from other forms of


energy. Electromagnetic HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction" HYPERLINK
"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction"induction, where an
electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of
motion) into electricity, this is most used form for generating electricity, it is
based on Faraday's law, can be experimented by simply rotating a magnet within
closed loop of a conducting material (e.g. Copp

Fig. 13.1 POWER GENERATOR ASSEMBELED WITH TERBINE

The power generated by the generator of STAGE-1 is in 15.75 kW and then


it is Sent to the transformer here it is step-up to the 220kW. In STAGE-2 power generated
by the generator is 16.5 and it is step-up to the 250kW. After that the electricity is send to
the grids of different cities.

COOLING TOWERS
In GHTP Lehre Mohabbat four cooling towers are used. The condensate (water) formed
in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is
passed to cooling towers. It is a tower- or building-like device in which atmospheric air
(the heat receiver) circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water (the heat
source) and the water is thereby cooled. A cooling tower may serve as the heat sink in a
conventional thermodynamic process, such as refrigeration or steam power generation,
and when it is convenient or desirable to make final heat rejection to atmospheric air.
Water, acting as the heat-transfer fluid, gives up heat to atmospheric air, and thus cooled,
is re circulated through the system, affording economical operation of the process. The
length of cooling tower is maximum 350 meter to 450 meter.In GHTP the Counter flow
type cooling tower are placed. In this type of cooling tower the air flow is directly
opposite to the water flow (see diagram below). Air flow first enters an open area beneath
the fill media and is then drawn up vertically. The water is sprayed through pressurized
nozzles and flows downward through the fill, opposite to the air flow.

Fig. 14.1 WORKING OF COOLING TOWER

Fig. 14.2 COOLING TOWER AT GHTP LEHRA MOHABBAT


COOLING WATER SYSTEM

The total cooling water requirement for running two number units (210 MW each) at
Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant , Lehra Mohabat is supplied by the intake pump house.
The raw water is taken from the Sir hind canal distributor running just nearby the plant
area and stored in the storage pond. The pond act as water reservoir during the period the
canal is under shut down for maintenance purpose or otherwise. Normally, turbidity of
raw water is between 150-200 rpm, which increases to 400 500 ppm during rainy
season. In order to destroy algae and bacteria in the raw water, chlorination at the intake
pump house is done as per requirement. The water from pond is taken to the clarifier with
the pumps installed in the intake pump house.

CLARIFIERS:
The basic purpose of clarifier is to remove or to precipitate the
undeserved impurities present in raw water which coagulates by putting alum and settle
down at the bottom of clarifiers in the form of sludge which is further removed with the
help of desludging valves provided for the purpose .The quantity of alum is regulated
depending upon the turbidity of raw water.

The circulating water required for the C.W Pumps Is Prepared In the Clarifier
NO.1. One is common service clarifier (capacity 3800 m3 / hr.). The water from the
clarifiers is transferred to the clear well Of D.M. plant the clarified water from the clear
wells is used for the following different purposes:-
For makeup of the circulating water in the C.W Pump.
For various services in the plant
For fire fighting purpose.
The water from main clarifier no.1 comes to sludge blanket where further alum
dosing is done and this water is used to prepare D.M. water in D.M. plant.

Cooling water system:


There are 6 No. pumps in the C.W. pump house for
both the units, three pumps for each unit. Out of three pumps, 2 No. pumps for each unit
having capacity 50% each are run and one number pumps acts as standby. The piping of
the stand by pumps has been done in such a manner that the standby pump can be used
for the other unit also .The particulars of the C.W. pumps installed at G.H.T.P. Lehra
Mohabat are as under :-
Manufacturer : M/s, Joyti Ltd.
Type : Wet pit, mixed flow, vertical non
extractable pump directly coupled
with
Electric motor drive.

Design of the glands has been improved that during start up, minimum water
passes along with the shaft. Moreover, the electrical motor of the pump has been kept on
a separate floor i.e. sufficient partition is provided so that water does not fall on the
motor.

Auxiliaries cooling system at GHTP Lehra Mohabat:


Auxiliaries cooling system is divided into two parts:-
Turbine auxiliaries cooling system.
Boiler auxiliaries cooling system.
The source of turbine auxiliaries cooling system is turbine auxiliary C.W. pumps
(TACW Pumps) and for boiler auxiliary cooling system, it is boiler auxiliary C.W.
pumps.

The TACV Pump:


There are two no. TACW pumps one pumps is for 100%
capacity and other is stand by. These pumps take suction from up stream of
condenser and the after routing the water from various coolers; discharge it into
hot water tunnel. The particulars of these pumps are as under:-
Capacity : 800m3 hrs.
Head : 35 MWC
Motor rating : 110 KW 415 V

The cooling water requirement and other features of turbine aide cooling as
under:

Generator Stator Winding Cooler:

Water requirement : 220 m3/ hr


Water requirement : DM water is circulated in stator bars
And this hot DM water in stator water
cooler by clear water.

H2 coolers : 350 m3 / hr
Turbine oil coolers : 3625 m3 / hr
Seal oil coolers : 130 m3 / hr

HYDROGEN GAS PLANT

Hydrogen Gas at GHTP Lehra Mohabbat is used the Rotor. The daily consumption of
Hydrogen gas is 3 to 4 cylinder approximately which is .Nm3. The Hydrogen Plant
is designed to produce hydrogen gas at the rate of 10 Nm3/hr. and Oxygen Gas at the rate
of 5 Nm3/hr. the oxygen gas generated is vented to the atmosphere.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION

ELECTROLYSERS :
Hydrogen and oxygen gas is produce by feeding direct
current to electrolytic cells. There are 14 cells arranged in two banks of 7 cells each in
series. A steady current of 2000 Amps. Is passed gradually through the cells. The
electrolyte consists of DM water and NaOH of 20% concentration. NaOH is added to
improve the efficiency of electrolysis operation and to minimize the electrical resistance
between electrodes. When DC current Flows DM water gets electrolyzed to give
Hydrogen Gas and Oxygen Gas The reaction formula is as below:
2H2O + Energy = 2H2 + O2

From these headers gases flow to Gas Washing Tanks (GWT) and bubble through the DM
water. Which scrubs the generated gas and strips off carrying over of the caustic. The
purity of the Hydrogen Gas is measured by means of Thermal Conductivity Analyzer
(TCA). When it is ascertained that Hydrogen Gas has acquired the desired purity (min
99.0%), only then hydrogen is allowed to be diverted in the low Pressure Gas Holder.
Hydrogen Gas Storage Tank. Till this purity is achieved the Hydrogen Gas is vented off.
By product Oxygen Gas is always vented to atmosphere.

LOW PRESSURE GAS HOLDER (LPGH) :


The Hydrogen Gas Stored in a
Low pressure floating roof type gas holder. Water seal has been providing between two
tanks to check gas leakage. The floating roof is balanced by counter weights.

HYDROGEN GAS COMPRESSER :


Hydrogen Gas Compression is done by
reciproting compressor. The compressors compress the hydrogen gas from 0 to 50 mmwc
to 150 kg/cm2. The hydrogen gas is sucked from the low pressure gas holder via knock-
out drum having demister pads for knocking out water droplets and other undesirable
particles. The compressed gas is passed through filters at a pressure of 150 kg/cm2.

PURIFIER AND DRYING UNIT :


Hydrogen Gas is purified by removing the
traces of Oxygen in the Deoxo purifier by passing the same through a bed of palladium
catalyst. In the presence of this catalyst, hydrogen and oxygen traces react to form water
vapors. The reaction is exothermic and the heat so produced raises the temperature of the
gas. Hence the gas coming out of the purifier is cooled and then passed through the gas
dryer. Purified gas is passed through the twin bed regenerative dryer unit to absorb
moisture contained in the gas to give atmospheric dew point of -60 deg. C.

HYDROGEN STORAGE CYLINDERS THROUGH MANIFOLDS :


From
dryer the gas is analyzed for the dew point and hydrogen purity. After confirmation of
Hydrogen Purity of 99.9% and dew point -60 deg. C, the gas is stored in cylinders
through hydrogen filling manifolds at 150 kg/cm2

PRESTART-UP CHECK LIST

Electrolyte Level in Cell : up to 100 mm from


top
Specific Gravity of electrolyte : 1.18 to 1.25
Temperature of electrolyte : Ambient
Vent valve at GWT : Open
Vent line of GWT o2 : Open
Delivery valve for H2 to LPGH : Closed
DM Water level in GWT : 100 mm
Level of DM water in DM water tank : Adequate
Valve from DM water tank to GWT : Open

Rectifier
OG Switch from MCC to Rectifier : ON
Rectifier incoming switch : OFF
DC out put voltage of Rectifier : 0
DC out put Current : 0

Line up Purifier / Cooler / Drier


All measuring instruments should be in order
Hydrogen Gas Manifolds
Check All Valves and line up
Safety valve should be in order
Shut off valve should be In Open position

Water : Ensure DM water supply having conductivity less than One micron
SPECIFICATION

HYDROGEN GAS INLET CONDITION:


Service : H2 Gas
Flow : 12 Nm2/Hr.
O2 Content : 0.1 - 0.2%
H2 Content : Balance
Pressure at inlet : 125-150
kg/cm2g

HYDROGEN GAS OUTLET CONDITION:


Flow : 12 Nm2/Hr.
Moisture : (-) 70oc Dew
Pressure : 125-110
kg/cm2g
O2 Content : 5 ppm (Max)

COMPRESSORS HOUSE
In GHTP Lehra Mohabbat 4 Compressor Houses. In compressor house two types
compressors are used INSTRUMENT COMPRESSOR and SERVICE AIR
COMPRESSOR. Principal of a BOP Compressor. Two cylinders are positioned on either
side of crankcase facing each other being driven by same Crank shaft with the two cranks
at 180o the reciprocating mechanism in the two cylinders will always have movements
exactly opposed to each other thus imparting perfect dynamic balance into the system.
The Balanced opposed piston compressors are either single stage design
where input pressure for both the cylinder are same P1 (atmospheric pressure) & so also
the output pressures P2 or two stage design where the output pressure of a two stage
compressor P3 will be higher than that of a corresponding single stage compressor.

Features:
Minimum Vibration
Lighter Foundation
Higher efficiency
Maximum reliability
Control and safety Device
Easy installation

Following are two types of compressors are used in GHTP Lehra Mohabbat:
Instrument air compressors
Service air compressors

INSTRUMENT COMPRESSOR:
The instrument compressors are very
important compressor because all the instruments, valves are operated by this
compressor. Each unit have 2 instrument compressors one is running and second is stand
by condition when running compressor stop then in 5min second instrument compressor
is start. When this compressor is stop working then under 5min plant is trip all the
instrument stop working. This compressor air is cool and compressed air pressure is
7.2bar.

SERVICE AIR COMPRESSOR:


The Service air compressor are used for
cleaning, and other purpose. Service air compressors are similar to instrument air
compressor. The service air compressors and instrument air compressors both are
connected with common valve and when instrument air compressors are stop working
than common valve is automatic open during 5min and service air compressor take the
compressed air to the instrument air compressor.

TECHANICAL DATA OF AIR COMPRESSOR

Rore
L.P. Cylinder : 470 mm
H.P. Cylinder : 265 mm
Stroke : 150 mm
Compressor Speed : 625 rpm
Free air delivery : 25.00 m3/min
Piston Displacement : 32.38 m3/min
Suction Pressure : 0.965 kg/cm2
Working Pressure : 8.80 kg/cm2
Lub oil Pressure : 2 to 4 kg/cm2
Total cooling water : 200 l.p.m.
Total weight of compressor : 4000 kg
Overall dimension of compressor : Length: 3200 mm
Width: 2800
mm
Height: 2010
mm
Electric motor : KEC SQ. MUHNL
CAGE SPDP
Power : 180 kw
Speed : 1500 (syn)
Frame : LD3I5L
Belt Type : SPC 4500
FENNER
MAKE
(QTY 7
NOS)

CONCLUSION

Working at G.H.T.P. Lehra Mohabbat was a very interesting and knowledgeable


experience. Working here, I learnt many things, I meet so many people who were talented
in various fields.
Executive Engineer L.K.Bansal many ways, they helped me understand the working of
the thermal plant and I was involved in daily workings, which helped me gain a lot of
confidence in my work.
In the end I would just like to say that it was very big opportunity for me to intern in
G.H.T.P. Lehra Mohabbat. I am thankful to all the people in G.H.T.P. Lehra Mohabbat
with whom I have worked for teaching me through their past experiences, helping
improve my skills and having faith in me.