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EE302 Problem Set 8

Question 1 The following system in state space represents the forward path of a unity feedback
system. Use Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine if the closed-loop system is stable.

0 1 0 0
x = 0
1 3 + 0

3 4 5 1
 
y= 0 1 1 .
Question 2 An interval polynomial is of the form
P (s) = a0 + a1 s + a2 s2 + a3 s3 + a4 s4 + a5 s5 + ....
with its coefficients belonging to intervals xi 6 ai 6 yi , where xi , yi are prescribed constants.
Kharitonovs theorem says that an interval polynomial has all roots in the left half plane if each
one of the following four polynomials has its roots in the left half plane.
K1 (s) = x0 + x1 s + y2 s2 + y3 s3 + x4 s4 + x5 s5 + y6 s6 + .....
K2 (s) = x0 + y1 s + y2 s2 + x3 s3 + x4 s4 + y5 s5 + y6 s6 + .....
K3 (s) = y0 + x1 s + x2 s2 + y3 s3 + y4 s4 + x5 s5 + x6 s6 + .....
K4 (s) = y0 + y1 s + x2 s2 + x3 s3 + y4 s4 + y5 s5 + x6 s6 + .....
Use Kharitonovs theorem and the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find if the following polynomial has
any zeros in the right half plane.
P (s) = a0 + a1 s + a2 s2 + a3 s3
2 6 a0 6 3 ; 1 6 a1 6 2 ; 3 6 a2 6 5 ; a3 = 1
Question 3 A Butterworth polynomial is of the form:
s 2n
Bn (s) = 1 + (1)n
c
Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to find the zeros of a Butterworth polynomial for
1. n = 1
2. n = 2
Question 4 For the open-loop plant:
100
G(s) =
s(s + 5)(s + 9)
Design a controller by first transforming the plant to controller canonical form which gives a
closed-loop of 15% overshoot and a peak time of 0.2 seconds.
Note: The matrices A and B have the following structure in the controller canonical form:

an1 an2 . . . a0
1 0 ... 0
A = ..

.. ..
. . ... .
0 ... 1 0

1

1
..
.
B = .
..
0
Question 5 Design an observer for the system
50
G(s) =
(s + 3)(s + 6)(s + 9)
by first converting it to the observer canonical form, with a desired performance of 10% overshoot and
a settling time of 0.5 seconds. The observer will be 10 times as fast as the plant and the observers
non-dominant pole be 10 times as far from the imaginary axis as the observers dominant poles.
Note: The matrices A and C have the following structure in the observer canonical form:

an1 1 0 . . . 0
an2 0 1 . . . 0

.. . . .
.
A= .

. . . . . . . .

a1 . . . . . . . . . 1
a0 0 ... ... 0
 
C = 1 ... ... 0
Question 6 Consider the plant:
(s + 2)
G(s) =
(s + 5)(s + 9)
Design an observer by writing the plant in observer canonical form and with a transient response
described by = 0.6 and n = 120.

Question 7 Consider the following transfer function:


(s + 6)
G(s) =
(s + 3)(s + 8)(s + 10)
If the system is represented in cascade form as shown in Figure 1, design a controller to yield a
closed-loop response of 10% overshoot with a settling time of 1 second. Design by first transforming
the plant to phase variable form.

Figure 1: Block diagram for Problem 7

Note: The matrices A and B have the following structure in the phase variable form:

0 1 0 ... 0
0 0 1 ... 0

.. .. .. ..
A= . . ... . .

0 ... ... 0 1
a0 a1 . . . . . . an1

2

0
..
.
.
..
B=
.
..
1
Question 8 The open-loop system of Question 7 is represented as shown in Figure 2. If output of
each block is assigned to be a state variable, design the controller gains for feedback from these state
variables.

Figure 2: Block diagram for Problem 8

Question 9 Consider the system:



0 4 0 0 0
1 4 0 0 0
x =
5
x + u
7 1 25 1
0 0 3 3 0

1. Find the eigenvalues of this system.

2. Find the controllable and uncontrollable modes of the system.

3. For each of the uncontrollable modes, find a vector v such that:

v T B = 0 , v T A = v T

4. Show that there are an infinite number of feedback gains K that will relocate the modes of the
system to -5,-3,-2 and -2.

5. Find the unique matrix K that achieves these pole location and prevents initial conditions on
the uncontrollable part of the system from ever affecting the controllable part.

Question 10 Two pendulums, coupled by a spring are to be controlled by two equal site forces u,
which are applied to the pendulum bobs as shown in Figure 3. The equations of motion are:

ml2 1 = ka2 (1 2 ) mgl1 lu

ml2 2 = ka2 (2 1 ) mgl2 + lu


1. Show that the system is uncontrollable. Can you associate a physical meaning with the con-
trollable and uncontrollable modes?

2. Is there a way that the system can be made controllable?


Question 11 Consider a system with the transfer function:
9
G(s) =
s2 9

3
Figure 3: Block diagram for Problem 10

1. Find (A, B, C) for this system in observer canonical form.

2. Is (A, B) controllable?

3. Compute K so that the closed-loop poles are assigned to s = 3 3j

4. Is the closed loop system of the previous part observable?

5. Design a full-order estimator with estimator error poles at s = 12 12j

Question 12 Explain how the controllability, observability and stability properties of a linear system
related.

Question 13 Consider the electric circuit shown in Figure 4

Figure 4: Block diagram for Problem 13

1. Write the state equations for the circuit. The input u(t) is a current source and output y is
voltage.

2. What condition(s) on R, L and C will guarantee that the system is controllable?

4
3. What condition(s) on R, L and C will guarantee that the system is observable?

Question 14 Consider a system described in state-space form is given by


      
x 1 0 1 x1 0
= + u, y = x1 .
x 2 1 1 x2 1

Describe all the closed-loop pole locations that can be achieved by only static output feedback (that
is, u = ky for a real constant k).
Question 15 Consider a system described in state-space form given by

x 1 0 1 0 x1 0
x 2 = 1 0 0 x2 + 1 u, y = x1 .
x 3 0 0 3 x3 1

For this system show that it is impossible to get closed loop poles {1, 2, 3} by only static output
feedback. Obtain a state feedback controller that places the closed-loop poles to these locations.
Question 16 For the following matrix pairs (A, B), write down the corresponding phase-variable
canonical forms. Also write down the corresponding similarity transformation matrices.

1 0 0 1
(a) A = 0 2 0 , B = 1.

0 0 3 1

1 1 0 1
(b) A = 0 0 1, B = 0.
1 0 0 0