z = f(x, y) = x2 + xy
w = f(x, y, z) = x + 2y 3z
(fg)(x,y,z) = f(x,y,z)g(x,y,z)
(g f)(x,y,z) = g(f(x,y,z))
Level Curves
Scalar fields
Contour Lines
Topographical Maps
Level Surfaces
Limits
lim f ( x , y ) =L
( x, y ) (x 0 , y0 )
5 x2 y
lim 2 2
=2
( x, y ) (1,2) x +y
5 x2 y
lim =0
( x, y ) (0,0) x 2+ y 2
See graph
2 2 2
lim
( x, y ) (0,0) ( x y
2
x +y
2 )
=does not exist
Continuity
Partial Derivatives
First partial derivatives for z = f(x,y), the partial derivative with respect to x is:
z
f ( x , y )=f ( x , y )=z x =
x x x
z
f ( x , y )=f ( x , y )=z y =
y y y
f ( x , y ) =x e x y
Evaluate fx and fy at the point (1,ln2) of .
fx(1,ln2) = 4ln2 + 2
fy(1,ln2) = 2
Find the slopes in the xdirection and the ydirection of the surface f(x,y) = x 2/2 y2
+ 25/8 at the point (1/2, 1,2).
f 2 f
( )
= 2 =f xx
x x x
2
f f
( )
= 2 =f yy
y y y
f 2 f
( )= =f
y x y x xy
f 2 f
( )
=
x y x y
=f yx
Find the second partial derivatives of f(x,y) = 3xy 2 2y + 5x2y2.
Note:
If f is a function of x and y such that f xy and fyx are continuous on an open disk R,
then, for every (x,y) in R, fxy(x,y) = fyx(x,y).
If z = f(x,y) and x and y are increments of x and y, then the differentials of the
independent variables x and y are:
dx = x and dy = y
z = 2x siny 3x2y2
Definition of Differentiability
1 1
z ( .01 ) (.03 ) .0141
2 2
V = xyz
V V V
dV = dx+ dy + dz
x y z
dV= yz dx + xz dy + xy dz
20.5 cm3
20.5/15,000 .14%
Example #5
Chain Rule
Let w = x2y y2, where x = sin t and y = et. Find dw/dt when t = 0.
dw/dt = 2
Example 2, 3, 4, 5
Implicit Differentiation
If the equation F(x,y) = 0 defines y implicitly as a differentiable function of x, then
dy F x (x , y )
=
dx F y ( x , y) , Fy 0.
Examples 6 & 7
Directional Derivatives
Let f be a function of two variables x and y and let u = cos i + sin j be a unit
vector. Then the directional derivative of f in the direction of u, denoted by
f ( x+tcos , y +tsin ) f (x , y)
D u f ( x , y )=lim provided the limit exists.
t 0 t
8/5
The gradient of a function
Let z = f(x,y) be a function of x and y such that f x and fy exist, Then the gradient of f,
f ( x , y )= ( yx + y ) i+( lnx+2 xy ) j
2
f ( 1,2 )=6 i+ 4 j
Find the directional derivative of f(x,y) = 3x2 2y2 at ( ,0) in the direction from P(
,0) to Q(0,1).
3
PQ= i+ j
4
PQ 3 4
u= = i+ j
5 5
PQ
f ( x , y )=6 xi4 yj
f ( 34 , 0)= 92 i
Du f ( 34 , 0)= f ( 34 ,0) u= 27
10
value of D u f ( x , y ) is f ( x , y ).
minimum value of D u f ( x , y ) is f ( x , y ) .
T(x,y) = 20 4x2 y2. Find the path of the particle as it continuously moves in the
direction of maximum temperature increase.
dx dy
and
8 x=k 2 y=k
dt dt
dx dy
or
=
8 x 2 y
1 1 1 1
or
x dx= y dy x1 dx = 4y1 dy
8 2
x1 dx = 4 y 1 dy
e lnx=e lny +C
4
x=k y
x = ky4
2 = k(3)4
2/81 = k so x = 2/81y4
Sketch the level curve corresponding to c = 0 for the function f(x,y) = y sin x and
find a normal vector at several points on the curve.
0 = y sin x or y = sin x
so f ( x , y )=cosx i+ j
f ( , 0 )=i+ j
f ( 23 , 23 )= 12 i+ j
f ( 2 ,1)= j .
Table on pg 939
Let F be differentiable at the point P(x 0, y0, z0) on the surface S given by F(x,y,z) = 0
such that F ( x 0 , y 0 , z0 )0 .
F x ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) ( xx 0 ) + F y ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )( y y 0 ) + F z ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 )( z z 0) =0
Find the tangent plane to the hyperboloid z 2 2x2 2y2 = 12 at the point (1,1,4).
x y 2z + 6 = 0
Find the equation of the tangent plane to the paraboloid z = 1 1/10(x 2 + 4y2) at
the point (1,1, ).
Find the set of symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface given by xyz
= 12 at the point
(2,2, 3).
x2 y +2 z+ 3
= =
6 6 4
Describe the tangent line to the curve of intersection of the surfaces x 2 + 2y2 + 2z2
= 20 and x2 + y2 + z = 4 at the point (0,1,3).
20i
Find the angle of inclination of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid given by
x2 y 2 z2
+ + =1 at the point (2,2,1).
12 12 3
1 1 2
, , 0,0,1
3 3 3
35.3
1. The function has a relative minimum at (x0,y0) if f(x,y) f(x0,y0) for all (x,y) in
an open disk containing (x0,y0).
2. The function has a relative minimum at (x0,y0) if f(x,y) f(x0,y0) for all (x,y) in
an open disk containing (x0,y0).
Let f be defined on an open region R containing (x 0,y0). The point (x0,y0) is a critical
point of f if one of the following is true.
fx(x,y) = 4x + 8 fy(x,y) = 2y 6
(2,3)
d = 0, the second partial test fails. Look at figure 13.70. The x and y axiss are
absolute minimum.
Find the absolute extrema of f(x,y) = sin xy on the closed region 0 x and 0
y 1.
Pg 957
Optimization
A rectangular box is resting on the xyplane with one vertex at the origin. The
opposite vertex lies in the plane 6x + 4y + 3z = 24. Find the maximum volume of
the box.
64/9 cubic units
The least squares regression line for {(x1,y1), (x2,y2), (x3,y3), .(xn,yn)} is given by
f(x) = ax + b, where
n n n
n x i y i x i y i n n
a= i=1
n
i=1
n
i=1
2 and b=
1
n ( y ia x i ) .
n x
i=1
2
i ( )
xi
i=1
i=1 i=1
Lagrange Therorem
Let f and g have continuous first partial derivatives such that f has an extremum at
Let f and g satisfy the hypothesis of Lagranges Theorem, and let f have a minimum
or maximum subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c. To find the minimum or maximum
of f, use the following:
1. Simultaneously solve the equations
f ( x 0 , y 0 ) = g ( x 0 , y 0 ) and g(x,y) = c
by solving the following system of equations.
f x ( x , y )= g x (x , y)
f y ( x , y ) = g y (x , y )
g ( x , y )=c
2. Evaluate f at each solution point obtained in the first step. The largest value
yields the maximum of f subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c, and the smallest
value yields the minimum of f subject to the constraint g(x,y) = c.
Find the rectangle with the maximum area possible inscribed in the ellipse
2 2
x y
+ =1 .
9 16
g ( x , y)= 2x y
,
9 8 and
g ( x , y )= 2 x y
9 8
,
x2 y2
The constraint is + =1 .
9 16
y2 = 8
The production function for a software company is f(x,y) = 100x 4/3y1/4 where x
represents the units of labor ($150/unit) and y represents the units of capital
($250/unit). The total cost of labor and capital is limited to $50,000. Find the
maximum production level.
f ( x , y )= 75 x 1
4
1 3
y 4 , 25 x 4 y
3
4
g ( x , y ) = 150 , 250
1 1 3 3
4 4 4 4
75 x y =150 and 25 x y =250
1 1 1 1
4 3 3
x y4 4 4 x 4
y4
= and substitute 25 x y =250
2 2
25x = 125y or x = 5y
y = 50 and x = 250
so f(250,50) = 16,719
and = .334
Find the minimum value of f(x,y,z) = 2x2 + y2 + 3z2 with a constraint of 2x 3y 4z
= 49.
f ( x , y , z )= 4 x , 2 y , 6 z and g(x,y,z) = 2x 3y 4z = 49
g ( x , y , z )= 2 ,3 ,4 .
f(3,9,4) = 147
f = g+ h
Find the extreme temperatures on the curve formed by the intersection of the plane
x + y + z = 3 and the sphere.
g ( x , y , z )= 2 x ,2 y , 2 z and h ( x , y , z )= , ,
2 = 2x +
2 = 2y +
2z = 2z +
or (x y) = 0
2z(1 ) = 0
(3, 1, 1) and (1,3,1) are critical points and T(3,1,1) = T(1,3,1) = 25
Iterated Integrals
b g2(x) d h2( y)
f ( x , y ) dy dx f ( x , y ) dx dy
a g1(x) c h1( y)
( 2 x 2 y 2 +2 y ) dy
1
3x2 2x 1
2 x
( 2 x 2 y 2 +2 y ) dy dx
1 1
3
b g2( x)
A= f ( x , y ) dy dx
a g1( x)
d h2 ( y)
A= f ( x , y ) dx dy
c h1 ( y)
dy dx=(dc)(ba)
a c
dy dx=2 2
/ 4 cos x
Find the area of the region R that lies below the parabola y = 4x x 2 above the x
axis, and above the line y = 3x + 6.
2 2
2 4 xx 4 4 x x
15
dy dx + dy dx=
2
1 3 x +6 2 0
I f is defined on a closed, bounded region R in the xyplane, then the double integral
n
If f is integrable over the plane region R and f(x,y) 0 for all (x,y) in R, then the
volume of the solid region that lies above R and below the graph of f is defined as
V = f ( x , y ) dA .
R
1. cf ( x , y ) dA=c f ( x , y ) dA
R R
2. [ f ( x , y ) g ( x , y ) ]dA= f ( x , y ) dA g ( x , y ) dA
R R R
3. f ( x , y ) dA 0, if f ( x , y ) 0
R
4. f ( x , y ) dA g ( x , y ) dA , if f ( x , y ) g( x , y )
R R
Fubinis Theorem
b g2(x)
f ( x , y ) dA= f ( x , y ) dy dx
R a g1(x)
d h2 ( y)
f ( x , y ) dA= f ( x , y ) dx dy
R c h1 ( y)
1.
2/3
Find the volume of the solid region bounded by the paraboloid z = 4 x 2 2y2 and
the xyplane.
( 4x 2 )
2
y
( 4x 2 )
2 and 2 x 2
2 ( 4 x 2)
2
V = ( 4x 22 y 2 ) dy dx
2 ( 4x 2)
2
42
Find the volume of the solid region R bounded by the surface f ( x , y ) =ex and the
planes z = 0, y = 0, and x = 1.
0 y x and 0 x 1
1 x
ex dy dx= e1
2
0 0 2e
Find the volume of the region R bounded above by the paraboloid z = 1 x 2 y2 and
below by the plane z = 1 y.
y y 2 y y y 2 and 0 x 1
1 y y2 1 y y 2
V = ( 1x y ) dx dy
2 2
( 1 y ) dx dy=
0 y y 2 0 y y 2
32
R= {( r , ) :r 1 r r 2 , 1 2 }
Let R be a plane region consisting of all points (x,y) = (r cos , r sin ) satisfying the
conditions
0 g1() r g2(), , 0 ( ) 2. If g 1 and g2 are continuous on [,
g2()
Let R be the annular region lying between the two circles x 2 + y2 = 1 and x2 + y2 =
2 5
Use polar coordinates to find the volume of the solid region bounded above by the
2 2
Use a double integral to find the area enclosed by the graph r = 3cos 3.
/ 6 3cos 3
3
r dr d=
4
/6 0
Find the area of the region bounded above by the spiral
r= and below by the
3
r = 1 and r = 2.
2 /(3 r )
r d dr =
3
1 0
The center of mass is defined as the point at which the fulcrum could be to attain
equilibrium. (can be one or more dimensions)
The moment m about a point P is Moment = mx, where m is the mass concentrated
at a point and x id the distance between the point mass and another point (length
of the moment arm).
A thin flat plate of material of constant density is called a planar lamina (i.e. a sheet
of paper). For planar laminas, the density is considered to be a measure of mass per
unit of area, (Rho). The mass of an irregularly shaped planar lamina of uniform
density is equal to the density times the area (m = A).
and M y = x [ f ( x )g ( x)] dx .
a
My M
2. The center of mass ( x , y ) is given by x = y = x , where
m m
b
m= [ f ( x )g( x ) ] dx is the mass of the limina.
a
center of mass is ( x , y )= ( Mm , Mm ) .
y x
If R represents a simple plane region rather
If f and its first partial derivatives are continuous on the closed region R in the xy
plane, then the area of the surface S given by z = f(x,y) over R is given by
2 2
Surface Area= 1+ [ f x ( x , y) ] + [ f y ( x , y )] dA .
R
Find the surface area of the portion of the plane z = 2 x y that lies above the
circle x2 + y2 1 in the first octant.
3
4
Find the area of the portion of the surface f(x,y) = 1 x 2 + y that lies above the
triangular region with vertices (1,0,0), (0,1,0) and (0,1,0).
1 1x
2+4 x 2 dy dx 1.618
0 x1
Find the surface area of the paraboloid z = 1 + x 2 + y2 that lies above the unit circle.
2 1
( 5 51 )
1+ 4 r 2 r dr d= 6
0 0
Find the surface area S of the portion of the hemisphere f ( x , y ) =25x 2 y 2 that
lies above the region R bounded by the circle x 2 + y2 9.
2 3
5
r dr d=10
0 0 25r 2
Triple Integrals
If f is continuous over a bounded solid region Q, then the triple integral of f over Q is
defined as
n
f ( x , y , z ) dV = lim f ( xi , yi , zi ) V i
0 i=1
provided the limit exists. The volume of the solid region Q is given by
Volume of Q=dV .
1. cf ( x , y , z ) dV =c f ( x , y , z ) dV
Q Q
f ( x , y , z ) dV
2.
[f ( x , y , z ) g ( x , y , z ) ]dV =
Q
f ( x , y , z ) dV
f ( x , y , z )d V
, where Q is the union of two nonoverlapping subregions Q 1 and
3.
Q2.
b h2( x) g2 (x , y)
f ( x , y , z ) dV = f ( x , y , z ) dz dy dx .
Q a h1( x) g1 (x , y)
2 x x+ y
19(e2/3 +1)
2 4 x2 2 4 x 2 y2
64
8 dz dy dx=
0 0 0
3
2
2 3
Evaluate sin ( y 2) dz dy dx .
0 x 1
Example 4
x = r cos
y = r sin
z=z
r2 = x 2 + y 2
2 g2 () h2(rcos , rsin )
f ( x , y , z ) dV = f ( rcos ,rsin , z ) r dz dr d
Q 1 g1 () h1(rcos , rsin )
Find the volume of the solid region Q cut from the sphere x 2 + y2 + z2 = 4 by the
cylinder r = 2sin.
2 sin 4r 2
16
r dz dr d=
9
(3 4)
0 0 4r
2
Find the volume in Spherical Coordinates
x = sin cos
y = sin sin
z = cos
2 = x2 + y2 + z 2
2 2 2
Find the volume of the solid region Q bounded below by the upper nappe of the
cone z2 = x2 + y2 and above by the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 9.
2 4 3
2 sin d d d=9 (2 2)
0 0 0
Jacobians
If x = g(u,v) and y = h(u,v), then the Jacobian of x and y with respect to u and v,
denoted by
 
x x
(x , y ) u v =x y y x
=
(u , v ) y y u v u v .
u v
Find the Jacobian for the change of variables defined by x = rcos and y = rsin .
(x , y ) cos rsin

=
( r ,) sin rcos 
=r
1 1
Let u = x + y and v = x 2y, then
x= ( 2 u+v ) y= (uv) .
3 3
Let R and S be regions in the xyplanes that are related by the equations x = g(u,v)
and y = h(u,v) such that each point in R is the image of a unique point in S. If f is
(x , y )
continuous on R, g and h have continuous partial derivates on S, and (u , v ) is
 
(x , y )
nonzero on S, then f ( x , y ) dx dy= f (g ( u , v ) , h ( u , v )) (u , v )
du dv .
R S
1 1
Let u = x + y and v = x 2y, then
x= ( 2 u+v ) y= (uv) .
3 3
 
2 1
x 2 x 1 y 1 , y 1 ( x , y ) 3 3 = 1
= , = , = = and the Jacobian is =
u 3 v 3 u 3 v 3 (u , v ) 1 1 3 .
3 3
] 
3 xy dA= 3
R S
[ 1
3
1
( 2u+ v ) (uv )
3
( x , y )
(u , v )
dv du
4 0
Let R be the region bounded by the square with vertices (0,1), (1,2),(2,1), and (1,0).
 
1 1
x 1 x 1 y 1 , y 1 (x , y ) 2 2 =1
= , = , = = and the Jacobian is =
u 2 v 2 u 2 v 2 (u , v ) 1 1 2 .
2 2
1 3
u2 sin 2 v ( 12 ) dv du= 13
6
(2sin 2)
1 1