D rug and A lcohol S ervices I nformation S ystem

The DASIS Report
March 2001
September 26, 2003

Women in Treatment for Smoked Cocaine: 2000

I

n the mid-1980s, an easily smokeable cocaine compound known as “crack” was introduced. This form of smoked cocaine is a potent substance of abuse

In Brief
● In 2000, the average age of

adult female smoked cocaine admissions was 35
● Half of the adult female

admissions for smoked cocaine in 2000 had been using it for more than 10 years
● While the late 1980s were the

characterized by ready availability, a non-invasive route of administration, and quickly effective absorption.1 Data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) indicate that in 2000, more than a decade after the introduction of crack cocaine, smoked cocaine was the primary substance of abuse for 14 percent of all adult women admitted to substance abuse treatment.2 Smoking was the route of administration for 77 percent of all adult women entering treatment for primary use of cocaine. TEDS is an annual compilation of data on the demographic characteristics and substance abuse problems of those admitted for substance abuse treatment. The information comes primarily from facilities that receive some public funding. TEDS records represent admissions rather than individuals, as a person may be admitted to treatment more than once.

peak period for first use of smoked cocaine by adult female admissions, adult females continued to initiate use of smoked cocaine throughout the 1990s

The DASIS Report is published periodically by the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission from SAMHSA. Additional copies of this report or other reports from the Office of Applied Studies are available on-line: http://www.DrugAbuseStatistics.samhsa.gov. Citation of the source is appreciated.

DASIS REPORT: WOMEN IN TREATMENT FOR SMOKED COCAINE: 2000

September 26, 2003

Figure 1. All Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions and First-Time Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions: 1992-2000
Number of Admissions (000s)

Figure 2. Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions, by Age Group: 1992-2000

100
Percent of Admissions

100 18 80 60 61 40 20

2 21

2 24

2 28

3 4 31

4 35

6

7

8

75 50 25 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 All Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions First-Time Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions

38

40

44

61

59

57

45 Years or Older 35-44 Years 25-34 Years 18-24 Years

55

52

47

44

40

19 0

16

15

12

10

9

9

9

8

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Source: 2000 SAMHSA Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).

Trends in Smoked Cocaine Admissions
The number of adult women (aged 18 or older) admitted to substance abuse treatment for primary use of smoked cocaine peaked in 1994 (Figure 1). Between 1994 and 2000, both the total number of such admissions and the number of firsttime admissions declined.

ing treatment for smoked cocaine abuse were White, and 5 percent were Hispanic. The proportion of women 35 years or older entering treatment for primary use of smoked cocaine more than doubled over time, from 20 percent in 1992 to 52 percent in 2000 (Figure 2).

more than 10 years, while by 2000, this figure had increased to 51 percent. Almost two-thirds (64 percent) of adult women admitted to treatment for smoked cocaine in 2000 had been in treatment previously. The proportion of adult female smoked cocaine admissions with five or more prior treatments grew from 6 percent in 1992 to 11 percent in 2000.

Duration of Use and Prior Treatments
The proportion of adult female admissions engaged in longterm smoked cocaine abuse has increased over time (Figure 3). In 1992, 50 percent of adult female smoked cocaine admissions had been abusing smoked cocaine for more than 5 years at the time they entered treatment. By 2000, however, that proportion had increased to 75 percent. Similarly, in 1992, 20 percent of adult female smoked cocaine admissions had been abusing smoked cocaine for

Demographics
In 2000, the average adult woman entering treatment for primary use of smoked cocaine was 35 years old. The average length of smoked cocaine use was 12 years prior to admission. Adult women entering treatment for smoked cocaine abuse were disproportionately Black (58 percent, compared with 25 percent of all women entering treatment). About one-third (32 percent) of adult women enter-

Secondary Substances
The majority (81 percent) of adult women entering treatment for primary smoked cocaine in 2000 reported abuse of other substances as well. Almost half reported abuse of alcohol in addition to smoked cocaine, and 29 percent reported marijuana abuse. Abuse of smoked cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana was reported by one in 5 adult women admitted to

September 26, 2003

DASIS REPORT: WOMEN IN TREATMENT FOR SMOKED COCAINE: 2000

Figure 3. Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions, by Duration of Use: 1992-2000

Figure 4. Adult Female Smoked Cocaine Admissions, by Year of First Use as Reported in 1992 and 2000: 1978-2000
8000

100
Percent of Admissions

8 12 30

9 13

10 15

24 More than 15 Years 11-15 Years 6-10 Years 3-5 Years

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 20 30

17

Number of Admissions

90

11

12 20

14 23

16 25

21

1992 2000 6000

32

26

35

27

36

4000

35

33

30

26 14 13

28

24 13 12

23 17

20 16

2 Years or Less

2000
Approximate Introduction of Crack Cocaine (1985)

18 15

16 14

15 14

0

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

treatment for primary smoked cocaine. Some 24 percent reported problems with other secondary substances or substance combinations.

treatment for smoked cocaine in 1992, the numbers beginning smoked cocaine use after 1985 rose rapidly (Figure 4). Data for women admitted to treatment for smoked cocaine in 2000
End Notes
1

Initiation
TEDS data permit calculation of the year of initiation (i.e., the year smoked cocaine was first used) for women entering treatment for smoked cocaine. “Crack” cocaine was introduced in the mid-1980s; among adult women who entered

“Crack” is the street name given to cocaine that has been processed to form a non-volatile form of cocaine that can be smoked. Smoking allows extremely high doses of cocaine to reach the brain very quickly and brings an intense and immediate high. See National Institute on Drug Abuse, InfoFacts - Crack and Cocaine. Retrieved August 28, 2003, from http://www.nida.nih.gov/ Infofax/cocaine.html

The Drug and Alcohol Services Information System (DASIS) is an integrated data system maintained by the Office of Applied Studies, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). One component of DASIS is the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS). TEDS is a compilation of data on the demographic characteristics and substance abuse problems of those admitted for substance abuse treatment. The information comes primarily from facilities that receive some public funding. Information on treatment admissions is routinely collected by State administrative systems and then submitted to SAMHSA in a standard format. Approximately 1.6 million records are included in TEDS each year. TEDS records represent admissions rather than individuals, as a person may be admitted to treatment more than once.

The DASIS Report is prepared by the Office of Applied Studies, SAMHSA; Synectics for Management Decisions, Inc., Arlington, Virginia; and RTI, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
Information and data for this issue are based on data reported to TEDS through April 1, 2002. Access the latest TEDS reports at: http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/dasis.htm Access the latest TEDS public use files at: http://www.samhsa.gov/oas/SAMHDA.htm Other substance abuse reports are available at: http://www.DrugAbuseStatistics.samhsa.gov
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Office of Applied Studies www.samhsa.gov

19 80 19 82 19 84 19 86 19 88 19 90 19 92 19 94 19 96 19 98 20 00
Year of First Use

18

indicate that, despite the decline since 1994 in the total number of women admitted to treatment for smoked cocaine, new users continued to be initiated through the 1990s.

2

TEDS does not distinguish among users of different types of smoked cocaine. This short report is an update to Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2001, July 13). The DASIS Report. Women in Treatment for Smoked Cocaine. Rockville, MD: Author.