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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 04, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Brief Review on Different Synthesis Methods of CZTS Nano-Particles


Vijay kumar1 Dr. K. Tarwadi2 Dr. Sachin Chavan3 Dr. Pradeep Jadhav4
1
Research Scholar 2,3,4Associate Professor
1,2
Department of Master of Computer Application
1,2,3,4
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, College of Engineering, Pune
Abstract CZTS Nano-particles carry much significance due concentration of thiourea to upto 20% more than
to high availability of its constituent elements, with stoichiometric ratio so that complete process of
advantage of non-toxic, more eco-friendly nature and also, its sulphurization took place. All these chemicals added to
band gap closely related to the grain size of material. Hence, autoclave with de-ionised water 1000ml as solvent,
its semiconducting property can be changed according to maintaining 180C for 16 hours and allowed to dry naturally.
varied applications. In the present article, we have discussed The precipitate was then filtered and washed with double
different methods of synthesis of CZTS nanoparticles and its distilled water. [14,15]
application for solar cell.
B. Solvo-Thermal Method:
Key words: CZTS nanocrystals, solar cells
The CZTS Nano powder can also synthesis with this method
I. INTRODUCTION with the same chemicals and reaction conditions as
hydrothermal process replacing ethylenediamine as solvent.
Semiconductors are the heart of electronic industries. Most of [16] The chemicals namely 1 mol of SnCl2, 4 mol of thiourea
electronic components we see in circuits are semiconductors , 1 mol of ZnCl2 , and 2 mol of CuCl2 were dissolved in 50
for e.g. Diode, transistors etc. The efficiency of circuit, which ml ethanol by stirring vigorously using magnetic stirrer. Then
is ratio of output to input, directly depends on these purging of mixture under nitrogen was done for 10 min., then
semiconductor components. Hence, it finds its place in the it was transferred to Teflon lined autoclave made of stainless
Nanotechnology based research area. [1,2] steel, there it was kept at different temperatures of 2000C,
The CIGS system (copper-indium-gallium-selinide) 1800C and 1600C for 6-24 hours time range under static
is well known semiconducting material discovery of 20th conditions. The mixture was centrifuged and precipitate was
century having excellent optical and electrical property. [3] It collected and washed with ethanol. [17]
was also reported that the thin film solar cell made of CIGS
semiconducting material with bad gap 1.45-1.6eV shows C. Solid State Reaction Method:
conversion efficiency of 11.1%. [6] But due to its constituent CZTS nanoparticles can be synthesize using this method.
particles like indium and gallium, which are rare elements, This method requires copper acetate, zinc sulphate and tin
make this material costly. chloride as raw chemicals. By preparing homogeneous
For that reasons, the search of semiconductor solution of these chemicals with thiourea as source of sulfur
switches to CZTS which have an advantage that, first, its and low temperature firing reduces the solution to the
constituent elements are abundant in nature. [8] Second, it is required CZTS nanoparticles. [18]
less toxic than CIGS. Third, it has direct band gap 1.5-1.6eV
with high absorption coefficient above 104cm-1. Hence, it D. Chemical Co-Precipitation Method:
has similar electrical and optical properties as CIGS with The method requires (C5H8O2)2Cu, (C5H8O2)2SnBr2,
advantage of cost effective. [10] (CH3COO)2Zn.2H2O and H2N.CS.NH2 as a raw chemical.
All the chemicals were in purest form. For precursor solution,
A. Nanotechnology Approach to CZTS: these chemicals namely 0.75 mol of (C5H8O2)2SnBr2, 3 mol
The CZTS material synthesized by Nano-approach has of thiourea , 1.5 mol (C5H8O2)2Cu and 0.75 mol of
various advantages like Nano-crystals of CZTS shows band (CH3COOH)2Zn.2H2O were dispersed in oleylamine (40
gap of in the range 1.7eV because of quantum confinement ml) by continuous stirring using magnetic stirrer at 100C
of Nano-sized crystals, which comes into picture with the temperatures for 4 hours and allowed to dry naturally. The
decrease in size of Nano-crystals. [12] That indicates the band final product was nanoparticles which was black in colour.
gap can be tuned by changing the size of Nano-crystals. [19]
Hence, CZTS Nano-crystal material can prove very
promising as replacement of semiconductor in various E. Application of Cztsnano-Crystals:
applications like lithium ion batteries, p-n junction diode, Solar cell: The CZTS nanocrystals prepared by any of the
photo catalyst, solar cells, thermoelectric cells, etc. [13] methods can be used to prepare absorber layer of the solar
cell. [20]
II. METHODS OF SYNTHESIS OF CZTS NANO-CRYSTALS
There are various ways to synthesize nanocrystals 1) by
hydrothermal route, 2) solvothermal route, 3) solid state
reaction method, 4) chemical co-precipitation method.
A. Hydrothermal Method:
This method was eventually used for the synthesis of TiO2,
ZnO, CdS and ZnSe nanoparticles. For CZTS, the required
chemicals are copper chloride, tin chloride, zinc acetate and
source of sulphur(thiourea). Its necessary to keep

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A Brief Review on Different Synthesis Methods of CZTS Nano-Particles
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 04/2016/269)

[5] H. Wang, Progress in thin film solar cells based


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record efficiencyfor Cu(In,Ga)Se2thin-film solar cells
beyond 20%, Progressin Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 7,
pp. 894897, 2011.
Fig. 1: Typical figure of CZTS solar cell [10] T. Wada, S. Nakamura, and T. Maeda, Ternary and
The anti reflecting layer ensures maximum amount multinary Cu-chalcogenide photovoltaic materials from
of solar radiations to be absorbed with minimum reflection. CuInSe2toCu2ZnSnS4and other compounds, Progress
The buffer layer which is made of n-type semi-conducting in Photovoltaics. 20, no. 5, pp. 520525, 2012.
material interface with absorber layer which is made of p- [11] P. Jackson, D. Hariskos, E. Lotter et al., New world
CZTS Nano-crystal to form p-n junction. The absorption of record efficiencyfor Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells
solar radiation facilitates multiple electron-hole pair beyond 20%, Progressin Photovoltaics, vol. 19, no. 7,
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in enhance the solar cell efficiency. The multiple electron- [12] H. Katagiri,K. Jimbo,W. S.Maw et al., Development of
hole pair generation per incident photon at the junction is one CZTSbasedthin film solar cells, Thin Solid Films, vol.
of the parameter to enhance the efficiency, there are other 517, no. 7, pp.24552460, 2009.
parameters but beyond the scope of the discussion in this [13] M.Grossberg, J. Krustok, J. Raudoja, K. Timmo, M.
paper. Altosaar,and T. Raadik, Photoluminescence and Raman
study of
III. CONCLUSION [14] Cu2ZnSn(SeS1)4monograins for photovoltaic
The phase of the Nano-particles depends on the reaction applications,Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 21, pp.
conditions and the source of sulphur used. The type of solvent 74037406, 2011
affects the size of the Nano-particle and its phase properties. [15] S. A. Vanalakar, G. L. Agawane, S. W. Shin, M. P.
The band gap of crystal material is function of the size of Suryawanshi,K. V. Gurav, K. S. Jean, P. S. Patil, C. W.
crystals in the material. Jeong, J.Y. Kim, and J. H. Kim, J. Alloys Compd. 619,
The hydrothermal synthesis considered as more eco- 109 (2015).
friendly, less polluting non-toxic approach to Nano-particle [16] M. Cao, L. Li, B. L. Zhang, J. Huang, L. J. Wang, Y.
synthesis because of water as solvent. Hence regarded as Shen,Y. Sun, J. C. Jiang, and G. J. Hu, Sol. Energy
green synthesis method. In solvo-thermal method Mater. Sol.Cells 117, 81 (2013).
approach ethylenediamine used as solvent which has toxicity [17] S. A. Vanalakar, S. W. Shin, G. L. Agawane, M. P.
but has advantage that the crystallinity improves temperature Suryawanshi,K. V. Gurav, P. S.Patil, and J.H. Kim,
and time. Further studies are still underway in this area. Ceram. Int.40, 15097 (2014).
[18] J. He, L. Sun, K. Zhang, W. Wang, J. Jiang, Y. Chen, P.
Yang, J. Chu, Effect of post-sulfurization on the
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