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# Morphological Image Processing

Morphological Reconstruction

Presented By
(1SI16LSP04)

## 1st Sem, M.Tech(SP)

Dept.of ECE
Siddaganga Institute od Technology, Tumakuru
Morphological Image Processing
Geodesic dilation and erosion

Geodesic dilation

## The geodesic dilation is an iterative morphological transformation

requiring:
marker image, F: starting points;
structuring element, B.
(1)
DG (F ) = (F B) G
(n)
DG (F ): geodesic dilation of size n of F with respect to G.
(n) (1) (n1)(F )
DG (F ) = DG [DG ]
(0)
DG (F ) =F
Morphological Image Processing
Geodesic dilation and erosion

Geodesic dilation

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustration of Geodesic

dilation.
Morphological Image Processing
Geodesic dilation and erosion

Geodesic erosion

## The geodesic erosion, similarly to the geodesic dilation, is defined

as:
(1)
EG (F ) = (F B) G
(n)
EG (F ): geodesic dilation of size n of F with respect to G.
(n) (1) (n1)(F )
EG (F ) = EG [EG ]
(0)
EG (F ) =F
Geodesic dilation and erosion are dual with respect to the
complementation.
Morphological Image Processing
Geodesic dilation and erosion

Geodesic erosion

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustration of Geodesic

erosion.
Morphological Image Processing
Morphological reconstruction by dilation and by erosion

Reconstruction by dilation
The reconstruction by geodesic dilation is defined as the
results of such operation iterated until stability is achieved.
(k) (k) (k+1)
RGD (F ) = DG (F ), where DG (F ) = DG (F ).

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustration of morphological

reconstruction by dilation.
Morphological Image Processing
Morphological reconstruction by dilation and by erosion

Reconstruction by erosion

## (k) (k) (k+1)

RGE (F ) = EG (F ), where EG (F ) = EG (F ).
Morphological reconstruction by erosion can be illustrated
similarly .
Reconstruction by dilation and erosion are duals with respect
to set complementation.
Morphological Image Processing
Applications of Morphological Reconstruction
Opening by reconstruction

Opening by reconstruction

## The effects of the opening:

small objects are eliminated by the erosion;
the dilation restore the shape of object.
The quality of the results depends by the shape of the
structuring element.
Opening by reconstruction of size n:
(n)
OR (F ) = RFD [F nB]
Morphological Image Processing
Applications of Morphological Reconstruction
Opening by reconstruction

Opening by reconstruction
Selection of the long vertical strokes characters:
erosion with a 51X1 structuring element;
opening by reconstruction.

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustrate Opening by

reconstruction
Morphological Image Processing
Applications of Morphological Reconstruction
Holes filling by reconstruction

## Holes filling by reconstruction

I (x, y ), binary image (with an hole)
F (x, y ), marker image, generated as a matrix of 0s, but in
those border pixels where I is 0:
F (x, y ) = 1 I (x, y ), if(x,y) is on the border of I
F (x, y ) = 0, otherwise
H(x, y ), hole filled version of I :
H = [RIDc (F )]c

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustrate holes filling by

reconstruction
Morphological Image Processing
Applications of Morphological Reconstruction
Holes filling by reconstruction

## Figure: Courtesy:RC.Gonzalez RE.Woods: Illustrate holes filling by

reconstruction for text image
Morphological Image Processing
Applications of Morphological Reconstruction
Border clearing by reconstruction

## Border clearing by reconstruction

I (x, y ), binary image (containing partial objects)
F (x, y ), marker image, generated as a matrix of 0s, but in
those border pixels where I is 1:
F (x, y ) = I (x, y ), if (x, y) is a border pixel
F (x, y ) = 0, otherwise
RID (F ), image with only the objects that touch the border
X = I RID (F ), original image without objects touching the
border