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Design Calculation Of Nozzle Junction Based On
ASME Pressure Vessel Design Code

Article · May 2014

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Hardic Shah 3. nozzles may not be necessary. For all openings. internal pressure and moments. nikunjpatel@gmail. Need of reinforce ment Openings in pressure vessels in the regions of shells or heads are required to serve the following purposes: Manways for letting personnel in and out of the vessel to perform. In this paper. Nozzles or openings may be subjected to internal or external pressure. routine maintenance and repair.Issue 5. Baroda. the stress will occur at the nozzle to head or shell junction area. Size of fillet welds (inside. Baroda. Cross-sectional area of various welds available for reinforcement. Ahmadabad ashish. Under different loading conditions. Total area available Size of reinforcing pad (if required). International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1. Area of Reinforcement required.if required). along with attachment loads coming from equipment and piping due to different ial thermal expansion and other sources. Nozzle shell junction. outside and reinforcing pad fillet. however.gohil@nirmauni. Prof. @IJAERD-2014. INTRODUCTION Providing additional material in the region of the opening by thickening the shell or adding a pad material is known as reinforcement.4470 . Bhatt1 . Ranoli. Bhavnagar maharshibhatt6@gmail. hardicshah@gmail. Asst. while in other cases there could be a manway cover plate or a handhole cover plate that is welded or attached by bolts to the pad area of the opening.May 2014. I. Keywords. e-ISSN: 2348 . manager L &T.com 2 Mechanical Engg.com Abstract—: Nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of fluid (especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe. Prof. Ashish Gohil2 . It may be inside or outside. In some cases nozzles and piping that are attached to the openings.com 4 Asst.Reinforcement area.ac. The calculation for nozzle design gives the information whether the design is adequate for given parameters.in 3 Manager L &T. Thus reliable and accurate design calculation for head or shell to nozzle junction is necessary. 1. Parallel limit. Nozzles attached to pipes to convey the working fluid inside and outside of the vessel. The equations are as per ASME Section VIII Division I.1. Holes for draining or cleaning the vessel. All rights Reserved 1 . The results are also compared with PV-Elite code. Normal Limit. design calculation of nozzle junction based on ASME pressure vessel design code is carried out for nozzle to head junction subjected to applied external load. SSEC. Handhole openings for inspecting the vessel from outside. This paper gives methodize steps and format for design calculation for reinforcement of nozzle. Nikunj Patel4 1 Production Engineering Department. Generally distance is kept equal to diameter [D] from the center of the nozzle It is called boundary limit of effective Reinforcement. Maximum nozzle distance projects beyond the inner surface of the vessel wall. From reinforcement calculation following parameters can be obtained: Wall Thicknesses required (Shell and Nozzle). Ranoli. print-ISSN:2348-6406 Design Calculation Of Nozzle Junction Based On ASME P ressure Vessel Design Code Asst. Layout Angle. Area of Reinforcement available. Department. Maharshi J. Cross-sectional area of material added as reinforcement. Nirma University.

main parameters for reinforcement 2.Issue 5.Nozzle Shell junction area Figure 3. Mi ni mum required shell thickness is given by: Tr s = (P*R)/(2*S*E-0.1 Steps for Nozzle Design Calculation Fig 1.1 ) 3. print-ISSN:2348-6406 II. e-ISSN: 2348 . International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1.4470 . 1. All rights Reserved 2 . parallel and normal limits with its equations.) Normal limit: (a) 2:5* ts (b) 2:5 *tn + te (Use smaller value) @IJAERD-2014. Show the cross-sectional view of reinforced nozzle that indicates nozzle and shell thickness area.2*P) Figure 2.May 2014. Mini mum required nozzle thickness is given by: Tr n = R( exp([P/(SE)] . The reinforcement area required is Ar: Ar = (d * tr * F + 2 * tn * tr* F * (1-fr1 )) 4 LIMITS: Parallel limit: (a) d (b) tn + ts+ R (Use greater value. reinforcement locations and weld paths. METHODOLGY AND STEPS FOR NOZZLE DESIGN CALCULATION Figure 1.Reinforced nozzle 2.

Geometrical Diementions 3.Issue 5.) 7. print-ISSN:2348-6406 5.6 mm and hub thickness is 46 mm. The reinforcement calculation is carried out as per ASME guidelines and it shows that the total area available is more than the required area.4470 .) 6. @IJAERD-2014. The reinforcement area avail able in the shell (up to a distance d).) The total area available for reinforcement : Atotal = Ar +A1+ A2+ A41 + A43+ A6 If the available area exceeds than the required area Design is adequate. 4. To determine the reinforcement requirements following parameters are given as input. NOZZLE REINFORCEMENT CALCULATION Figure 4. Ar< Atotal III. The nozzle Inside Diameter (ID) is 101. All rights Reserved 3 .May 2014. International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1. A 1 is given by: A 1 =d (E1 * ts – f * tr) -2 * tn (E1 * ts – F * tr) * (1-fr1 ) A 1 =2 (t s – tn ) *(E1 * t – F* tr) -2 * t n (E1 * t s – F * tr) * (1-fr1 ) (Use larger value.1 Nozzle Dimensions of the self reinforced nozzle are shown in Fig. The reinforcement area available in nozzle wall is available in two parts A 2 : A2=5 (t n -t rn ) * fr2 *ts A2=5 (t n -t rn ) * fr2 * tn (Use smaller value. e-ISSN: 2348 . Area available in inward nozzle: A 3 =5tt j * fr2 =5tit j * fr2 = 2ht i * fr2 (Use smaller value. Table 2 shows the other parameters of nozzle.

61/ (14.6 mm (at Amb ient temperature) Hub Height of Integral Nozzle 105 mm. Required thickness of nozzle wall: (Here nozzle radius (50.800(exp ([1.00 C Metal Temperature 3. e-ISSN: 2348 . print-ISSN:2348-6406 Table 1. Head Finished (M inimu m) 66 mm L` Thickness t Hub Thickness of Integral 46 mm.8 mm @IJAERD-2014. L1 ◦ User Entered Minimu m Design -29.2 mm.2.61*939.15) so Tn > Rn so use Appendix 1-2(a) (1)) Tr n = R (exp ([P/ (SE)] .2.2*P) per UG-27 (d) …………(i) = (1. Required thickness of spherical head(Inte rnal Pressure):as per UG 37(a) Tr s = (P*R)/ (2*S*E-0.May 2014. He re.00]-1) = 6. Head Internal Corrosion 0 mm Nozzle tn Allowance C Head External Corrosion 0 mm Allowance C0 Distance from Head Centerline 600 mm . Limits: Parallel limit: (a) d =323.Shell Parameters Table 2.1) per Appendix 1-2 (a)(1) …………(ii) = 50.00-0.1639 mm. All rights Reserved 4 . hub height=105 mm and hub thickness=46 mm If h > (2:5 * hub thickness) use UG: 40 fig(e-2) If h < (2:5 * hub thickness) use UG: 40 fig(e-1) Here.60 Sna Diameter Basis ID Shell Allowable Stress 118 MPa (at design Temperature) Layout Angle 90 ● Shell Allowable Stress 118 MPa Diameter 101.Issue 5. using UG: 40 fig (e-1) c.4470 .2*1.69 MPa Material SA-105 (P) Allowab le Stress at Temperature 138 MPa Design temperature 70 ◦ C Sn (Temp) Allowab le Stress At Ambient 138 MPa Shell Material SA-516 .8624 mm. Reinforcement calculations: 3. b.Nozzle Parameter Internal pressure 15.8) and nozzle thickness (30. Inside Diameter of Hemispherical 1878 mm h Head D Height of Beveled Transition 9.0001)/ (2*12*1.1Checking nozzle in the meridional direction: a.61) = 63. International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1.06*1.

828 mm …………(iv) te= Hub Thickness-Neck Thickness …………(v) cos30 = 4630:50 cos30 = 27. d.598 mm2 (use large values) Area available in nozzle outward (A2 ): If A2 upper side should smaller than A2 inside use UG 37(b) If not less than 0.16 Where .1 Area available in s hell (A1 ): A1 = 229:616 mm2 or A1 = 434.4470 .06 and Sa=14.Issue 5. All rights Reserved 5 .4530 So.L7. Parallel Limit: 323.4663 * 63.15) + te= 102.0 * (1-1)) = 8254.May 2014.0000 * 63. To calculate the ope ning chord length at mid surface of the required shell thickness procedure is as follows:(use Appendix-L. Normal Limit: 102. Sn =14. A2 = 5890. International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1.77 mm2 @IJAERD-2014.02 Sa f r2 =1 or f r2 =1.8340 * 1.5 require reinforcement each side opening So A2 on inside should not greater than A2 upside. For normal limit consider smaller value.8 mm.828 mm. print-ISSN:2348-6406 (b) tn + ts+ R= 161. …… (viii) = (129. For parallel limit consider larger value.566 mm² Reinforcement areas per figure UG-37.740 = 970.9 mm ……… (iii) Normal limit: (a) 2:5* ts= 2:5* 66 = 165 mm (b) 2:5 *tn + te= 2:5 * (30.8624 * 1.7) Rm= Rs+trs2 = 939 +63. Weld strength reduction factor: f r1 = 1 or fr1 = Sn = 1.87 …………(vii) 2 Calculation of area: Ar = (d * tr * F + 2 * tn * tr* F * (1-fr1 )) UG-37(c) …. Therefore .0 + 2 * 46. e-ISSN: 2348 .16 fr3 = f r2 = 1 (use minimum values) ……… (vi) e.

May 2014. University of Dort mund. Depart ment of Chemical Engineering. 400. J. page 101-109. print-ISSN:2348-6406 Area available in inward + outward weld (A41+ A43) or (A4+ A5): = (leg2 * fr2) = 0 …………(viiii) Area (A41+ A43) will not consider because welds vary from fillet to butt type weld.h0. Effect of geometric gap between cylinder and reinforcement pad on local stresses (axial thrust load on nozzle). Li. Amsterdam.. If condition is Ar> Atotal than only additional reinforcement would be required. All rights Reserved 6 . Ascough and W. Sang. Ar< Atotal This condition indicates that for the given design parameters required area is less than the total area. Finite element analyses concerning the fatigue strength of nozzle -to- spherical shell intersections. Hence. e-ISSN: 2348 . “Stress analysis of hemis pherical shells with single nonradially penetrated nozzles.566 mm2 A1 = Area required in shell = 434. Dekker and H. Hub height (h))] * (Hub thickness . Nozzles -on external loads and internal pressure. [2] Z.Issue 5.4470 . 1995. Loughborough University. Depart ment of Mechanical Engineering. Div. page 894-900 1996. I. VII.t n ) * fr2 (3:23)) ………(x) = (2 * [min (102. L. CONCLUSION The above mentioned detailed Calculation is carried out to determine the requirement of the reinforcement pad for the given loading condition as per ASME Section VIII. This calculation steps simplifies the reinforcement calculation.15) * 1 = 3269. If the required area is more than te total area then the reinforcement pad is required. Dort mund. Working Group Pressure Vessel Design. @IJAERD-2014.04 mm2 Ar = Area required = 8254. H. IV. Area available in Hub section A6 : A6 = (2 * [min (Tlnp. opening is adequately Reinforced. Germany. F. M. [3] J. Loughborough. The Netherlands. there is no need to add any extra amount of material. Qien. So.30. page 113-120. 105)] * (46 . J. Malalasekera.1997. The calculation result suggests that there is no need for providing reinforcement pad and hence self reinforced nozzle is used.77 mm2 A41 + A43 =Area required in weld = 0 mm2 A6 = Area required in Hub = 3269. International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1. Bos. 1997.8. L.04 mm2 Atotal = Ar +A1+ A2+ A41 + A43+ A6 = 9594:408 mm2 Ar= 8254 mm2 Here. [4] C. G. page 1-18. R EFERENCES [1] Eckart WeiB & Jiirgen Rudolph.5986 mm2 A2 = Area required in nozzle wall = 5890.

[7] H. Section Vlll. @IJAERD-2014.May 2014. Wang et al. Smetankin. UG 36-46. Depart ment of Mechanical and Power Engineering. G.Issue 5. International Journal of Advance Engineer ing and Research Development (IJAERD) Volume 1. Bo iler and Pressure Vessel Code. Clarksonb. part d. print-ISSN:2348-6406 [5] V. Bo iler and Pressure Vessel Code.4470 . [6] J.B. page 625-631. Moscow.J.T. Russian Federation. International Journal o f Pressure Vessels and Piping. [8] ASME. All rights Reserved 7 . 2002. A merican Society of Mechanical Engineers. 2008.N. 2007. Liua. section II. Paramet ric study of reinforcement of pressure vessel head with offset nozzle. Nanjing University of Technology. A merican Society Of Mechanical Eng ineers. Elastic Stresses of Pressurized Cylinders with Hillside Nozzle. division 2. P. page 1-9. F. Div ision 1 and Division 2. Parksb. [9] ASME. 1995 Ed ition. Shape optimization of axisymmet ric cylindrical nozzles in spherical pressure vessels subject to stress constraints. Nan jing. page 333-343. e-ISSN: 2348 . 2010. Ch ina. Skopinsky and A.S. 2001.