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Indian official statistics

Renu Kaul and Sanjoy Roy Chowdhury
Reader, Department of Statistics,
Lady Shri Ram College for Women
Lajpat Nagar, New Delhi – 110024

4-Jan-2007 (Revised 20-Nov-2007)

Indian Statistical System
Statistical Offices at the Centre
Ministry of Planning
Central Statistical Organization (CSO)
National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO)
Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Commerce
Ministry of Labour
Ministry of Industrial Development

Indian Statistical Systems; Statistical Offices; Central Statistical Organization (CSO); National Sample Survey
Organisation (NSSO)

they brought out a published Journal on statistical information called Statistical Abstract of British India. 1875 Formation of Department of • Collection of trade related date for the State Agriculture and Commerce • Improvement of statistics in India by Sir John Strachey 1905 Formation of the office of • To maintain co-ordinations between Director General of Government and Trading groups. both central and state governments work parallel to fulfill their respective requirements of data. acts as the advisory and coordinating body to regulate the data collection and compilation efforts of centre and states. The table highlights the chronological order of setting up of important Statistical Organizations/ Agencies under the Central and States: Year Organizations/ Agencies/ Activities and Responsibilities Committees 1862 Formation of Statistical • To design systematic methods to collect Committees information related to education. industries. headquartered in New Delhi. Commercial Intelligence • Brought out the first issue of Indian Trade Journal in 1906 1922 Director General of • Director General of Commercial Intelligence Commercial Intelligence was renamed and Statistics 1924 Formation of Indian • Committee was formed under the leadership of Economic Enquiry Sir M.). The history of the Statistical System in India can be viewed from the following table. The Central Statistical Organization (C. 2 . agriculture. etc. finance. The structure is based on the federal constitution where the union and the state governments share the responsibility and cost of collection of data for the items covered under the Union and the State lists respectively. • In 1863.Indian Statistical System India currently follows a decentralized statistical system. In 1945 an inter-departmental committee was formed to study the statistical data available till such time and to give their recommendation regarding the gaps and non-uniformity in the existing statistical information. The first population census was taken in 1871-72 and with this began a new era in the Official Statistical System in India.S. As for the items covered under the concurrent list. trade.O. Viswesvarayya Committee • To survey the existing statistical information collected by Central and Provincial Departments • To give recommendations for the improvements in the existing system • They suggested that statistics collected by Central and Provincial Departments should be placed under the supervision of a Central Authority and every province should have a Statistical Bureau.

compilations and publication of Statistical Organization statistical data (CSO) • Providing statistical training to Government personals • Standardizing the concepts. compliation. finance of the cooperate sector. 1954 Transfer of National • National Information Unit was transferred Information Unit from Ministry of Finance to Central Statistical Organization 1957 Transfer of the Directorate • Transfer of the Directorate of Industrial of Industrial Statistics Statistics to Central Statistical Organization 1961 Setting up of Department of • A full fledged department was formed in the Statistics Cabinet Secretariat • CSO became a part of it 3 . national economy. 1947 Setting up of Ministry of • Collection. • Acts as a coordinator and advisor in statistical matters for the Centre and States. classifications and methodology of collecting data from different sources.Year Organizations/ Agencies/ Activities and Responsibilities Committees 1930 Formation of Secretariat of • Main aim is to collect and maintain statistical the Council of Agricultural data on agriculture research • To coordinate the agricultural research carried out at various places 1933 Formation of Statistical • To analysis economic statistics Research Bureau • To conduct economic census of India 1938 Formation of an Office of • Collection and analysis of economic statistics the Economic Advisor to the • Publish information on Index Numbers of Government of India Wholesales Prices in India 1942 Setting up of • To examine the statistical material available interdepartmental related to both civil and military committee with the • To give recommendations to improve the state Economic Advisor to the of affairs government as its chairman 1945 Setting up of Ministry of • Collection. compilation and publication of data Agriculture based on agriculture production • To act as an advisor for agro-economic policy matters 1949 Setting up of National • To estimate India’s national income Income Committee 1949 Setting up of Nucleus • Setup statistical unit in the Cabinet Secretariat Statistical Unit at the Centre 1950 National Sample Surveys • Survey was conducted for the first time by were conducted National Income Committee and is still carried on 1951 Formation of Central • Collection. maintenance and Finance presentation of data linked with banking statistics. definitions.

which further consists of: i. Some of the major responsibilities of the Statistics Division are: ♦ Acting as the nodal agency for planning and developing statistical system in the country. Each Central Government Department collects data from its own departments. maintaining. Year Organizations/ Agencies/ Activities and Responsibilities Committees • National Sample Survey Directorate became part of it 1966 Setting up of Computer • A computer centre was set up in the Department Centre of Statistics • To process statistical data and provides data processing needs of the Government Statistical Offices at the Centre Central Government of India has setup different organizations for the collection. which further consists of: i) Twenty Point Programme Division ii) Infrastructure Monitoring Division iii) Project Monitoring Division iv) Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme Division. 2. the Department of Statistics and the Department of Program Implementation were merged to form the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation The Ministry is divided into two divisions that are: 1. Statistics Division. There were two independent departments under this Ministry. But in 1973 some of these organizations were brought under Ministry of Planning and were made responsible for maintaining statistics related to the subject of planning and development. Besides these sources. There are in all 211 Statistical Organizations/ Units in India for collecting. compilation and publication of statistical data required by the Centre and States for carrying out their activities smoothly and meeting their requirements and updating their information for taking decisions on socio-economic problems. compiling and publishing records. Some of the important statistical organizations under Centre are as follows: Ministry of Planning As discussed earlier the statistical organizations were set up under the cabinet secretariat in different years.) The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) iii. These were: 1) Department of Statistics 2) Department of Programme Implementation Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation In 1999.) The Computer Centre. Programme Implementation division.) The Central Statistical Organisation (CSO) ii. the information is also obtained from various organizations on all India bases. 4 .

♦ Compiling and publishing the monthly Index of Industrial Production. The main activities of CSO are: • Coordinating the statistical activities of various Central Government departments and State Governments. Now we will discuss about two major organizations associated with the ministry. processing and analysis of results. ♦ Conducting the Annual Survey of Industries and provides statistical information on the growth. 5 . ♦ Conducting and publishing periodical surveys on all-India basis on economic Censuses and analysing survey reports to study the impact of specific problems in diverse socio- economic areas. involving concepts and definitions. composition and structure of the manufacturing sector. ♦ Maintaining liaison with international statistical organisations in different statistical matters. ♦ Providing computation services and support to process the data collected to the National Sample Survey Organisation and the Central Statistical Organisation and other agencies/ individuals. ♦ Acting as an advisor to the Ministries/ Departments of the Government of India on statistical methodology and analysis. compiling and publishing national accounts. Central Statistical Organization (CSO) A central statistical unit was setup under Cabinet Secretariat in 1949. the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). printing of statistical reports. the Statistical Institute for Asia and the Pacific (SIAP). Directors & Joint Directors and other supporting officials. the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Some of these organizations are: the United Nations Statistical Division (UNSD). ♦ Preparing. • Acting as a coordinator and advisor in statistical matters to the Centre and States. ♦ Providing career and manpower planning and training to personals of the Indian Statistical Service. which was further developed as a statistical organization in 1951 known as Central Statistical Organization (CSO). etc. ♦ Working out norms and standards in the field of statistics. 4 Deputy Director Generals. and financing seminars. the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).♦ Coordinating statistical work between departments of Centre and States and identifying gaps in data availability or duplication of statistical work. the International Monetary Fund (IMF). ♦ Developing methodology of data collection. • Collecting. ♦ Acting as the nodal Ministry for the Indian Statistical Institute. the Asian Development Bank (ADB). compiling and publishing statistical data on all India basis for the Centre and States • Providing statistical information to Planning Commission for the development of 5-years plans. who is assisted by 3 Additional Director Generals. ♦ Providing financial support to registered Non-Governmental Organizations and research institutions for undertaking surveys. workshops and conferences relating to statistics. CSO is headed by a Director General.

Input Output Transactions Table 3. In 1961.Statistical Pocket Book 16. . .• Providing training to personnels in statistical departments of Government. The major publications of CSO in recent years are as follows: 1. Urban Frame Survey 6 .Statistical Abstract 15. • Dissemination of Statistical Information. Annual Survey of Industries (ASI). Supervision of area enumeration and crop estimation surveys . Energy. Report of the Working Group on Workforce Estimation for Compilation of National Accounts Statistics 5. Proceedings of National Seminars/workshops 7. Compendium of Environment Statistics in India 10. Annual -India in Figures 17. State wise Estimates of Value of Output from Agriculture and Livestock 4. CSO was brought under the Ministry of Statistics in the Cabinet Secretariat.Abstract of Statistics 14. Construction and Environment Statistics. Selected Socio-Economic Statistics in India 9. (a) The Directorate of Industrial Statistics in 1957. Annual . classifications and methodology of collecting data from different sources. Statistical System in India 13. • Standardizing the concepts. Guide to Official Statistics 11. • Coordination of Statistical Activities The activities of CSO were further extended with the merging of two major units. Monthly. • Compilation of Index of Industrial Production • Compilation of consumer price indices for Urban Non-Manual Employees. definitions. • Providing statistical information to the offices of the United Nations.Statistical Newsletter National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) is responsible for conducting nation-wide surveys on various socio-economic aspects including: . Statements of NAS 1993-94 to 2002-05 2. Surveys of Economic Census. which are: (a) National Information Unit in 1954. Millennium Development Goals India Country Report 6. which is now working as Industrial Statistics Wing. • Analyzing work relating to Trade. • Compilation and publication of National Income Statistics • Publishing of all industry related statistical information. Quarterly . India 12. Women and Men in India 8. • Conducting Economic Censuses and related surveys. Directory of Statistics. Annual . • Compilation of Human Development Statistics and Gender Statistics.

4 NSSO is also responsible for helping State to conduct Crop Estimation Surveys. Consumer Expenditure in unorganised manufacture. 9. Pilot Survey on suitability of Reference Period for Measuring Household Consumption. gas and water supply undertakings and cold storage. repair services. Employment & Unemployment and Non-agricultural Enterprises in the Informal Sector in India. preparation of questionnaire. These sample studies are carried out over the years in the form of successive rounds.NSSO functions under a Governing Council with the requisite independence and autonomy in the matter of collection. Disabled Persons and Village facilities. Health and Aged in India. 12. composition and structure of the organized manufacturing (factory) sector comprising of activities associated with or related to manufacturing process. Education. 2. 5 The Field Operations Division of the NSSO is responsible for collecting retail price data over the years on monthly/quarterly/weekly basis for the determination of Consumer Price Index Numbers for rural and urban area. The major activities of the NSSO are: 1 To undertake socio-economic surveys on multi subject. Employment-Unemployment. List of Publications: 1. Situation Assessment Survey of Farmers 7 . 4. Consumer Expenditure and Common Property Resources. multi purpose integrated surveys known as National Sample Surveys (NSS). Consumer Expenditure. Employment-Unemployment. processing and publication of National Sample Survey (NSS) data. writing of field instructions and preparation of reports based on survey results. 5. 13. 7. selection of samples. 3. Consumer Expenditure. Consumer Expenditure and Small Trading units. Housing Conditions and Migration with special emphasis on slum dwellers. Sarvekshana is one of the main bi-annual technical journal of the NSSO which covers the analysis and main results of surveys conducted by NSSO. 10. Consumer Expenditure. 3 The Field Operations Division is responsible for collection of primary data for the surveys projects undertaken by the NSSO. 2 The Survey Design and Research Division (SDRD) is responsible for planning of the survey. NSSO also guide the States about the latest suitable techniques for obtaining maximum yield and making use of land in the best possible way. Unorganised Service Sector and Consumer Expenditure. generation and transmission of electricity. Consumer Expenditure. 7 NSSO is responsible for organizing regular training courses on behalf of the Training Division of the CSO for ISS and other government officers. The NSSO is headed by a Director General & Chief Executive Officer (DG & CEO) who is responsible for coordinating and supervising all activities of the organisation. These surveys enable estimating average yield rates of major crops. Unorganised Manufacture and Consumer Expenditure. 6. Land & Livestock holdings and debt & investment. 11. The DG & CEO is also the Member-Secretary of the Governing Council. 8. 6 The Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) is responsible for providing statistical information to assess and evaluate the changes occurring in the growth.

No. Employment-Unemployment Situation in India Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation In 1947 the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation was set up.14. A number of statistical units are attached to this ministry. Published Publication By 1 * Agricultural Prices in India (Annual) 2 * Agricultural Situation in India (Monthly) 3 * Agricultural Wages in India (Annual) 4 *** Annual Appraisal of Community Development Programme 5 * Bulletin of Food Statistics (Annual) 6 * Bulletin on Agricultural Prices (Weekly) 7 * Bulletin on Commercial Crop Statistics 8 *** Central Inland Fisheries research Institute 9 * Coffee Statistics (Annual) 10 * Estimates of Area and Production of Principal Crops in India (Annual) 11 * Financial Statement of Irrigation Work in India (Annual) 12 *** Highlights of the Community Development Programme 13 * Indian Agriculture in Brief (Annual) 14 * Indian Agriculture Statistics Vol-I & II (Annual) 15 * Indian Crop Canander 16 * Indian Forest Statistics (Annual) 17 * Indian Livestock Census 8 . animal husbandry and biological research 4 Keeping a track on the price and demand of food grains in the market 5 Coordinate the research work on agro-economic projects 6 Provides training in the techniques on collection of agricultural data and analysing the data. These units are: 1 Directorate of Economics and Statistics (*) 2 Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute 3 Department of Community Development (***) 4 Department of Cooperation 5 Directorate of Sugar and Vanaspati 6 Indian Council of Agricultural Research (now known as Indian Agricultural Statistical Research Institute) (**) 7 National Sugar Institute The main activities of this Ministry are: 1 Collection. compilation. maintenance and publication of agro-economic data 2 Provide information on agro-economic data 3 Advise Directorate on agro-economic policies and in formulation of plans in agriculture sector and also on statistical techniques in agriculture. The major publication of this ministry are: S.

The following statistical wings are the part of the ministry of Finance: 1 Department of Research and Statistics (RBI) (*) Further this ministry has five sections. The main publication of this ministry are: S. banking. compilation and publication of statistics based on income-tax and other direct taxes. Published Publication By 18 * Indian Livestock Statistics (Annual) 19 * Indian Public Statistics (Annual) 20 *** Panchayat Raj at a Glance 21 * Public Statistical News (Monthly) 22 * Tea Statistics (Annual) 123 ** The Statistical News Abstract (Bimonthly) by ICAR Ministry of Finance This ministry was setup in 1945. S. 6 Short term Forecasting of revenue expected to be generated from income tax and corporate taxes. Published Publication By 1 ** All India Income Tax Report and Returns (Annual) 2 * Banking and Monetary Statistics of India 3 * Banking Statistics in India (Half yearly) 4 * Report of the Central Board of Directors (Annual) 5 * Report on Currency and Finance (Annual) 6 * Reserve Bank of India Bulletin (Monthly) 7 * Review of Coorporative Movement in India 8 * Statement of Affairs of Scheduled Banking 9 .No. national economy. compliation and presentation of statistical data related to central excise. Branch of the Central Board of Revenue (***) The major activities of this ministry are: 1 Collection. compliation and maintenance of data linked with banking statistics. finance of the cooperative sector 3 Analysing data related to finance 4 Collection. 5 Conducting surveys of industries supported by commercial banks in different sectors. national economy.No. which are: a) Monetary investigation b) International finance c) Banking investigation d) Rural economic e) Statistical section 2 Statistical Branch of Central Board of Direct Taxes (**) 3 Statistics and Intelligence. finance of the cooperate sector 2 Collection.

compilation and publication of statistical data on production and distribution of stocks and prices of all textiles The major publications of this ministry are: S. compilation and publication of statistical data on export and import 3 Collection.No. Published Publication By 9 *** Statistical and central excise bulletin (Monthly) 10 * Statistical Tables relating to Banks in India (Annual) 11 * Trend and Progress of Banking in India (Annual) Ministry of Commerce The ministry of commerce has eight statistical units out of which the main are: 1 Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (*) This Directorate was setup in 1895. II (Monthly) 9 ** Reports on Licenses related to Industrial Export and Import (Weekly) 10 * Statistics of Maritime Navigation of India (Annual) Ministry of Labour Under this ministry four statistical units exist which are: 1 Labour Bureau (set up in 1946) (*) 2 Directorate General of Employment and Trading (**) 3 Directorate General of Mine Safety 4 Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institute 10 . Published By Publication 1 * Accounts relating to Coasting Trade and Navigation of India (Monthly) 2 * Accounts relating to the Inland Trade of India (Monthly) 3 ** Annual Administrative Report (Annual) 4 ** Annual Bulletin of Statistics of Import and Export (Annual) 5 * Annual Statement of Foreign Seabone Trade of India (Annual) 6 * Indian Customs and Central Exercise Traffic Vol I and II (Annual) 7 * Indian trade Journal (Weekly) 8 * Monthly Statistics of Foreign Trade of India by Countries and Currency Areas Vol. compilation and publication of commercial intelligence and foreign trade statistics 2 Collection. Office of the Chief Controller of Import and Export (**) 3 Economic Branch. S. I. Textile Commissioner (***) The major activities of this ministry are: 1 Collection. 2 Statistics Division.No.

Emplotees State Insurance Act 7 Statistics of Factories (Annual) 8 Trade Unions in India (Biennial) Ministry of Industrial Development Several statistical units are attached to this ministry. etc. census of central government employees 4 Keeping track of training schemes conducted by Industrial Training Institute for public and private sectors 5 Compilation of Educational and occupational profiles The major publications are: S. Major Activities are: 1 To collect. The main statistical units are: 1 Office of Economic Advisor (Setup in 1938) 2 Development Commissoner – Small Scale Industries 3 The Directorate General of Technical Development 4 Textile Commissioner 5 Handloom Board 6 Coir Board.No.Census and Sample Section 2 Indian Petroleum and Petro Chemical Industries 3 Monthly Statistics of Production of Selected Industries 4 Statistics of Iron and Steel Industries in India 5 Statistics related to DGTD Units 11 .No. processing and publication of statistical data related to labour 2 Conducts periodical surveys 3 Collection. compilation and publication of statistical data related to employment exchange. 2 To study Index Number of wholesale prices of India 3 To study the development of small scale industries Major Publications are: S. Compensation Act. Factory Act. Publication 1 Employment Review 2 Indian Labour Journal (Monthly) 3 Indian Labour Statistics (Annual) 4 Indian Labour Yearbook (Annual) 5 Pocketbook of Labour Statistics (Annual) 6 Reports on the working of Minimum Wages Act. Publications 1 Annual Survey of Industries . compile and analyse industrial data.The major activities of this ministry are: 1 Collection.

The major activities of this ministry are: 1 To collect.Ministry of Home Affairs The main statistical unit under this ministry is the Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner. analysing and publishing statistics related to community development programmes. panchayat raj and credit co-operative societies. compile and analyse data related to railway activities 2 To undertake research project to improve economic conditions of railways Ministry of Rural Development Administrative Intelligence Division of this ministry is responsible for collecting. The major activities of this ministry are: 1 Carrying out population census 2 Carrying out registration of Birth and Death Statistics 3 Carrying out Ad-hoc Demography surveys Ministry of Low. Ministry of Railways The Directorate of Statistics and Economics is responsible for undertaking statistical activity of this ministry. Ministry of Steel. The main activities of this ministry are: 1 To compile and analyse data related to joint stock companies. ports and inland water transport. 12 . compiling and analysing statistical data related to road. compiling and analysing statistical data related to mineral. shiping. Justice and Company Affairs The Research and Statistical division in the Department of Company Affairs is responsible for carrying out the statistical activities of this ministry. Mines and Fuel Statistical Division of the ministry is responsible for collecting. Ministry of Shipping and Transport The Transport Research Division of the ministry is responsible for collecting. 2 T collect and compile data of goods classified under Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act.

13 . It also conducts surveys to study social. Ministry of Work and Housing The Socio-Economic Division of National Building Organisation of the ministry is responsible for collecting.M. A. References 1. This ministry brings out publications covering the features of DGS&D purchases. Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation Market Research Division of the ministry is responsible for collecting. 2. Sultan Chand & Sons. Fundamentals of Statistics. index number of purchase prices. market prices and foreign exchange rates. compiling and analysing statistical data related to various aspects of supply and disposal. compiling and analysing statistical data related to tourist statistics. financial and fiscal aspects of housing developments. Vol. 2. (1986). It also conducts surveys to study the requirements of development of tourism. (1987).K. and Kapoor V. Gupta S. & Dasgupta. Fundamental of Applied Statistics. B. Calcutta. compiling and analysing statistical data related to housing and building statistics. The World Press Private Limited.Ministry of Supply Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the ministry is responsible for collecting. Gupta. economic.C.K. Goon. M.