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-Cause deposits in pipe still tubes (furnaces) and consequently cause . -Decrease in heat transfer coefficient.• Crude Oil Desalting:- • Salts are distributed in crude oil as brine (Nacl) • Defects of Salts are: -Cause plugging of heat exchangers tubes. • Salts should be removed before distillation tower where these salts liberate HCL gas which cause many corrosion problems . -Create pressure drop which affects on pumps.Hemdan 3 . • Salts may reach up to 260 PTb each 100 PTb cause deposits of about 3 ft³/day . DR.

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-Trace metals in distillates which acts as catalyst poisoning DR.Hemdan 5 .• Problems of oleophobics -Corrosion due to hydrolysis of salts . -Increase consumption of NH3 to neutralize HCL -Erosion . -Plugging of Equipment and fouling .

The objectives of crude desalting are : 1-the removal of salts and solids 2.Hemdan 6 .the formation water from unrefined crude oil before the crude is introduced in the crude distillation unit . 4-Reduced equipment fouling and corrosion and 5-longer catalyst life DR. 3-removal of suspended solids from the crude oil.Crude desalting is the first processing step in a refinery .

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. DR. SINGLE-STAGE DESALTER Desalted Demulsifier Heat Crude Exchangers Desalter Feed Oil Mix Valve Water Effluent Water .Hemdan 9 .

1% BS&W) 5.Hemdan 10 . 0.2% BS&W) 1st Stage Desalter 2nd Stage Desalter Mix Mix Valve Valve Crude Charge (100 PTB.5 PTB.0 PTB.2% BS&W) (0.0% Wash Water 2nd Stage Effluent Water Counter-current flow is 1st Stage Wash Water Figure 2 DR. Two-Stage Desalter Example 1st Stage Crude Outlet Desalted Crude (5.0% 5. 0.8% Effluent Water 5.

Hemdan 11 . MULTI-STAGE DESALTING Desalted SERIES: Maximize Desalting Efficiency Crude 10ppm 1ppm 1st salt out 2nd salt out Stage Stage Heat 100ppm Exchangers salt in Feed Mix Valve Oil Mix Valve Water Effluent Water Overall Efficiency = (100 .1) / 100 = 99% DR.

MULTI-STAGE DESALTING PARALLEL: Maximize Throughput Desalted Crude Mix Valves Heat Exchangers Feed Oil Water DR.Hemdan Effluent Water 12 .

• Pure water and NaOH is added to the desalter • Some deemulsifier may be added to break forces between salts and the oil • In electrostatic precipitator applied voltage up to 30KV • Salt drops coalesce together and form larger drops which separated down to the bottom of desalter • Salt removal reach to about 90% DR.Hemdan 13 .

• Better dehydration is obtained in electrical desalters when they are operated at a pH of 6. • The pH is controlled by the addition of acid to the incoming or recycle water. • If the pH of the brine exceeds 7. it is desirable to keep the pH below 8. • For most crude oils.Hemdan 14 .• It is necessary to adjust the pH of the brine to obtain a value of 7 or less. DR. emulsions are formed because of the presence of sodium naphthenate and sodium sulfide.

• The trend toward running heavier crude oils has increased the importance of efficient desalting of crudes. DR. Until recently. but now many companies desalt all crude oils. the criterion for desalting crude oils was 10 lb salt/1000 bbl (expressed as NaCl) or more.Hemdan 15 .

2-water wetting of suspended solids.Hemdan 16 . • The basic process of desalting is to wash the salt from crude oil with water.• Salt in the crude oil is in the form of dissolved or suspended salt crystals in water emulsified with the crude oil. and 3-separation of oil from wash water DR. Problems occur are: 1-inefficient and economical water/oil mixing.

Hemdan 17 .e desalter performance is affected by : 1-the gravity 2-viscosity 3-pH of the crude oil 4-the ratio of water/crude used for washing. 5-temperature 6-pressure drop 7-chemicals additions DR.• The separation of oil and washwater i.

Both the ratio of water to oil and the operating temperature are functions of the gravity of the crude oil. Typical operating conditions are : DR.• Desalting is carried out by emulsifying the crude oil with 3 to 10 vol% water at a temperature of 200-300F.Hemdan 18 .

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Trouble shooting DR.Hemdan 20 .