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CE152P: CONSTRUCTION

MATERIALS AND TESTING

Lamberto B. Marcial Jr., M.S.C.E.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS,
METHODS AND EQUIPMENT
study of construction methods focusing on
equipment-intensive activities; operations
of various construction equipment including
production and cost estimating; and
sampling, testing, inspection and method
of production of selected construction
materials.

CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS:
SAMPLING AND TESTING
For engineers to design buildings or
machinery efficiently, they had to
understand the properties of the materials
with which they worked. Ways had to be
developed to test these materials.

REASONS FOR MATERIAL TESTING RESEARCH . When a new material is developed.Research on materials is done to determine the properties of materials. engineers must know the properties of the material before they can use it in design work. .

REASONS FOR MATERIAL TESTING QUALITY ASSURANCE AND QUALITY CONTROL . .Quality assurance comprises tests performed by a company receiving new supplies to make certain that the shipment meets the standards called for in the order. Quality control involves tests done by a company on their own products prior to shipment to ensure that the product meets the manufacturer’s standard.

Fracture or failure analysis involves test performed on parts that have failed. or on new parts which are similar to parts that have failed to determine why the failure occurred.REASONS FOR MATERIAL TESTING FRACTURE OR FAILURE ANALYSIS . .

REASONS FOR MATERIAL TESTING ENGINEERING DESIGN ANALYSIS . either models or full-scale replicas of new products are tested.There are always many ways to design and manufacture an item. to determine their performance characteristics. In engineering design analysis. often to failure. The engineer’s job is to determine the best design and the best manufacturing techniques. .

not subjective • precision and accuracy .QUALITIES OF GOOD TEST • reliable and valid • objective.

. It has validity if it measures exactly what it claims to measure and not some other.QUALITIES OF GOOD TEST reliable and valid A test is said to have reliability when it gives the same results for the same material on repeated tests. often unknown property of the material.

are much more objective than essay test which must be read and evaluated by a person. not subjective Objective tests are those that give the same results regardless of who performs the test. .QUALITIES OF GOOD TEST objective. Subjective tests are often affected by the judgment of the person conducting the test. which can be graded by a machine. Multiple-choice tests.

QUALITIES OF GOOD TEST precision and accuracy Precision is a measure of how close to the true value a measurement falls. Weighing a part on a miscalibrated scale may give precise results but entirely inaccurate. . Precision is how closely repeated measurements match each other.

QUALITIES OF GOOD TEST precision and accuracy Precision is how closely repeated measurements match each other. Accuracy is how closely a measurement matches the correct or expected value .

.CEMENT Cement in its broadest term means any substance which acts as a binding agent for materials natural cement (Roman Cement) is obtained by burning and crushing the stones containing clay. carbonates of lime and some amount of carbonate of magnesia.

a finely ground inorganic material which.CEMENT is a hydraulic binder. when mixed with water forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydration reactions and processes and which. retains its strength and stability even under water. . after hardening.

Gypsum Mortar Ancient Greece and Rome Lime Mortar Pozzolan Cement = Lime + Pozzolana .HISTORY OF CEMENT Ancient Egypt Mud.

1824 .John Smeaton research Project to rebuild Eddystone Rock lighthouse. Burnt limestone with clay impurity made the best mortars.HISTORY OF CEMENT 1756 .Joseph Aspdin patents the first Portland cement .

MAKING OF CEMENT High CaO material + High SiO2 material CXS clinker (limestone) (silica sand) (1450°C) INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT • Lime (CaO) • Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) • Silica (SiO2) • Magnesia (MgO) • Alumina (Al2O3) • Sulphur • Calcium Sulphate • Alkalies (CaSO4) .

if lime is in deficiency the strength of the cement is decreased and it causes cement to set quickly .INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT Lime . On the other hand. Lime in excess makes the cement unsound and causes the cement to expand and disintegrate.is the important ingredient of cement and its proportion is to be maintained carefully.

Alumina .INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT Silica .an important ingredient of cement and it gives quick setting property to imparts strength to cement.gives quick setting properly to cement. Excess alumina weakens the cement. .

INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT Calcium Sulphate .is in the form of gypsum and its function is to increase the initial setting time of cement. . Magnesia .the small amount of this ingredient imparts hardness and color to cement.

most of the alkalies present in raw material are carried away by the flue gases during heating and only small quantity will be left. Alkalies . .INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT Sulphur . If they are in excess in cement. efflorescence is caused. If it is in excess.a very small amount of sulphur is useful in making sound cement. it causes the cement to become unsound.

TYPES OF CEMENT PROCESSES • Dry Process – Quarrying – Cooling and grinding – Crushing of Clinker – Storage – Addition of Retarder (gypsum) – Drying – Storage and – Grinding Packaging – Proportioning – Final Grinding – Burning the raw materials .

or limestone and clay are mixed in proper proportions. which in their natural state contains high percentage of moisture.TYPES OF CEMENT PROCESSES Wet Process The materials handled by the wet process are physically soft such as mart with clay or shale. . Mart and clay.

TYPES OF CEMENT PROCESSES Wet Process The mixture called “slurry. The succeeding steps in the manufacture are similar to the Dry process.” contains 30% to 50% water. It is placed in a storage tanks and hold there for final analysis and corrected to the desired composition. Then the slurry is pumped into rotary kilns and burned in the usual manner. .

CEMENT IS THE MOST EXPENSIVE CONRETE COMPONENT Water Concrete Volume Chemical Admixture 33% Portland Cement 38% 12% 17% Sand Concrete Cost Sand Stone Stone 0% 68% Water 7% 18% 7% Chemical 0% Admixture portland cement .

. NON-HYDRAULIC CEMENT – cement which does not harden in themselves when mixed with water but. e. pozzolanic materials. they react at normal ambient temperature with dissolved hydroxide to form strength-developing calcium silicate and calcium aluminate compounds which are similar to those which formed in the hardening of hydraulic cements.g. when finely ground and in the presence of water.CEMENT CLASSIFICATION HYRDAULIC CEMENT – cement which does not only harden by reacting with water but also for a water-resistant product.

TYPE IA – air-entraining type I cement.TYPES OF CEMENT (ASTM150) TYPE I – used when the special properties specified for any other type are not required. . where air entraining is desired. No limits are imposed in any of the four principal compounds. TYPE II – for general use. more specially when moderately sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired.

TYPE IIIA – air-entraining type III. where air entraining is desired. TYPE III – used when high early strength is desired.TYPES OF CEMENT (ASTM150) TYPE IIA – air-entraining type II. . where air entraining is desired.

TYPE V – used when high sulfate resistance is desired.TYPES OF CEMENT (ASTM150) TYPE IV – used when a low heat of hydration is desired. .

the fineness is easily determined as residue on sieve No.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT FINENESS The fineness of cement affects its reactivity with water. Generally. For quality control purposes in the cement industry. the more rapidly it will react. 200 mesh (75um). It is generally agreed that cement particles larger 75 um may never hydrate completely. the finer cement. .

.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT FINENESS Finer Cement hydrate more quickly (gain strength faster) but have lower ultimate strength.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT NORMAL CONSISTENCY This implies to the amount of mixing water requirement of cement in order for the latter to be build of plastic. .

. Two setting times are described in the standard for a cement paste of standard consistence.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT SETTING TIME It is a necessary property of cements that they exhibit setting when mixed with a limited quantity of water. an initial and a final set.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
SETTING TIME

INITIAL SET marks the point in time when
the paste has become unworkable. The
paste does not solidify suddenly; it requires
considerable time to become fully rigid.
This time taken to solidify completely
marks the FINAL SET.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
SETTING TIME

INITIAL SET marks the point in time when
the paste has become unworkable. The
paste does not solidify suddenly; it requires
considerable time to become fully rigid.
This time taken to solidify completely
marks the FINAL SET.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT
SETTING TIME

VICAT APARATUS – the apparatus that is
almost universally use in determining the
time of setting of cement. It measures the
resistance of a cement paste of a standard
consistency to the penetration of a needle
under a total load g 300g.

A pat of neat cement shall remain firm and hard and show no signs of distortion. . cracking.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT SOUNDNESS A test that manifests the resistance of cement against deformation caused by temperature change. or disintegration in the steam test for soundness.

The specific gravity of cement shall not be less than 3.1 .PROPERTIES OF CEMENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravity of a given volume material is the ratio of its mass to the mass of an equal volume of water.

and rapid crack propagations leading to final rupture. slow crack growth. since the measurement is easier to obtain than tensile or bend strengths. Usually. strength measurements mean the crushing strength of concrete cubes.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT 6. . STRENGTH The most important material parameter used to characterize cement-based products. The fracture of concrete consists of three stages: crack initiation.

PROPERTIES OF CEMENT STRENGTH The most important material parameter used to characterize cement-based products. The fracture of concrete consists of three stages: crack initiation. . strength measurements mean the crushing strength of concrete cubes. and rapid crack propagations leading to final rupture. since the measurement is easier to obtain than tensile or bend strengths. slow crack growth. Usually.

.PROPERTIES OF CEMENT HEAT OF HYDRATION is the result of the exothermic chemical reaction between cement and water. The chemical reactions between unhydrated cement and water during setting and hardening release heat which results in a rise in temperature of the fresh concrete.

The limestone contains 15-45% clay. The clinker is finely ground to provide hydraulic properties. .OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS NATURAL CEMENT it is made by burning natural argillaceous limestone at a low red heat. It is quarried in its natural form a not a combination of several materials.

it is used as stainless mortar for laying glazed and unglazed tiles for bath and toilet rooms. stucco. etc.OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS WHITE PORTLAND CEMENT pure white cements of high strength is used in ornamental work both interior and exterior. . in making building blocks.

and finely ground.OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS HIGH-EARLY STRENTH PORTLAND CEMENT it is made from high limed mixtures. Hardens more quickly and gives more heat. Contains a high proportion of tricalcium silicate than ordinary Portland cement. . burned twice.

Contains a high proportion of tricalcium silicate than ordinary Portland cement. . Hardens more quickly and gives more heat. and finely ground. burned twice.OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS HIGH-EARLY STRENGTH PORTLAND CEMENT it is made from high limed mixtures.

OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS BLENDED CEMENT it is a kind of cement obtained by mixing Portland cement with an admixture other than gypsum. .

. Typical cementing materials are Portland cement. natural cement. slag cement. and hydraulic lime.OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS MASONRY CEMENT utilized in brick and masonry. It is composed of mixtures of various cementing materials with different other materials.

OTHER HYDRAULIC CEMENTS ALUMINA CEMENT – has high alumina content. . Alumina cement resists the disintegrating effect of sea water. It is not quick setting but often attains strength at 48 hours compared to 28 days strength of Portland cement.

AGGREGATES • mineral particles which have rock as their origins. • generally occupy 70-80% of concrete • provides concrete with dimensional stability and weir resistance .

• As ballast or base for railroad tracks • For bituminous pavement • For Portland cement concrete • As filter • As protection against bank erosion (riprap or gabion) .USES OF AGGREGATES • As bases or cushions between the soil and traffic wheels or between the soil and pavement.

aggregate passing the 3/8 in. sieve and almost entirely passing the No.4 (4. 4 (4.75mm) sieve .CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES COARSE AGGREGATES . FINE AGGREGATES .aggregate predominantly retained on the No.75mm) sieve.

.TYPES OF AGGREGATES SAND the sand for mortar or concrete is usually obtained from natural deposits. The material must be clean and hard and the particles should preferably be graded in size from fine to coarse with the coarser particles predominating.

. In general differences in the hardness of sound particles of stone will affect the resistance of concrete to wear but will not have a great influence on its compressive strength as such particles of stone are considerably stronger than the hardened cement mortar that binds them together.TYPES OF AGGREGATES CRUSHED STONE – the stone used as coarse aggregate is obtained by crushing rock in a rock crusher or by hand.

. The maximum size of aggregate in reinforced concrete is governed by the requirement that it shall easily into the forms and between the reinforcing bars. They are found at the banks and bottom of streams mixed with sand.TYPES OF AGGREGATES GRAVEL consists of naturally rounded pebbles taken from fresh water streams and rivers.

TYPES OF AGGREGATES BLAST-FURNACE SLAG slag is a material obtained in the separation of iron from its ore in a blast-furnace. Slag produces concrete that is as strong as some of the stone concrete and is lighter than stone or gravel concrete. .

.TYPES OF AGGREGATES CINDERS cinders are poor conductor of heat and therefore can be advantageously employed in concrete that is to be used mainly for fire proofing structural steel members. Cinders weigh considerably less than stone or gravel and are suitably as a course aggregate where a light weight concrete is desired.

75mm IS sieve.07mm .desired.CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES ACCORDING TO SIZE FINE AGGREGATES – aggregates most of which pass through a 4. • SAND – has a lower size limit of about 0.

– PARTIALLY CRUSHED GRAVEL – product of blending of the above two types.CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES ACCORDING TO SIZE COARSE AGGREGATES – aggregates most of which are retained in 4. – CRUSHED GRAVEL – obtained by crushing gravel or hard stone.75mm IS sieve. . – UNCRUSHED GRAVEL – resulting from natural disintegration of rock.

CRUSHED STONE SAND – fine aggregates produces by crushing hard stone. CRUSHED GRAVEL SAND – fine aggregates produced by crushing natural gravel.CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES ACCORDING TO SIZE NATURAL SAND – fine aggregates from natural disintegration of rock and/or that which has been deposited by stream and glacial agencies. .

002mm • CLAY – still smaller part than silt • LOAM – soft deposit consisting of sand.CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES ACCORDING TO SIZE FINE AGGREGATES • SILT – material between 0. silt and clay in about equal proportions .06mm and 0.

CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATES ACCORDING TO SIZE ALL-IN AGGREGATES – available in nature. SINGLE-SIZE AGGREGATES – aggregates comprising particles falling essentially within narrow limit of size fractions . comprising particles falling essentially within narrow limit of size fractions.

IRREGULAR AGGREGATES – aggregate having partly rounded particles and has higher % of voids ranging from 35-38. .CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE ROUNDED AGGREGATES (RIVER OR SEASHORE GRAVEL) – has minimum voids ranging from 32– 33%.

The higher the angularity no. .CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE ANGULAR AGGREGATES – suitable for high strength concrete and pavements subjected to tension. FLAKY AND ELONGATED AGGREGATES – its least dimension is less than 3/5 of its mean dimension (the average of the sieves sizes through which particle pass and retained. the more the angular is the aggregates. respectively)..

• FLAKINESS INDEX – particles having least dimension (thickness) less than 3/5 their mean dimension. .CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO SHAPE FLAKY AND ELONGATED AGGREGATES • ELONGATION INDEX – the percentage by weight of particle present in it whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than 9/5 their mean dimension.

9 .CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UNIT WEIGHT NORMAL WEIGHT – specific gravity range from 2.7 HEAVY WEIGHT – specific gravity range from 2.8 to 2.5 to 2.

.CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UNIT WEIGHT LIGHTWEIGHT – used to manufacture the structural concrete and masonry blocks for reduction of the self-weight of the structure. Its bulk density is 1200 kg/m3 BLOATED CLAY AGGREGATES – the particle range from 5 to 26mm size.

UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGRATES PORES – minute holes or cavities formed in a rock due to the presence of air bubbles entrapped in it. . ABSORPTION OF AGGREGATES – the percentage of water absorbed by an aggregate when immersed in water.

MOISTURE CONTENT – the surface moisture expressed as a percentage of the weight of the SSD aggregate.UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGRATES SATURATED SURFACE DRY (SSD) AGGREGATES – aggregate saturated with water but contains no surface free moisture. .

the smaller the amount required for a particular water-cement ratio.UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGRATES BULKING – the increase in volume of a given mass of fine aggregates caused by the presence of water. . MAXIMUM SIZE OF AGGREGATES – in general. the larger the maximum size of aggregates.

KINDS OF VOLUME AND WEIGHT OF AGGREGATE PARTICLES .

CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGGREGATE SHAPES .

CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGGREGATE SHAPES .

INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATES ON QUALITY OF CONCRETE The strength. good results cannot be expected from poor aggregates. density and general quality of concrete depend to a large extent on the aggregates. . Even when the most careful attention is paid to the proportioning of the materials and to the mixing and placing of the concrete.

and to wear.INFLUENCE OF AGGREGATES ON QUALITY OF CONCRETE In general. or their resistance to the fire exposure to weathering. or resistance to crushing. . • The durability of the aggregates. the properties of the aggregates that influence the quality of concrete are: • The grading or maximums comparative sizes of the particles. of the aggregates. • The amounts and kinds of impurities in the aggregates • The compressive strength.