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SPIRIT AND MATTER

BEFORE THE BAR OF

MODERN SCIENCE

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SPIRIT " MATTER

BEFORE THE BAR OF

MODERN SCIENCE

BY

ISAAC W. HEYSINGER, M.A., M.D.
Associate,Societyfor Psychical Research {,London) ; Member U.S. Military Order, Loyal
Legion; Member of the Penna Historical Society; Pennsylvania State Insane Hospital
Commission; Undergraduate in Arts , Dartmouth College; Captain U.S. Army, War
of the Rebellion; Graduate in Arts and Sciences, Union University ; Certificate
in Analytical Chemistry, University of Michigan ; Graduate in Medicine and
Surgery, Jefferson Medical College; OfficialExpert in U.S. Circuit and
Supreme Court Patent Causes, Mechanical, Chemical, and Electrical;
Author of '"^ Solar Energy, its Source and Mode throughout the
"
Universe" ; The Light of China" (translation from the
Chinese and Commentary on the Tdo Teh King);
^^
Factors of Belief" ; ^' The Mechanism of Con-
version"
; ^^Therapeutics of North American
Soils and Climates," Etc.

"

PHILADELPHIA

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

LONDON: T. WERNER LAURIE

1910

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with perfectand friendly interest. In other words. as regards the general outcome.n'^ PREFACE The time seems to have come for a clear and dis- passionate statement of the inevitable trend of Psychology.We have passed the regions of darkness and doubt. dicated in many. and that the future advances will be to stillhigherplanes. the solution of the still remainingopen questions.are agreed. and we are dealing to-daywith the various phasesof transcendentalism. We are clearly able to see that the final conclusions lie along lines alreadyfar advanced. in all its fulness and strength.of materialism. most of these sciences new. These advances are to be found described or in. cendental has been the final victor. of nihilism. and psychical students are searchingout. in any sense in which the term physicalhas ever been legitimately employed. now. and all of them reconstructed by fuller knowledge. mind and spirit. which we alreadyclearly see. and even here we have reached a plane in which serious conflict has terminated.or hypothesesrather. that the alter- natives presentedare few. have been proven untenable and altogether worthless. of em- piricism.with practical unanimity.as it now is. the trans.and of its kindred sciences. many standard books.and as it is reachingout to newer and granderfields of discovery in the realms of life. We have advanced so far and so surely.that the old past theories. and can more or less definitely follow and map out. and to-day it is true. in the re- 615-850 .and that the so-called physicalsciences have never been at all capableof takingsides in the controversywhich is now about ended.that the greatest and pro- foundest students of Psychology. and that these are non-physical.

in a single compact volume.vi PREFACE ports and of able investigators. . even the cultured un- carry world. And mind and matter seemed a great morass ^ Where self-engendered monsters chanced to be. in the papers many work of world-famous students and experts. so far as I know. as yet. in these chapters. old. see. and I have sought to make the book readable and interesting as well. " Behold 1 and lo. work will have been well any my done if not. dark. When Science closed her and could not eyes. the vast inflowing sea ! " ^ The Author. to do this. been brought together and co-ordinated. rest assured that others will take the . If I have in wise succeeded. When truth was lumped. up task and it on until all the world. many but they have not. With much diffidence I have endeavoured. upon blind days " " When metes and bounds were set which none might pass. as it is called. and measured in the mass. will witness its triumph and look back with horror those bad.

the superphysical " Definition of the term psychology Authorities Cited Herbert Spencer " Professor Shaler " Professor James " Rev. Crookes " Tyndall " Davies . TABLE OF CONTENTS PART I Chapter I The time has arrived when the subjects of this work can be properly treated " ^The older theologiesbecoming displaced sharp divisions between " ^The science and religion disappearing ^New conceptions of mind and " consciousness ^The spiritual basis of " religion ing becom- universally recognised ^The whole subject being " considered now from a new standpoint Advances " in all directions Christianity the great gainer ^The " " foundations of Christian belief being supported to absolute demonstration by the latest science and psychology Psychology as a science " Dependent on the newer sciences for evidence " Until recently impossible to fully demonstrate " Has been opposed by an a priori " Physical research insufficient " Transcends a material basis for its evidence " The basis of psychology is the transcendental. Dr Davies " Canons Church of England " Max Miiller " Rev. including all psychical phenomena " Natural science has failed to investigate these phenomena Had it " done so. great results would have followed long since " The transcendent importance of genuine psychology " The connections of mind and matter " The attitude of primitive Christianity " The revolt of Luther Authorities Cited Romanes " Lamarck " Richet " Sir W. Dr Gladden " Romanes " Huxley " ^ Locke " Hammond " Haeckel Chapter II 15 Argument for spirituaUsm Not certain that these " phenomena in general are spiritualistic ^May be a " greater integration.

if at all.and why. He If is not immediately concerned with natural causation " Authorities Cited Romanes " Sir John Herschel " Lamarck " Sir Isaac Newton " Cicero " Lyte " Chopin " Newman " Romanes . and an impersonal Nature in control Authorities Cited Du Prel " St Paul " Herron " Canon Barnett " Jesus " ^Montucci Chapter VI . . validity of the books themselves " The record demands continuous spiritualisticcontrol and revelation Authorities Cited Luther " Zwingli " Melancthon " Westcott " Dr Roberts " Lardner " Farrar " ReligiousTract Society Chapter IV 28 Results the of despiritualising church " Decay of vital Christianity Contrast with ages " the earlier " Christian miracles . and divine volition constantly acting.43 Causality fatal mistake of sectarian " theology The " Relegation God and Christ to another of sphere. . .viii TABLE OF CONTENTS PACK Chapter III 21 Spiritualismin the church " Original reformers all spiritualistic " Catholic church spiritualistic formation Re. . and substitution of a blind Nature We have no knowledge " of causes except of volitional causes Only intelligent " design. .in order to secure standing against the older church Left " Bible as Yet canon historic record " of Scripture itself was revelation spiritualistic from to the old church in comparatively recent times Imperfection of the " Bible as a merely historic record Errors of trans- lation " . can plain ex- the universe The nearly fatal error " of theology. " abandoned direct spiritualism. . *' there be a personal God. . were they discontinued ? The resurrection Scientific evidence " " in its favour Anecdote of an apparent resurrection " Authorities Cited Moody " Bishop Bradley " Tertulhan " Irenaeus " Orton " Sir John Franklin " Romanes Chapter V 36 The spiritual conflict within the church " ^The triumph Christianityin earlier ages of Its permanent " spiritualisingpower Lost in sacerdotalism Its " " spiritualistic phenomena identical with the universal experiences of all mankind spiritualistic in all ages " The in the i6th century revolt Surrender " to and corporation in- with materialism An absentee " God . when. .

68 Experimental psychology Spiritualismamong " the Chinese " Time. . its denial is the new thing It challenges " investigationat all times " If it ever existed it must and does exist now Authorities Cited Brinton " "The Supernatural in Nature" Tylor " " Sargent " Sir Charles Lyell Dr Davies Rev. geology " and all other pursuits A whole literature to be " studied Materials " to be procured Mediums to be " consulted and often rejected " Times and conditions must observedbe " ^There must be thought. patience.61 Spiritualismbefore the bar of science " Has the same rightto fair investigationas have other phenomena " In all experimentation must be observed conditions " Science has.and then only by a few who have never studied the phenomena. TABLE OF CONTENTS ix PAGE Chapter VII 52 The psychism of the universe Protoplasm a " machine intelligentlydesigned and constructed " Living organisms are also intelligentesigners and d constructors A constant interchange between " these psychisms Authorities Cited Romanes " Conn " Dr Bingham Chapter VIII 55 Spiritualismthe basis of all religions. . and among all peoples All religiondepends on " tion revela- " Religion extends back to the origin of human existence Spiritualism " extends back equally. however. comparison and investigation An education is re- quisite " before this study can be intelligentlypursued " The same is true of chemistry. or the principleson which they have been demonstrated " Spiritualism not a new thing . study. approached these phenomena in a hostile spirit An unbiassed mind is the first pre- requisite " of anyone claimingto be a man of science Authorities Cited New Testament " Mrs Ross Church " Sir William Crookes Chapter X .mathematics. and continued labour. Dr " " Ellin wood " Shaler Professor William James " Chapter IX . and is the means by which religions became revealed to man- kind " Religious spiritualism identical at all times and among all peoples These have been the great factors " of human advancement Intercommunion between the " living and the survivingspirits of the dead never denied until recently. geology. present or past. and some expense required to investigate spiritual phenomena The same is true of chemistry.

Estlin Carpenter Romanes " " Charles Darwin " Professor Momerie Huxley " Chapter XIII Miracles " Hume's Hume's argument " Fallacies in definitions Fallacy argument " Huxley denies in his " " Hume's argument on grounds which Knock the bottom out of all a priori objections to miracles " " Wallace and Romanes demonstrate worthlessness of the positionof Hume. biology and other sciences Science has " until recently discredited such education Impossible " to pursue any study under the conditions formerly demanded in the name of science It began with an " a priorijudgment against the whole case This attitude " concededly unscientific Authorities Cited Rev. toward miracles and spiritualism Miracles defined " " The New Testament miracles considered in the lightof scientific discovery Examples. The basis of all religionsthe " same Identical " with the claims and practices of modern spiritualism ^This universality is valid evidence " of their truth Revelation from the supernormal the " common factor Rehgion defined Ethics insufiicient. Dr Nevius " Rev.X TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Chapter X " continued astronomy. " " and baseless. Dr Ellinwood " Kepler " Newton Chapter XI 73 The ban of a priori " Franklin's experiments in electricityHerbert " Spencer met the facts by saying that he had settled the question on a priorigrounds " Alfred Russel Wallace on a priori Authorities Cited Tyndall " Huxley " Gladstone " Davies " Franklin " Spencer " Wallace " Tennyson PART II Chapter XII 81 Summary of Part I. the Resurrection sidered con- " Living and dead protoplasm The principle " " . and many other scientific men.and will land of itself us in misery " The integratingprincipleof the universe " Chief argument for the existence of Science God the new-comer " It " abandoned its own in principles professing to deal with the supernormal " The concrete results of science considered Authorities Cited Tylor " J .

metabol- ism " . Dr Sanders " Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Chapter XIV no The limitations of physicalscience " Huxley's state- ment of its narrow boundaries Jevons on the un- warranted " claims of scientific writers The unfairness " of many writers on scientific subjects Concealment of " discordant facts Scope of science far narrower than " often claimed An infallible test of a genuine man " of science The proof of unworthiness " and charlatanry " The fate of the latter The claim that our knowledge " is assuming an approximately complete character erroneous We never can " comprehend more than an infinitesimal part New and unexplained facts are " divergent in extent . but in fulfilment of. " liberty. X+Y=Z Christianity system a of tellectual in. Lewes " Comte Lord Kelvin Haeckel " " " " Rev. H. TABLE OF CONTENTS xi PAGE Chapter XIII " continued of continuity An " intelligentagent operatingin the universe " Miracle " " may be. MoUie Fancher . somnambules . law The " parthenogeneticconception ascribed Such instances to numerous and Jesus " physiological Examples cited among lower animals " and from surgicaland medical cases among mankind " *' Spontaneous generation " The first creation " narrative in Genesis Miracles in organic life . G. H. mental phenomena . New sciences were necessary " to prepare the way ^The observer of mere physics " must see mind at a great disadvantage Spiritual " truths in the universe Authorities Cited Balfour Stewart" P. afterwards restricted and perverted by theology " An avenue between the seen and the seen un- worlds Authorities Cited Hume Huxley" Romanes WallaceProfessor " " " W. not in defiance of. Tait" Sir John Herschel" Romanes " Lord Kelvin "Sir Oliver Lodge The " Society for Psychical Research " Dean Swift " Mallock " IngersoU Shaler " " Sir William Crookes . Professor Thomson Michael Foster Von " " Hartmann Balfour Stewart Tait " Dr Gould's " " "Curiosities of Medicine" Dr Eve's "Remarkable " Cases in Surgery'* Tacitus Pliny the Younger " " " Kidd G. the more science explains the more \ it has to explain The advances of science have always " been made from the study of discordant and rejected residua Authorities Cited Huxley " Jevons " Gladstone " St John Stock Chapter XV ii6 The dark days of psychology Ignorance regarding " force and matter Belief that religionwas about to " disappear Only recently has science taken cognisance " of anything non-material.

nor upon what observations of physicalphenomena deal with It comes " " like ** a bolt from the blue . it is instantaneous. upon our powers of comprehension and belief De Morgan on " science assuming a priest's cast-off garb dyed to escape detection Arago on scientific doubt " as contrasted with incredulity The dangers of unlimited scepticism " " The dogmatism of theology compared with that of science Ignoring undesirable facts " The gross credulity " of ignorant spiritualists finds its counterpart in the gross increduhty of ignorant scientific specialists The " passingaway of the dark days of psychology Authorities Cited Jevons " De Morgan Laplace Arago " " " Aber- crombie " Wallace Gregory Ragsky" " " Huss " Endlicher Diesing Pauthot " " " Gamier " " Trevillian Mayo Haddock " " " Lee " Atkinson " Clark Carpenter Schofield " " Chapter XVII 131 Physical science cannot explain its own bases " Deals only with propertiesand physicalmanifestations " Every new discovery in fundamentals shifts the whole attitude of science Natural history was " formerly but a descriptivescience of forms. of the unseen and known un- from a world of the unseen and unknown A " singleindecomposable mental act . does not contradict our own views of the same Appears to " be a basis of independentreahty to which each sentiency helpsitself Authorities Cited Lamarck " Cuvier " Darwin " Graham " Wars- chauer " ^Tyndall Biichner " " Masson Chapter XVIII 136 The patent systems founded modern on normal super- phenomena Cash value of patented inventions " as an evidence of the economic value of supernormal revelations Invention does not depend upon reason " . nor upon what science deals with . as shown in their behaviour. " in practicaland useful form. says Jevons. a whole new world of nature appeared " Laboratory work grotesquely insufficient The passage " from the physicsof the brain to the corresponding facts of consciousness unthinkable The phenomenal world " of lower animals. and not only different from but opposed to reason It is the imaging.xii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Chapter XVI 124 The credulityof incredulity A priorithe only fatal " attitude " The scientific method Science when fairly " pursued makes absurd drafts. and was pushed to its " logicalend. " it is not scientific . it is creation ab initio '^ . structures and habits When biology arose.

must bring the word to the surface as soon as needed."who knows each one. hence must have known what to bring beforehand . " and respond " to undefined wants Error in analogy of thresholds " of consciousness "' -' " '* " or higher and lower or strata as applied to mental phenomena These terms useful " if we use them merely as formal expressions The scope " and source the subconscious ofrealm considered " Found among all animals. from a non-human psychical source Tennyson on guardian spiritsof the" dead Spiritual " manifestations always with us.and immaterial . in its etymology.. 152 Memory the battleground of empiricism final " The physical theory of memory untenable pressions Im. pathy " universal in extent Authorities Cited Swedenborg " Von Hartmann " Newman " Tennyson Romanes " " Huxley " Locke " Bowen ling Kip. if cerebral or material Use " of these terms admissible. amples " of the subconscious manifesting through the conscious mind ^They emerge unsolicited. and also in plants Found " also in the morphology of growing organisms Sym. Thompson " Barker " Agassiz " Ward " Darwin " Orton Chapter XX ^ . its English equivalent. then the subconscious or conscious desire for the word must bring the word out of the collection . " ** " cannot serve. Analogy of a librarian finding " a book meansdesired by of a catalogue In case of the " memory. and would be seen to be supernormal unless so common as to escape notice .etc. hence the collection of them is unnecessary Physical theory breaks down. if it is but a collection stored away. TABLE OF CONTENTS xiii PAGE Authorities Cited " Tennyson " Merwin on Patentabilityof tions Inven- " " Herschel " Ladd " United States Circuit Court decisions " United States Supreme Court Chapter XIX 144 The workshop in the subconscious department of the mind Telepathy will not account " for invention " Comes. " " Archimedes " Newton " Ladd " Schofield " Montgomery " Wundt " Waldstein " Holmes " Dr G. like genius and inspiration. but we see them not because blinded with other things " Their source in an intellectual beyond ^Many ex. its grammatical relations to other groups.if we understand that they are merely used as terms and not as explanations A " dialogue involving many phases of memory tion Associa. " of ideas inadequate A body of memories must " have a single intelligence which constantly comprehends each one Professor Bowen " 's example of the memory of a hundred thousand words in various languages in -' which a picker. in " every shape " Allied to instinct. etc.

and yet not know.then we know that there must exist a greater psychism The " '- Spiritof the Universe '' It must be akin to our own " Authorities Cited Masson " Wordsworth " Emerson " Newton " Le Conte " Professor James" Ladd PART III Chapter XXII .the latter limited " Scientific judg- ment changes with every decade " It does not prehend com- the principleson which it is founded " Ex- . . or how far apart pin-prickscan be distinguishedas one or two .and the refusal to investigate lest it will believe Psychology does not " properly deal with how fast nerve sensations travel. now abandoned Consequences " of the ecclesiastical revolt in the sixteenth century The " abandonment of continuous spirituahsm in favour of " natural law '. . or seek to learn. and The principlesof II. the result Failure of science to in- vestigate " due to a baseless a priori ^These fields outside " the natural sciences Popular error as to attitude " of great teachers of science and philosophy Authorities Cited Luther " Romanes " Haeckel " Herbert Spencer Chapter XXIII 173 The methods and of acquisitions science .and what it is that perceives Shall philosophyand science pretend to deal " with mentality and life. " religion the outcome of spiritual revelation It has " always been universal All rehgions embody the same " principle Moral "and spiritual loftiness not confined to any ^The materialistic " ideas of the derivation of and religionfallacious.167 Summary of Parts I. or else zero and Nihilism Encounter to-day the old odium " iheologicum. . . . " by refusal to investigate every disputed scientific question Its only enemy is a priori which " is y the refusal of the will to believe. *. and opprobrium scientice Science graded de. the former beyond all praise. '. but what it is that travels.xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS Authorities Cited Lord Bacon Tennyson " " Von Hartmann " Professor Bo wen " Sir John Herschel " Kant Chapter XXI 159 The sole alternatives : deity and spiritualism.what they are .. and should science not wait to argue about them until it does know ? Behind the " nebula is either God or nothing From nothing nothing " can proceed If the psychism of man " exists.

insufi"cient The converse " *' among the spiritualists Self-sacrifice The least " " importantthingdoes not happen except as God wills it -' Authorities Cited Long Hst at beginningof chapter. " " Crockett " Max Miiller" The Author Chapter XXV 191 Sectarian theologyin the lightof universal religion " Results of '- begrudging God His own universe. Crookes " Lord Kelvin Sir " John Herschel Lagrange " " Romanes " Herbert Spencer " Paul Janet Huxley " " De Morgan Chapter XXIV i8i The new psychology Catalogue " of names of authorities Great in Britain. of the universe Even matics mathe- nor " extremely limited Failure of scientific men " largelydue to a desire to find a singlecause. R. and meanwhile has left the universe to Nature. long ago." and substituting Natural Law.heat.America. "* to oppose his earlier Candid Examination of Theism -- '-" " His reasons for his former error His new studies His " " final conclusion in favour of Theism. Spirit. TABLE OF CONTENTS xv rAGE Chapter XXIII continued " amples cited Does touch the real or vital problems " not of life and mind. Italy. a vindication of both philosophy and science God's fatherhood " and man's brotherhood mutually dependent on each other ^The Hfe-studyof " micro-organisms Their psychology "Romanes* " change of view with larger knowledge His new " treatise " A Candid Examination of ReUgion. " substitute Sectarian creeds of this type have " never . etc. France. disappearance of the dark days of psychology which prevailedthirtyyears ago Authorities Cited Flammarion Nus " " Kant " Sir W.'. to create. electricity or gravitation ^The problems become " simpleras the base is broadened ^The greatest men " of science always opposed to materialism or empiricism The advent of " new sciences recently which make the solution clear .to judge .for God's - ever-present voUtion and control The fatal error of the belief that " God worked once. though often unconscious of the cause " -' Moral satisfactions '-'. Germany.' as a -. for which they do not go back far enough The data not in " possession of physical science Intolerance wholly " unjustifiable in present state of scientific knowledge " Psychism the factor which alone will interpret the universe " Just as scientific as light. revelation and Materialists nearly all psychism " miserable. and will come again. A victory and demonstration " of the higher over the lower . God. also Romanes " Bmet " McCosh Wordsworth S. some time in the indefinite future.

Herbert Spencer and of these not men ofHaeckel " Majority science totally " misunderstood Locke .but not of identical with it They often " overlap each other " Sources of both in the spiritual beyond Continuance " of Ufe after death the basis of both Demonstrated by " spiritualism applying scientific methods to the evidence " Mankind immutably allied with spirituniversal and eternal We are " here in a state of probation and trainingfor a spiritualindividuaUty hereafter ^The " alternative of belief in a future existence Authorities Cited Christ " Stewart and Tait Romanes " " Sir John Herschel " Lamarck " Lord Kelvin Chapter XXVII 205 Popular error regarding modern writers who have been assumed to teach empiricism Locke. spirits and revelation. he taught Christianity.N. with it " ^The idols representative only Absurdity of any other " position Inherent beHef in and " knowledge of God among primitivepeoples Always a spirit Psychology " " of the Eskimo. " " Huxley " Hume Berkeley " Churchill" " Morell " Mackintosh Frederic " Harrison " Comte " St Simon " Mill -. and surrendered it there Authorities Cited Locke " Descartes " Leibnitz " Haeckel worth ^Words. " Comte.from the Eastern continent Authorities Cited Jesus " Le Bon " Maya Codices " Dr Cyrus Thomas " Captain Dennett. John Stuart Mill. Sir W. Tyndall. Hume.and a future " " life His attack " was against the innate principles of Descartes. " Parry " First Missionaries to the Eskimo " Newton " Lamarck " Sir John Herschel " Romanes " Brinton Chapter XXVI 199 Spiritualismthe substratum reUgion. and for direct revelation The ancient " Chinese philosophy identical with Locke's view of our "-faculties" Hume's reduction to absurdity and " nihilism a joke on the defects of Locke was and Berkeley " Hume believed in God There can be no belief that " " there can be no belief '" Comte abandoned his atheism " in favour of what Huxley called the worship of a wilderness of apes John Stuart Mill carried his system " to an inexplicabihty " - '- of the whole. God. R. and of other ancient American peoples " The American race not derived.xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter XXV " continued been reallybelieved by their sincere Christian followers. at least since the glacialperiod. but have nevertheless stood as barriers against any defence on their part against materialism " Have indeed " allied the origin of churches gods "' . HamUton . Huxley.

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and HI. Religion uniformly " found among all peoples The cognitionof the co. and the spirit of . there never could have been anything for religion and science fight to about " When divine volition. whereby "* God is still grudged His own " universe But for this " fatal error. and controls nature to do its will " and this is what we call " God Authorities Cited Herbert Spencer Romanes " " Sir John Herschel " Lamarck " Longfellow Olive " Schreiner " Professor William James " Jalalu'd-Din (author'stranslation) PART IV Chapter XXXII 245 Review of Parts I.II. Crookes " " Rejected with contempt in 1872 by the Royal Society.. the spiritof nature. ordinated " presence of the individual body. and twenty-five years later he was elected President of the British Association for the Advancement of " Science " His remarkable address " I have nothing to retract " I adhere to my already published statements " Indeed I might add much thereto " Authorities Cited Professor De Morgan French Academy " " Dr Carpenter Dialectic Committee " A. Crookes' Presidential Address before the British Association Professor De Morgan on " supernormal phenomena Modern spiritualismhas never " ceased to advance Persecution " has not affected the movement Men of science have recently taken it with " up triumphant results " The French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1831 of " The Dialectical Committee London in The great Society for Psychical 1872 " Research in 1882 Brief description of the latter " " The great change in the public and scientific attitude since 1872 The investigationsof Sir W. all diffi- culties disappear of themselves. the individual spirit. Wallace " " Society for Psychical Research Sir W. R. and agnosticism becomes a mere superstitionof credulity The only " " tenable theory is that of Lamarck. Crookes " " Quarterly Review Dr Huggins Sir Oliver Lodge " " Chapter XXXI 240 The only scientific basis of evolution is volition " coincident Spiritualism with universe controlled a by a psychism " Theology threw away its charter when it took up Nature as a substitute for God. and is independent of nature. that there is an intelligentpower which transcends nature. which was before nature. is granted..xviii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGB Chapter XXX 231 Spiritualismpursues the methods of science Sir " W.constantly operative.

Garth " Wilkinson.visible " end of solar spectrum " Modern views of matter 62 . lectical " Society on presence at sittingsof a strongly " magnetic disturber Carpenter on unconscious " " cerebration TroUope on opinion of"Bosco that the arts of legerdemain cannot imitate these phenomena " Unconscious testimony of a great "* magician now " living Table tipping in answer " to mental questions " Poltergeists Importance of the study Sir William " " Crookes and his narrative of Katie King Her last ap- pearance " His work on the phenomena of spiritualism.in. .XII" continued the universe. in letters to the Dia- lectical Society. . TABLE OF CONTENTS xix PAGE Chapter XX. the whole of the scientific bases of true psychology.biology.had yet to be developed New microscopic. . J.so spiritualism was repudiated by the Reformation because it had become sacerdotal " ** " Natural causation became the common god of materialism and sectarian theology Private Christians " never believed at heart these doctrines ^The means of " scientifically overcoming these fatal doctrines had to be created Embryology.intimate and inseparablewith all man. . because it had become sacerdotal.249 Testimony of able authorities. kind "Atheism produces misery at heart among those who claim to be atheists Religionsfundamentally the " same As art was " repudiated by Christianity. . by means of the power of mind over matter The work has " now been accomplished. " originallyrejectedby the scientific bodies which after. micro-psychology. comparative religions. the science " of the subconscious. Lewes to the same Dr Davey.in favour of the truth and importance of spiritualphenomena The cosmical spiritualismof " the universe The individual spiritualismof man " " The spiritualism of lower life-organisms Mediums " " Huxley's second letter to the Dialectical Society " George H. " spectroscopicand chemical applianceshad to be devised and perfected ^Time was required God was preparing " " to finallydestroy the power of matter over mind. " Sir William Crookes' scientific tests and methods Photographs of the " materialised Katie King Spiritphotographs considered " " Can the invisible and intangiblebe photographed ? " Examples Analogies with other natural phenomena " " The mirage Elementary forces involved " ^The " phenomena of light and sound Luminous paints. wards made him their president His reafiirmation of " the facts Florence Cook. . anthropology. Sir Edwin Arnold and others to the same " Miss A Goodrich-Freer on crystal vision Are crystal " visions subjective or objective? Tyndall to Dia. for the first time in the history of the world Authorities Cited Leibnitz Romanes" and " authorities previously cited on these subjects Chapter XXXIII .

for unexplained phenomena. Y and Z. F. Barrett.S." The Divining Rod Interpretationof the phenomena " Analogous to " . Crookes Marmery Professor " " Knott" The Author Chapter XXXIV . like the algebraic X. Goodrich-Freer Earl " " of Stanhope Burton " Hockley Tyndall " " " James " Carpenter TroUope Bosco " Seybert " " " Lewis " Sir W. " Greenland Missionaries Chapter XXXV 270 Practical cases continued " Crystalvision " ance Clairvoy- Transferred " mental power Crystal vision. and gauged everything there ? '* " " These scientific individuals have been nowhere but " where we also are ^The power of custom . in what is now Eastern Ohio. " among the Apaches Not difficult to acquire ^Miss " " Goodrich-Freer 's discovery of a colony in England which had developed it among themselves voyance Clair. the old conjurer Crystal vision " " among the Eastern Cherokees. in Northern Chile. " and supernormal revelation Eph's bullet " " '* Was it a case of telepathy? Use of Planchette in " " China ^Dowsing among " Western nations Exhaustive " reports by Professor W.R. phenomena to be properly explained and designated later on Authorities Cited Carlyle " Nevius " Dennett " Chinese Records " Sahagun ." Sug- and the like " These are mere terms. as " mentioned in the Bible Among the Eskimo ^The " " remarkable case observed by Colonel James Smith among the Red Indians.S." gestion.265 Carlyle on miracles Evidence by converts " Christian of the realityof supernormal manifestations of Eskimo and other psychics How much do we know of the laws " " of nature as actual laws ? Have any deepest " scientific individuals yet dived down to the foundations of the universe. reported by Mr James Mooney of the U. also Hypnotism.XX TABLE OF CONTENTS Authorities Cited Lewes " Davey Wilkinson Crossland " Sir " " Edwin Arnold Simpson " A.F. philosophy " is a continual battle against it The transcendental " " Psychism among the Eskimo Angekoks converted to " " Christianity are steadfast in asserting that there is an " interference of some supernatural agency Crystal " vision among the Eskimo " Personal narratives which follow are intended not to be startling. but are simple examples of the various classes of phenomena to which " they relate " The catchword Magnetism as a -" tute substi- " " for an explanation . before the Revolutionary War Its effect on the " Indians Manetohcoa. Bureau of Ethnology " The fate of Cherokee Confederate soldiers predicted Crystal " vision among the Aztecs Tescatlipoca the god of " crystalvision Among the ancient Mayas Its universal " " practiceto-day in Yucatan In Peru.

" accidental mis-statement. in allegedcommunications from the dead " Means for overcoming the difficulty Inter jectors. W. Alderman" Sir William Crookes " " Professor Barrett Jevons Marmery ^Mrs De Morgan " " " " Susan Dabney Smedes " Lord Wolseley " R. " " Goodrich-Freer De Mortillet Reverend " Professor " Father Roe F. Emerson ^T. " Dabney " ^Mrs McHatton-Ripley " Professor De Morgan Chapter XXXVI 293 Experiments continued Telepathy Acceptance " by physical science ^The Hertzian Waves ^Wireless " " telegraphy Telepathy from the livingas a difficulty " to be overcome.S. Napier Denison Andrew Lang " " " Professor Krafit-Ebing Professor Charcot L. " Emerson calls it ^Wolseley on analogous power in " miUtary commanders Spiritrappings ^Their connection " " with other physical phenomena of spiritualism " Professor Augustus De Morgan's experiments His " scientific qualifications ^The preface to his wife's book " -" From Matter to Spirit*' His remarkable " experience with a group of rappers Statement of the " experienceof a scientific friend Authorities Cited The Bible Col. excepting by conscious fraud. Stephens'. G. under cross-examination Poltergeistcase in Yucatan in the " years about 1590 "Speaking like a parrot'-'John " " L. TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi Chapter XXXV continued " other of subconscious cases mental projection Cases cited " " Clairvoyance of the dying Clairvoyance of a dead " brother by a dying boy who did not know that his brother had died Case of fascination of a largefrog by a huge " rattlesnake ^The phenomena described ^The influence " " exercised by great commanders A river of command. " " Sherman Frank R. " " " Ki-Tong President Martin Professor " Barrett A. Bureau of Ethnology ^The Cherokee " " Indian Report ^Mooney ^Daniel G. James Smith President Roosevelt " " " Manetohcoa U. but cannot add new matter. S. writings Trance phenomena " The subliminal self " " Abstract of certain cross correspondence records . " and the recollected effects on others present minimise the importance of the objections ^Malobservation " principallyapplicable where the attention has been diverted Memory may drop matter " out. and cross-correspondences " The system of cross-correspondencescarried on by the Society for Psychical Research The alleged com- municators " so-called automatic " The percipientsand . Brinton Tcheng. " Answers to questions as to the future The charges " ' " " '' of malobservation " and lapse of memory sidered con- The scope " and force of the objections examined Same charges can " be made against all human testimony If valid would destroy the " practice of jurisprudence Multiple observation. A. report of the Yucatan poltergeist .

P. R. I.P. in England " Mr P. just beyond those works. the boy medium " " " Experiments of Sir William Crookes. Stephens The Cura Don " " Aguilar. with abstract of evidence General John B. L. Chamber- " lain " General " Taylor General Worth Captain Henry " " McKavett West Point Military Register Boswell " " " Washington Irving Samuel Johnson General " " Oglethorpe Frederick Lane Frank Podmore" London " " Times " Various witnesses cited Chapter XXXVIII 316 Unpublished experiments continued Changing " weights Slate writings Automatic " writings purport- ing " to be from spiritsof the dead Old friend of the " author His experiences Hough. Sir Oliver Lodge ^Miss" " " Goodrich-Freer John L.303 Accurate by a previsionof death soldier months before. not published till after the publication of Dr Layman's original narrative The case of Captain McKavett " " Monterey The case narrated by General Oglethorpe " " The Battle of MaJplaquet ^The recent case of William " the Terriss. Brinton Modern Mexico " " Chapter XXXVII .. K. in the midst of a dense wilderness. weights varied at call His slate-writingexperiments J. Wj " " Shuler J.R. and that early in the " fight The spot was " far beyond. Compton Smith Dr E. of Yucatan ^D. killed at the Battle of the Wilderness. by the hand of Mr P.R. " ^Mrs Piper Principal Graham Gurney Sidgwick " " " " Mrs Verrall Journal S. Layman General John B. saw the place pictured months before " " Will be killed in first battle.in three colours " The automatically written. original record of many friends and relatives in the spiritworld. F. 5th May 1864 Accurate " prevision. Volunteers.Bayley.'s experiments with spring-scale. I know it well *-* " How " line of advance of the whole charge was deflected. I shall fall I see the spot . G. writes " " on small. on the hill (pointingwith " his finger). and miles within the Confederate " lines Later on" I have just five days more to live ^' " " Before the charge. in '' that little cluster of woods. closed and sealed slates. ii8th Penna. Co. Smith's " History of the Corn Exchange Regiment Dr S.xxii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Authorities Cited Myers" Dr Hodgson" Dr W. well-known actor Authorities Cited Dr A. " Gordon's chapter on premonitions The case of Wm. Yes.S. Ofiicial War Records. Gordon ^W. W. " Shuler. D. so that Shuler 's company came to cross this hill His " death " Verifications from militaryorders and move- ments reported in the U. H.S.'s wife Character of the communications " " Table tipping and rapping with same psychic Her " early death Testimony of surviving husband Final " " loss of control .

P. " Original record made at the time.P. TABLE OF CONTENTS xxiii Authorities Cited The author and Mr P. narrated by himself Discovery. lUman with a trumpet medium. Thomas W. by Mr Ford." The result Authorities Cited Charles Morris " Cope " Leidy " John Ford " Miss Annie McDowell " Miss Adelaide Thompson " Miss Annie Thompson. Record Character of the " communication Original in possession " of the author by bequest of Mr P. originalplanchette record still preserved " Young girlappears with narration of persecution and violent death Totally unknown "to all the sitters " Refers them to the sisters of the President of the Penna. R. . one of the sitters . of a surviving husband going into intemperance. deceased. lUman Dr Layman " " Dr Holcomb " Three Ladies personally known to the Author . made comprehensible and verified by the birth of the child a week or more afterwards Authorities Cited De Morgan " Rev. Co.R. .325 " Automaticwriting experiments continued Inter.R. . and who was reformed in consequence " The same trumpet medium afterwards in Philadelphia " Dr Layman's conversation with Dr Holcomb. Chapter XLI 334 Experiments Trumpet continued mediums " " Further experiments in prevision Veridical dreams " " Experiment of Rev. " Hudson " Dr Bayley Chapter XL 330 Planchette case of automatic writing. of the S.R. Mr P. Chapter XXXIX . Thomas W.'s testimony regarding the " personal value of the communications His warning " " " against consulting mediums for information " How the sittings closed Inter jector appears in a " Hodgson sittingwith Mrs Piper I was a d d idiot "" " " " " Inter jectorin one of Dr Bay ley'ssittings A sister " (see page 295) Authorities Cited Mr P. " '"" jectors suddenly appearing Evidential matter " " Test of genuineness of the P. received in a lighted room Experience of a transient " visitor to Philadelphia with the same trumpet medium Three "veridical dreams before confinement.in which an inter]ector appeared to narrate an irrelevant tragedy " Testimony of Mr Charles Morris. . " Hough King " Katie " Sir William Crookes " Slade " John King (Morgan) " ceedings Pro- S. . . " Dr Hodgson " Mrs Piper " ^Miss B. by message " from deceased wife.

from the personality of the medium. until after three o'clock a." to some extent. also " Materiahsing stances " ^Two members of the S. giving a " " bursting pressure. from void space. with tangiblematter free ether of space harnessed " The for working electrical machines and dynamos Tesla " says we will soon get it directly from space Franklin " accompHshed this by his kites Could disembodied " spirits(granting such) find framework in living and a agglomerate "- " sym.P."says Sir John Herschel. and dozens of cases were narrated. W. when the meeting adjourned with many others seeking to narrate their own. H: Myers " Lady Gore Booth " Society for PsychicalResearch Chapter XLIII 350 Some possibleexplanation of materialising pheno- mena " of material The forms have been sought sources to be found in the atmosphere.there would be far more tangibihtyand weight than could possibly be required Reference " ** topreceding chapter on Invention. Trollope " " F.. Crookes" Dr Bayley" Dr Schofield" Dr Dudley. describe an inexplicable dematerialisation " The author narrates a similar case which he cannot explain " The medical professionand immortahty Several appari. or from that of those present Our popular conception of void " space erroneous The luminiferous " ether Its constitution " considered Only differs from material substance " in its lack of gravitation Its enormous density. A. " Perhaps this invention has been already made. when atheistic the " It veneer is removed the reverse is found to be the case " Dr Bayley's paper before a medical society How it " was received The dean of a medical " collegenarrates one supernormal case A sudden change among the " doctors.xxiv TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGB Chapter XLII 339 Reluctance to relate supernormal experiences " When this is removed they are found to be general " Materialisations Common " opinion that doctors are materialistic is an or error ." as supernormal " '-'. beyond our normal limits A dim recognitionof such " -* " a hypothesis in the nomenclature of spiritualistic phenomena Authorities Cited Sir John Herschel " Sir Oliver Lodge " Fresnel " Tesla " Franklin Sir " W. of eleven billion pounds per square inch " How its density has been determined " Free ether and bound ether Under " " certain circumstances agglomerates. Crookes " Herbert Spencer " Lord Kelvin .R.pathising friends. " tional cases of the dead Authorities Cited Sir W. Dean " ^The Author Ridgway's Magazine " " Census of physicians " Professor Barrett T.and could they with this even an infinitesimal fraction of the surround- ing bound ether.m.

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to association and to self-interest The " subconsciousness intelligently active during coma " The organising power works during unconsciousness " Examples of conversion in author's personal experience Authorities Cited Professor WilHam James " the Author " Dr J. " meanings of the word in the originallanguages Its " .S. ^^ Hecker" Dr R. " apparently. spiritualism Authorities Cited Galton " A patientof the author's " The Author Chapter XLVIII 383 The psychology of religious conversion Its basis in " the subconscious department of the mind In con- nection. are intelligible and coherent Do " not embody prevision. to keep " up the experiments. " evidential book of sermons. non.to experience. M. with some higher source The " subconscious described Its connection with the " normal consciousness The phenomena of crystal " vision linking these departments together due to temporarily Rehgious conversion supernormal.C.xxvi TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter XLVI " continued worked the table tipping Brought back experiences " of the War of the Rebellion What he claimed to have " been.in that they are not fixed ideas.R. C. revelation or."' and do not dominate the personaUty of the observer " They are seen as externahsed visions Their brilliancy " and actions Conversations " go on They are not con-trollable " by the will or belief of the observer Cases " narrated The author's experiences Do not reproduce " " lapsed memories . in that " it is often opposed to heredity. but from what source could they have been dehvered verbatim to a young girl? Authorities Cited John Steefa" The Author Chapter XL VII 376 Visions of the sane " Apparently akin to crystal vision Described " by Galton and others Differ from " " visions of the insane.to will. Occupied a couple was worthless " of hours in telling his story Another case . and how he came to know the author Was a " coloured ammunition teamster in Longstreet'scorps in the Antietam Campaign of 1862 His message. Crooke. F. H." Child ages Pilgrim- -' Chapter XLIX 388 Thesumming up by Mrs De Morgan of the Bible evidence for spiritualismof the types known to-day " Her statements regarding the Word of God in the Bible " They have lost their originalmeaning The root. apparently.

which the * intellect alone can see but as through a glassdarkly "* ' " " Pilate's question. TABLE OF CONTENTS xxvii Chapter XLIX " continued use with meanings confirmed thoseby the record " Emanation. influx. What is truth ? The criteria " " of truth ^Leibnitz first pointed out -' -* " universality . " " " the Lord at When " the influence failed to come to Elisha he called for a minstrel The Word of " the Lord. " June 1909 Citation from the poem " Abou Ben Adhem '- Authorities Cited Professor De Morgan ^Mrs De Morgan " " ^Various books of the Bible cited at length The Apostle " John Elisha " " Le Bon The Word " of God Sir OUver " Lodge Leigh " Hunt Chapter L 397 General consideration of the subject " The phenomena practicallyconceded by the very authorities popularly supposed to deny theories them have " Antagonistic all broken down in the science The light of recent " criteria of truth Volumes could be filled with personal " " narratives of supernormal phenomena The ness rare.in his last paper.will not only supersede the laborious operations of his intellect. " of communication between the two worlds. Carpenter on unconscious cerebration " His abstract presented to the Dialectical Society Its " " remarkable conclusion : Immediate insight. the supreme ment. manage- the extraordinary statesmanship of the -' Almighty " Huxley's position as to a choice between " " absolute materialism and absolute idealism John " " " Stuart Mill's cul de sac of inexplicability Herbert " Spencer's concession. a proof of the economic wisdom. in the New Testament " The physico-psychical means employed by Elisha in raisingthe dead child " The employed by Jesus Laying on of hands means " " Mighty spiritual works inhibited by unbelief The " phenomena at Pentecost The construction of the " " " ephod. but will reveal to him truths and gloriesof the unseen. " the most important event that could ever occur " Religion alone allows of human happiness Mrs De " Morgan connects the spiritualphenomena of the Bible with our own at the present time. " the master of all human agencies Loss of' religion.says " Garth Wilkinson. that our con- sciousness " has been individualised and specialised'-' " " " Dr W. by vision quiring En. children who sit round and sing hymns about blood and wrath and damnation " with the utmost good humour Le Bon on religion. and the Urim and Thummim Their uses " " Priests not required for their use The incident of a " " misused modern theology . Mutual service between the occupants of the seen and the unseen Sir Oliver Lodge's statement in " the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research. and demonstrates their identity.the " " impelhng influence by writing.'. B. inspiration The audible voice. is to me one of the greatest miracles .which in man's highestphase of existence.

.xxviii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE Chapter L " continued and --necessity" " The three criteria of truth as presented by President McCosh Self-evidence . and none secured with so little labour " " " Lord Tennyson's lines on The Ghost in Man Authorities Cited Garth Wilkinson Huxley John Stuart Mill " " " Herbert Spencer Dr W. and there appearances to be no sufficient motive. . if not true. " " Transcendentalism alone embraces all the above " Animism and the world-soul considered " Certain constant phenomena seem to point. for such appears universal lying secondly. Necessity Universality Discussion of the above . which seem to be of necessity intelligent and personal and. in certain to cases. the well-known phantasms . B. Carpenter Pontius " " Pilate Walt Whitman Berkeley Locke Professor " " " " Bo wen " Leibnitz " Carlyle " M cCosh " Shakespeare " J. of the living. C. surviving and intelligent spirits of the dead first. Harris " Tennyson Index 407 . the phenomena of prevision . who are also living Be the hypotheses or final determinations what they the facts are so numerous and so authentic that may. thirdly. these uniformly claim to be such. and prophecy. the time for their dismissal with an epithet has for ever by The results of personal investigation by gone " capable observers pointed out " No vein of treasure on this earth so rich. in which the intelligent psychical ality person- of those living appear to others at a distance.

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Systems have been built syllogisms con- up.As the knowledge of these momentous facts sinks downward until it is finally felt and recognisedby all. so that the grim conflicts of old will cease. and among all religious peoples. now monstrate de- to have been such.and paths of the old battlefields are destined very soon to unite in one broad highway. and for the advances of science for men. philosophy and religion. for the theologians. present and future of the race. with the spiritualand divine ap- proaching from one direction and man's pyschicaland human advancing from the other.and the . upon false or partialpremises. but in all forms of religion. structed. and the followers of science. The broad lines of conflict are now seen to have been erroneous. both in theology and the natural sciences. God's own good time has come. SPIRIT AND MATTER CHAPTER I PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE If the time is ever to come in the reUgioushistory of the human race when what may be called God's Science of Man is to supersede theology^ which is man's Science of God.we can foresee the vast shifting of human motives to higher planes. The data are now at hand to change all this . highest men among the of science.and among Christian peoples.and it has been found that these lines of advance are converging lines. that time is already here. not only in the Christian religion.which have involved mankind in mental and fallacies spiritual of incalculable evil to the past.

That part which we ordinarily ignorewhen speaking of mind is its essential part. faith in teachingis mainly caused by the erroneous ception con- of mind. aloof from human needs. Were it fullyunderstood that the emotions are the masters and the intellect the servant. the intellect is the servant. in one of his latest papers. perception with powers of and highestkinds.in his Hibbert Foundation Lectures in England.even in Captain Mayne Reid's sense. join anti-social reasoningof the feelings unscrupulous egoism and " disregard of fellow-men. . Sensations and emotions are parts of con- sciousness. Professor of Philosophy in Harvard University. Feelingversus laid down.. The emotions are the masters. and so far from being its minor com- ponents they are its major components. and is as follows : " "^Mind properlyinterpretedis coextensive with consciousness : all parts of consciousness are parts of mind. 4 SPIRIT AND MATTER entire reconstruction of lower ideals and practices. Considered in respect . aloof from morals. something . it would be seen that little can be done by improving the servant while the masters remain improved. What is their deduc- tion of metaphysicalattributes but a shuffling and matching of pedantic dictionary-adjectives. individual and social. But ans are the closet-naturalists of the deity. I used to think that the closet-naturalist must be the vilest type of wretch ^^ii * under the surelythe systematictheologi- sun. As implied above. . Intellect^ and which precisely coincided with Professor Shaler of Harvard Universityin his Interpretationof Nature C' Key to Education ") . this undue . of their fitness for life. Professor William James.. until we can realise what Herbert Spencer. Varieties of Religious Experience y says of this pervertedtheology: '' When I was a boy.'Q And on this fundamental fallacywas based all the dogmatism and false inference of the syllogistic theologyand inferential natural science of the past. un- (^Improvingthe servant does but givethe masters more power of achievingtheir ends. those in whom the altruistic sentiments predominate are far superior to those who.

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in which so many minds were once entangled.D. fied. (ChiefRabbi of the Sephardi Communities of England) . It is now well understood.'* '* It cannot be doubted the RomanthatCathoHc Church. Rev. and solid under their coats of mail. The metaphysicalpuzzles. M.. among those who are the recognised leaders of Christian thought.'* containinga series of papers by Professor Giles (Cambridge).are swept away. in order to show the vast change which has recently taken placein the conflict between theology and religion. Oscar Mann (Orientalist. (Councilof Secretary of State for India). from one of the papers by the Rev.is sharingliberally .and the development of Biblical criticism have kept the theologiansbusy.C.B. G. Published by Harper Brothers. armed as they were.I. Professor Ross (samecollege).D. Is it any wonder that.that the essence of Christianity is personal loyalty to the Master and obedience to His law of love.. Royal Library.the use of the evolutionary philosophy. Berlin). And hurled the lightningsof His wrath '' Across a godlessland ! I will quote. Washington Gladden. ^' The Christian doctrine has been greatlysimpli.K.ethics.E. in ^'The Great Religionsof the World.C. or elsewhere.6 SPIRIT AND MATTER never knew or heard of natural science. and others. Such a conceptionprepares the way for great unities and co-operations. D. appearing. London). with the work of reconstruction. LL. the paper is entitled The Outlook forChristianity.Professor Davids (University College.D.Ph. Frederic Harrison. C. September 1 90 1. The elaborate creeds of a former day are dis. '' pohticaleconomy.as a in the growing whole.Sir A.they could say ? " " I stood up in my pulpithigh And measured God's righthand. I can only make the briefest extracts ." past century has been a period of theo- logical *' The agitationand upheaval in Protestant Chris- tendom.London and New York. The progress of physicalscience. Gaster."must necessarily have made of Christ's doctrines and teachings. Lyall.

and despotic can hardly " be doubted/' '' The old theologyemphasised the sovereigntyof God in such a way as to make it appear that what was central in Him was will " His determination to have ' ' His own way.and will always form an integralpart of their experience. but it was always there " was the nerve of the doctrine. and to conform to that in His dealings with them. That the discipline new of the . Church is graduallychanging becoming more mild " less arbitrary and rational.'' ^' This is a tremendous change . To be rid of theories which requiredthe damnation of non-elect infants and of all the heathen . but also a religious animal .ruled by an evil potentate.and our . in the memory of many who will read these words.Some kind of religionmen have always had and will always have . that religion is an everlasting reality. " The entire aspect of religion has changed with." '' It may be assumed that man is not only a political. This theology was the apotheosisof will. His mere good pleasure was the decisive element in His action. His character is revealed to us in the life and words of Jesus . which imputed the guiltof our progenitors to their off- spring .to recognisethe moral to constitution which He has given to His children. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE 7 lightof this day. we are livingunder a different sky and breathinga different atmosphere. His justiceis not chieflyHis determination to have His own way .whose resources pressed hard upon omnipotence. our relation to Him is shown us in the filial trust of Jesus. . things unseen and eternal enter into their lives. whose ubiquity was but littleshort of omnipresence. . The hard fact was disguised and softened in many ways. none more radical or revolutionary has taken place in any of the sciences. it is His determination do right. and He is the Father of spirits . and whose access to human souls implied omniscience is a great deliver- ance. The later ceptions con- emphasise the righteousnessof God more than His power. and which proclaimed an kingdom of eternal darkness." '' It is through the spirit that we know Him .

It is believed to-day. never until recentlyhas psychology been actually reached. The Sovereigntywas the dominant fact . if it is the latter (thatis. All this is changed. our wider civilisation. but in their theories they have been making Him monarch.is becoming universally so lieved.to. The purpose of these chaptersis to bringforward.and strongerthan love. Partlyby reason of the lack of means for investigation. This will be great. our broader socialistic integration. The concludingwords which I '' have quoted.the changes which have taken place in the scientific and philosophical world garding re- those problems and demonstrations. in a connected series.*' This is a magnificent of the religious presentation sweep which has been passingover the old dogmatic theologyof the past. It is believed to-day that there can be no sovereigntyhigher than no law fatherhood. be- But is this belief to be a matter of faith alone. concerning what has been long known in a vague and indefinite sense as psychology."are true . The two truths of the divine Fatherhood and the human Brotherhood are the central truths of Christian theology to-day.but it will be not so much heroic as inevitable. scientifically and revelationally demonstrable)then it will stand immutable as the eternal hills. or of scientific and revelational demonstration ? If the former it is but to follow our higherethics of to-day. He was as much of Father a as He could consistentlybe with His functions as an solute ab- sovereign. This has never before been true. and I may sosay. and the accumulated evidence.8 SPIRIT AND MATTER relation to one another springsfrom this relation. it is indeed so believed. or the ineffectiveness of the instru- ments used. in fact.except by worthless and ever- shiftinghypotheses.advance only with man's experimentalad- vancement. the Fatherhood was subordinate. as it came it may go. But is it also demon- stratively and directlydivine ? " if so it can be proven.so that. Men have been always callingGod Father.co-ordinated here and there with .

the psychism of microscopicforms. or what it could be. As physical science continued its advance.the New Testament. and scientific specialists arose. and the element spiritual practically disappeared. its want of connection as to what psychologyreallywas. and the science of comparativereligions. even for examina- tion.to a great extent.the Buddhistic or other scriptures. in elevating these texts into dogma the remainder of the books . and. the Tao Teh King. those few physicalfacts and phenomena which were obvious. as well as other and kindred branches of science.refugewas taken in an a prioriwhich denied everythingapparentlysupernormal without investigation. by stillmore narrowingand split- ting up their subjects. and only conceded. and with all where religions. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE 9 an isolated by fact. the Vedas. with ever-narrowing specialties.so long as science had not created the sub- sciences of embryology. physicalscience fought shy of everythingwhich took on the guiseof superstition. and the scientific world became peopled with pseudo-scientists who '' taught sectarian science. The very bases of demonstrable psychologywere lacking. the deeper principles of the development of living forms. to all.misleading.at first sighteven. and the means of re- search small. In the absence of these means of investigation and demonstration.which are now open and available for all. relegated much that had already been gainedto doubt and negation.'* just as in the religious world has been the case in all ages. comparative anthropology. as the whole visible field had been far too small to even enable physicalscience as a whole to grasp even an infinitesimal fraction of the whole. the Zend-Avesta. so that the field being narrow.so now the specialists. When a sect selected a certain number of its texts from the Hebrew scriptures.from both. even this physical realm became too great to be dealt with as a whole. the Koran. narrow theological creeds took the place of broader religiousknowledge. and of late has been actuallydemonstrated to be.

denying everything taught by other sets of teachers. or even to initiate. ^^ As Huxley says." Again. when physicalscience oc- cupied itself with certain narrow lines and texts. '' " because there could be no merelyphysical research at all unless there was something not physical.they did know. As Romanes confesses. the researching. the others. the broader fields became but mere phantasms. knew nothingelse.and so passed on. to determine and carry on.and partial relatively theologies usurped the placeof universal religions. in which to search was useless and superstitious . smilingand superstitious themselves.in the same proportion. The more completely the materialistic positionis admitted. denied all further and greater knowledge in the name of the scintilla of alreadyobserved and lesser knowledge. everybody knows it.the easier it is to show that the idealistic position is unassailable. if the idealist confines himself within the limits of positive knowledge. blem " which is neither more nor less than one of the ' shapes of the greatestof all questions. And in like manner.What are the ' Unfits of our faculties ? And it is worth any amount .lo SPIRIT AND MATTER were ignored. in their minuteness.this writer (on the popularmisapprehensionof whom so much of modern '' materialism relies) says : The key to all philosophy lies in the clear comprehension of Berkeley'spro.and each set of teachers. or dim and unsearched areas. There is not a plough-boy who does not know that there are whole realms of knowledge outside ** *' merely physicalresearch . speaking of Berkeley. in the feeling (forit was but a feeling) that because the others did not know the trifling particulars which.and refusing to in- vestigate for themselves " indeed unfitted to investi- gate by the narrowness of their own specialisms " stituted sub- a broad and sweeping a prioriand .or superphysical.by reason of not knowing that.they had been too much immersed in merely physicalresearch. agnosticism. infidelity and empiricismtook the only place. and hence simple denial.

I should feel compelledto accept the latter alternative/' And Locke.or empiricism. in conclusion. and yet materialism.which modern psychology has for ever overthrown. as we have from reflection on the operations of our minds. '' from Dr W. a structure which the mind makes use . ployed. Neither have we from body any idea of the beginning " '' of motion and . Of thinking. by our senses. Bodies." The basis of psychologyis the transcendental. the superphysical. as appliedto what he calls '' reason and revelation.if I were obligedto choose between absolute materialism and absolute idealism. A. PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ii of trouble comprehend the exact nature of the to argument by which Berkeley arrived at his results. and the ever and everywhere present. I judge it not amiss to direct our minds to the consideration of God and spirits.the dominant.receive. and this is the ultimate. the controlling. Hammond's Sleep and Its rangements De- publishedin 1869.it is only from reflection that we have that. Says Locke.'' And of the faculties of the mind. classing it as a superstition not to be even considered.is equally '' emphatic." " And he adds. another of the authorities upon which materialism was mistakenlycontent to rest. he says.but has either damned it with an a prioriassumption without investigation. *' contend for the doctrine of constant Writers who mental regard the brain as the organ or tool activity of the mind. adds.for the clearest idea of active powers. not only has taken no account of this. God having fitted men with faculties and means to discover. or else has denied not only its importance but even its existence. do not afford us so clear and distinct an idea of active power. And therefore. and retain truths.body affords us no idea at all. according as they are em. As a I quote the following type of this attitude. and to know by one's own knowledge the great truth which he discovered that the honest and rigorous " followingup of the argument which leads us to materialism inevitablycarries us beyond it.

When the brain is quiescentthere is no mind.a good candle givesgood light. I will therefore only state that this work is written from the stand- point of regardingthe mind as nothingmore than the result of cerebral action. is contrary to all the teaching of physiology." says. ." '' '* We must he therefore.). so does a good brain givea good mind.which is the inseparablebasis of its activity that is.12 SPIRIT AND MATTER of in order to manifest itself. etc. conceded that the consciousness was mentally ele- " derived or sheared off from that Infinite and Energy which Eternal transcends both our knowledge and our imagination.'* This is the view which Haeckel takes in his ** '' Riddle of the Universe. was rushing into the realms of agnosticismwhere even the angels. in distinguish the substance of the soul the characteristic psychic energy which is all perceive(sensation. in the higher animals the ' ' matter of the soul is a part of the nervous system . but the soul itself is actual " it is the sum total of their physiologicalfunctions." This. we tion. The full discussion of this questionwould be out of placehere .''he says.is purelya productof poeticimagination. the " livingprotoplasm. Such a theoryis certain to lead them into and difficulties. and in the unicellular protists it is a part of their protoplasmic cell body. In this manner we are brought once more to the psychicorgans. in the lower nerveless animals and plantsit is a part of their multicellular protoplasmicbody . and good coal a good fire. the same may belief in the immortaUty of the be said of the parallel soul. but Spencer just before he died threw a flashlightray through these dark areas." and could only infer that at death its elements again lapse into the same Infinite and Eternal Energy.and the psychicmatter. supposed to bewhich is entirelyindependent of the material universe.like Herbert Spencer." hypothetical This '' spiritworld. feared to tread . Thus. of course. and to an appreciation of the fact that these material organs are indispensable for the action of the soul . presenta- J volition. Just as a good liver secretes good bile.

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14 SPIRIT AND MATTER piricism.*' or spiritualistic/' . in appear or some normal super- connected with what loosely manner. be. and the sense in which I shall use the term in these chapters. the most obviously applicable are those manifestations which at first sight to fall into. and it is in this broad sense that the term is now used in science. Of all these Greek definitions. or any hypothesis or theory of a self- operative or merely physical nature. goes *' ** by the name of psychic.

and the like. dead bodies.pervading space. such as wills. reading of sealed letters. discoveryof missingobjects.the facts of so-called possession. and which constitutes unquestionablythe source of life and mind J Among these classes of phenomena are those of simpleclairvoyance. Outside of these classes of phenomena.etc. alter.veridical dreams.writingor producing picturesin the dark. and extended through unlimited time.somnambulism.etc. That they hold to the validityof the facts familiarly known to them with 15 . Midway between these and individual spiritualism lie the phenomena of phantasms of the living. a portionof the phenomena of auto. the direct activityand presence of of individuals once spirits livingbut now dead. nating personalities.deeds. matic writing. CHAPTER II ARGUMENT FOR SPIRITUALISM It isby no means certain that the great body of phenomena which go under the name ofpsychicare due to what is commonly known as spirituaHsm " that is to say. money. transcendental ness. some part of prophecy. (^rthere are whole classes of phenomena of this kindwhich clearlyappertainto the operations of a universallydiffused consciousness.telepathy. It is needless to say that spiritualists themselves are the least dogmatic of all peoplewith reference to these various phenomena. vampirism. In- deed spiritualists themselves do not make any such assertion. conscious- crystalvision.witchcraft. or perceptions of those dying at a distance.to friends or others. apparitions. we have a great mass of evidence going directly to establish the facts of individual spiritualism in certain cases. mental projections.. much of the jphenomena of mediumship.

is not surprising . found lie.i6 SPIRIT AND MATTER the same tenacitywith which one holds to the per- sonahtyof his wife and children around him. the solution of these psychic problems be finally. instead.the most humble and anxious of all to learn from other ^^^ investigators concerningthese very things. but with that far greater and " higherspiritualityin which we live and move and have our being. we would have advanced beyond our far present limits of knowledge .not even one of sand.but as yet they do not explain. Should.spiritualism as a whole. The scientifically acceptedprinciple of thresholds of consciousness itself presupposes a great universal ocean of that which is allied to and developsunder favourable circumstances into consciousness . but they lead up to.for in that great work of selection of . in fact. but. and psychologyis making its greatestadvances alongthese lines.''they will rest there quite content. and rebuild it anew upon the immutable and eternal foundations of God and nature. but even the most capable mediums or go-betweens arealways ready to concede that they do not under- stand the phenomena which manifest themselves through their personality. or to the relative hardness of a stone which has bruised him.and help to erect. Had science turned its attention to these pheno- mena with even a fraction of the energy and study which such transcendental facts demanded. these phenomena with other known psychicalphenomena in a most surprising manner. and often connect. feeling that their basis of faith has been broadened. while every essential truth has been preserved. What a royal palace of truth we shall then see erected.not with the individual presence of the to spirits of the dead. and now it must laboriously begin as it has alreadybegun to take " " down stone by stone and column this splendidedifice. or even tend to explain. and they are. or of a shower which has wetted him. in the absence of individual spiritsof those once living. by column.and to build an elaborate and many-storeyededifice resting upon no foundation.it has chosen to simply ignore the facts as inconvenient.

indeed. but yet not be any one of these things.vital decomposition after death presupposes vital com- position '' before death. it appears. the pupil. And is not that great Spirit of the Universe. and telepathy. It will har- monise.and builds up fabrics which only endure while life lasts. the learned President of the Society for Psychical Research.'* nature signify It means that which is born. and surround. and with putridityand dissolution. and then. it will include clairvoyance. justas occurs with the dead material of the chemical laboratory. believes.which shall include all the psychicalclasses of phenomena which I have men. We are. on the very verge of the dis- covery of greaterintegration. And the in- visible powers of nature will direct the work to its final culmination.co-worker.does the term . and interpret all these mysteries .being built in spiteof decay and breakdown. ^^^ ARGUMENT FOR SPIRITUALISM " 17 material as well as of construction humblest the student and can observer become a collaborator with ythe most trained and skilful builders. and prevision. but which shall yet not itself be any single one of them. and the problem of ^ mind is the problem of life. tioned. Non. a as Professor Richet. which controls matter driver controls a team of mules ? as a Is not life an invisible power. that \What is there '^' ' ever was born without a parent ?J)The problem of nature is the problem of mind. and follower of Darwin.the t/ body is the clay. Mind is the potter. which turns back the processes of inorganicchemistry. called it. that which is nearest akin to our own psychism as he described it that " " organising power independent of matter and superior to organicnature and its laws as Lamarck" described it" also an invisible power ? ? S^^' '' What.'* as Romanes. The invisible powers of nature! Is V not thought an invisible power which sets the whole mechanism of life and civilisation into action ? Is not the mind an invisible power. It will include spiritualism. as soon as life ceases shall " we say departs ? Cleaves the " whole dead structure to fall back into simplechemical products. away from the life-built organisation.

and the establishment of the Protestant faith.and to it owed its entire validity \ and strength. haunt- .substantially the I whole body of what to-day constitutes modern I spiritualism. without an exception. To quote the burning words of Sir William Crookes. and this is the trend of psychology to-day.had not only held. Between mind and matter there exists an intellectually impassablechasm.'' The vast body of psychical facts which so-called spiritualistshold can only be explainedon a psychicalbasis.in any sense in which these terms have ever been used or recognisedby science. and nothingat all of force. of philosophythat nothingwith-out mind can produce mind J In fact. and in the maturity of his wondrous powers as one of the world's great scientific leaders : "I should preferto say that in life I see the promise and potency of all forms of matter/' It is certain that no of possibleintegration the physical or material. but i strenuouslypreached and taught.trance visions. It is an axiom of dynamics that nothing merely physical can start and itself. years ago. apparitions. and not even so much of matter or of space. could cover more than an infinitesimal instant in the illimitable course of time.On this truth Christianity itself was obviouslyfounded. The formal argument on behalf of modern spiritualism may be stated as follows :" /"^ Up to the time of the ecclesiasticalrevolt of Martin Luther. in his address as President of the British only nine Association. During all these fifteen hundred years. its whole career was an broken un- record of the continuous phenomena of spiritualmanifestations. includingclairvoyance. i8 SPIRIT AND MATTER and many more . i in all its different branches. while the church was growing from infancyto nearly universal power and domination. As Tyndall '' expressedit. less than four hundred years ago.and is the apology for these chapters.evolution itself demands this as its very first premise. clair- audience.ecstasy. and more than fifteen hundred years after the birth of Christianity. [ the whole Christian church.

ling hand- of fire without injury.the devout. investigated.^^But even then. her saints or her high ofiicials.spiritlights. were often raised to power and saintship . these humble instruments. by spirits of different grades or spheres. and nearlyall its most importantso- called miracles (ofJoan of Arc.alternating consciousness. in other cases. the clairvoyant woman. levitation.by materialised spirits.whereas the others were. for example) were the offspringof human mediums not at the time numbered among her great ones. and changed them.voices.in consequence.visible intercommunion between the living and the dead. extra-human spirit control of living bodies. spiritpictures.messages to and fro between earth life and spirit life.auto- matic and direct writings.materialisation of single parts of spiritual bodies.psychical manifestations. etherealisation. giftsof prophecy and crystalvision. The country clergyman. of any church or creed.spiritrevelations.possession.specifically. ARGUMENT FOR SPIRITUALISM 19 ings.obsession. or.descent of spiritual afflatus. exorcisms. or the lower spirits which haunted placeswhere crime had been committed or wrong endured. and singing. the weak girl.or under the control. slate-writings. when their apparent genuineness had been established. firmities spiritguardianshipof those still livingby friends gone beyond. materialisation and dematerialisation. but nearly aways the obscure and unconscious medium. first brought forth these great manifestations of the continuous life beyond and the church then took hold.the"'cliurch stood ready to adopt all the manifestations of the humblest human agencies. and. intercession and mutual aid. during all those centuries.the ignorant peasant. temporarily or per- . the student. direct spiritcontrol for great and good purposes. speech in unknown languages. and every sort of manifestation with which we have now become familiar through modern mediums in the present age. ( The only difference is that modern our phenomena aW-irot'xlaimed to be ecclesiastical in their nature.spiritualhealing of diseases and in. for bad purposes. which entered into good men and women. playing on musical instru- ments.

cannot see why it should be incongruous for the clergy to examine doctrines which profess to amplify rather than supplant those of revelation. more than I any can see why scientists stand aloof from what fesses pro- to be a purely positive philosophy. based upon the inductive method. In this connection. Rev. '* I says. M. well- a known clergyman of the English church. Dr C. Davies. into new creatures. and which it exercised in His Name.20 SPIRIT AND MATTER manently.*' . these the church trolled con- and expelled by the great gift which its mighty Founder directly placed in its hands.

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was not only the work of the same church. As the Christian writer. And the great councils which finally established the presentcanon only did this after centuries during which the Christian books were left to be selected or interpretedas each one might. which had been in common use among Christians. and it was some time before men felt the full value gift. Nearlyat the same time Erasmus brought ." Dr Alexander Roberts. previously accepted and used.22 SPIRIT AND MATTER number to constitute the New Testament.then what did ? " In the Companion to the Revised Version of the New Testament. direct spiritual guidance. In addition to the four gospelsthus approved. or to insure perfectaccuracy injuries of transcription.They were given as a heritageto man. There are sixty-eightNew Testament books mentioned by Christian fathers of the firstfour centuries which are not now known to be in existence.''If. able to do for himself " the books themselves (in manuscript. The originalcopiesseem of the to have soon disappeared.but the canon itself w^as made centuries after the time of Christ. which alone gave them canonicalvalue. there were rejectedmore than fiftyother gospels. more than one hundred. a member of the Revision Committee. and in addition to the seventeen epistlesthen ac- cepted. of course) being subject to all the vicissitudes to which other literaryremains were subjected. and it was not completed until the year 1514.so much of whose other teaching spiritualistic they repudiated. shows that the Greek Testament owes its complete form to the labours of Cardinal Ximenes. by spiritual be gifts. and this selection and endorsement.and by various councils and like authorities of the same ecclesiastical under organisation. were rejected. during this period.Mr Westcott. God's miraculous spiritualcontrol did not preserve the Bible. says (and what the facts themselves attest): ''It does not appear that any special care was taken in the first age to preserve the books of the New Testament from the various of time.

priorto *' that time. on a considerable number of which diverse creeds and denominations have been established.the distinguished writer '* on Christian Evidences. . Christian peoplewere at liberty to judge for themselves concerningthe genuinenessof writings proposed to them as apostolic. and that it was only the old church. became the basis of all subsequenttexts. or gave them any authenticity at all." cites many such passages. SPIRITUALISM IN THE CHURCH 23 out his edition. Canon " Farrar. says Dr Roberts.and his fourth edition. Texts Explained. that distinguished *' author said : It was rather tumbled headlong into the world than edited/' In the gospels he principally used a cursive manuscriptof the fifteenth or sixteenth *' century. under God's continuous spiritualisticmanifestations. The true readingand renderingare.one shephei^ ."says that the canon was not settled until about the year 556.the result of comparison with the work of Cardinal Ximenes. which saved them.'' This will show the fragmentary character of the manuscripts. Of the edition of Erasmus. with occasional references to another of the fifteenth century. For the Apocalypse he had only " one mutilated manuscript." And the deficiencies and uncertainties in the originalhave been supplemented and increased by equally important errors in the translation. and to act according to evidence. admitted by all to be of a very inferior character/' In the Acts and epistles he chiefly followed a cursive manuscript of the thirteenth or fourteenth century.and this was not done for centuries after the time of Christ. to which he attaches such " comments as these : Here the wrong rendering adopted in our familiar version involves a positive " theologicalerror .in his recent book. Dr Nathaniel Lardner. He had thus no documentary materials for publishing a completeedition of the Greek Testament. This unfortunate misrendering. and that. the importance of this correction can hardly be over- estimated " " . many of which go to the very foundation and principles. ' * They shall become one flock. "No sense can be made of this " " rendering .

and those which it rejected are now esteemed as of account. The old church thus became the guarantor of the record. In this conceded deficiency of the original record and the errors of translation. Not only was there to be a handwriting. even no by its opponents. The meaning in this memorable passage is absolutelyreversed by the Authorised " ' Version . but.but a con. in the true " rendering.it is nothing of the kind . In the Authorised Version the meaning '' '* is weakened. It winnowed out and determined the records of the church. should be " ** corrected .and this was to be the living body of Christ. and so on in hundreds of instances.24 SPIRIT AND MATTER tending to strengthenCalvinistic errors.actingthrough the inspiration of men. Here the mistranslation obliterates " '* the meaning of the whole argument Nay. St Paul did not here tell the Thessalonians that the day of '' '' Christ was not at hand.and by the same spiritualagencieswhich it manifested in its recognitionand control of the psychicalmanifestations during those centuries. The Protestants. Even the universally cited phrasethat the love of money is * ' the root of all evil is not a correct translation.tinually inspiredDaniel. '' '' " was the reverse of the fact . The words so rendered mean * ' ' ' " " faction and factious . That phrase (for " Christ's sake) does not once occur in Scripture in this " '' connotation . though on the verb in the original is based the important theological doctrine of Christ's *' *' Kenosis . ''In the followingclause the made * Himself of no reputation of the Authorised Version ' loses the transcendent force of the emptied Himself ' !)fthe original. in acceptingas infallible the dictum of the Catholic church. On the contrary . obscured. which ' is that the love of money is a root of all kinds of evir". This might sound hke an imputed contradiction of St Paul . it .the book itself of necessityrequiredsome authorityhigher than itself to even determine its facts and interpret its meaning.many centuries after .and almost lost . and those books which it endorsed are canonical. "Neither 'heresy' nor 'heretic' occur in the New Testament.

a spirit. but Protestantism.and . neverthe- held fast to the canon itself . Christ Himself foretold.less. that His followers and their successors should manifest the same spiritualistic powers and perform the same miracles as Himself. but that others. but continued long after- wards. is a real danger. arisingfrom an unecclesiastical continuance of the same sort of phenomena duringsubsequentages. for it not only multipliesinterpretations. in the '* Acts. which brought her masters much gainby soothsaying." The context shows that it was a genuine giftin the opinion of the sacred writer.which their Protestant successors afterwards denied. ** '' Regard not them that have familiar spirits .while these latter. and hence they conceded that spiritualistic manifestations did not cease with the apostolic age. for the miracle of saving a Bible at that late date was precisely the same as of saving one now. thereby conceded the persistence of spiritualistic manifestations in a direct line from the earlier church. would continue to do the same in the future.or that the phenomena any longer appeared. lest it should become an inextricable entanglement of incongruousrevelations. and had been during all the immemorial ages of the past. '' In Exodus we read : The magicians of Egypt '' did so with their enchantments . in Leviticus. and indefinitely extends the original authorities themselves. it simply cut the Gordian knot by denyingthat the machinery any longeracted. not of His church or of His faith. The danger to any creed. necessarily gave to all its followers the same rightof appeal. Hence. a python. A certain maid having a spiritof divination. based on a written record of spiritualistic phenomena. still. but it invites conflict.appealing alone to the reason. met us. This was a giganticundertaking. SPIRITUALISM IN THE CHURCH 25 the apostolicage. nor of any church or religion. This danger the old church (and the same is true of all compact religious tions) organisa- sought to overcome by taking command and control of the whole field of spiritual phenomena . as they were then doing during His lifetime.while on earth.and not onlythis.

these extra- ordinary gifts were not only exercised by the apostles themselves.gross an materialism to make it effective.and Christians who are firm and advanced spiritualists are now numbered by millions " but this is contrary to the unwritten law and of nearlyall the teachings Protestant branches of the church " so that we have had the strangespectacle presented that the dogma and teachingsof these sectarian Christian denominations and those of materialistic preciselythe same. and they shall recover. 15-18 : '' During the first ag. It is true that many among the non-Catholic adherents have always recognised the facts as they reallyexist. those who believed. when Christ spoke to His followers in His materialised form." '' " not religious by any means. and preach the gospelto every creature. . they shall lay hands on the sick. . And these signsshall follow them that believe : In my name they shall cast out devils . and justbefore His ascension.it is only necessary to cite the followingfootnote to the above commission of Christ from the Annotated New Testament. and the promises of their continuance contained therein. they shall take up serpents . and if they drink any deadly thingit shall not hurt them . I say theological.He commissioned those who were to carry on His work. These utterly incompatibleelements thus became mutual allies and supporters of each other. publishedby the ReligiousTract Society of London.26 SPIRIT AND MATTER required the sure support of unyielding.'' To showthe attitude of the Protestant church. they shall speak with new tongues . while atheists are those who believe in the actual teachingsof both the Old and New Testaments.and '' those who taught in His name : Go ye into all the world. Mark xvi.and have so continued down to the present day.e of the church. It is said that after the resurrection.in repudiating atheism must also repudiate the dogmatic teachingsof '' their own theological leaders.but there is reason to believe that they . At period they ceased what cannot be precisely ascertained. .but were also conveyed by them to others.

' That the Protestant view is untenable is by proven the commission of Christ Himself for until His followers . . SPIRITUALISM IN THE CHURCH 27 were withdrawn. and that something is the vitality of the whole crusade. They were important as aids to the introduction of a new revelation from God.'' will clearly indicate that something considerable has been lost out of the effective energy of the propaganda. '' '' comparison of its advances during the of faith ages " that is to say. for their permanent continuance. the record of them took their place among the evidences ' of the truth of Christianity. occurred the latter. but there was clearly no necessity for their permanent continuance. not suddenly. of spiritualism " as contrasted with '* those during the present age of so-called reason. As soon as they became matters of authentic history. a glance among at the of Christianising the world. the conditions of the charge remained valid and as to the lack of necessity . If Christ sent out His armies and commissioned the leaders for the whole a woeful breakdown has war. on the ground that it was sufficient to have their record incorporated the historic evidences of Christianity. which has progress been going for nearly two thousand and a on years. for the war is far from among over and the cause is scarcely advancing. but by degrees. had into all the world and preached the Gospel gone to living creature (and that surely has not yet every been done down to this day).

if the question were submitted to a popular vote. wouldn^t Christ. at a period which we years consider to have been the very infancy of the power of the church of Christ. express a desire to have Christ on earth ? Would England. or France. if He did come back to reign. spoke in St Joseph's *' Cathedral in that city. But. including that of Jesus Christ. in " which he said : There is hardly a name so popular un- in the world to-day as that of Jesus Christ. and who embraced Christianity in the maturity of his manly powers. Dwight L. and wrote nearly two hundred after the Christian era. find the world in just the same condition as He found it eighteen hundred years '' ago ? In September 1899 Bishop Bradley of Manchester. CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF DESPIRITUALISING THE CHURCH In December1896 the Rev. Is there a nation in the world that wants Him to return to earth ? Is there a state in this Union that would like to have Him come back and rule the world ? Would this country. the celebrated evangeHst. or Spain. alas ! how different those ages were in reahty ! Appealing to the Roman 28 . and said : One does not need to more than keep his ear open to note that there is among mankind a spreading disregard for authority of the state and of the church and all other authority. or Italy. to an overflowing audience. one of the great fathers of the early church.born in Carthage." Contrast withburning these words of the Tertullian. Moody. himself the son of a Roman soldier. or any other of the nations of Christendom do it ? No . preached a sermon in Carnegie Hall in New York. New Hampshire. or Germany.

.

by showing that the conditions of fife are such as to render this explanation.'' these statements appear as pure superstitions. born of the spiritual exaltation of enthusiasm. in which." Now. instead of the spiritual power of life. it is altogether immaterial. It is true that on the resurrection of Christ the whole jj system of orthodox Christianity is based.while often reasonable. . But there is one class of miracle.quite consistent with what we know of scientific psychology. ' But to many Christian minds. not necessary.in which an all-working material nature had supplanted an all-working. Discountingthat of fraud.to be considered. and still is. as Romanes says.and in recent years have been scientific- ally demonstrated. 30 SPIRIT AND MATTER of these phenomena are common spiritualexperiences throughoutthe whole world." This sus- pended '* animation is like the term hypnotism. imbued with the older notions of psychology.both before and since the time of Jesus." which those who understand it least are most apt to use to satisfy their doubts. and that 11 the miracle of raising the dead was narrated a number \l of times as having been performed by Christ while 11 living as a man on earth.so-called. or to deny that they were .and of human experience. God is still grudged His own universe. as we have said.'' which requires. the dead have also been raised and have mained re- with us for many years.but it does concern the purposes of this book to show that such an exercise of spiritualpower was. it does not concern the purposes of this book to assert that these were veritable cases. '' spiritual God. of '' which Irenaeus says : And even now. in any discussion of psychology. feelingthat they are ** hard sayings.all based on mistakes of the observers. and not necessarily scientific. Even the orthodox are very apt to fightshy of these narratives. the principal allegation is that these were '' simply cases of suspended animation. and many of the facts almost universally accepted. Various explanations have been suggested.

DESPIRITUALISING THE CHURCH 31 What is the difference between a case of pended sus- animation and death ? It is simply this : if the subject returns to animation again it is sus- pended animation.'' Sir John Franklin. .. "^ is dead under the severest test of death.a^^.^ ^^ . that certainly j-^. position throughout.but the " life principle continues and rebuilds a new structure out of the raw material of the old. . As the ^^ imago is developedout of the same formless matter. There is. if there were remaininglife. the larva dies as larva. is immaterial and extraneous in its work as a modifier and pro-ducer that is to say. was totally unknown to the older ones.'' As the larva disappears for ^ ever by decompositioninto formless matter. it was a new creation of life unless^and this is the vital point. It is obvious that this is merely begging the question. I quote the followingfrom Orton's ^'Comparative '' '' Zoology (1884): Every tissue of the larva dis. But decompositionitselfis no test of death if biology has any rightto speak. We do indeed '' make stepping-stones our of dead selves.in the narrative of his tion expedi- across Canada to the Arctic Ocean in 1819-1820. it is death. as much as though built up de novo. and a new animal is actually created out of the raw material. for we find that those animals which undergo various stages of metamorphosis in reaching their final stage undergo actual decom. (The organs do not change from . But we know better now.if we choose to call it such. in fact."f ' ' before the developmentof the tissues ofthe " ' ^"^^ appears new imago is commenced.but the new set is developedout of ^/ formless matter. This. one into the other.life is not tied fast to forms. ^. it was not the lifeof the larva . at every stage.. '' narrates that when the weather was severe the fish froze as they were taken out of the nets .of course. To cite a book accessible everywhere. who believed and taught that new organs were merely grown out of the older structure. and if they were afterwards placednear the fire so as to thaw the . if not. but is independentof form. and heredity. and producesforms. .. is well known to modern but naturalists. ^ then.as branches grow on trees.no actual test of death except decomposition.

When a boy of perhapseightor ten years old.in a broader sense. blood-vessels..artery. take the case of a gangrene of the legfrom an arterial plug in the main / . would show the fish swimming about as the ice melted. co- and was apart before the body began. and after a few days the boiled flesh.and arrestinghaemorrhageby injecting ^i^y live steam to the bottom. is sometimes apart while the body continues. but the facts.J\human life ? A method of treatingdeep wounds on i the battlefield. and its nerves. It is a well-known experimentto revive drowned UL^ house fliesby placingthem on a board and covering them with a little dry kitchen salt.if placedin a vessel of cool water.and in fact examples of all sorts. red-faced and vindictive . I have seen a small lake caught in a freezing snap in which the ice suddenlyfroze several inches deep. I can corroborate this statement .while they make my former statement of the '' ordinarytest. or conscious.which the farmers quarried out like nuggets. Then we have those psychical departuresof the spiritual. are slowlyrestored to life again.has been i"\-wvr\^ successfully used . and will be permanently apart when the functions of the body have finally ceased. Anyone can try this experiment for himself. either singlyor in bunches. is still a psychical ordinate. and its return. Many days might elapse. which go to show that the vitality.even if they have been under water for twenty-fourhours or longer. when did death of the leg supervene. Partial death is common .. through a pipe.and locked in thousands of largefish. there was a fierce.etc.that if they return to Hfe they have not been dead.even when they had been in a frozen state for several hours/l. hairy.or sub-conscious part of the mentality. I was once an involuntaryparty to such a resur- rection. ^ 32 SPIRIT AND MATTER ice.'* a case of beggingthe question. and yet these chunks of fish and ice. and icruvA/U v^hat was the test? Will boilingwater destroy C iL\". lymphatics. They will re- vive. while not apart from the body in life. That is all we can say . it is the only test.they revived. if they do not return they are dead. yet.

and the final drop till the sheet met the long.which marked the rise of the forehead. and the undertaker rode out to examine the remains. We boys.the stumpy nose and chin.which made the cleanly bed for our erstwhile enemy.and late at nighthe was regretfully " '* laid out on a coolingboard in the wash-house to '' await the morning. to get a better view.to gaze upon that well- . we crept down and climbed up the wheels of the waggon.projecting rye-straw. two or three on each hub. for in those days the mortuary receptacles were built to order. the knobby knees. On one of these journeys. innocent ones were and with pursued by this great terrific imprecations. Old CaptainZum was his name. terrifically cold. Was it true ? Was this the old captain in full sooth ? Slowly. and slowlyraised it. and when the team reached the villagestore it was halted. I took hold of the corner of the sheet above his head.boy by boy. reaved familyfixed up the house for the receptionof the silent guest. a coupleof men with an open springwaggon drove out to bring in the body. Every effort was made by family and physicians save to him. Next morning. So another day passed while the coffin-maker pliedhis tools.cold and dead " cold certainly. and take the proper measurements.the swell of the abdomen. was the terror of all the boys who were able to fire green applesand the like with any sort of precision. It was intensely. some miles away. and apparentlydied. and even we ferociously. There he lay. and his occupationwas to trudge from farm to farm and do such surgicalwork on the porcineinhabitants as the occasion required.and the driver and his assistant went in to warm up.and not kept in stock. gazed over the white sheet. After breakfast. DESPIRITUALISING THE CHURCH 33 old who fellow. ogre with the enormous stick and knife which he always carried.now the third day. he fell sick at a farmer's place. and then the stiff feet standingup like mile-posts.the hired " man was sent to the village with the dire intelli- gence. for they were nearlyfrozen. but in vain.and the be. standing on the store porch.

when suddenly. partly on grounds of reason. rose on his elbow. There is no scientific reason why a believer should not fully believe it . the case is not so plain. there is no reason at all why a sceptic should have to believe it at least.why should it be thought credible with you that there is a God. and modern psychology has no dogma. over- he whirled over. With all the modern the appliances. partly on those of intuition. " These are his words : Why should it be thought a thingincredible with you that God should raise the dead ? Clearlyno answer can be given by the pure ' agnostic. of whom I shall have much to say later on.George John Romanes.and stayed dead. had I not involuntarily surrected re- him. not yet. so .or two winters before.instantaneously. but chiefly on both combined . or. as I did. I believe in the resurrection of the dead. The problem is not so easy . and " hoarselyshouted out in our faces.34 SPIRIT AND MATTER known face . while not denying that of scientific possibility. no a prioriybut leaves the question of fact. it is simply a matter of evidence for each case . Peace to his ashes : for then he died. but the old captainrode home to escape in triumph. But he will naturallysay in reply : The questionrather is. one whose whole study was in the cold and solid fields of science. What the devil " are you doing there ? Shades of Sodom and Gomorrah ! such a tumbling backward .that he ' should raise the dead ? And I think the wise ' Christian will answer. " I do not sustain my view merely on assertion . damned his old wife and lammed his hapless daughter. whelmingly. old captain would have had his tombstone carved with the earlier date. and all the neighbours would have dated various events as a year after. and lived through eleven long seasons of green apples afterwards. old Captain Zum died. I quote the followingfrom one of the soundest and strongest men of science which the recent half- century has produced. and would have there lain silent beneath the sod . if there is.

it is whole character which accepts my the whole system of which the doctrine of personal immortality forms an essential part/ And to this it be fairly added that the Christian doctrine of may the resurrection of our bodily form cannot have been arrived at for the of meeting modern purpose materialistic objections to the doctrine of personal immortality hence it is certainly a strange doctrine . be this as it the doctrine of the may. DESPIRITUALISING THE CHURCH 35 to speak. Why was it not said * ' that the soul alone should survive as a bodied disem- ' ' spirit ? Or if form supposed were necessary for man as distinguished from God. together with its companion. and scarcely less distinctive. and so to have raised the ulterior question with which this paragraph opens/' . doctrine of the vileness of the body. to have been propounded at that time. resurrection seems to have fully met beforehand the materialistic objection to a future life. that he was to be an angel ? But.

CHAPTER V

THE SPIRITUAL CONFLICT WITHIN THE CHURCH

It was thus Christianity rode triumphant over
that
Greek and Roman philosophy and civiHsation,
cherished by the whole world, even to this day, as
among its most precious heritages (and, indeed, the
unacknowledged source of a large portion of our
"
scepticism) ; and it swept for- ward
''
modern scientific
amid the fires of persecution which filled the

sky with the smoke of burning victims, which lined
the highways with Christian-laden crucifixes, and
filled the dungeons, and made public arenas the

crunching-grounds of wild beasts, fed with hosts of
helpless women and tender babes, as well as

martyred men, and won well-nigh universal victory.
Who is so credulous as to believe that this tremendous

cataclysm of old faiths, and the resistless advance
and triumph of the new, among nations so haughty,
hard-headed brainy ancient
and Greeks and as the

Romans, were but the thaumaturgical trickery of a
few unknown, discredited and apostate, prestidigitat-
ing Jewish peasants ?
" ''

Says Du Prel, in his Philosophy of Mysticism :
''
The condition in which the Protean trans-

scendental Subject can be stimulated is bulism.
somnam-

It is not alone animal magnetism which can

awaken this condition there are other causes which
;
also introduce it : as disturbances of the cerebral life,
a high tension of profound in-
imaginative ternal
power,
agitation, and likewise inspiration of certain
vapours, the use of different vegetable substances, and
the influence of minerals. So that somnambuHsm is

historicallyconfined to the knowledge of
by no means

animal magnetism. We find it at all times. Som-

36

38 SPIRIT AND MATTER

with its rough and often uncouth girdleof cameFs
hair, and its uncultured diet of locusts and wild
honey, and, perchance,with its crown of triumphant
martyrdom.
For many heroic soldiers must be shot to death
between the lines before the great final advance
occurs, which carries by storm the earthworks and
fortifications of the enemy.
The result of these processes negation,in the of
church, of a livingand inspiring faith, the relegation
of the life of the church to an ancient, imperfectand
uncertain record,buried in the mouldering pages of
old manuscripts, of which only mutilated copieswere
existent, or a subsequently printed book in which the
study of the livingGod was replacedby a super-stitious
bibliolatry, when religionwas cast and
frozen into glittering icicles of creeds and catechisms,
could easilyhave been foreseen. The multiplication
of sects and theories has gone on and on, like a

magnificent and gorgeous icebergsplintering into
destruction by its own frosts and collisions,
and over
the remains
tottering has been raised,in the name of
** "
the Goddess of Reason (dear to the sans-culottes
of the French Revolution,and their fellows of to-day),
the pseudo-scientific temple of infidelity,agnosticism
and atheism. It is but one short step from belief in a
dead Bible to belief in a dead God.
Says Professor Herron, of the chair of Applied
''
in Iowa
Christianity College: Most of us accept
traditions of a God who lived down
through the
Hebrew prophets and the early Christian apostles.
Possiblysome of us have an undefined sense that
God was livingduringthe Reformation and until the
Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. Or we are

willing to believe,and that with a considerable degree
of emotion, in a God who will live suddenly and
immensely in some after-death world, or in some
remote millennium, in which he shall sit in terrific
judgment on the world. But the idea that God is
livingnow, in the midst of a livingpeople,inspiring
and teachingthem even more directlythan he in- spired
and taught the people of centuries ago, with

CONFLICT WITHIN THE CHURCH 39
revelations concerningour present problems as sure
and safe as any revelations of the past, and with
judgments as swift and immediate as any judgments
of the future at such"
a faith we grow pale,or turn
from it in anger.
**
We prophets and martyrs and
forgetthat the
apostleshave met their tragicends justbecause they
insisted that God was alive,and sayingthingsabout
the immediate and practicalconcerns of men ; that
they characterised as downright infidelity the beliefs
that put God into yesterdayand his judgmentsinto
to-morrow."
The livingsurge of enthusiastic, spiritualistic and
conquering Christianity, thus caught among the
breakers,trammelled and scattered,has spent its
energy in self-destructive eddies,and largely lost the
vitalising force which first impelledit onward.
As Canon Barnett has recentlyexpressed it :
**
Moralityfor the mass of men has been dependent
on the consciousness of God, and with the lack of
means of expression, the consciousness of God seems
** "
to have ceased." The Means of Expression are
the means of spiritualism. But out of this decadent
gospelof agnosticismand negationa new knowledge
is arising, and both science and religion, as soon as

they cast aside their earth-grimedgarments of pride,
prejudiceand self-sufhciency, find new and sure

demonstrations of the eternally living truth at hand
on every side,so that not even a half-dozen friends,
who are earnest seekers,can be gotten together
seriouslyto investigatethese phenomena, among
whom palpablemanifestations of this livingpower
will not appear. Spiritualists will stake their whole
case on this simpleproposition.
'*
Said Jesus, And lo,I am with you alway, even
" '*
unto the end of the world ; and, Where two or
three are gatheredtogetherin my name there am I
in the midst of them." Death does not end all, and it
is in this way that a new and broadeningChristianity
is being graduallydeveloped,free,on the one hand,
from the bigoted domination of the old theological
systems, and, on the other, from the superstitious

40 SPIRIT AND MATTER

of the ignorant,
credulity as well equally as from the
which
superstitiousincredulity, will not even look,
lest it be forced to see, of modern agnosticism. Like
old Barbara Frietchie,spiritualism, in an age of
cowardice and faithlessness,

"Took up the flagthe men hauled down.'*

She flungit forth in the face of the invadinghost,
and established again the rational develo.pmentof
spiritual knowledge and the religious life and fellow-
ship,
by a continuous intercommunication between
the great and good of this world, and those of the
life yet to come.
But this great Protestant revolt against
ecclesiasticaldominion, involving, as it did,the denial

of spiritualism as a whole, in order to overthrow it
as the most powerful supporter of the old faith,was
not the first great revolt of the church. When
Christianity first arose it was but a weakling,so far
as this world was concerned ; it grew and grew with
graduallyincreasingmomentum, so that it stood
face to face and equal with the paganism of the
Roman Empire,which was practically the civilisation
of the world ; and, as this paganism had gradually
absorbed into itself the art of antiquity, so that art
had become tributaryto and the most powerful
supporter of the ancient faith was Hnked fast to it, "

and was graduallymade its tributaryand tool the "

risingChristianity would have no part or parcelof all
this art,for to accept art was to palterwith faith, so

closelywere the two bound together.
If you take spiritualism out of the world you leave
it verypoor, and if you take art out of the world you
leave it very poor also. But it was necessary, in
both cases, to do this,and stern, puritanic, ascetic
Christianity fought its century-longbattle against
paganism,and destroyedit by destroyingwith it the
artistic lightof mankind.
The victorywas won ; the cross with its bloody
emblems had triumphed,and the beautiful world lay
strippedand desolate.
But time brought its revenges ; when the ages of

CONFLICT WITHIN THE CHURCH 41

Christianity had multiplied, and the gods of Greece
and Rome, of Egypt and Babylon, of Phoenicia and
Persia and India, had gone into exile with all their
art and aesthetic and soul-enchantingsymbolism,
but ever merged with a battlingmythology, and
Christianity stood secure at last againstthem ; then,
little by little,age by age, the old arts wound again
their almost unseen tendrils around the cross and the
altar,and, graduallyrevealingtheir soul-compelling
truth and beauty,became a part indeed,again,of the
new theology,or mythology, and not only overlaid
their altars,but penetrated,modified and, at last,
filled with their splendidbursts of ritual, the pro-
cessions
of saints,the festivals, the fasts,the cere-
monies

of the church, until to-day the student of
comparative religiontraces back many of the ac-knowledged

practices,and even beliefs,of the
Christian church to times and placesfar antecedent
to even the birth and teachingof Christ. They came
in new guise, untrammelled by the nomenclature and
environment of the old,but the virile truth could not
be destroyed,the world-religion could not be ex-tinguished,

the revelation which preceded the New
Testament, and which came in, and is identifiable
in,all old religions, was continuouslymanifest again.
So the Jesuit missionaries found these practices
among the Buddhists, who came six centuries before
Christ,the Spanish friars found them among the
Ancient Central Americans, and missionaries found
them wherever they penetrated, so that Father
''
Montucci, the Jesuit,in his Chinese Studies,'* was_
fain to say a century ago : ''No one can doubt that )
the mystery of the Most Holy Trinitywas revealed to
the Chinese five centuries before the coming of Jesus
Christ." ^
And it is so with the Protestant church and
_

spiritualism. When the older church had become
in its practices,
but not in its and
faith,intolerable,
the revolt came, as it must have come, the revolt
which awakened and purifiedthe thunderstricken
old church itself,
it was absolutelynecessary to destroy
its spiritualism,for,this once destroyed,the Bible

SPIRIT AND MATTER
42

was
its sole remaining instrument, and its claims

were and this, when men came to and
supreme ; see

reflect, left nothing behind but a dubious record and

an absentee God, and an alliance with materialism

bald and bare and the later changes were inevitable,
;
in the form of a revolt from nihilism as the previous
revolt was from asceticism, and the original one from

paganism, and this secret revolt has filled our churches

with spiritualists, while their creeds and dogmas are

still of the benighted past.
A clergyman of one
of our largest Protestant

denominations, returning, a
few from one
years ago,
of their general assemblies, and who spent a few days
''
with said that, If a clergyman had risen and
me,

stated what three-fourths of them honestly believed

he would have been expelled by a two-thirds vote.*'

CHAPTER VI

CAUSALITY

The of the dominant
fatal fallacy Protestant theology
could not have been
clearlystated thanmore in the
chapter on Causalityby Romanes, who was not a

theologian,but a great master of science,who died a

firm Christian believer " who had in fact been forced,
by to become
science itself, a believer.
'*
He Only because we are so familiar with
says :

the great phenomena of causalitydo we take it for
granted,and think that we reach an ultimate ex- planation

of anything when we have succeeded in
' '
findingthe cause thereof : when, in point of fact,
we have only succeeded in merging it in the mystery
of mysteries, I often wish we could have come into
the world, like the young of some other mammals,
with all the
powers of intellect that we shall ever

subsequentlyattain alreadydeveloped,but without
any individual and so without any of the
experience,
bluntingdefects of custom. Could we have done so,
surely nothing in the world would more acutely
excite our intelligent astonishment than the one
universal fact of causation. (That everythingwhich
happens should have a cause, that this should in- variably
have been proportionedto its effect, so that,
no matter how complex the interaction of causes, the
same interaction should always produce the same
result?)that this rigidlyexact system of energising
should be found to present all the appearances of
and
universality of
eternity, so that,for example, the
motion of the solar system in space is being deter-mined
by some causes beyond human ken, and that
we are indebted to billions of cellular unions,each in-
volving
billions of separate causes, for our hereditary
43

44 SPIRIT AND MATTER

passage from an invertebrate ancestry " that such
thingsshould be, would surelystrike us as the most
wonderful fact in this wonderful universe.
*'
with
Now, although familiarity this fact has
made forgetits wonder to the extent of virtually
us

assuming that we know all about it,philosophical
inquiry shows that, besides empiricallyknowing it
to be a fact,we only know one other thing about it
viz. that our
"
knowledge of it is derived from our
own activitywhen we ourselves are causes. No
result of psychological analysisseems to me more

certain than this. If it were not for our own tions,
voli-
we should be ignorantof what we can now not
doubt, on pain of suicidal scepticism,
be the most to
generalfact of nature.
**
Now to the plainman it will always seem that if
our very notion of causality
is derived from our own
volition "
as very notion of energy is derived from
our

our sense of effort in overcoming resistance by our
volition "
presumably the truest notion we can form
of that in which causation objectivelyconsists is the
notion derived from that known mode of existence
which alone givesus the notion of causality at all.
Hence the will
always infer that all energy
plainman
is of the nature of will-energy, and all objective
causation of the nature of subjective. So that ...

the direct and most natural interpretationof
causality in external nature which is drawn by primi-
tive
thought in savages and young children, seems

destined to become also the ultimate deliverance of
human thought in the highestlevels of its culture.*'
Many years before Romanes, Sir John Herschel
had presentedthe same inevitable truth in his chapter
*'
on The Originof Force.''
"
Whenever," this distinguished man of science
''

says, in the material world,what we call a phenome-
non
or an event takes place,we either find it resolvable
ultimatelyinto some change of placeor of movement
in material substance,or we endeavour to trace it up
to some such change ; and only when successful in
such endeavour we consider that we have arrived at its
theory. In every such change we recognisethe action

.

or. Strangeoccurrence ! that the watch should . Constituted as the human mind is. superseding the ordinarylaws which regulatethe movements of inanimate matter. to however small an extent. will. the amount of mical dyna- force appropriate to some one or more material molecules. design " or not : whether. Will . in other words. . . origination of force.'* Lamarck also.whether " we can derive any lightfrom our internal conscious- ness of thought. Power without Design. some way inscrutable to us. It matters not that we are ignorantof the mode in which this is performed. that is to say. .reason.at least temporarily. through- out in which.if nature be not interpretable through these con- ceptions. motive. posed to Reason would be admirable in explaining a chaos. .In his ^'Anatomy of Invertebrates *' he says. or to have. '* The universe presents us with an assemblage of phenomena.the founder of modern evolution. but would render little aid in accounting for anythingelse. occupyingthe whole domain of animal and vegetablelife. therefore on the very same the principle. to do with its arrangements. movements. power. among the molecules of matter are originated of such a character as apparentlyto bring them under the control of an agency other than physical. nature is or is not more interpretable by supposingthese things(be they what they may) to have had.Thought op. is '* equallyexplicit. The first and greatestquestionwhich Philosophyhas had to resolve in its attempts to make out a Kosmos.the mechanical results of human or animal volition are inconceivable. it is not interpretable at all.within the domain of acknowledged personality. givingrise to movements which would not result from the action of those laws uninterfered with : and implying. " to bringthe whole of the phenomena exhibited in these three domains of existence under the contempla- tion of the mind as a congruous whole is.46 SPIRIT AND MATTER to change. without Motive. It suffices to bring the originationof dynamical power.vital and intellectual the " connectinglink between the worlds of intellect and matter beingthat of organisedvitality. physical. .

and althoughwe have no positiveknowledge of this first object. '' Romanes suggestively states that. it hence follows. there was a galaxy of genius in that department emanating from that place such as had never before been equalled. it is. but this is not the case . cannot be restricted in its will or be made subjectto others. when he can raise his thoughtsto the contemplationof him. its will would be independent. no limits. over which it has no power . Finally. but without mutually affecting each other." '^ ** And again.uniform sensorium. It alone can change is Nature and her laws. and independent of all law.on the contrary. CAUSALITY 47 have been confounded with its maker. not virtually alone.but substantially. the work with its author." Re- .and thereby to form and reform the part of the universe.the idea which we thus form of the Almighty Power is at least more suitable for man to entertain of the Divinity." Indeed it would be difficult to discover a really first-rateman of science to take the opposing view.and even annihilate them . that although its means are infinitely diversified and inexhaustible. If Nature were an gence. who. The power which has created Nature.its acts unconstrained . in his Principia. Assuredlythis idea is and illogical unfit to be maintained. or rather there could be no law.if Nature were God.ever-living agent. has. In him all things are contained and moved.is more able by his will to move the bodies within his boundless. continually subjectto constant laws. when I was at Cambridge." He is omni- present.'' /" And I may cite the following from the General ( Scholium of Sir Isaac Newton's immortal work on '' optics: " the instinct of brutes and insects can And be the effect of nothingelse than the wisdom and skill of the powerful. it acts always in the same manner in the same cumstance cir- without the power of actingotherwise.without doubt. intelli- it would exercise volition and change its laws. being in all places.than we are by our will to move the parts of our bodies. And the curious thingin our present connection is that all the most illustrious names were ranged on the side of orthodoxy.

not in the flesh. and Christianity. Sir John Herschel. if their doctrines be true of what But avail is piety.in one of his recent sermons delivered to an audience of thousands in Philadelphia ? This is what this great theological leader is reportedto have said : *' It is the common cant of the day to say that Christ is here.has lost enormously thereby. Lamarck and Isaac Newton. nor do they stop here. and have our being. We may even go back to the heathen days of " Rome. philoso- both ancient and modern.'' that ever When- two or three are gatheredtogetherin my name there am I in the midst of them. and cite Cicero's work On the Nature of the Gods. Surelywe should expect that that religion which is fundamentallyestablished on the propositions that " '' God is a spirit/' that God is that Spirit in whom '' we live. tinguished clergyman.and move.an evangelist celebrated in two continents. that we see his presence in all the glories of the Twentieth Century.for Cicero says. philosophers.but conceive likewise that the deities consult and provide for the preservation of mankind. but in the spirit . who conceive the whole world to be directed and governed by the will and wisdom of the gods . or religion ? There are other .sanctity. . There are some phers." to show that this division of belief is even pre- '' Christian. And we are asked to accept this invisible ." Who would imagine for a moment that any Christian could possiblyuse such language as the reportersof the dailypress have attributed to a dis. . religious belief increases in its percentage from the freshman year to the end of the course. who have conceived that the gods take not the least cognisanceof human affairs.48 SPIRIT AND MATTER cent statistics show that in the summary of the lead- ing American collegesand universities.and those too very great and illustrious men. so that at graduation more than fifty per centum are firm believers in the truth ofreligion. especiallyamong the Protestant branches." should bind itself firmlyand for all time to the spiritualistic views such as I have cited from Romanes. but it has not been so.

thy victory ? I triumph still.is everywhere.has long been exploded.go away from my home to a return. Was ever such nonsense ? '' Again. Heaven's morning breaks. Lord.the materialistic form of paganism for. " *' Abide with me : fast falls the eventide. of an inner- chamber Christ. it may be to-morrow . asks of such absentee gods of what " avail then is piety. abide with me. '' speaker said. Lord. meantime. In life. listening. in death.Lord. and point me to the skies . The darkness deepens. helplessmisguided creatures in our ignorance can tell.as a corollary. *' Be warned in time ere it is too late.as Cicero. As I. it may be. Help of the helpless. and earth's vain shadows flee . . to return. " I fear no foe with Thee at hand to bless : Ills have no weight. abide with me. CAUSALITY 49 presence in placeof the Lord has said that he who " himself will be with us. But their theory of Christ in an obscure corner." The notion evangelist's of anabsentee God. Thy but Thy grace can What foil the tempter'spower ? Who.is there. if Thou abide with me. for all that we poor. the frauds.as we often have listened. It may to us be a year hence . watch the evangelist.this very day. and comforts flee.for when Jesus comes it will be without warning. to the rendering of Chopin's immortal D .my guide and stay can be ? Through cloud and sunshine. it is well for the humbugs. so Christ went away from the world of his children.''He said. like Thyself. and of course of an absentee Christ " very God of very '^ " God distinctly " ^isa pagan conception. with me abide : When other helpersfail. that is. Shine through the gloom.'' Let us imagine.and the pretenderswho encumber the world to tell us that Christ is here. father. and.him- self . this vast congrega- tion to burst forth into the glorious strains of Lyte's great prayer and hymn. O Lord.sanctity. Oh. and tears no bitterness. " Hold Thou Thy cross before my closingeyes . Where is death's sting ? where.*' the . grave. . '' a pagan. or religion ? Be not distressed . abide with me: '* I need presence every passinghour .

he visited in the twilight. improvised this funeral march in darkness. so inspiring in its trust : my feet .with their deep. the Edgar Allan Poe of music.at the piano. to use the words of Romanes. Earth to earth .and there is heard and felt only the hopelessmarch of death.the march.50 SPIRIT AND MATTER " " Marche by a full orchestra. and that lovingangel forms. through the trick of some of his whom friends.and '' one hears the shock. I do not ask to see -' Thou Keep The distant scene. that guidingspirit-presence which fillsand clingsto and surrounds that cry. and one feels that living presence. as that celestial strain rises and falls. But when the soul was liberated and was claspedand welcomed by its spirit-guardians. those clear. God and His Christ may be sitting aloft. flutelike.heaven is felt to be here and ever has been here and all around us. continuous note. has entered the scene. God againis and has been with and in us. Fun^bre one hears the solemn. so humble in its words. one sees the black led-horses drawing the caisson which bears the shrouded coffin. were all around and about us. angelic.triumphant notes of joy ascended. a new element.clear.in which rocks to and fro the ghastlycorpse. the clay. an appallinghush rests upon all.with his arm clasped around a skeleton mock-playerseated at his side.like the march of inevitable Fate in the Greek tragedies . But so we may be prepared to understand the effects of that nearly fatal error of Christian theology.complex rhythm of minor chords. and calls and echoes and thrills the soul. hope and joy return. ashes to '' ashes . the marching mourners swing from side to side with the crashingsound of each step . But suddenly there rises one single. one step enough for me. birdlike. one feels the materialistic throb. as the springless car bumps along the streets ." It is said that Chopin.under this pall.but they seem not to be here. that prayer and hymn in one.modulating to the major key this time. and the divine presence.pure.by which. and. . limpid.and we know that the earthlyskeleton was all forgotten. the coffin.pulsingbeat.

I can well understand why infidelity should make the basal assumption in question. CAUSALITY 51 " God is still grudged His own universe. But surely it is time for theists to abandon this assumption/' Now what is this basal false assumption or fundamental postulate. far and as often as He can possibly be/' as '' And he adds. which Romanes puts to prove dis- '' it. so to speak. in italics ? // there he a personal God. because its whole case must rest thereon. He is not immediately concerned with natural causation y_ .

or why all causation should not be the immediate expression of His will. The problem of the origin of the life substance would then have been simply to account for certain conditions which sulted re- in such chemical combination as would give rise to this physical basis of life.*' If the physical basis of life had proved to be a chemical compound. and follow to its logicaltermination the guidance of pure reason. CHAPTER VII THE PSYCHISM OF THE UNIVERSE His demonstration falsityof this proposition is of the '' as follows : I propose " to show that. (c) That if He is so. and these forces are sufficient toexplain the formation of any kind of chemical compound. sentiment. But now that the simplest substance manifesting the phenomena of life is found to be a machine [mechanical. says Romanes]. there are no other conclusions to be reached than these " viz. (6) That every available reason points to the inference that He probably is so. to prove it due to natural causation. '* event. W.' Therefore (d) that it is no argument against the divine origin of a thing. etc. all natural causation must needs ' appear to us mechanical. Conn.. etc. and if His will is self-consistent. the problem of its origin would have been a chemical one. provided only we lay aside all prejudice. no reason can be assigned why He should not be im-manent in nature. Chemical forces exist in nature. This is in strict accord with the trend of modern psychology. in his *' '' Story of the Living Machine. To quote Professor H. we can no longer find in chemical forces efficient cause for its formation.. Chemical forces and chemical affinitycan explain chemical compounds of any de- 52 . {a) That if there be a personal God.

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Dr Bingham. Signor. ah.54 SPIRIT AND MATTER the lesson of religion. that our holy mother. really believe in supernatural world at any all?" . and of psychology. as as in the next ? Are not willing to believe that you she works before us and her perpetual miracles upon us and teaches us to see through the thin veil and cognise re- much that is going on in the world of spirits ? But. Hart- '' makes his Italian girl But not say : are you willing to believe. in this world well us. Signor. ford. do Protestants. The Rev. cares for her children. of spiritualism. so rich and so you learned. of Trinity College. the Church.

is one long. the record proves its own validity by comparison with what is now going on. in like manner. Arabia.and as it was intended to be read. '' In light of its true reading all the the higher criticism. when simply strippedof its stucco and artificial drapery. to the tion correc- of historical and incidental errors. we find all the basic pheno- mena of modern spiritualism representedand ac. Mohammedan- ism and Parseeism . continuous and unmistakable record of spiritualism. the grandest record of authentic mediumship yet revealed to mankind. and the Bible itself. Buddhism. and glorious in promise for all time to come. in Japan. sublime in purpose. the same with Shintoism. in China. The whole Bible. properly read. entirelyspiritualistic in origin and development.or other manifestations .Brahmanism. everywhere." so is merely directed called. In India.and also in Ceylon and Farther India . Persia. matters of detail as trifling as the correction of like errors in the records of our present mediumistic trances. Tartary. among those-great nations 55 . in Turkey. CHAPTER VIII SPIRITUALISM THE BASIS OF ALL RELIGIONS Not only was the old Christian church spiritualistic to the backbone .among the American Indians pre-eminently and most purely. And all the other great religions existent to-day are. Among the historic reUgionsof the past the same is true .clear in diction. the same is true of the Hebrew scripturesand faith. these same ligions re- togetherwith Confucianism and Taoism .wherever there is a religion at all. in Africa. in ancient Egypt.will stand forth. knowledged.

"said : '* What one person calls religionanother calls superstition.in those of the mountains. thevalleys and plateaus behind the Persian Gulf.but as the most important fact within the grasp of man. This principlebelongs as much to the most primitive religionsas to those of highestdevelopment.No tribe devoid of religion is known to exist. among all these was spiritualism fullyrecognised. mysterious ghostlinessin all dark space. Etruria and Rome.in a recent lecture on the Religionsof Ancient Peoples. No tribe or peoplehas ever been discovered in the whole course of human history that has not a religionof some kind or other. that very sentiment the within him is God-given." a author of The work inscribed to the Lord Bishop of London. the Mayas. Brinton. the Peruvians.among the Mexicans.in the various religions of the great Euphrates valley. the late Dr Daniel '^ G. exhibits any idea of death or exercises any religious sense. in Persia.in the religionsof Greece.the peoples of the Amazon. along the Medi- terranean to the Dardanelles. and other prehistoric peoplesof every age and every country. If any- one who has any religious feelingi s asked his origin and why he believes in any religion there is one universal answer : it is because he believes in the God-given ." *' The Supernaturalin Nature. religious '' says : God was prominent in the minds of primitive men. in all the islands of the Pacific. No animal. No religionexists that does not depend on a revelation believed by its votaries. The eminent anthropologist. among the more recent Druids. however intelligent. Every Indian on the plains and every savage in South American tribes has had that sublime beatific vision which liftshim above humanity into the realm of the supernatural." jl^iSaysTylor in his "Primitive Culture": "No of mankind religion lies in utter isolation from the . not only as a fact.56 SPIRIT AND MATTER which stretched from Egypt up. they perceived a spiritin everything. among the Carthaginiansand their Phoenician ancestors.

of temperament or influence." '' " Epes Sargent in his Palpable says : "All Proof times and all tribes have had their prophets. that they are developedas we find them to be in particular instances. and the thoughts and principlesof modern Christianity are attached to intellectual clues which run through far pre-Christian back ages to the very originof human perhaps even civilisation. re- or. in speakingto the spiritualists: On the broad questionof theology we can conceive of no singlesubjectwhich a clergyman is more bound to examine than that which purports to be a new velation. mediums. of human '' existence/' Again. psychics or sensitives. in France. of the English Church. says : Did they have any religious " '* belief ? And answers it by saying: They did wear talismans or amulets. The theory of the soul is one principal part of a system of religious philosophy which unites in an unbroken line of mental connection the savage fetich-worshipperand the civilised Christian.seers." *' " Sir Charles Lyell in his Antiquity of Man states that far back in geological times the human remains found in the prehistoric cavern in Aurignac. just as among the North American Indians of the present century. a largeextension of the . at all events. as revealed in " their remains.'' " " The author of The Supernaturalin Nature " says : All races have the idea of the soul outliving the body in a country of ghosts. in discussing the life of the earliest man. Hunting nations wear similar talismans to give them luck in hunting.says. Does this sufiice for the statement that " they had a religion ? The Rev. Dr Charles Maurice Davies. a in pubhc address delivered in *' 1874. The inference is that these same powers are possessedin different degreesby all human beings. And Professor Paul Broca. showed that the departingspirits were fitted out with food and implements for the journey. SPIRITUALISM" BASIS OF RELIGIONS 57 rest. In either case there was some superstitious idea connected with them.but that it is only under certain conditions organisation.

While I recognisethat my own duty clearlyis to examine the principles you profess. Dr EUinwood. something so like demonstration. that I feel not only at liberty. an eminent writer and " theologian. as so many other bodies do . as far as I understand. to come out of the body I belong to and joinyours. to look into the thing. does seem to show that one strong and magnetic human will may so control the mind and will of its subjectas by a mere silent volition to direct his words and acts. It proposes. and which. researches.to supply. which we have as yet but the .'' In 1896 the Rev.'* writes as follows : " '' Hypnotism. '^in his * ' Interpretation of Nature has pointed out the fact of a strong reaction againstthe materialism which seemed confident of dominion a few years ago. but actuallybound." he says. the Secretaryof the American Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church. if its claims be substantiated. in fact.author of Oriental Religions and Christianity. but you ask me simply to take your doctrines with my own creed. that they readilyassimilate with those of my own church. I see nothing revolutionary in them. Certain flushed biologicalinvestigators. as the professorshows. were if they had not been able to discover the human soul with the microscope. with the success of their very confident that.in matters we have been accustomed to take on trust. whether I like it or not. This has always attracted me powerfullytowards you. You are the broadest Churchmen I find anywhere. they had at least identified it very closely with the substance of the brain and nerves. I find this to be eminently their characteristic.58 SPIRIT AND MATTER old . making due allowances for a thousand extravagances which have attended it. science is beginningto discover realms of spirit lyingbeyond and of the physical. But now. and vitalise it by their means. You have no propaganda.will quitemodify our notions of what we call faith. shall say then that a disembodied Who " spiritmay not do the same ? *' Professor Shaler of Harvard. You do not call upon me.

Professor of '* Philosophyin Harvard University: The phenomena are among the most constant in history. SPIRITUALISM" BASIS OF RELIGIONS 59 barest glimpses of knowledge. in the man. and everywhere.that the psychical. This superhuman consciousness.or else revealed to the human race. through all the ages of mankind. there is no difference in kind spiritualism at all. which power is the formative. at particular times. is the same consciousness which constitutes the basis of modern . 2. but less extensive. The persistenceof this spiritual individuality of after death. and universally employed as the only basis of ethics as well as of religion. Intercommunion between the human spiritual personalityand the like of departed spiritualities human beings.and to preserve and protect the human organism. intelligent power. spirituality of man.preservative and restorative agency of nature.and it is ' ' most extraordinarythat science should ever have become blind to them/* The whole historyof the race demonstrates by an accumulation of evidence perfectly irresistible to those who care for evidence. universal in scope. Direct and recognisedaction of this power upon and through a similar. in the past. Evidently human research has not yet finished its work is notand ready to rest its case upon any dogmatic verdict/' Says Professor William James. and extra to the man. A transcendental.and its energies. to control.and for special purposes. and are to-dayprecisely what they have always been hitherto. and differences in degree. in space and time. which constitutes the basis of all religion. the both spiritual. spiritual. apparentlyinherent in. And these conceded factors. have been absolutelyidentical. are as follows : " 1. These fundamental propositions. to mould.under various conditions. ever present and ever acting. and as well of spiritualism.and in potency. have been the great interactingand controlling factors of human advancement. and these onlyslight .constitutingthe uni- versal consensus of all mankind. man 4. 3.

the boasted doctrine of negation. in fact. and not. Besides these. save by a few modern teachers whose inquiries have been purposely confined.6o SPIRIT AND MATTER differences constantly and imperceptibly shade into each other. and must be. for it has more and more been proven. has only included the lower animals. by deliberate choice or narrowness of vision. In all history the fact stands out undisputed that the great principles of modern spiritualism have never been denied among mankind. or agnosticism. even all classes of these. it is probable. in believing that they have accepted the hypotheses of these philosophers. Modern spiritualism is thus not a new thing its " denial is the new thing. who. that no belief universal in scope and in time has ever been without a foundation of truth for its basis. they have been already established. so that no line of demarcation can any- where be drawn between modern spiritualism and the universal psychical or religious knowledge of all past ages and all peoples. for But it clearly recognises that only in the continuance and multiplicity of obvious spiritual phenomena can the truth of a future life be made universally manifest. garbled them beyond recognition. have. and is now firmly established. spiritualism gladly accepts the challenge. and a multitude of their ignorant followers.*' . for the forces and mechanism *' are. to the gross material plane alone. It is upon and by means of these very truths that science itself has been established and developed. to-day and for ever. the same yesterday. and it ought not logically to stand at the bar of science to establish its facts . The fountain must continue to flow in order to prove that it has ever flowed.

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accept. whole productwill go to pieces and the manufacture will be a failure. in many cases. cating ** " intelligences themselves. and practically omniscient and omnipresent being. demands must be fullyacceptedand rigidlycomplied with.62 SPIRIT AND MATTER requisite the quality. Who are the people to be benefited by these manifestations. through exceed- ingly imperfectinstrumentalities at best. But they do not stop to consider that these contacts.and that the possibilities of communication depend on a multitude of conditions largelyunknown to us. and whose attributed powers they do not claim to possess. failure. is looked upon as an evidence of fraud. and phenomena. every condition prescribed.but at^the will of a sceptic. Scientific vestigator in- of this sort have a totallyunwarranted superstition. But in investigatingspiritualism. that it instantly changes into an extremely intelligent. if there be such a thing. and that. which can only be ascribed to a " survival from the ages of faith.'' and which is that a disembodied spirit. by means of a talisman whose power they recognise and obey. as a rule. by their very nature.it can still be summoned and ordered about at will. The same is true of delicatemetallurgicalmanipulations ^the " conditions must be most carefully and their studied. and whose conditions they do not and cannot. Scientific men have demanded the rightto prescribe their own conditions in an investigation of which they do not claim to know even the first principles.not like the geniiof the East. following frequentlyas as success.as soon as it has left its earthlytenement. and almost entirelyunknown to and untried by the communi. and transmissions.. are between intelligent individualities. whose authority they do not recognise.and gone on to new duties and new progressions. not- withstanding all this. e ven then. or those to whom they return under untold difficultiesto deliver a .not by the medium or by the spirits perhaps.but by those forces which are about to be investigated. extremely powerful. becomes a sort of littlegod . grantingthat they are genuine? Is it those who have lived their lifeon earth.

" " knowledge or consideration . a tion catch-examina- carried for exposure on this is the " same as for a drowning man to spitin the face of one who would come to his rescue.when they are chatterers and twaddlers. it can only be the call of pure benevolence.5). as Huxley describes ^ them. Mark I vi.as faith is often understood. SPIRITUALISM AND SCIENCE 63 message which will convince a doubting world. they escape at all. merciless questioningin which every and higheraspectis ridiculed. Everybody who considers or believes in a future life at all believes this. I *' because of their unbelief '' (Matthew xiii. our thoughtsand hopes and advance- ment will be no longerchained to a mortal world. they are. of their continued existence. And in such case. to demand results under penalty of condemnation as frauds . The generalof an army in a difficult . or else the dark shadow of earth-bound crime or sorrow. though one rose from the dead. left behind for ever. if future lifeexists. if there be a call at all.'' Imagine the actors who would be willingto act| gratuitouslybefore an audience of scoffers and. The question is not whether they have f suddenlybecome sublimated into celestial paragons by merelyescapingfrom a putrefyingand disintegrat- ing but whether garment of flesh.for we " know that when we shall have passed beyond. Spiritualistsdo not claim that the surviving *' which personalities manifest themselves are little '' gods at all . chatteringold ^ women. What these chatterers and twaddlers. and to lay down rules and conditions without thought. or babbling curates. It is said in the New Testament that even \ Jesus was unable to produce any considerable | manifestations among the people of Nazareth. which bringsor binds the here spirit . hooters.and so make life for us here nobler and better and higher? They do not need us at all that is certain. to put them under a cold. many times.seek is to convey to to do us the actual certaintyof what religion asks us to accept in many cases by mere faith. 58 . It is of these that Christ said " they would not be persuaded.

and they come from all parts of the country beyond. but he picksup dozens.that there '' is any other force over there anyway . persons who are most unlikely to have been together previously.to deliver a lecture on protoplasm as the physicalbasis of life. or the devoted partisanshall come in from beyond the front.64 SPIRIT AND MATTER and unknown country.does not ask that the poor ignorantslave. and here is where the com- mander proves his rightto command. should go back to the rear with his staff. both the names being of persons now dead but whom he had known . And to secure this. and information about the country and the people beyond.so as to produce con-viction of the truth of the statements.if he can. There is no other way. he does not rely upon a singleincomer.and stand up and speak in terms of educated styleor scientific accuracy. Suppose the mander com- '' should say. and another name and another questionon a second pieceof paper. He said that he intended to apply a test which would satisfy him. Consider the oppositecase. An amusing instance came to me recentlyof this twaddle apparently educated business " an man narratinghis experiencewith a medium. or who could have conspiredto get up a story to deceive. or messenger .I don't believe. and are though I can readilyunderstand them.at an honorarium of three hundred dollars. and so he wrote a name and a questionon one piece of paper. even if the facts are true. and all reportthe same state of affairs. Here is where good judgment and sound reason come in. what he has seen. the loyalpeasant. and. What the generalwants to know is where this messenger comes from.with the unseen enemy hidden in front. instead of investigating. and by this test his fitness is determined. of all sorts and conditions. and the campaign carried on to success. I do not know what is beyond . in fact. yet I take no interest in what they say. The personalscouts I have sent over have not returned . how he has escaped. on a priori principles. those who purport to come into our lines from over there ignorant and uncultured. and.

" Well. they rush impetuouslyfrom one acquaintanceto the other. Without givingthem. and his reply was. of course.because if she was a spiritshe would certainly know." replied.the question was answered correctly " ^because it was an easy one. selves the trouble to obtain proofsof genuinenessof the manifestations. that was all tommy- " rot. what answer did " you get ? The answer.was that in his present state knowledge she could not convey of to him an explanationwhich would satisfyhim. and he said no. and convinced me that the whole affair was bogus. These papers he concealed in his pocket. and those are the enthusiasts and the sceptics." I asked him if he knew what electricity was. that that was what he wanted to find out. certainly he not. There is no Death. Why. I put that on as a certain test. knew what it was before her death. Why.who '' answer. " " *' Well ? I said. he said. SPIRITUALISM AND SCIENCE 65 here. if she was a spirit. who assisted Sir William Crookes in many of his Katie King investigations." I asked.and. she would know everything. as the narrator stated." Mrs Ross Church. in '' her wonderful book. The medium called out one name and the corresponding question. No. but that if he was there as she was. The first beheve everythingthey see or hear." says : '* There are two classes of peoplewho have done more harm to the cause of spiritualism than the testimony of all the scientists has done good. he said."he replied. What " is ?' electricity " The narrator said to me. Then I asked him why he expected her to know as soon as she passedover into " spiritlife. You have another name and questionon another pieceof paper. he would know and feel the nature of the answer. and the " " spirit bogus. " The medium then said. I asked him if the friend (a professedto girl).detailing their experiences . and the spirit ' whose name is thereon written says you ask. and if she didn't answer correctly I would know that the medium was a fraud.

we might say to a savage. for their very shortcomings. or else I will proclaimit to all a fraud. and weak nerves. Now.spirits a shade less holy than our own. given certain condi. because he has found out one thingto be a fraud. none can be successful.aU the mediums must deceive. If one medium deceives. I must put the watch into boilingwater " those are my conditions .' and he should reply. The sceptic refuses to believe anything.he says. No ! I will see it and hear it without any conditions. on showing him a watch. a sceptic fully expects his testimony to be accepted and beheved.' In like manner. yet he will never believe any truth on the testimonyof another person. ' he can see this or hear the other. who. such reason is neither just nor logical. because they are. and render them harmless. as a rule. *' The second class to which I have alluded " the sceptics ^have not done so much harm to spiritualism " as the enthusiasts. that they overdo their protestations. They are generallypeopleof low intellect. If one seance is a failure. They bow down before the influences as if they were so many little gods descended from heaven. instead of being. If he gainsno satisfactory test of the presence of spirits of the departed.66 SPIRIT AND MATTER with so exaggerationand such unbounded much faith that they make the absurdityof it patent to all. " Who has not sat at a seance where such people have made themselves so ridiculous as to bring the cause they profess to adore into contempt and ignominy ? Yet to allow the words and deeds of fools to affect one's inward and privateconviction of a matter would be tantamount to givingup the pursuitof everythingin which one's fellow-creatures can take a part.Again.as in the majority of instances. are unable to rise above the atmosphere that surrounds this gross and material world. ' If you will keep your eye on those hands. you will see them move round to tell the hours and * minutes. credulous dispositions.so intenselybigoted and hard-headed and narrow- minded. And if he is told that. tions.no one has ever gained such a test.

" . but he must be unbiassed. SPIRITUALISM AND SCIENCE 67 and if it won't there. which few sceptics are. as I said before.' go " I don't mind a sceptic myself. I will not believe it will " go at all. they for themselves before they commence to investigate it. have decided the question at issue As a rule.

Dr Nevius.did not relyupon his own observations alone. as he states.we find the human strata flow with the same phenomena and the same beliefs. We must discount the Demon element in the title. and through- out the world. and other bibles of other peoples. more as a specific illustration than as a corroboration. ^^" But I may mention here.he sent 68 . in their originand mode of operation. Secretary of the American Board of Foreign Missions of the PresbyterianChurch. customs of the Chinese themselves. who was a very eminent Chinese scholar. Nevius. In fact. " entitled Demon Possession and Allied Themes. Dr John L. Almost all ethnologists. wherever tapped. anthropologists and students of com- parative religionand folklore are fullyaware of the remarkable identitybetween the various spiritualistic )}juP phenomena encountered in diverse ages. I would refer to an unimpeachable source also.experts not only in our own but religion in the language and life.as the whole evidence is from Christian experts. for fortyyears a missionaryin the interior of China. principally in China.'' and the introduction to which work was written by the Rev.the state of spiritualismin the oldest as well as the vastest empire on earth.differentiation predicated between these phenomena and those of our Bible. Much of this can be found in the remarkable book by the Rev. Dr EUinwood. but not psychological.but. CHAPTER X EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY I HAVE spoken in a previouschapterof the identityof spiritualistic manifestations with those embodied in the records of various historic reUgions. the Chinese. The work was pubUshed in " " 1894. as that is a concession to the theological.

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that there is absolute truth in these manifestations.comparisonand investigation. there are materials whole to be procured. there are times and conditions to be observed . for the slightest results are of just as much importance to the scientific investigator as those of the most astounding char- acter. a geologist. there are mediums to be consulted and often rejectedafter many consultations . But a single experiment is worthless.and are not only arrant frauds.but arrant fools as well.what would a whole pilly-fuU be like ? No one need expect to learn anything practically about spiritual phenomena who is not willingto give time. and that they are extra- human in character. Ask '* advice of the traveller. just as education of every other sort must be acquired. One must go through this education. entirely compatiblewith the universal belief. be their sources what they may. There is a literature to be studied .so the same is true of a mathematician. Here among so-called men of science the very oppositeopinionprevails . on beingtold that feathers in a pillowwere nice to lie on. at all events.and incur some expense besides. which has always prevailed. but in . not only do they refuse to investigate themselves. patienceand continued labour. not of the learned .70 SPIRIT AND MATTER among a few personal friends only.or even of work in a machine shop.study. an anatomist. or a student of any branch of science or knowledge . and socked his head down on it" *' '' Howly blazes. geology. Startling effects need not be expected. " There is an Arabic proverb which says. But as a chemist after long study and practice becomes recognisedas an authorityin chemistry. an astronomer. but it is far different in the science of spiritualism. And latter will sometimes even these occur most unexpectedly. but they consider that those who have investigated longestand most carefully know least about it. if one of thim is as " hard as that. totally Pat.as to the validityand character of the phenomena. took a feather and laid it on a rock. The same is true of chemistry.and are. there must be thought.'' he ejaculated. but they are unnecessary.

irrespective of his credibilityor experience as a witness. There is rascality there. not the genuine a priorihowever. there is no discoveryin the fear of what may be discovered . and prove that what they thought he meant to say was all a pack of lies. takes them into its body. and adjusts itself to a new centre of gravity. . and perpetuallyexploded a priori. the world of science. and then sit down in a comfortable library. heaven-sent and infallible a priori. in successively. and produce a certain outside pressure. and thereby ever advancing.to pour contempt and obloquy upon him. and not by movements from within.it is only necessary to go back few years to find a totally a different set of facts.and then rests as a whole again. but that the process described has been the actual pursued. Whenever the aggregated movements reach a certain momentum.like an amoeba. while the processes of deglutition.and that science only deserves the name which is ever and willingly shiftingits ground. When another great series of facts presses upon it with sufficient force.ignorant.on the broad ground of immaculate. to deny him a hearing. but their own little.and it is thus that science has grown. How any branch of knowledge could be success- fully pursued under such conditions it is impossible to understand. anyone one can readily demonstrate that all the by considering facts of all the natural sciences were discovered and porated incor- and that. This conservatism is often of value. and that. The same will be true in the future. deduc- and totallydifferent hypotheses and theories.after a good dinner. assimilation and nutrition proceed within. digestion. There is no advance in what stands still. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 71 these cases the rule is to turn the traveller out of court.vain. But it is by no means necessary. any science. for it is well known that the world of science has always advanced by impacts from without.the process is repeated.That is the thimble-rig by which the ball can be put under any cup by these ingeniousand self-satisfiedcharlatans.a totallydifferent set of tions. and there is no truth in concealment to save a theory.

then its origin. con- It is not that it was a new question it the question was as old mankind. in reality. for the thing itself. it was not that it was portant. was not that consciousness should survive after the transition called death. If human consciousness itself is the highest of all human things.^2 SPIRIT AND MATTER One of the most inexplicable things in the whole history of human knowledge has been the attitude which modern science in general. or that it should be an extension or focalisation or development of an extra-human lying out- consciousness . takes away in the concession nearly the entire difficulty in recognising or demonstrating other forms or survivals of consciousness. The fundamental difficulty. If men can be known to live at all in Europe. develop- ment and extension are of its very essence. or that the men of one country have been derived from sources in other countries. but the fact that consciousness should exist at all. has taken many with reference to the question of extra-human sciousness. these were not the primary difficulties. unim- because it is concededly of transcendent importance. if conceded. . It was only by an unscientific familiarity with this fact that its recognition as a fact was not accorded its stupendous importance . and especially through of its recognised leaders. it is not much more difficult to accept the demonstration that men also live in Asia or America. sprung upon " as and was always proven and accepted as by proven mankind in general . by immigration or accident.

'' basis to a hypothetical qualitycalled irritability. or restore offal to its food state human again.'' which was then compared with physiological bile '' " secretion or the aquosity of water. whatever doctrine professes to be the result of the application of the acceptedrules of inductive and deductive logicto its subjectmatter. had his mythical hero discover a place where the philosophersand men of science spent their whole lives amid filth and nastiness. with the same care and labour which they have be. instead of studying the forms of consciousness in general. and yet many leaders of these classes of physicists left the whole realm of livingnature at their feet and all around them. and without bias or prejudice. with futile results. as follows : " *' To my mind. and endeavour to thus painfully trace. the long line of consciousness up to a Shakespeare.Professor Tyndall was stillhonest enough to declare that between matter and mind there existed an intellectually impassable chasm .and we must indeed go to such sources to find ' an analogue.should abandon all this field at hand. and go back for a . And. nections.'* in defined science. in endeavouring to extract the already expended sunshine from cucumbers. CHAPTER XI THE BAN OF a pHori It is an astoundingthingthat men of science. 73 . and not with life.in his celebrated tale of Gulliver. Huxley himself. Huxley declined to accept the title of a materialist. in the face of all this.stowed upon types of paleontologyand their con. his lucid style. Dean Swift. to burrow in soil replete with death.in his answer to Mr Gladstone and Genesis.

is science. of whom the celebrated Alfred R. they may be neglected. If nothingis to be called science but that which is exactlytrue from beginningto end. Dr Charles Maurice Davies. it sets to the supremacy of reason. in the precisemanner demanded by him. if possible. and Mr Huxley was invited to become a member. '' And if the folk in the spiritualworld do not talk more wisely and sensiblythan their friends report them to do.I have no inquiry. I should decline the privilege. is very little I am afraid there science in the world outside mathematics. I put them in the same category. to investigate these very questions. for science. " The onlygood that I can see in a demonstration .was as gross an impostureas ever came under my notice.'' But when a committee of the London Dialectical Societywas formed.within the Umits which itself. The only case of spiritualismI have had the opportunity of examining into for myself.so narrow that.74 SPIRIT AND MATTER and accepts. and composed of thirty-three of the most capable men in Great Britain. and.I take no interest ' ' in the subject. to investigate these very questions. having better thingsto do. extend these hmits. another. Among the physicalsciences I do not know that any could claim more than that each is true within certain limits.of the Enghsh Church.he repliedas follows : " *' Sir " I regret that I am unable to accept the invitation of the Council of the Dialectical Society to co-operate with a committee for the investigation ' ' of spiritualism. But supposing the phenomena to be genuine they do not interest me. and for two reasons. In the first place.which time for such an would involve (unlessit were much trouble and unlike all inquiries of that kind I have known) much annoyance. and the Rev. " If anybody would endow me with the facultyof listening to the chatter of old women and curates in the nearest cathedral town. Wallace was one member. for the present at any rate. In the second place.in 1868-1869.

to the cause of education. traordinary letter. I am. persons whc. suits ? The thing would be a miracle. sir. to have it known beyond doubt or question.e pleasuresare sensual rather than intellectual whence " is to come the transforming power which is suddenly.etc. remarks : *' If (as the Professor would probably have ad. that ignorance here developsits full penalties there . For the essential teaching of spiritualism is. to change these into beingsable to appreciate and delightin high and intellectual pur. mitted) a very largemajority of those who daily depart this life are persons addicted to twaddle.long periodsof time. THE BAN OF A PRIORI 75 ' ' of the truth of spirituahsm is to furnish an ditional ad- argument against suicide.more pletely com- after the death of the body than it does now. as we sow here we shall reap there . Better Uve a crossingsweeper than die and be made to talk * ' twaddle by a medium at a guinea a seance.and surelyProfessor Huxley was the last man to contemplateinnumerable miracles as part of the order of nature .morality and justice. Huxley.helpingto build up a mental fabric which will be and will constitute ourselves. in every act and * ' thought. and over long.so will our pro. and to the meanest as well as to the highestintellect.at the mere throwing off of the physical body.that we are all of us. that. H." An eminent writer.the greatest of miracles. '' 2(jthJanuary 1869. gress and happinessbe aided or retarded.commenting on this ex. to the whole human race present and future. that wrong and oppressionhere must be paid for in agonisinggrowth again from far down in the scale. Just as this fabric is well or illbuilt. T.. and all for what ? Merely to save these 'people from the necessary consequences of their misspentlives.*' Is not this of importance enough to interest a philosopher or a physicist ? Can anyone for a moment consider the stupendous results to every individual. tillfinal release shall come by toil and privation compared with which .

his work was ridiculed in similar fashion. knowledge of nature which has been universally givenup. with accumulated momentum.testified to by several independent wit- nesses.and will soon be the dominating power of the world.remorseful memory will perhaps remain was " all this a thing not of sufficient interest to make it worth some trouble and annoyance ? The same criticisms original were made upon all investigators " when Franklin experimented with his kites. He was asked Of what '' use is all this kite-flying ? and his noble replystill has.'' This is the favourite. .in fact the only way. its originalforce '' '' " Of what use is a baby ? The baby now carries mankind on the wings of the wind.in which '* Mr Spencer met the facts by saying that he had settled the questionon a priorigrounds." Ah no ! The problems of nature and life are of this sort. But to declare that any facts. not To ape the a prioriof science is to ape the a priori of God. But Alfred Russel Wallace. Where now are his de- tractors ? In writer 1869 a in The New York Tribune narrates a conversation with Herbert Spencer. even though he had done no more. it is that we can have no a prioriknowledge of natural phenomena or of natural laws. are impossible. in consideringthese says : **Ifthere subjects. would stand at the front among the great apostlesof science. and to act upon this declara- tion so far as these facts when to refuse to examine is to lay claim to this very a priori opportunityoffers. is any onethingwhich modern philosophyteaches more consistentlythan another. and when his papers on lightningconductors were exhibited to the French Academy they were *' ignominiously thrown out.76 SPIRIT AND MATTER every unjustpleasurehere is not of a feather's weight. and Franklin. speaks through the free air from continent to continent. and that even then the endless. in which this questionhas ever been settled againstthe facts.on the question of the communion of spirits with mortals.

.

.

.

.

it was either created into man when man was first created. is valid evidence of its truth " ^that is to say." I have endeavoured to deal with religion as a whole as well as with its special sub-religions or divisions. or else was revealed to him as a spiritual complement.of whatever race. and also with outside contact with and recognition of that other and higher and vaster part of intellect '* or spiritin which we live and move and have our being. as Tylor says. CHAPTER XII SUMMARY OF PART I. and that this basis is precisely identical with the claims and practices of modern spiritualism. for. if any of them their can be said to have had a birth. in all times andages. or was the same.with spiritualintercommunication between the individual intellects or spiritsof the race.perhaps even of human existence/' I have also endeavoured to show that this versal uni- belief. and these spiritual powers were put into his possession. In the previous part of this work I have endeavoured to show that the basis of all religions.'' The thoughts and principles of modern Christianity are attached to intellectual clues which run back through far pre-Christian ages to the very origin of human civilisation. excepting with the birth of man *' himself. in his Primitive '' Culture.and these different religions may be com- paratively higher or lower in the scale as we may conceive them. but they are God's living and mani- F 8x . I also endeavoured to show that none of these various religions ever claimed to be the sole source of the phenomena fested mani- atbirth. and among all peoples. country age.

brick or marble. Some larger are and better furnished. others but a few . and however diverse they may be in extent. and one for rest. So it is with the recognition of the Divinityand of the future life. The last century has brought to light the mighty literatures of the empires and peoplesof the East. and they are the evidences to us that each is a dwelling-place for men.and the wants and adaptations and satisfactions of one are the wants and adapta- tions and satisfactions of all. free and uniform. which.of Magdalen College. while working on a livingfree will in men.82 SPIRIT AND MATTER testingwitness in every age and to every people. simply because men are essentially alike. Estlin Carpenter. one for sleeping. revela- because it comes from the experiencesof our common humanity. but every one has a recognised place for cooking.and our religious knowledge could not be so uniform unless there were a common source of in- tuition knowledge. and among peopleslow in the scale of humanity as among those higher.ease and the higherlife. The view intelligent bringsthe common tion. Human dwellings. justas humanity reveals itself through all dwelling- places. from a divine original. inse- God reveals Himself through all religions. architecture or external appearance.one for eating. quity created. are substantiallyidentical within. From the Nile to the Ganges. which are parable.whole libraries have been recovered." Let me quote here the followingfrom Professor J.to-day and for ever.be they dug-outs. stone. Oxford : " '' But we now know that the Bible is by no means the only collection of religious teachingwhich anti.and the onlypossible and source is revelation. and we note these thingsat once. and I have shown that the grand psychicalconcep- tions underlyingthem are fundamentallyas high and pure in the earliest as in the later ages. from the ancient mounds of Mesopotamia to the temples of China and Japan. .or of mud. is '' yet the same yesterday.some have many chambers. showing that everywhere among the more advanced peoplesrehgionhas embodied itselfin law and hymn.

and which has its cult. religion demands. or without regard to religion. and work with me/ ' and he adds. But it proves that in one side of his nature man has been alwaysseekingafter the unseen . Spiritualismin all its broader aspects is thus included in religion . it certainly. only a few years ago.spiritual. Religion appears as something that is practically universal. a part of the higher experienceof the whole race. The student finds againthat his idea of revelation must be widened . trust me. and is essentially based upon a personal.In doingso he wins one result of incalculable importance. superhuman. SUMMARY OF PART I.pure and simple. He must franklytreat all by rest the same methods.out of a compositehumanity. althoughwe do not yet know *' the extent and scope of what we call our ality person- " . and declare all the profane. science ignorantly decreed it to be.as Comte tried to manufacture a god. he cannot clude se- one literature in a sacred enclosure. transcends our physicalbody. acknowledges. operativeagency in the universe acting upon man.just as photographers make a composite photograph of .without religion.as we now know.and ethical culture. tinually '' gainsin weight and significance. That may not be a demonstration of its truth.'' That is to say. apply to all the same tests. Bear in mind that personaldoes not imply personalityin the human sense (the Bible tells us God is a spirit). to these testimonies each generation makes its own additions.and judge all on the same principles. Under.so that the record con. but not that emasculated system of earth-bounded morality. and in one aspect his efforts to find it may be described as the response of his spiritto the constant appeal of the boundless ' world confrontingand surrounding him.' *' Romanes defines religion as follows : By the " term religionI shall mean any theory of personal agency in the universe belief in which is strongenough in any degreeto influence conduct. which passes under the name of ethics. stand me. and has phases and connections far transcendingwhat. 83 in story and prayer. interpret me.

84 SPIRIT AND MATTER a thousand women. it seems but reasonable to conclude that the integratingprincipleof the whole " ^the Spirit. can give no account of the ubiquitousand eternal direction of force in the construction and maintenance of universal order. Ethics is all rightin its place.simple. must yet be im- measurably superiorto the psychism of man. even if it were conceded to account for particular cases of physicalsequence.and without sense. but of learningwhat he ought to do . of the Universe must be something " which. if the ultimate constitution of the philosophyof the Cosmos all thingsis psychical.while holdingnearest kinshipwith our highest conception of disposingpower. ' ' becomes a philosophy of the Unconscious only because it is a philosophy of the superconscious.and no knowledge which does not come from a highersource of knowledge. with disjecta " membra juxtaposedfrom everywhere." This distinguished writer and man of science well says. as it were. cheap. of what each one not thinks he believes. to show the '' type/' when the result is to show an ingeniously contrived picture of a monstrosity which never existed on earth or elsewhere." " And he defines nature as something which thus becomes invested with a psychicalvalue as greatly transcendingin magnitude that of the human mind as the material frame of the universe transcends in its magnitude the material frame of the human *' body " .'' says '' Romanes. soul or intellect a sort of Frankenstein.but it is a conse- quence. in *' his latest writings: Physicalcausation cannot be made to supply its own explanation." *' To account for this universal order. and there is no learningwithout a better informed teacher. *' These are the moral satisfactions."he tellsus '' in another work. or believes he thinks that he would like to do. not a cause. which always land us in misery." . common.physical evolu- tion in itselfnegatives all such factitious and sporadic systems : no stream can rise higherthan its source. and adds.and with soul and individuality lost in the nowhere.and the mere persistenceof force. or other people.

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but one of its greatestapostles. so narrow that. one of the most pro. so many of whom soughtto crowd the minds with fancies in the guiseof facts (as our school teachers do. and then. and beg the questionwhen the first breaik in con- tinuity is reached. As for these achievements concrete of physical science.it means that in order to learn the available amount of actual and original scientific proof.at any rate.at any rate. ciphering." understand I fully of this. morals and conduct).but it is not I who say this. tellectual shame for what was so boastinglyspread out for the publicto admire and accept. with exploded theories of physiology. one may take a pair of compasses and describe the very minutest circle '' he can possiblydraw. but this eminent '' authority nevertheless conceded that Among the physicalsciences I do not know that any could claim more than that each is true within certain limits. as it approaches com- pletion. subjectto no further revision.they may be neglected. .and its true limits.and no in.and goingto build up a completed structure which. will overhaulingof what has been requireno alreadysecured and built in. but to confuse what passes for scientificmethod.is to reason in a circle.for the present.boiled-down and per- manently settled questions. minent of the physicists of his day. writing. as appliedto the scientific treatment and results in dealingwith the greatfundamentals of science. in any of the physicalsciences. fundamental in character.for the present.86 SPIRIT AND MAJTER c^^o^ " ings. course.no reversal of what was so confidentlybottled up and labelled. Worship Mumbo-Jumbo in the mountains of '' the moon/' The*''*'~set*entTikr method is the only correct method. in deahng with these subjects.I have already quoted the words of Huxley.and all sorts of ipse-dixitSy to the neglectof reading. and untenable hypothesesof the action of unfamiliar foods and drinks.in the form of solid. the limits are so narrow that.they may be neglected/' Now if this statement means anything at all.with vahd scientific achievements.

a few hundred strong. Theirs not to reason why. SUMMARY OF PART I. and years then staggered back broken and defeated." . batteries and armies. Said the *' French marshal who looked It is magnificent. but it is not war. sitting '' by the rushlight of a fatuous a priori damned it ^ like a gentleman. 87 Yet many eminent physicists of those days have set up spirit^ as it were.*' without soiling their perfumed '' fingers. But how ? " As the Light Brigade.'' charged with its sabres. But these dreamers. Even the tragic old church wanted witnesses to properly damn a soul. on. and who yet would hear no witnesses. the forts. accumulated and prepared during of labour. Uke a lying malefactor. on so- called trial.

first-hand knowledge. I flatter myself that I have discovered an argument which. for even intuitional knowledge. are philosophically and scientific- ally defective. 88 ." which it would only be possible to assert if we assume that we know all the laws of nature." The error is that if it is by the Deity then it is not a transgression.because the Deity. " The second definition is that it is a transgression of a law by the Deity or by the of nature interposition of an invisible agent. we must prove all things. which could only reach us by revelation. and this revelation is one of the very things which his argument is intended to disprove. The first definition is that it ''is a violation of the laws of nature. and hold fast to that which good/' is One of the most powerful arguments of modern physicists against so-called miracles has been based on Hume's argument in the tenth chapter of his work on Human Understanding. which is the only method of reaching truth in our present stage of human existence. by the way. and this argument pleased '' its author so much that he prefaced it by saying. As the sacred '' writer says. both of a which. certainly not by human experience. if just. will with the wise and learned be an everlasting check to all kinds of superstitious delusion. But the Author of all the laws alone knows all the laws." He first states two definitions of miracle. CHAPTER XIII MIRACLES In this second part of my book I shall endeavour to deal especially with the relationship existing more between the methods of spiritualism and the method of science. must stand at the bar of scientific method.

because if it were sound. it is not a miracle at all. since. R. as all known agenciesof nature have become known .while. '' As Mr A. and itsfalse assumptions and contradictions fullyexposed. anyone can see that it must have destroyedhis whole argument.nor can such proof be destroyed. if the interposition the agent be alreadyknown. since the first and each succeedingwitness would be assumed to have versal uni- experienceagainsthim. otherwise the event would not merit this application. It is radically fallacious.for certainly mankind can never become omniscient. Such a simple fact as the existence of flying fish could never be proved if . Wallace says. is assumed to be the author and operator of all the laws of nature . as I have shown. the universal experience of all past ages throughout the world was for. mankind has ceased to exist. so that it cannot be considered a of transgression any laws until mankind has ceased to investigateand discover because nothing more is left us to investigate and discover " until that is. no perfectly new fact could ever be proved. though used as a cudgel by so-called men of science.and not against. even if invisible.the facts of spiritualism. so that those who solitarily endeavoured to deny these were themselves settingup a miracle against cold and sober law.if it be unknown.'' an '* " If an universal experience is to have the validity given to it by Hume. But Hume himself.And as an uniform experienceamounts to a proof. it may yet become known later on. if '' by of an invisible agent/'then. Hume then lays down his great discoveryas '' follows : " There must therefore be an uniform experienceagainstevery miraculous event.againstthe existence of any miracle.or the miracle rendered but by credible. MIRACLES 89 having been thus named by Hume. oppositeproofwhich is superior. including so-called miracles.from the nature of the fact.was in no sense a man of science at all.there is here a direct and full proof. and his whole argument has repeatedlybeen riddled into worthlessness.and at that time it will not matter what the answer may have been.

90 SPIRIT AND MATTER Hume's argument is a good one . that prayer for some change in the ordinary course of nature cannot possiblyavail.I may give examples which can cause no offence. No one is entitled to say. It is this weighty considera- tion.: refusing to go to a famous spiritualist.inasmuch as the men in questionhave themselves made the facts publicviz. in his Thoughts on Religion : ** As an illustration of impure agnosticismtake Hume's a prioriargument againstmiracles.the whole questionturningon the sufficiency of evidence. for the first man who saw and described one would have the universal experienceagainsthim that fish do not fly. a priori. which is what spiritualists have alwayscontended for.Notwithstanding that they have the close analogy of mesmerism to warn them.the same argument would apply to the second.puts the matter in a nutshell.would be a proportionately strong expectationthat events will go on happening. and the demand for a proportionalstrength of evidence in favour of any assertion that they had happened otherwise. He says. scientificmen are here quiteas dogmatic as the straitest sect of theologians. .leading on to the analogouscase of the attitude of scientific men toward modern spiritualism. and his evidence being rejected. all that the widest experience(even if it be extended over all past time and through all space)that events had happened in a certain way could justify. in so far as the latter impliesthe miraculous intervention of a higher power. to say what the order of nature must be ." Romanes is equallyemphatic in his opposition to '' " Hume. '' '' Nobody can presume.and so to every subsequent witness . writingon Hume's assumed law of miracles. the truth of which everyone who is capable of logical thought must surelyadmit. ought to believe that such thingsexist/' Thomas H.and actuallyflying.or make any approach to flying. and thus no man at the present day who has not seen a flying fish alive. Huxley. which knocks the bottom out of all a priori objections either to ordinary ' * miracles or the efficiency of prayer." says Huxley.

MIRACLES 91
refusing to try,in thought-reading[Note: On the
whole I have thought it best to omit the names].
These men all professedto be agnostics at the very
time when thus so egregiously violatingtheir philo-
sophy
by their conduct/*
And he is equallysevere with regardto faith. He
"

says : What a terrible hell science would have made
' '"
of the world, if she had abolished the of faith
spirit
even in human relations. The fact is,Huxley falls
'
into the common error of identifying faith with
'

opinion."
The distinction of course isthat, while faith is a
product of the intuitive and supernormal, opinionis
a product of the reason and normal. This will be
fullytreated in a succeedingchapter.
This questionof miracle is by no means as simple
,

as it might seem. ( The miracles of one age are the
scientificphenomena of the next^ The purpose, even,
of a miracle may be subserved perfectly if it be per-
formed
by means of natural laws unknown to the
performer,and received as a miracle by the observers,
equallyignorantof the same natural laws. And this
indeed may be extended, in our present state of
knowledge,to all phenomena the direct explanation
of which is unknown. A telepathically received
notice of a coming eclipse communicated in a dream to
an Indian medicine-man totallyignorantof the pos- sibility
of calculating eclipses, by
and him revealed to
his fellow-tribesmen, equallyignorant,as a prophecy
by a dream spirit, would in so far be a geniune
miracle, while to us behind the scenes it might appear
as an unconscious deception. Before the days of the
phonograph, had such an instrument been operated
in secret in any company, whether scientific or not,
there would have been but two possible explanations,
the one that it was fraudulent,and the other that it
was supernormal; and, excludingthe former,which
could have been done, the latter would have been the
onlypossible explanation, for all our scientificas well
as popular knowledge excluded as possiblethe
simultaneous renderingof the various tones and pro- gressions
of a multitude of instruments in a complex

92 SPIRIT AND MATTER

harmony, by means of a singlemetal pin travelling
along a singlegroove in a wax cylinder. Until the
days of Newton the tides were miraculous, and to this
day gravitation stillcontinues to be miraculous, and
so of all the fundamentals of knowledge or science
which have not been searched out and explained(not
merely named, for that is no explanation), and few of
them, if any, have been so searched out and explained.
'' ''
Do you believe in miracles ? I was sneeringly
asked in one of our discussions. I
my asked
''
what
questioner he meant by miracles,"and he plied,
re-
*'
I mean the New Testament miracles, such as
^^
changingwater into wine,and the like.'' Oh,''I said,
^'
I thought that you referred to real miracles,such as
the growing of a stalk of grass, or the chick in the
"

egg ; whereat he was surprised,for he evidentlyknew
all about such matters, which were, doubtless,not
miraculous at all. Then I told him that while I had
nothing to say, pro or con, as to the actual occur- rences

in questionto which he referred, yet I fully
believed in the scientific possibility of a great many
of the so-called Bible miracles,and that without
considering their divine origin in any exceptional sense

at all ; ,and that it seemed strange to me that while
sceptics' readilyaccept productionby a fortuitous
clashingof chemical atoms, of livingprotoplasm,a
most complicatedsubstance,they are ready to deny
the possibility of a like production,when mind and
purpose are superadded, of mere win^, a liquid
hardlycomplicatedin its compositionat all.) Perhaps
it was that the one was a record,and dangef'ous, while
the other was a pleasant fancy to the dilettanti.
The difference, chemically,between water and
wine is very slight, and, if wedding partiesin those
days were like some that I have attended,there would
have been quite enough carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere to supply that requisite element,outside
of other possiblesources ; and as for flavouring
ethers ! "

"
The river Rhine, it is well known,
Doth wash your city of Cologne ; "

But tell me, Nymphs ! what power divine
Shall henceforth wash the river Rhine ? -^

94 SPIRIT AND MATTER

sized water-snake large live frog,a considerable
a

part of whose
cuticle had been alreadymacerated or

digestedaway, and the animal hopped off with a
grunt of thanks possiblytowards Nineveh, which
"

was a great country for bull-frogs.

As for the Resurrection, I have discussed that else-
where
in these chapters,with excellent authorityin
its favour, but in the present uncertaintyas to the
presence or absence of lifein doubtful cases, it is im-
possible
to argue the matter intelligently
until science
can present some simple and certain test of death,
which it has not yet been able to do.
Says Professor William H. Thomson, in his
address in 1892,before the Philosophical Faculty of
Columbia College: ''In the whole sisterhood of the
sciences it is biologywhich depends most on inference
for her very life.
Stripbiologyof everythingexcept
the concrete knowable,and itwould be hard to imagine
what a congress of biologists would find to talk about.
If they began with mentioning livingprotoplasm "

what is life ? how much" do they know ? that's
the word now know, that said protoplasm is living,
or not living,or how much living,or w^hen it
began to live, and what it does when it stops
''
living?
''
Professor Michael Foster says : The difference
between a dead human body and alivingone is still,
to largeextent, estimated
a by drawing inferences
'
rather than actuallyobserved.'
Even after death,bodies exhumed are often found
to have continued to grow hair,which, short and
scanty when buried,is now found to be long and
massed up.
The problem of lifeis enormouslylargerthan self-
styledphysicalspecialists ever dream it to be. Says
Lord Kelvin, in The Fortnightly Review, March 1892 :
*'
The influence of animal or vegetable life on matter
is infinitely beyond the range of any scientific inquiry
hitherto entered on. Its power of directingthe
motions of moving particles, in the demonstrated
dailymiracle of our human free-will, and in the growth
of generation after generationof plantsfrom a single

MIRACLES 95
different
seed,are infinitely from any possibleresults
of the fortuitous concourse of atoms/*
''
Von Hartmann, in his Philosophy of the conscious/'
Un-
adduces an example, from the severing
one of the of this unconscious power of life :
annelids,
*'
If cut in two by a cross section nature builds up
^
each of the severed perfectanimal again/'
parts into a

reconstructing a head with its proper appendages for
the lower half,and a tail and its adjunctsfor the
*'
upper one. It would seem,''says Von Hartmann,
''as if there must be present in each of the severed
parts an idea of what was wanting in order to build
up again the whole typicalform of the species ; and ;

this idea is the pattern or model accordingto which
the unconscious works. From each of the cut ends
a minutedrop of protoplasm exudes, and this is
quicklyand deftlymoulded in each case into such pro-longations
of the alimentarycanal,the blood-vessels
and nerves, as are needed respectively for the upper
and lower half of the animal as a whole, several organs
in one of the reconstructed moieties having nothing
analogous to them in the other. Merely physical
causation, blind mechanism, cannot explainsuch a pro-
cess
:Will and Intellect must co-operatein the work."
Professor Thomson describes the development of
*'
a whale : When his material
body is too small to
be seen by the naked eye, dwellingin an ocean of food
the size of a pin'shead, he is a greater livingthing
than when his bulk is more than that of two thousand
men, because by that time he has outlived most of the
capacitieswhich were in that vanishingspeck of
matter with began. In that little mass
which he
of protoplasm there was something which not only
determined how every cell in his future body should
come into being,even as parts of legsand feet which
he would never use throughout his life, but keep
tucked up deep within his body ; but, doubtless
also that he should developsome thingsderived,not
from his parents,but from his grandparents."
''
Say Stewart and Tait,in their Unseen Universe,"
*'
We are led from these two great laws, as weU as
from the principle of Continuity,to regard,as at

96 SPIRIT AND MATTER

least the probable solution,that there is an
most
intelligent Agent operatingin the universe,one of
whose functions is to developthe universe objectively
considered ; and also that there is an intelligent
Agent
one of whose functions it is to developintelligence
and
life."
'^
So Professor says : Thomson
The facts of sleep
and awakening pointmore, in our opinion, to a visitor
from outside who can take up one of the two instru-
ments
as he chooses,in the human music-hall,and
can play with them any varietyof melodies,because
it is he and not the instrument who is the real cause

of the music."
'* '*
In fine,"say Stewart and Tait, we conceive
that the New Testament plainlyasserts that what
Christ accomplishedwas not in defiance of law, but
in fulfilment of it ; and that his ability to do so much
was simply due to the fact that his positionwith
reference to the universe was different from that of
any other man."
Even the virginconceptionof Jesus (which has
proved to be one of the most serious difiiculties con-
fronting

even many devout is not at all
believers) |
incredible or unscientific. Among the lower animals \
such examples are very common. Silkworms are

now habituallyhatched from virgineggs, as experi- ence
shows that they produce better fibre,and Dr
Loeb has recentlybeen hatching out starfish and
medusae indifferently by parthenogenesis, or bisexu-
ally,as he added a solution of magnesia salt or not to
the surrounding menstrum. Even among human
beingsthe productionsof largeportionsof a human
foetus,with many parts organised, from unquestion-
able
virgins, for example female infants of from two
to six years old,are not uncommon, and there are a
number of cases reportedin which whole foetuses are
found as false conceptionsin the male. Anyone
curious in these matters may read of many such cases
in Dr Gould's ''Curiosities of Medicine," a recent
''
work, or Dr Eve's Collection of Remarkable Cases in
Surgery,"publishedin 1857 by the J. B. Lippincottj
Company of Philadelphia.

MIRACLES 97

Among the cases related in the latter work, which
were operatedsurgically,are (i)a female child of two
years and nine
months .pregnant with her sister "

death ; (2) Tumour in the rectum containingthe
debris of a foetus-extirpation(thecase of a little girl
aged six years); (3) A testicle containingfat,hair-
bony and cartilaginousformations castration ; "

(4) An imperfectlydeveloped foetus in the rightC^^y^i^-U-
testicle of an infant ; (5)Foetus in a foetus. In this jj ,

delivered of six '^^^
case a young woman was a living or

seven months' child,the latter having a largemem-
branous

sac containing a placenta and a dead
foetus of about four or five months ; (6) a human
foetus developed in the mesentery of a boy fourteen
years old " death. Another remarkable case is corded
re-

at lengthin this work of
girlof a two years
and nine months old, who apparentlywas afflicted
with ascites. She died about three hours after the
doctor's arrival, and he was permittedto make a post
mortem examination. Within the abdomen was a

large membranous sac, containing between three
quarts and a gallon of semi-putridyellow water.
'*
Within this cavity was found a monster, or im-
child
perfect and also an animal substance of a whitish
^

colour. The monster weighed onepound and four-
teen
ounces. The substance weighed two ounces,
was rather of an oval figure,and was connected to the
child from which it was taken by a cord that had
some faint resemblance to the umbilical." Of this
''
the author
foetus itself, says, Its thighswere drawn
up to the abdomen, and attached to it in places; the
left resting
on the shoulder and reachingas far as the
back part of the head ; the
rightrestingor pressing
on the back of the righthand.The left legis imper-
fect,
and lies back along the thigh,to which it has
grown. The rightleg is also imperfect,its foot is
suspendedover the head. On one
are three toes ; foot
on the other a small appearance
of two. From the
knees to the shoulder there is considerable perfection
of form. Its sex is indistinctly
marked the indica-
tions "

are of the feminine. The left arm should rather
be called a stump than an arm, it has no hand ; at

98 SPIRIT AND MATTER

the end of the stump is a nail. The rightarm is large
and long,it has three fingersand the thumb. The
head is very imperfect it rests upon
*
the breast be-
tween
the knees. It has neither ears nor eyes, not
appearance of any substitute for either ; no mouth,
nor anythingthat has a near resemblance to it. There
is on the left side of the face,or rather that regionof
the head which the face should occupy, a small pro-minence
which contained three teeth,one canine and
two incisors ; they are all about the size of the teeth
of a child of two years old. On the back part of the
head is hair of dark or rather of an auburn colour,
eightor nine inches long. The body is seven inches
long and ten inches in circumference. The thighs
six to eight inches in circumference. The arm five
inches long ; the stump not quite four inches in
length."
Certain psychicalphenomena of a suggestive
character accompanied the progress of this case.
''
She was of the ordinarysize of children at her age,
had dark hair and
eyes, and would have been hand-
some,
but for a gloom and melancholy that sat upon
her countenance, which made her appearance
peculiarlyinteresting.She looked like a child of
grief.Her countenance exhibited evidences of a
good understanding,and her littletongue confirmed
it. During the last nine months of her life she had
' *
stronglymarked, the longings of pregnant females.'*
It is very credible that by mere psychicalcontrol
and the substitution of order for disorder in develop-
ment,
such an offspring might have been born living
and perfectly formed, and reached adult life,to all
appearances similar to human beings produced by
the sexual union in the normal manner. Whether
it ever occurred or not I do not know, but such an

event is not at all incredible, and may have occurred
in other cases besides the one I am considering.It is
to me, indeed,a curious fact that criticsshould have
undertaken that it could not have
to prove occurred in
Judea, by showing that similar births had been re- ported

elsewhere,and that therefore all these cases
were to be rejected.

MIRACLES 99

spoken of the dogmatic temerity of a
I have
physical specialistin dealingwith the problems of life
and mind, as foreignto him as physicalpursuitsare
to a dogmatic theologian. But there are paratively
com-

few of these physicalspecialists who will
turn on their own specialty and abuse it in the name
of a psychology of which they are, in such case,
concededly and necessarilyignorant. In fact,
instead of foulingtheir own nest, they are more apt
to conceal and pervert everythingwhich threatens it ;
''
they are ready to fightat the drop of a hat.'* But
when theologians of a certain type, filledwith a little
cheap and pinchbeck physical science, become
aroused, they bring to mind the opening words of
'' ''
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps in her Singular Life :
"
Perhaps there is no greater curiosityof its kind
than that of a group of theological students discussing
science."
Only recentlyan ecclesiasticaltrial has been going
on "
a clergyman of this type, of one of the churches
which claims its
hierarchyback to Peter,
to date
''
having written a book." This clergyman'sdefence
was that he believed the Bible,and was honest. But
*'
he wrote in his book, Jesus did not succeed because
He was born of a virginor because He was reported
to have arisen bodilyfrom the dead. These legends
concerningHim are the result,not the cause, of the
marvellous success of the man. These stories were

told of Him only because the simplefolk could in no

other way adequatelyexpress their conceptionof the
greatness of Jesus. Only a virgin-born could be as
pure Jesus; only a son of God could be as great
as

as Jesus ; only a life more powerful than death could
have the strengthof Jesus."
Now see his statement, which follows, of what he
*'
conceives to be a scientificfact. If we are told of a

certain
beingin human form, born of a human mother,
expressingconsciousness in human speech, livinga
human life and dying a human death, we naturally
predicateof such a one a human fatherhood as well as

a human motherhood, for universal experiencebears
witness to the fact that everyone who is the child of

indeed.But walking on water.which I have justconsidered. this is Hume's infidel argument against miracles.'a ' ' present past. or turning water into wine. present. George F. To overcome this presupposition.it could not advance another step. that of the critic.100 SPIRIT AND MATTER a human mother is also the child of a human father. it is evidence of something extremely weak in the mental constitution of a clergyman to have it '' revamped in the hands of a so-called Christian." The burden of proof is quite the oppositefrom if there is any God at all. the validityof universal experienceto establish a given fact. because the ideas denoted by the predicates.' are impossibiUties. Romanes and Thomas H. square. because. parallel.' two parallellines that intersect. or raisingthe dead.but none natural.are contrary to the ideas denoted by the subjects. would requiretestimony of overwhelming force. as St *' Paul has said. are plainlynot impossibilities in this sense. if science had been miraculously plantedwhere it now is. absurdity." Contrast this pseudo-scientific argument with Thomas H.round. There are impossibilities ' logical. A round square. science itself could never have had a beginning. Huxley unite in demonstratingits fallacy." Of course. not with those who assert. Huxley'snoble words on the same subject: '' Strictly I speaking.if it were valid. The burden of proof lies with those who deny. with any considerable spiritual power. . When such men as Alfred Russel Wallace. then the supposition pre- " is that He was created either differently.and if His system was enormously higher '' than the system of all other men."to attack the foundations of Christianity ! For.or.without this Our hope is vain. which is established by universal experience. if Christ was altogetherdifferent from all other men recorded in history. am unaware of anything that ' ' has the rightto the titleof an impossibilityexcept a contradiction in terms. or procreation without male intervention. For example. and. past. intersect.and which all men of science have long since abandoned.

.

physical and most writers have physico-scientific. united in accepting from a pervertedview of the smallest possible a priori J '' experience. The crucifixion is the only scrap of reason left. would lead him to say. and assumption of facts a priori.thou son of David.and which. if they had reached the stage of acceptance of religionat all.There are very few men of science who.'' in the interior of Arkansas It is said that once a expelledtheir preacherfor lying. his resurrection a lie . '' that Christus was criminal. saying. is that attitude of causation which certain theological. just as this critic has either relegated God to the same myth as Christ. the son was .'aAd not willingto public make her a example. to death as a by the rational Jewish and Roman laws. only to be acceptedby the recognition of the marvel of marvels.most scientific and common- sense of all religions of all time. fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife : for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. when properly understood. the husband was a victim of trickery.and is not directed againstthese few alleged facts of Christianity. which such critics have. justly. The only basis. but againstthe basic principle of every form of religion. Baptistcongregation .But when he thought on these things. with Tacitus. his illegitimate claims were fraudulent . Joseph.the same line of reasoning.and of this. as Romanes says. in man and outside of man." Now what the statement of this rational theologianin his own book reallymeans is that the mother was a deceiver .102 SPIRIT AND MATTER nghteous man. Its scepticismis much broader. grudges God his own Universe. was minded to put her away privily. in fact. an angelof the Lord appeared unto him in a dream. Science. givesno countenance even to such opinions at all.'' put and.or stillleft him as a surviving superstition.behold. with all its controlling spiritual powers). as the best. would not accept Christianity with all its marvels (forreligion itself is a marvel. highest. and his ascension either foolishness or blasphemy.mind and will. or when looked at by a smatterer.

consequently." asserted that he would as soon worship a wilderness of apes. " " Thoughts on Religion": agnosticismis Modern performingthis great service to Christian faith : it is silencing all rational scepticism kind." I have alreadyquoted from Huxley that "It is this weightyconsideration. of course."and much more." " Lord Kelvin speaks of the demonstrated daily miracle of our human free-will.we conceive that the New Testament plainlyasserts that what Christ accomplished was not in defiance of law. in his posthumous book. As the Lord could not make ice more than (three and half inches thick in that country. representing from the nature of the case an inherent contradiction of terms. of the a priori In every generation. it must henceforth become more and more recognisedby logicalthinking. but in fulfilment of it. in their Unseen Universe." " Stewart and Tait. in his ''Historyof Philosophy'':''There cannot. in so far as the latter impliesthe miraculous intervention of a higherpower. on his return from a clerical visit to IFort Smith. a in the jwinter. MIRACLES 103 iHe narrated. *' '* Says Benjamin Kidd. Lewes (himselfan advocate of Comte). the truth of which every- one who is capable of logical thought must surely admit." " say. in his Social Evolution : *' A rational religion is a scientific impossibility.it is a con- be a religious tradiction in terms. philosophy." Says G. .'or the efficiency of prayer. H. and the preacher was jturned out of the church for his preposterous lying." And again. In fine. in Nineteenth The Century of " February 1889. which knocks the bottom out of all a priori ' objectionseither to ordinary miracles.in dealingwith Comte's Religionof " Humanity.'* And Huxley. that he had seen men making ice a foot Ithick. Says Romanes. of the divine free-will.that all antecedent objectionsto Christianityfounded on reason alone are ipso factonugatory.to say that a man could make it a foot thick / in the summer was a tale so contrary to reason and j experienceas to be ridiculous.

" says : Incredulity is based wholly upon supposedpersonalexperience.rule that those who rejectChristianity with contempt are those who care not for religionof any kind.happily combining in one effort.but to emphasise the fact that one totallyunequipped to deal with such questionsat all should plunge in.philosophyor religion. im- which is trifling. when properlyunderstood." Professor William H.ous. equallyillustrates its nature. will now disputethe . in his " Materialism and Modern Physiologyof the Nervous '' System. too much. and to furnish others with a warningexample of how littlethey should be beguiled by such sporadicand self-conceited writers.directlyor by implication. as a mental weakness." '' Haeckel. it cannot be reasoned with. I think that few thoroughly capable men of science. I fear." and so attack that one which is nearest. is not on account of its individual portance.104 SPIRIT AND MATTER '* It is a general. in his Riddle of the Universe. by the same persons who are incredulous about some things. they are useful.if not a universal. as it is always scornful in its reliance on this often most fallacious testimony. to those who care o f not for religion any kind. .exhibitingin other things the most facile credulity." The space. This mental trait often . . and will believe nothing else.'' says : '' I recommend those of my readers who are interested in these momentous questionsof psychologyto study the profound work of Romanes/' But Romanes " says the carnally-mindedwould not be affected by any amount of direct evidence even though one rose from the dead " as indeed Christ shortlyafterwards did. Thomson.which I have givento this case.are not danger. followingalone those old-time speculators who wrote by a prioriin times when the means of actual know- ledge were not at hand . Hence. Such men. in the gratuitous effort to disruptthe foundations of a great rehgion. '' " the blatant ignorance or base vulgarity which '* Romanes applied.in like case. and the head which is highest.

MIRACLES 105 '* conclusion of Romanes.as the enemy was alreadyat the gates. Sir William ^"^*^^^ Crookes long ago reportedthat he had seen a detached /^^/". when used in the construct state. and thence to mammals (which would seem to the uninstructed to be most unnatural).and the same is true of the Synopticsso far as concerns the main doctrine of Christ Himself. unknown even to science until very recently indeed. that the progression was from grass to aquaticanimals. third. first. While much is slate-writing fraudulent. was of of a slate-writing type familiar everywhere to-day. It is late in the day to y " discredit the possibility of slate-writing. and thence to land animals . '* *' Once upon a time.impartially great textual battle [highercriticism] considered. strikingon the table with a solid body producingloud sounds.and would do so in a still higher degree. First." As regards the so-called miracle of Belshazzar's feast (and by the way. Not even prevision was required. " I may add that the fear of spontaneous genera- . have been agreed upon as genuine. it means that the beginning simply refers to beginningof the series of events the about to be described.justas old nursery tales began. there is an ample residuum of the genuine. in his home.was obvious. that grass grew before the appearance of the solar body .a signalvictoryfor Christianity.and attacking. come r/'a/f^i/'A in full daylight." But the three statements. Galatians and Corinthians./ ^^ hand down upon a table before him.that the order of development was from fish through reptilesand then birds. that the outcome of the is." and '* that the Epistlesto the Romans.bears evidence of divine revelation in a high degree. Giving Brachit its correct sense.are all strictly but were scientific. catch your hare.and the end. Even the old creation narrative in the firstchapter of Genesis.which is very ancient (but certainly not so that later one in the second chapter). second. and." or a recipe in cooking. to an observer. archaeologyhas now recovered Belshazzar and all his simply a case that doings). if it v(^ere accurately translated. as its form shows it to '* " be here employed.

And God ** said." well '' says that the deep-seated instincts of society have a truer scientificbasis than our current science. was not spontaneous at all. swarm with swarmers) . these were the minute forms of animal life in the seas.'* '' a plural.Let the earth put forthgrass. Knowing as we do that livingprotoplasm is a machine and not a chemical compound. The was ordinarytranslation is accurate enough here.'* And the earth '' broughtforthgrass. but under direct control. Infact.which seems to haunt the religious mind as an ever-presentdanger. as inexplicable as any that are charged as occurring outside.as we now know that thing every- else is. '' Benjamin Kidd.So hard-headed a materialist as Dr Hammond. '' With a God in whom we live. and used with the pluralverb. except in our own mind. are treated from quite differently these later and higher forms. so that some '' time there must have occurred spontaneous genera- tion/* which.we thus see. But now again.io6 SPIRIT AND MATTER tion/'so-called. and in God's will.except '' that the word translated God in theoriginalis Aleim. whose " *' its Derangements Sleep and was written from the *' standpointthat when the brain is quiescentthere .and that new forms of life are constantly arising.is all unnecessary." The miracles which occur within the confines of our own bodies are.'* The minute made and simple beginningsof life. we know also that life appeared comparativelyrecentlyon earth. in his Social Evolution. The mere process of metabolism is utterlyincomprehensible if we run it out to its logicalconclusion . and the mental miracles are equally incomprehensible.by the way.and move. God created the great sea- ** '' monsters fashioned them)." These were the smaller forms of terrestriallife. many times. (literally.thecareful student will see by the languageused in the beginningof Genesis that some ** " such spontaneous processemployed." And God said. ** God the beast of the field. Now here '' comes a new word.Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures*' (literally. and " have being our there is nothingspontaneous. Let the earth bringforththe livingcreature.

She has for many years been blind.*' " The phenomena attendingthe case of the Rev. who has been examined during many years by the most eminent neurologists. without the performance of any of the ordinary bodily functions. Sanders. MIRACLES 107 is no mind/' was compelled. Alabama.that the visible universe has been developedby an intelligence resident in the Unseen*:) *' Of the nature of this intelligent agency we are profoundlyignorant.D. '' to say of a somnambule. or the SleepingPreacher/'are a series of miracles. " '' the sense of sightwas certainly not employed. She did not see at least with her eyes. we have surelya living miracle. in 1876. pub- lished in a little book. without apparent sensation. They say : '' Let us here pause for a moment and consider the positioninto which science has brought us.as far as science is concerned.of Meridianville. as Dr Hammond " said of his '' case.intelligent. D. par-alysed.and yet she is bright. without food and almost without drink. and I have recentlyseen a letter received from her most beautifully and correctly written and. I was entirely satisfied that she did not see at least with her eyes/'and again.. Nor can we easily conceive information to be attainable except by means of some trustworthy communication between the beings resident in the Unseen and ourselves. C. nor were the other senses awake to ordinaryexcitations. B.in one of his clinical cases. As scientific men we are absolutelyignorantof the subject. ftn fine. or in New .as the Gnostics have supposed. as is generallybe- lieved by the followers of Christ.Y.Can scientificreasoningtell us what kind of lifewe shall find in the interior of Africa. N. So far as science can inform us. and by scientific analogy to the spirituality of this unseen. our conclusion is.. in Brooklyn. '' " Stewart and Tait in their Unseen Universe cuss dis- the question of miracles very fully. it may consist of a multitude ofbeings.entitled ''X+Y=Z." In the case of MoUie Fancher. We are led by scientificlogicto an unseen.clear. It is absolutelyand utterlyhopelessto expect any lighton this point from mere scientific reasoning. or of one Supreme Intelligence.

that the doctrine of the '* Christian system is pre-eminentlyone of intellec- tual and liberty. but on the con- trary assert the most freedom perfect for allthe powers of man. '' When dig up an ant-hill.entirely disappear. Those events are therefore no longer to be regarded as absolute breaks of continuity. It is of course assumed that the visible and invisible are and have been con- stantly in a state of intimate mutual relation.but never on both. is it not utterlyabsurd to imagine that we can know anythingregardingthe spiritual inhabitants of the unseen." The final conclusion of these writers is the follow- . unless we either '' go to them or they come to us ? These authors cite the fact.we think. but we know very well that the whole affair happens without any breach of continuity of the laws of the universe. it could.far transcendingtheir ex- perience. before explorershave been there .or if indeed any view be accepted which impliesthe presence in it of livingbeings much more powerful than ourselves." they continue. In like manner. or the North atPole.is mysteriouslyperplexing. we we perform an operationwhich. for obvious reasons.if our view of the invisible universe be accepted. and if this be so. a fortiori. difficulty For if the invisible was able to produce the present visible universe with all its energy. that while theologianson the one hand and men of science on the other. to the inhabitants of the hill.of course. '' " We have now.io8 SPIRIT AND MATTER Guinea.the early Christian their barriers to records acknowledge no such barrier.but only as the result of a peculiaraction of the invisible upon the visible uni- verse. the scientific diffi- culty with regard to miracles will. reached a stage from which very easily we disposeof any scientific can regarding miracles. usuallystudiously ignored on the one or side the other.very easilyproduce such transmutations of energy from the one universe into the other as would account for the events which took placein Judea. have each created inquiry.a thing which we have agreed to consider impossible.

.

'* in his *' Principles of Science. its followers. I am afraid there is very little science in the world outside matics. but if it unfortunately does more. with few exceptions. not to so much as mention the existence of problems of an impractic- IIO . and listening for the shout of victory which never comes. super- its followers will also hide among the rocks. from physical science. and never can come. to be physical science. and omit to point out that what they do is but an infinitelysmall part of what might be done. will hide in the recesses of the hills and in caves . bars the avenue against science with the dictum of dogma." says : I am inclined to find fault with mathematical writers because they often exult in what they canaccomplish. considered as science. like frightened sheep. is a amenable precisely the same to criticism. and denies it. Huxley found the realm physical of exact science " small as I have already quoted. nothing is to be called science but that which is exactly true from beginning to end. he says : If very .then by this denial it cuts off not only its connection with all the universals. CHAPTER XIV THE LIMITATIONS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE So long as religion.'' mathe- But mathematics. Jevons.or its pervert theology rather. must of necessity steer clear of the non-physical . bars the way against spiritualism with the dictum of a priori. and the lash of stition. and so long as science. For physical science. They exhibit a general inclination. speculating in what they cannot see. but leaves itself bare and naked when any of the great final questions are asked. or its pervert materialism rather. and the lash of anathema.

but the custom has the effect of misleading the generalpublic into the fallacious notion that mathematics is a perfect science. planets. Yet our entire solar system. the little corner of the multiplication table. unless explained. the movements of the planetsaround the sun are ously ingeni- deduced from a series of purely hypothetical movements assumed to occur within a slowly con. and there are thousands of other facts but they equallydivergent.or the incompatiblephenomena.and at all sorts of velocities.eventuallyoverturn the whole accepted cosmology as hitherto taught.*' And this concealment of the difficultproblems. turbed by outside attraction. sun. flattened sphere. For example. Just as the numbers we can count are nothingcompared with the numbers which might exist. and the allegedoriginof the planetary movements is not only inadequate to explain. This great fact alone should make pause in the theories propounded.but irreconcilable with.and yet they must. is itself moving. satellites and comets together. and finally liquefying and solidifying. trary it may be said that if a mathematical problem were selected by chance out of the whole number which might be proposed. densing gaseous. PHYSICAL SCIENCE iii able character. This may be excusable as far as the immediate practicalresult of their researches is in question.but extends to every science. for all the stars of space are themselves drifting in every conceivable direction throughout space. which has reallyan infinite extent. as it were.the probability is infinitely slight that a human mathematician could solve it.so the accomplish- ments of a Laplace or a Lagrange are. In astronomy the inexplicable and apparentlyirreconcilable facts are studiouslyignored. as a whole. almost directly to the north with a velocityand momentum enormously greaterthan all the internal movements of the system combined. and undis. but they have not done so.which accomplishes what it undertakes in a completemanner On the con- .and to nearly every popularwriter on these sub jects . . is not confined to this science. without re- gard to each other.rotatingin void space. this drift through space .

because these men not only bring true science into disrepute. or his fellow- men. as faithless to the sacred cause. The lines of human advancement are strewn with the remains of such men.112 SPIRIT AND MATTER are rarelymentioned or commented on . and the same is true of every other of the natural sciences. and manifests a strong interest in.''for the penalty is as inevitable as it is merciless. or else from lack of interest.on the contrary. some of whom were reputed great in their day and generation. As Jevons well says : ''In the writingsof some recent philosophers. as I have alreadysaid. either from a priori considerations of his own. very graphically picturedmankind. Lord Salisbury.at all times. with all its boasted knowledge and science. whatever his reputationor allegedac.for evidence againsthimself and his antecedent views . and in some degreeJohn Stuart Mill. that man. At least these and many other writers fail to impress upon their readers a truth which cannot be too .there is an erroneous and hurtful tendency to representour knowledge as assuming an approximatelycomplete character. and now lie '' unhonoured and unsung.in fact. in the pursuitof alleged facts which do not fitinto the scheme of hypothesesand theories with which he is familiar . then that man is a genuinefollower of science. There is one infallible test by which the genuine man of science may always be known : if he devotes his time and labour to. quirements may be among his followers. he closes his eyes and ears againstalleged facts. but who have been abandoned and overrun by their fellow-men or by posterity.and declines to investigate them. a genuine man of science. is not. The late President of the British Association.he is earnestlyseeking.as occupying a small oasis of dim and flickering lightin the midst of an illimitable ocean of impenetrabledarkness.especiallyof Auguste Comte. under any terms and conditions. in the truest and best sense.the observation and investigation of those residua which are not in accord with preconceivedopinion. if. but effectuallyblock its highways.which truth exacts. But if.

admirable though they all are. referred to mathematics as a perfectscience . .he can never show. PHYSICAL SCIENCE 113 constantlyborne in mind " namely. Any one . At some one or more points in past time there must have been arbitraryde. so that. advances will be made by the human intellect. because the approach of our sciences towards completenessmay be asymptotic.so that comparatively minor groups of phenomena alone remain for future investigators to occupy themselves upon. as it appears to me. the supply of new and unexplainedfacts is divergentin extent. but Jevons says : The problemswhich are solved in our ** .the earlier and largerterms of which have been successfully disposed of." Professor Huxley.indeed. there may stillremain some facts not subjectto scientific explanation. .however far we may go. consists but in the settingforth of a multitude of indeterminate problems. the more numerous and intricate are the exceptionalcases still demanding further treat. . ment. He remarks that we can probably never bring natural phenomena completely under mathematical laws.terminatio which led to the productionof things as they are. of Mr Darwin's books. The origin of everythingthat exists is wrapped up in the past historyof the universe. so that the more we have explainedthe more there is to explain. in his reply to Mr Gladstone.why anything. The further we advance in any general- isation. We . that the utmost successes which our scientific method can accomplish will not enable us to comprehend more than an infinitesimal fraction of what there doubtless is to comprehend.may rely upon it that immense. in the absence of any catastrophe to the species on the globe. and to us inconceivable. should be as it is. Why orchids should have been formed so differently from other plants.rather than in some of the other infinitely numerous possible modes of existence. He thus likens the supply of novel phenomena to a convergent series. Professor Tyndall seems to me open to the same charge in a less degree. .'' '' On the contrary.

each of these particles is for ever solving differential equations. It is no exaggeration to say that mathematicians have the least notion of the way in which they could successfully attack so difficult a problem of forces and motions. After two centuries of continuous labour. and equallyblinds them to facts just as potent. Concerning these calculations we must further remember that they are purely ap- proximate.*' *' '' And yet these are the simple means by which '' " materialists seek to do away with the complex problems of psychology. As Herschel has remarked. might belt the earth. we must be prepared to effect an unlimited number of successive integrations .under the simplehypothesisof the law of gravity. If our mathematical sciences are to cope with the problems which await solution. Nothing. is more requisite for the progress of . yet at present. than those they assume. or possiblycomes into collision with them. It is of these incompatibleresidua that Sir John Herschel has said that almost all great astronomical discoveries have been disclosed from '' the examination of residual differences. and all produce considerable effects upon each other. the probabilitythat an integration taken haphazard will come within our powers is exceedingly small. if written out in full.and their faith is of the same order of superstition. and that the methods would not apply where four or more bodies are acting. In each revolution it is successively or simultaneously under the influence of many other constituents.which. or more potent.114 SPIRIT AND MATTER mathematical books consist of a small selection of those which happen from peculiarconditions to be solvable.'' ** says Jevons. and almost beyond doubt for ever. There is reason to believe that each constituent chemical of a atom goes through an orbit in the millionth part of the twinklingof an eye. such men have no more true comprehension of the real physicalfacts behind physical phenomena than has the most ignorantand superstitious Congo African. the most gifted men have succeeded in calculating the mutual effects of three bodies each upon the other.

Do not reject well-attested narratives merely because they sound grotesque." And yet those men of science who disdain to examine these waifs. It is such anomalies that we must among look for the clues to new realms of facts worthy of discovery. In no part of physical science can we be free from exceptions and outstanding facts of which our present knowledge can give us no account. PHYSICAL SCIENCE 115 science than the careful reading and investigation of such discrepancies.' . which chanced to fall in the way of their pet theories. signifi- are not genuine men of science. They are hke the floating waifs which led Columbus to suspect the existence of the New World. but simply advocates who would pervert an argument and conceal or ignore a fact. This world suppose. One vision of her snowy '* feet is worth the labour of a life. which obviously point to the existence of some new world of science. As St John '' Stock Suppose I do find the unseen to be the says : haunt of ungrammatical ghosts. He is not a faithful lover of truth who would not go ' through dirt to meet her. what then ? It has its high life. and who heap with ridicule and opprobrium those who would interrogate these waifs and learn their hidden cance. or a multitude of facts. I as well as its low. or their publicly expressed earlier opinions. itself is vulgar or practical according to the light in which we look at it.

Sir Oliver Lodge. and all the greater physicists point out. we have one sad remark to make. in their well-known ** Unseen Universe/' in the very preface. '' as Sir John Herschel says. on a grand scale. The great majority of our critics have hibited ex- absolute ignorance as to the proper use of the term Force. as such men are usually among the exceptionally well-educated. In the hands of narrower writers it seems to have an individual identity so as to be measured bloc. G. Sir William Crookes. and the only force we can have personal knowledge of is that of volition. which we see all around us. on a minute scale. and we only recognise is but a it by seeing something change place. As professors of Natural *' Philosophy/' they say. like ice. Romanes. but. constituted as we are. en As Sir John Herschel. we can easily account for such force in the same way. and as our own volition acts. ignorance of this important question must be almost universal. Lord Kelvin. to find it properly used we must to the broadest men of go science alone. which has had one and only one definite ' scientific sense since the publication of the Princi- ' pia . we know nothing of abstract force at all. Tait. CHAPTER XV THE DARK DAYS OF PSYCHOLOGY Professors Balfour Stewart and P. or else infer that something can change place ." we cannot do so otherwise. any more than we know of abstract light or heat." Ignorance of the proper sense of this term is almost universal among scientific specialists. Force manifestation. soundwarning a against the false assump- tions '' of pseudo-science. either it has been made ii6 . much in accordance with the actions. or potatoes.

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the psychological studies of microscopiclife had scarce begun.indeed. Embryology was all unborn . This.was only a huge fire. but they would spare the universe. arrive at such a state as to be totally unfit for the habitation of livingbeings? The individual they were content to sacrifice. perhaps even the race. on the jargon of a tumbling chemistry. lectual '' men were immersed in merely physical research.and intel. who knows ? ^bywhat myriad hosts of life and intellect. not the blackness of " the night. and were all misunderstood . we should . as regards Christianity.only four years before the great societyfor Psychical Research flungits broad banner of lightacross the blackness of that night nay. and religion generally. lit with countless stars and constellations. and peopled.and in the most heartless manner continued to point towards sacrifice of the visible universe. and woven across by the shuttles of planets.ii8 SPIRIT AND MATTER to be alarmed. comparative religion w as degraded by supercilious smiles.or the paraphernalia of an exploded devil . and meteoric streams. and men's eyes were fixed. " But the clouds were indeed dark in those dark days and nights. and comets. Undoubtedly. if it be possible to pity men who could so easilydispense with Christianity and immortality.they had at length got themselves into a deplorabledilemma." Had ajiew Dean Swift emerged then. and must ultimatelyburn itself out. Nothing would be left but the ashes ^the dead and worthless body of the " present system.on the physicalbasis of life. anthropology was a thing of shreds and patches.'* This was. It was too much to be borne.if fixed at all. For the principlethey had invoked was absolutelywithout pity.they were told.and satellites. that a Genius summoned up in the very name of order should turn out to be insatiate as this ! a demon so Must the whole visible universe. the attitude of many of the leadingmen of physical science in those dark days about 1878.but the blackness of the mephitic clouds which hid and blinded men to the brilliant sky.

a signal victoryfor Christianity.in those days. And though this was less doubt- inexcusable. Since those days the cautious critic has noted a great change what would be a miraculous change " were we not able to see clearlynow that the elements of disintegration. but which. We have all more or less grown to see that Darwinism is like Copernicanism. But now all this has been materially changed.almost universal. in his lectures. which began by disintegrating spiritualism.in his satirical New Republic..I stillthink that the rational stand- ing of Christianity has materiallyimproved since then.glad to point out in prophecy.in explainingthe error under which he lay when he wrote his earlier work ('*The Candid Examination of Theism''). Moreover.in this respect .'* makes one '^ of his most brilliant characters say.etc. Not only the book of organic nature. ** Mallock. THE DARK DAYS OF PSYCHOLOGY 119 not have to amuse ourselves with his embattled and philosophers. For then it seemed that Christianity was destined to succumb as a rational system before the double assault of Darwin from without and the negativeschool of criticism from within. . Christianity took three hundred years to supplant polytheism".impartially considered.says. seemed to be declaring againstit. those men of science who foughtto the death over whether cakes and vegetablesshould be cut in trianglesor in squares. which was published " in 1878. and whose most earnest pursuitswere to extract the sunshine out of cucumbers so as to use it over again. IngersoUwas. G. instead. and never considered it at all as having any rational bearingon the questionof Theism." We all know how Colonel R.I took it for granted that Christianity was played out. bore within themselves their own integration dis- and by virtue of the very agency which was invoked to destroyreligion. atheism has taken thirty to supplantChristianity/' Romanes himself. that within few years every Christian church was a to be converted into a music hall. but likewise its own sacred documents. while the outcome of the great textual battle is. Theinfection was. apparently.

and how long she takes you about it. and of the exact laws it travelled by. they merely avoided or put aside the difficulty. I complain of it because it does not study '' her. Even in those dark days. When God said. '* When they attemptedto rank them as matter " heat. in his same ''New Republic.. though of course far less directly obvious to our senses as such.as caloric ^theyat once fell into " errors.something which has at least as much claim as recognition matter toas an objective reality. Mallock.the clearest-headed fully perceived the utter inadequacyof the weapons forged to attack the spiritualism of the unseen universe. you can analyse her in your test-tubes. Yes.as he saw this. Let there be light. but can you see her with your own eyes. or stuff as necessary to objective existence very naturallyarises from ordinaryobservations on . and left it as a monument of that dangerous partialknowledge from which men are now turningin horror. and therefore much later in being detected. etc. The idea of substance. Pray do not think that I complain of this generation because it studies Nature. So long as men spoke of light.heat. which you wise men are at such infinite painsto dis- cover . or receive her into your own souls ? You can tellus what she makes her wonders of.which " you take no painsto discover at all ? *' Say Stewart and Tait : It is only within the last thirtyor fortyyears that there has graduallydawned upon the minds of scientificmen the conviction that there is something besides matter or stuff in the physicaluniverse.of the exact velocityit travelled at. or was he thinkingof something else. and God saw that it was good was he thinking. as imponderables. and ' lightwas. say. from which a closer scrutinyof experimental results would assuredlyhave saved them. you can spy her out in your micro-scopes .120 SPIRIT AND MATTER destroyedits own old materialism for ever. for instance." he went on. But cannot tell us these wonders what are like when they ' are made.who frequentlylectured *' before the Royal Institution.'* makes another of his characters. electricity.and how she makes them.

perfectly natural . in his tion Interpreta- of Nature. and since this *' was impossible. if it becomes devoted to its ends.the invisible is sure to be with him the non-existent. utterlyunlike those with which he is accustomed to see emotion expressed. their methods beingthe onlyones known to them. THE DARK DAYS OF PSYCHOLOGY 121 matter . '' Professor Shaler.that he can attain much in certainty his observations. in most cases. for they were compelledto bridgethe breaks physically. " This endeavour to assigna substantive existence to every phenomenon is. With the naturalist it is the idol of clearness. customed Ac- to see all with which he deals. creates an idol of prejudice in the mind. as it is now pursued.. Moreover. and as there could be little doubt of the physical reality of heat. etc.of course. and this led to a stillgreater error. he can only infer the mental constitution of the creature from its acts.'' by alteringfiguresin every column. or cancelling those entries incompatible with their methods and purposes.that is created. and their purposes merely to present a sum-total which would satisfy the uninstructed observer. for they had nothingelse to work with. but on that account very likely to be wrong/* While naturalists turned their attention only to the physical.light. tends to blind him to the observation of such obscure thingsas the mental phenomena of nature. and these acts are performed by parts that are. and making false entries.they necessarily ignored everything non-physical. It is only when the creatures belong to the upper part of the animal kingdom and are akin to himself in the nature of their emotions and their modes of expression.these matters were in earlytimes at once set down as matter." says: "That which the naturalist sees of animal mind he sees at an immense tage. Every pursuit.he cannot perceivethe mind of any being directly .of Harvard. what we might perhaps better call the idol of evident fact. disadvan- In the first place. Every now and then some experiencetells him that the invisible element in the operationof this life is really greater .they were obliged to force the balance-sheet. the whole trainingof the naturalist.

His life must be in the open day of plainly seen things. Every teacher in this field of inquiryfinds himself subjectto frequent interrogations as to the measure of his belief in a future life.** he says. for instance. and those mainly of the class that did not enter on the study of zoologyby the anatomic path. and why ? Simply because they know nothing about the facts which pertainto the solution.it is obvious that an these physicalspecialists are of all scientific men those least qualified to discuss the spiritual.and he readily discovers that his answers have an undue weightwith those who hear them. ignoramus. which it will hand down to the beingswhich are to come from it. apparently no more specialised than a small bit of calf's-foot jelly. There are few naturalists. *' '' The attitude of scientific men. who have shown any skill in the study of the mental parts of animals. wards to- the doctrine of the personalimmortalityof the soul appears to be a matter of much interest to the public. they Rush in where angelsfear to tread. and shun this indefinite field." With equipment like this. They are agnostic. yet he knows that it is charged with the historyand the profitof a hundred million years of life.they transgress the limits of their clearlydefined field.the little transparent sphere of the egg. There is hardly sufiicient reason for this desire to ascertain the views of naturalists concerninga problem which clearlylies beyond their province.*' Professor Shaler clearly sets forth their utter in-capacity to even discuss such questions. which he may have at any hour of his work. and by virtue of not seeing '^ the soul in the dissected carcass. He sees.and enter wildernesses which they have no rightto tread. as men of science. the naturalist must bow before the matter-of-fact.Yet they are usually the firstand loudest to deny a future life. If . The rules of their calling limit them to considerations which have a placein the phenomenal world they go far from the alone. Despitethese lessons. If facts with which they have to deal.122 SPIRIT AND MATTER than the visible element.

It seems now as if the end of the long dispute between the materialists and the spiritualists soon come to an end through the growing viction con- may of physicists that all matter is but a mode of action of that the physical universe is not energy . other words. were put forth in the days when naturalists had but begun their quiries in- in the phenomenal world.'' " Again." . there was no soul because they could not find it with the knife or weigh it in the balance. they must make them essay without the semblance of authority. In fact. The sturdy.'* '* There is abundant room. for spiritual truths in the universe. whatever are but manifestations of In powers. self-satisfied denials of mortality im- the confident statements of men who said . THE DARK DAYS OF PSYCHOLOGY 123 they journeys there. our modern physical science is ever tending from the crude conceptions of matter held by away the ancients. the students of nature are now nearer to those who have trusted to the divining senses than ever before. which are inert except when stirred by the dynamic that all phenomena powers ." this eminent says man '* of science. a congeries of atoms.

if he would avoid that. be deterred from her pursuit by any grotesque narratives or absurd behefs . It is not only among the vulgar that the pursuer meets with the grotesque .*' says Jevons. The nature of continuous quantity leads us into extreme difficulties. Scientific method leads us to the inevitable conception of an infinite series of successive orders of infinitelysmall quantities. must begin and end with the laws of thought. and until conquered the whole field is inscrutable. of science must not. the true student. CHAPTER XVI THE CREDULITY OF INCREDULITY The earnest student. there is nothing impossible in the existence of a myriad universes within the compass of a needle's point. it is inscrutable until investigated. it seems quite as easy." Under such circumstances. and its suns and planets. at least. cannot. A prioriis the only fatal attitude . you will never know it until you have conquered it. and the inscrutable means either the superstitious or the unconquered. ** " Scientific method. If the former. even the ghost of Benjamin Franklin as a mere survival from his conceded earthly existence 124 . Tap nature where you will. that kills at the first footfall. it is here pre-eminently that the field of genuine science lies. in number and variety unlimited. as a phenomenon of rational psychology. each with its stellar systems. Science does nothing to reduce the number of strange things that we may believe. but it does not follow that it will save us from encountering in- explicab and at least apparently contradictory results. When fairlypursued it makes absurd drafts upon our powers of comprehension and belief. to accept. If so. he must steer clear of science.

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or makes its own knowledge and extent of observation the standard and test of probability. and then everybody can see and laugh at the maverick strain. as a scientifictask. pronounced the word impossible^ is wanting in prudence. to criticisethe art. as vulgar as for those of the *' new-rich " (whom we ridicule). he has learned from experience not to make his own knowledge his test of probability.literature or acquirementsof their new ings. which reasons upon imperfectdata. by so-called scientific is. a man of cultivated mind is influenced by the recollection that many thingsat one time appeared to him marvellous which he now knows to be true. and he thence concludes that there may in nature still be phenomena and many many with which principles entirelyunacquainted. he is In other words. Nor especially is the investigation difficult. That one who. in his Intellectual Powers.'* '* says : An unlimited scepticism is the part of a con- tracted mind.'* '' Arid Abercrombie. One would not be able to say as much of incredulity." In fact. The scientific pursuitis a noble one to . Occasionally they get to quarrelling among themselves. simply vulgar. Reserve is above all a necessity when he is dealingwith the animal organisation.In receiving upon testimony statements which are rejected by the vulgaras totally incredible. specialists look at it as we may.this denial without practical knowledge. surround- You be astonished would to know how much vulgarityof this sort exists among so-called scientific who specialists go outside their own narrow feeding- grounds.dogmatic science. outside pure mathematics. when raised from indigenceand ignorancesuddenlyinto an atmosphere far above their training and capacity. Says Arago (Annual Bureau of Longitudes): '* Doubt is a proof of modesty.126 SPIRIT AND MATTER asks is to be examined and . the investigated quences conse- are abundantly able to take care of them- selves. and it has rarely injured the progress of the sciences. The dogmatism theologyfinds a full counter- of part and co-worker in her newer sister.

but specialties always narrow the field of vision of the specialist. Alfred Russel Wallace appliesthis criticism with stunning force againstDr Carpenter. I and his lastingfame.Curator in the Imperial Academy of . and the time for dogmatism has not yet come. No honest man could have passed them over without mention.'' The names and facts thus suppressedor ignored by Dr Carpenterwent to the very heart of Carpenter's book. or an attempt even to controvert them but Dr Carpenterwas " unable to controvert these already publishedfacts.Dr Ragsky. the work is grand beyond comparison. Professor of Chemistry. Professor of Clinical Medicine. and will not come for ages. owing to his limited space that.in a work of over 700 pages. Dr Huss. who were entirelyignored by Dr Carpenter.'' he nevertheless boldly attempts to settle the whole i questionof the realityof such facts. if at all.and Physicianto the King.Professor of Botany."as the Chinese say. I *' It is. Stockholm.Vienna.for they were versally uni- *' known. Vienna. referring to the close of the fourth chapter of his '' elaborate work on Mental in which Physiology.the result is only to raise up a host of other unexplainedfacts.or save it from merited condemnation. Dr Diesing. at the expense of his scientific standing. and so saved his face. Dr Endlicher. THE CREDULITY OF INCREDULITY 127 espouse. prolific must be the effort to conceal those unpalatable facts which do not fall into the category of some half-wrought-out hypothesis. '* As Professor Jevons well says : It might be readilyshown that in whatever direction we extend our investigations and successfully harmonise a few facts. and how in stillgreater difficulties.we suppose.were such as Dr Gregory. The men of science referred to by Mr Wallace. none of the well- attested facts his views could opposed to be brought to the notice of his readers.the fruits are alreadypriceless and vast. Professor of I Chemistryof the Universityof Edinburgh.'* How fatal to the of scientificadvancement cause then.or to ignore those which alone would make the work worth doing.

and a number of others. Dr Edwin Lee. but the credulity a nd ignorance many of those of who are most devoted to spiritualism..that has retarded the growth of scientificinvestigation and acceptance of spiritual- ism.when dead.Dr Mayo.and of Comparative Anatomy in the Royal College of Surgeons. Dean of the Collegeof Medicine at Lyons. Schofield. Dr Clark. says these latter are generallypeople of low intellect. Pauthot. Mr H. incredulous positions. Trevillian.and.S..S.and to disbeHeve it is to beheve an oppositething. Dr Haddock.G." How shall we designatethe former class ? Shall we call them of high intellect. dis- and strong nerves ? We must guard our terminologyif we should attempt to do this.Mrs Ross Church (who aided Sir William Crookes in his studies of the Katie King '' Phenomena). M. unless after a fair trial and evidence as complete as possible. and weak nerves.commencing with his '' Force of Mind. F.weak-nerved.at Vienna.crowded with citations.Sir Walter G. To believe a thingis to beheve that thing.King's College. Those who deny everything without investigationare well matched by those who accept everythingwithout investigation. and very bad fortune." had not appeared. tellect as the other credulity.while living. as they are on every page from the highest '' authorities (see his Unconscious Mind "). credulous dispositions. but that was Carpenter's good fortune. and their consequent unfairness. nearly every one of which would have negativedall the seven hundred pages of Dr Carpenter's ''Mental Physiology.indeed. G. one credulityis just as credulous. But it is not only the credulityof scientific specialists.C.R. Atkinson. Gamier.128 SPIRIT AND MATTER Natural History.because incredulity itself is simply credulity.for credulity is ever unfair. and of as low in.How many of you have thought of this dominating truth ? Yet it is .There is no real difference between them.*' the series of wonderful books by Dr Alfred T. Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. '' When Dr Carpenter wrote his Mental Physiology. Physicianof the Medical Collegeof Montpelier.

by means of careful and continued attempts among any few selected friends . '* has been fullyheard. The same principles which we in apply universally acquiringand ing extend- all knowledge.or ought to. between man and wife. and in a host of ways by which fraud and deceptioncan be as excluded rigorously as in any other branch of life and knowledge nay " more.that much dependence is justlyplaced it is incredible " that a vast multitude of witnesses. On this abilityto sift out truth is based the whole system of our jurisprudence. Not that there is not much in the public phenomena and per- formances of which spiritualism is fraudulent and tricky. But this is true of all things which come under the cognisanceof mankind. and trifling with the holiest emotions of sorrowing and bereaved friends. can It is on the accumulation and co-ordination of evidence. THE CREDULITY OF INCREDULITY 129 fullyrecognised by science. of all ages and all countries. out of an untruthful witness even. the unquestionable truth be wrung.should always be able to lie in precisely the same way about an innumerable multitude of apparently accidental facts. notwithstanding.and incredible . for here we meet with conditions which prove the facts by the silent sense of conviction or evidence within each one of us.and through human subjects with which studied deceptionwould be abominable. by care and skill. the pro and con of credulity. from that attitude evidence. as I may call them. are equallyapplicablehere. and the case is greatlysimplified by the fact that the experiments can be repeated.'' as it is called . incline the mind to one side or the other. But the classes I have referred to. or suspensionof judgment. is doubt. are altogetherand equally outside the pale of science. and yet. the truth can be obtained and recognisedeven in a world so deceptiveat firstsightas this world is. ceiving the people. whereby.independentevidence.as it is presentedand accumulates.nor that the allegedresults are not often the productionsof those who have made a study of de.will.as Arago long since until the evidence stated : the only correct attitude.and similar results obtained. .

distort or prevaricate in order to support a preconceived hypothesis. and spiritualists are themselves asking each other in anxiety " what shall be done when the great rush for cover comes ? " ^when those who have so long stood in the forefront of the opposing forces have and with that come over en masse easy ^ with which we are all so well acquainted. become so great that the danger is of too swift now. And the dark. when only their own self -held cloaks hold with- the light. or establish an a priori proposition " that is what spiritualists object to. cry and always said and that their great and only so. to juggle with words and phrases. assurance. an advancement. SPIRIT AND MATTER 130 For men of science to ignore all this to walk in " darkness. cause of complaint has been that the spiritualists themselves never went half far enough ? . to conceal. to work offal into food. out that they have always believed in its truth. when the whole universe teems with living sustenance. disgraceful day is rapidly passing The momentum has away.

and in consequence (as in the overturning consequent on the newer discoveries relatingto matter. while they very much facilitate the business and system of life.and having made this assumption of what it does not understand. then science takes the physicalmani. Wherein science has failed in achievement is in dealingwith the very foundations on which it stands.I do not wish it to be understood that nothing has been gained in these various sciences. or of which they boast. This of course does not touch the primary ceptions. the gainshave been enormous.when these residua. and which attracts little attention because it is about something familiar even to the unscientific. con- or their assumptions. festations of the moment. and have immeasurably advanced life and civilisation.have been actuallyinvestigated. and the older assumptions have to be aban- 131 . for these achievements are those of systematicweighing and measuring " that is to say.etc. But these are not the sort of achievements of which the scientific specialists feel especially proud. simplydescriptiveand do " not advance our actual knowledge of nature to any considerable extent. or of the physicalsciences in general.. presentingthemselves at hand.or foundations rather. and simplygivesus their weightsand measure- ments. On the contrary.).etc. In every case it starts with a simple superstitious assumption. the X-rays. the whole system of weights and measurements requiresre-vision. radium.which it never seeks to account for. electricity. CHAPTER XVII PHYSICAL SCIENCE CANNOT EXPLAIN ITS OWN BASES In considering the achievements of science.

granting gravitation.or how a peacock'stail builds up a series of perfecteyes out of hundreds of separate feathers. the varieties.but it does not explainwhat a solid body is or can be. and other interpretations to account for the phenomena of the now assumed new bases.. but it '' " had nothingto do with the how and why of these various creatures. brown in summer. It is descriptive science pure and simplewhich it really deals with. and not half as much as pertainsto an Arctic animal which. science is profuse. with other assumed bases. science has given us its scale of attractions..of animal life . etc. but the different behaviourof these various substances do not constitute laws. or descriptive '' mineralogy. and So of liquids. turns white in winter. and the tables or rules of its various physicalphenomena.then biology quite unexpectedly popped into existence.or what was formerly called natural history. its achievements here are infinitesimal. colours.132 SPIRIT AND MATTER doned.chemical properties. and the habits and customs of animals.''It was extremely useful to man . and mapped out.hardness. combinations. each with its thousands of separate branches. and a new start made. the species.etc.the genera.'* while we think it is dealing with real things. it planned. like descriptive botany. finally. For example. Until recently the study of the forms and structures. so of all the hard. the political divisions as it were. the When. and suddenly and . the habits and customs. basic facts of nature . and as soon as biologybecame a livingthing. Granting solid bodies. as geographers do.it led the searchers back and back. Now this natural historywill illustrate what I mean. skin.constituted what '' went under the name of natural history. jointsand hair and the like. of animal life ultimate questions came to be searched out (almostaccidentally). but in givingwhat are called the laws of this.or the laws of that. but it does not explainwhat gravitation is or can be.it gives us their weights.any more than the behaviour of cats and dogs. so of gases . and illustrated.

.

all science really rests on certain prior assumptions transcending scientific proof. as in strictness we should. " characterised as atheistic.positivism.134 SPIRIT AND MATTER greedy and superstitious public(superstitious when they want to beheve what they would like to believe).is our guarantee to the contrary.as the inmost nerve and essence of thought. there never was in the cosmos nor ever can be. as materialism. And this belief is confirmed by science. What is the justice of the charge ? It depends on what we mean by science and what by atheism. or how it can grow. or can prove that phenomenon A causes phenomenon B : yet we all believe in the realityof causation." Science does not even know how a blade of grass grows. a knowledge of the laws of phenomena. A state of chaoi".*' Says Dr Warschauer. . and would make us agnostics on many thingsbesides religion. whatever may have been the crude beliefs of men. .in our days. evolution then it depends " on what these several philosophies conclude respecting the First Principle and Ultimate Realityof things.existence of God The as the eternal support of the universe. . in his ** ** ^' Anti-Nunquam : No method of investigation known to the laboratory has ever laid bare the process " ^which yet we shall be scarcely called upon to deny " by which nerve stimuli are transmitted into sensations or ideas . then science is not and cannot be atheistic. If we mean by science. It is clear that Huxley's agnostic formula breaks down justbecause it proves too much.what those who bringforward the charge mostly mean namely. . the discoveryof which is the business of science. of Oxford and Jena. their regularsequences and conjunctions. of scientific observation no amount and experimentfurnishes us with more than the know- ledge that certain phenomena are regularly followed by other phenomena. no matter what ' meaning we attach to atheistic* But if we mean by science. some " of the philosophies fessedly pro- based on the conclusions of science. Moreover. I will quote the followingfrom Professor Graham's *' '' '' Creed of Science : Science is often.

" Says Masson. " finitesimally minute creatures which the microscope reveals to us swarming in and among the mere stices inter- of things till invisibility is reached. . The dog's world seems to corroborate man's. The chasm between the two classes of phenomena would still remain intellectually impassable. excluding matter or opposed to it. . Were we able even to see and feel the very molecules of the brain. we should be as far as ever from the solution of the '' problem. all busily existing from those in." And even Biichner. all their groupings. within our view. and the last and highest of the visible scale. and intimately acquainted with the corresponding states of thought and feeling. and feelinggeneralised on this not only our sport but all our action proceeds. rank materialist as he was. countless gradations of sentiency.'' and adds. but in such manner that all can co-operate ? '' There are. was compelled to concede that **we do not know how spirit can be defined anything else than as as thing some- immaterial in itself. and follow all their motions. and man's world the dog's. up to our- selves. . all their electric charges dis- if such there be. UNEXPLAINED BASES 135 '' Says Tyndall : The passage from the physics of the brain to the corresponding facts of consciousness is unthinkable. in his lectures before the British '' Royal Association : The fact may be dwelt on that. where the means of comparison among animals exists. Is not this as if there were a basis of independent reality to which every sentiency helped itself according to its appetite. the chief possessors of the earth. Must this position sup- " be closed abruptly when we come to Man ? . notions of the phenomenal world possessed by one do not seem to contradict those possessed by another.

CHAPTER XVIII

THE AMERICAN AND ALL OTHER PATENT SYSTEMS,
FOUNDED ON SUPERNORMAL PHENOMENA

I HAVE spoken of the various sorts of evidence in
favour spiritualism religious, psychological,
of "

philosophical,anthropological and scientific.
But there is a mass of direct evidence in favour
of the supernormal to which I have not yet referred
which is perfectly overwhelming and indisputable,
which is accepted by every court in Christendom,
and is well known to lawyers, but of which science is
in utter ignorance, while yet science itself acts as the
humble handmaiden and assistant of these enormous

results of direct spiritualrevelation. Not only that :
the well-being of all our people is so closely interwoven
with these revelations that one half their tangible
property and more than half their prosperity is
directly due and dependent on these supernormal re- velations.

The question is often asked, if supernormal
revelations are true, why do the spirits not tell us
something of use, instead of chattering like old women
or curates ? Here we have use enough, and results
enough to convince the most sceptical and satisfy
the most avaricious. Yet it is purely secular, so that
superstition cannot discredit it on the one hand, nor
sectarian religioncondemn it on the other, while, as I
have said, science is running all its workshops to
scatter its beneficent results broadcast over the world.
Many years ago the cash market value of these
revelations in the United States alone was estimated
at more than ten thousand million dollars, with an

annual increase of more than twenty per centum.
If these revelations and their practical results
throughout the world were utterly eliminated, the
136

THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEMS 137
world would instantlyfall back more than two
thousand years into barbarism.
Yet I do not know that this great body of irrefut-
able
evidence has ever been handled as a whole, and

flung en masse against the intrenchments of
materialism,empiricism or devitalised Christianity.
This is what I propose, in a few words, to do.
Science does not deal with invention ; invention
is finding ^not
a "
a findingout, but a finding; and a
new discoveryis not a reasoningout, or something
picked up from books or people; but something
newly uncovered from the mass of utterlyunknown
things.
To illustrate the cash market value of asingle
one of these supernormal revelations,
the right to
practically use which for a few years inured to the
recipient and his legalrepresentatives alone,I quote
the following from a magazine article on the invention
and use of the telephone: "

''
The decision that made this condition possible
was a most tragicthing. It meant hundreds of
millions of dollars to a small group of men in Boston
and ruin to hundreds who had embarked in the tele-
phone
business under one or the other of the inter-
fering
patents. But, of far graver
importance even
than this,it meant the stifling
and monopoly of a
publicutilitythat,under free competition,would have
saved thousands of millions to the people of the
'^
United States.
The case was simply this
of persons : a number
claimed to have each been the first, true and sole
inventor of the telephone,a thing never known to
anyone on and its mechanical
earth before, reduction
to practice.The contestants in the interference had
the publicrecords of the allegedfirst discoveryor
invention before them, and then claimed to have
previously made the same invention. Only one could
have done so first, and the whole case before the
United States Supreme Court was not to determine
who would secure advantage, or who sustain loss,
but simply to determine who was the first to find out
and put into useful form with diligence, the first

138 SPIRIT AND MATTER

working telephonethe world had ever known, used,or
conceived, and then give publicnotice,and secure
protection in the legalmanner provided.
Science deals with reason, induction, deduction,
observation, experience, necessity,classification,
weightsand measurements, modifications and applica- tions,
and the like, but never with invention. Science
deals with interpretation, not with creation. tion,
Inven-
on the part of a man of science,spells condemna-
tion
of science and its methods. Nature wants to be
courted,not superseded; she wants a follower,
not a

critic ; she wants a lover,not a dreamer. That is
what physicalnature asks for from
physicalscience.
And what is asked
for from materialistic philosophy
is the interpretation of the phenomena of nature, not
its supersession.But this new evidence deals not at
all with what physical science deals with, and nothing
at all with what philosophy deals with, but comes
*'
down like a flash,
strikes like a bolt from the blue,'*
suddenly, completely, overwhelmingly, and stantaneou
in-
" and almost at once new money
makers are spinning and speeding all through the
land, new kinds of industryspringup like enchant-
ments,
and man's horizon broadens and broadens,
''
with newsky-lightand star-light, and the world
and all that therein is,the round world and they that
dwell therein,"are transformed for ever and ever.
Suppose thatwere true,would not that be evidence ?
It is true and it is evidence ; and science and religion
have only missed it because it comes unheeded, like
Tennyson's flower growing in the crannies of the old
stone wall :

**
I hold you here, root and all,in my hand.
Little flower but if I could understand
"

j
What you are, root and all,and all in all, J
I should know what God and man is." ,/
I will not puzzle you any longer; you would
never guess it ; it is the patent system, and the army
of patents,eighthundred thousand strong in this one
country alone. I refer to the American,
specifically
but it is equally true of the patent systems of all
other nations.

THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEMS 139
Not eighthundred thousand patents
one of these
could have been granted, not one of them could
have been sustained if it depended on any one of
those factors with which the physical sciences or
materialistic philosophy deal.
A new device which is the result of reason, or duction,
in-
deduction,or observation,or experience,
or

or necessity or weightsand
or classification, measures,
or modifications applications, or interpretations
and
of known nature, is not a patentableinvention at all,
cannot be patented,and, if inadvertently patented,
the patent will be thrown out by the first United
States Court it is brought up to appear before.
This is not a new thingto courts and lawyers,nor
to inventors, to their sorrow, when make-believes,but
it will sound so strange to you perhaps that it will
appear ridiculous. You will say : Why, look around
everywhere ; everything pretty nearly has been
patented or mixed up with patents, and they all
embody well-known scientific principles and applica-
tions.
So they do, but they didn't beforehand.
You know of the old farmer urginghis grown-up but
bashful son to hunt up a suitable girl and get married.
*'
To his tearful protest the old man said : Why,
what's the matter with you ? Didn't I have to get
" **
married too Yes," came ? hopelessresponse, the
''
but you married mother, and you want me to go
out and marry a strange gal."

I have said that patentableinventions came down
''
like a bolt from the blue," and that reason had
nothing to do with them. You will find that reason
is not merely indifferefnt, but is an actual obstacle
to invention,which is intuitional,instantaneous,ex-traneous

and revelational.
"
briefly
I shall quote from Merwin's PatentabiHty
of Inventions,"a standard authorityon patent law,
one of the highest in fact,and from some of the
United States Circuit and Supreme Court decisions
bearing on these points. I quote first the follow-
ing
:"
''
An idea is not an if it be
invention, in the nature
of an inference."

140 SPIRIT AND MATTER
"
Whatever is logical
deduction from something
else is not invention/'
''
Reasoning is not invention."
"
An inference drawn from the known ships
relation-
of thingsis not invention/*
''
Inference is not invention/'
''
Analogous use is not invention/*
from special
'MJtility knowledge of the properties
of bodies is not invention/*
''
Size or extension is not invention/*
''
Improvement in degreeis not invention/*
''
Change of arrangement is not invention/*
"
Knowledge of physicalfacts invention/* is not
*'
Union of different devices is not invention/*
''
The summary is as follows It appears, then,
:
"

that the process of mind called for by the statute
is not that of ordinaryreasoning,
or inference,
or
deduction. Whenever the mind advances from the
known to the unknown by a transition natural to the
uninstructed
ordinary, intellect,there is no invention.
then,is a criterion
Inference, of what is not invention/*
It is clear then that invention is not scientific;
it is the oppositeof science,for the above definition
of what is not invention is precisely
the correct finition
de-
of what science is.
*'
I will now quote from what Merwin calls The
**
test of what is invention/* The phrasesused by the
**
he
courts,** says, to describe invention are very few ;
' * '
Inventive genius; the geniusof an inventor ; the
* ' *
inventive faculty ; invention as from
distinguished
' *
mechanical or technical skill ; invention as tinguished
dis-
' *
from construction ; ingenuity as trasted
con-

with judgment of a skilled workman/*
the
*' *'
Invention,** he says, is thus difficult to define,
because the idea expressedby it is a simpleand ele- mentary
one. Invention,as we have alreadyhinted,
is that process of mind which creates. It is the giving
birth to a new idea capableof physical embodiment.'*
^.. Consider these momentous words, create givebirth. ,

''Invention means," says the distinguished author,
*'
a lawyer writingfor lawyers and courts, something
that no other word means, it is the creating of some-

142 SPIRIT AND MATTER

reason has been thrust aside, and its conclusions
ignored,nay, denied.'*
''
then is in the nature of a guess.
Invention The
mind leapsacross a logical chasm. Instead of ing
work-
out a conclusion, it imaginesit.'*
"
The nature of this creative guess," this
"
"
imaging of what is to be but never has been,which
will operateas a mechanism when it is afterwards put
into material form for the
time, cannot come first
from the personal,physicalman himself,with his
sum-total of reason, observation and experience. He
finds the integration complete,and put into his hands
ready for use. What worked out these integrations,
and gave to him only the beneficent and complete
conclusion ? There is an integratingpower far
beyond our highest conceptions.Says Sir John
Herschel,of these integrations, even among physical
''
atoms, Their movements, their interchanges, their
' ' ' '
hates and loves,' their attractions and repulsions,'
'
their correlations,' and what not, are all determined
on the very instant. There is no hesitation,no
blundering, no trial and error. A problem of dynamics
which would drive Lagrange mad is solved instanter.
A differential equation which, algebraically written
out, would belt the earth, is integratedin an eye-
twinkle."
The flash of these inventions comes sometimes
in a dream ; so the method of
making shot came, in a

dream, like a flash,
to an ignorantwoman, the wife of
a shot-moulder,and revolutionised the art of shot-

making in an instant. I know other cases of valuable
inventions revealed in sleep. This is why great
inventions are usuallymade those totally
by outside
the realm to which their discoveries pertain. Those
in the rut work by reason and fail ; to those outside,
in due time, for the wants of man, there comes the
flash of inspiration,and the world rolls over on to a
new facet,and a new lightis kindled for all time.
Says the United States Circuit Court, in the case
''
of Blandy vs, Griflith, Invention bringsinto activity
a different faculty. Their domains are distinct."
Says the United States Supreme Court in the

THE AMERICAN PATENT SYSTEMS 143
"
Reckendorfer case, Mechanical skill is one thing,
invention is a different thing. The distinction tween
be-
mechanical skill and its convenience and
advantages and inventive is recognised in
genius,, all
cases."
'* ''
Invention," says Merwin, is characterised by
an absence of conscious effort and by instanteousness
of operation."
''
Imagination, here, seizes upon the true, though
extra logical, conclusion."
''
An intuition is a single,indecomposable, mental
act ; an inference is a mental passage from one thing
to another."
*'
Invention is an act of vision. There is no vention
in-
until performed this act is ; but no effort
can ensure its performance, and the performance is
instantaneous, and unaccompanied by conscious
effort."
'^
thought or experiments which precede an
The
invention are only gropings in the dark. However
accumulated, they prove nothing, and they do not
necessarilylead to anything. The inventive thought
does not depend upon them, and cannot be verified
by them. Reasoning is unravelling, and invention
weaving. Reasoning is an analytic,invention a

synthetic process. In one case a truth is drawn out ;
in the other it is constructed,'*
If this synthesis, if this con-
weaving, if this
struction,

if this materialised vision,was never before
in or of mankind, then it was from something outside
mankind, and, as it was the result of a mental vision,
it was psychical ; if,on the contrary, this weaving,
this synthesis,this construction, was ever before in or
of mankind, then it was not an invention, not a new
discovery,not patentable,and not sustainable even if
patented. It must answer to the test of the Ancient
Mariner :

"We were the first that ever burst, into that silent sea.''

^ L^U'h7^--'M/
"4 o*^ #^ J^r-
"W^ ^A?M^

CHAPTER XIX

THE WORKSHOP IN THE SUBCONSCIOUS DEPARTMENT
OF THE MIND

Badly stated,
as I have,for brevity,
been compelled
to do, I ask you each
must individually to think this
of invention out.
question You will find its springs
inevitablyin the sources of genius,inspiration,
mediumship,clairvoyance and spiritualism. I speak
from experience. It comes up from the depthsof the
subconsciousness, of course, but if the subconscious-
ness
is an originalcreator it is so by its direct connec-
tion
with the greatpsychismof the universe. As it is
so rare a phenomenon, it is more likely that it comes,
as Swedenborg, and Von Hartmann, and other great
psychologists, agree, from influx or revelation.
If it was among
new men, it could not have come
telepathic allyfrom any other living man, or else we
will have to try to imaginewhere that one got it, but
it might have come from
telepathically, surviving
spirits of those once living, and who, inspired with the
inventive facultyon earth,have, in their greater
freedom after death,worked the problem out, and
put, for the welfare of their unforgotten race, the
conclusion, like a flash,by a vision,in the still
watches of the night,into those receptive hands.
It would be worthy work for those gone before.
And, somehow, this seems more reasonable to me,
though I may be wrong, than that the Great Spirit
of the Universe should be concocting, for some
iiindividual man here, the vision of a sewing-machine

or a phonograph. Universal instincts, whether
among insects or higher, or lower, animal or vegetable
lifeI can readily conceive of as directly implantedby
creative wisdom to make the gift and transmission of
144
\

it has often been un. I saw the heavens . that poor Unk With earth is broken. where she Was married too. the babe " She lean'd to from her spiritualsphere. I have often gone down the deep shafts. with which to start mankind along.and once went down my father's well.'* When alittlechild. there must stillbe that love of our own livingones left behind which would enlist their efforts. which will illustrate my meaning. but I feel sure that. courage. truth. tillshe sees Her maiden coming Uke a queen. and has left her free. world Of wives and mothers.'* some by Tennyson. and all the fundamentals of higher life and mind. to watch over and guide her loved ones' feet. Except that.and lost awhile. warrantably confused). among those great individual souls which have gone beyond. as a lovingmother. Her spirithovering by the church.the great intermittent and fluctuating periodsof art from one peopleto another ." I will quote beautiful lines from " The Ring.from that realm where. honour. and are stilladvancing. justice. may linger.tillher own. says the glorious hymn of Newman : " We shall see those smile angel-faces Which we have loved long since.stilldrawn downward for an hour. SUBCONSCIOUS MIND 145 lifecapableand useful.or revealed religion. as a guardian spirit.would still seek. brought up in a mining region. Has enter 'd on the largerwoman.nearly a hundred feet deep " ^theyroofed it over afterwards " and looking up. with which. manhood and womanhood. in the broad noonday. wherein the father says to his young daughter : ** Fear not you ! You have thering she guarded .and so of faith (not opinion. says Romanes. Her lovely maiden princess. who leaves Some colder province in the North to gain Her capital city. fidelity. I feel certain. the rise of great leaders. or the divinelyendowed faculties which Locke took as his stock in hand.where the loyal bells Clash welcome linger. still breathinga higher and nobler life.crowned with flowers.or even the cyclic changesof nations.

where credulous imbeciles grovelin the dirt before " A rag. And so it is with spiritual manifestations . But my soul knew better. or such placed Uke me. they are always with us. because we are bewildered by the rough. and lo ! " We shall see our Pilot face to face. but if there is none such. for the race. they are ever around us. they are always manifestingthemselves. it was the cuttingoff of all those baffling earth-rays. Hartmann justlyobserves that everythingdepends on the rightthought occurringat the rightmoment. humming. .child as I was.and all that they have done for civilisation.' " Bowen. But let only the God-given Ught come. coarse and common- place. it was the medium through which I saw them . but we not.it was the extinguishing of all those dis- cordant vibrations.if there is an intellectual beyond . and communicating '' with us. had they been near enough. because we see them see as through a glassdarkly. deceptivesense told me that they were gone. to that limbo of blind superstition. discovery. and for mankind. and a hank of hair. The stars were not gone . I could have touched them still5 had they had odour or taste I could have smelled or tasted them still. composition. reasoning. the busy. and a bone. invention and several others.'* we feel them not. let the scattered earth-light be cut off. Professor '' in considering Von Hartmann's great system.in his work on Modern Philosophy. they were gone." The source of these ideas from the beyond is not far to seek. and me alone. but when I reached the surface again. Had they emitted sound. to see them in all their truth and beauty.induction. Were they gone ? One poor. The Philosophyof the Unconscious. which enabled me.*' says : ''In respect to the processes of reminiscence. I could have heard them still.workaday world.146 SPIRIT AND MATTER sprinkledwith the heavenly stars . the direct light. material. then we must relegateall these magnificentinventions.

Nor can . and whence comes it ? ProfessorLadd. and perhapswhen we were idlymusing on some other theme. being drawn as easilyand correctly by a simpleton as by a man of genius.'* Tliere is no person who is not familiar with this '' process in his own experience.*' *' " It will come to me ? Who is the me ? What is it that comes.through the reasoningprocess. perhaps after a considerable interval of time. What remains is easy enough . it appears presentedfor seizure to consciousness as the giftof the Unconscious. justas a ball pro- pelled by two forces must move on the diagonal which is the resultant of their combined directions. and may be slowlyelaborated in conscious thought . through inspiration from the Unconscious.suddenlycalls out Eureka ! and the problem which may have perplexed him half a lifetime is spontaneouslysolved. I have it juston the tipof my tongue . to bringthe new truths into harmony with those previously known. The premisesbeinggivenin immediate intuition.or Newton idlygazingwhen an apple falls from the tree. it follows necessarily. whom Schofield characterises as '* a vigoroussupporterof the old and narrow school. justwhat we wanted flashes upon us as by inspiration.The man of science is quiteas dependent as the poet. bestowed upon the mind rather than consciouslywrought out by it. Archimedes steppingout of a bath.as it were. the right inference from them follows. Vainly do we rack our brains with persistent conscious effort and research to find the word for the riddle or the solution of the problem .the rare achievements of art. it will come to me. wait a minute.'* '' '' says.or the wit. SUBCONSCIOUS MIND 147 And this happy suggestionis invariablythe work of the Unconscious.on these gleams of light coming from the unconscious. during which we had discharged the subjectfromour thought. it will not come at our bidding. mechanically. and therebyto determine their classificationand place in a system.says Hartmann. in fact. And then suddenly. In similar fashion are the happy hits of inventors. it is only. in his Philosophyof Mind" : A thinker on any problem finds the truth shot up from the hidden depths below .

Some inscrutable power causes it to rise and enter the mental presence as a sensorial constituent." One must note that Ladd speak of and Wundt '* '' shot up from the hidden depths below.. .** These metaphors must be kept in mind as metaphors only. as conscious egos. The conscious is always conditional upon the un- conscious. . vol. directly from the dark womb of unconsciousness. For the credit of much of our most brilliant and impressiveacts in consciousness undoubtedly belong not to consciousness . We are constantlyaware that feelings emerge unsolicited by any previous mental state. the connection of all such experienceswith the condition and nature of * ' tact/ of instinct/ If the credit is to be given. unwilled. necessarily conducts to unityin psychology. as it were. unlooked-for presence intrudes itself into consciousness. '* for while they are necessary in picturing states.** Wundt. Suddenly a new irrelevant. immediatelyconscious/' are not Professor Montgomery. authorityon mental phenomena whose *' few will question.148 SPIRIT AND MATTER one fail to notice as significant.** There is no above or beneath in consciousness or unconsciousness . vii. all our most vivid feelings are thus mysticallyderived.says in his Physiological Psy- chology * * ' ' : The traditional opinionthat consciousness is the entire field of the internal life cannot be ac- cepted. writingin Mind. Ultimate analysisof psychicprocesses shows that the unconscious is the theatre of the most important mental phenomena.*' *' they bear no relation at all to facts.** or work done in the unknown laboratorybeneath it. which knows only the result of the work done in the un- known laboratory beneath it. But the agent of this unity is outside of consciousness.such credit must be ex- tended quiteindefinitely. to the unconscious activities of our own mind for these results in consciousness which follow states of unconsciousness. In consciousness psychic acts are very distinct from one another and observation . Suddenly a new thought springs into being. it belongs to somewhat or to some One of whose doings we. '' says. . Indeed.

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so to speak. ment. whether animals displaythis power except when it is of some advantage to them .in his Memorial Address. United States National Museum. as Dr Hammond says. quoting from Professor Barker's " " '' Foundation of Habit in Man : Mind may be pre- dicated of all animal in life. 150 SPIRIT AND MATTER to me thatreallya passiveinstrument in the I was hands of a person not myself.to live is to move. one sense or another . '''''' ''^^''''' them to learn what they were doing. towards which his botanical investigations constantlytended.' but asks.pos.when a difficultor. in vegetablelifeas well. He interrogated J ^s.every rootlet.says : Darwin ''^^jlooked upon plantsas living things. continues : The *' Darwin has actuallysolved the great problem of phytologyso long supposedto be incapableof solution " viz." And not only mind in animal but mind. life. sleepon " it ? if sleep but the periodof brain quiescence " is or of fantastic worthless dreams or . sesses the power of spontaneous movement. animated the vegetable world. and under nearly all circumstances actuallyexercises that power. certainly not. and mostlythe subconscious mind. Curator of the Botanical Depart. an insoluble questionof business or the like suddenly *' " confronts us I will sleepon it ? What. He has. plantsacquireand displaythis power * He says that only when it is of some advantage to them.every tendril. in his '' ' Memorial Address on Charles Darwin.'* These are familiar experiences . no .determiningits development." speaker. was that of the universal activity of the vegetablekingdom that all plantsmove "and act. '' *' When the brain is quiescent there is no mind ? Ah. He has shown that whichever kingdom of organicnature we contemplate. He did not study their forms so much as their actions. at the time. and we may also favour the view of Agassizand others that a spiritual element is the organisingcause in every embryo cell. who does not recall the saying.Why does the root grow downward and the stem . Dr Ward. Every leaf. and answers. The central a^H/'i* truth. the paleo-botanist of the United States GeologicalSurvey.

the answer to the question is that. con- '' " perceiving beforehand the union which it must effect. SUBCONSCIOUS MIND 151 upward ? Briefly and roughly stated." and they heard her. when a boy. and set it in the ground a " j y. until I was actually ashamed of myself. to enclose the body and its tents. '' " without reaching its heart's desire at all. But my mother loved plants and flowers : she was one of those who '' could sing to the flowers. '*^^''^' couple of inches away. Just before it reaches the stick. I have often. and grows together only here. and from the ascent into the free air and sunlight on the other. repeat this at different points. they perceive the advantage that would result from the penetration of the soil on the one hand. and see the little plant bend over and reach out to twine its tendrils around it. pull it up and stick it in the ground on the opposite side. as the bursting seed pushes out its two germinal points.' the one becomes geotropic and the other heliotropic/' So the epiblast in the growing foetus reaches around and unites along its raphe or seam. And so the little pole-bean stalk. and through the pre-Darwinian law of the * physiological division of labour. Take a stick. as /^ _x it sends its first tendrils out. .and thus explore their surroundings for the means of benefiting the plant. these circumrotate from the first. The plant will as clearly manifest its bewilderment and disappointment as if it were a dog. and it is really pathetic to see the movements before the plant finds out whither to bend again . To employ Darwin's own ' ' words. and you can make the little plant travel at will. done this to a poor little bean-stalk. reaches around for a J /Mi^j support.

gave this his eidolon of form a prominent place. It is so with the terms Hypnotism. I asked him what he meant by hypnotism. while it itself is equally unknown. and a multitude of other terms and phrases.and we are deluded thereby precisely as we are deluded by any false definition of terms. the term soon becomes. as it were. It is though we should as speak of x and y as equal. A bright young visitor in a company of members of the Society for Psychical Research one evening said that all we were discussing could be easily explained by hypnotism. and he answered that if we were going to splithairs in that 152 . if we are not careful.before using it. which are quite unknown quantities. Unconscious- ness or Subconsciousness. and which cannot explain anything. CHAPTER XX MEMORY THE FINAL BATTLEGROUND OF EMPIRICISM I long foreseen that the field of memory HAVE is to be the final battleground between psychology and any materialistic or empirical theory of the universe and " that psychology will be the winner. in the brain. or unequal. having become familiar with a term. a description. But with our advances in science these views soon became untenable . or by the want of accurate definition. but the old terminology still persists. Telepathy. as real quantities themselves. This is why every term must be defined precisely. because they are themselves the very things to be explained.and will be used to explain the unknown. and thereby come to look upon x and y. For ages memory was looked upon as a series of *' '' '' impressions/' or physical records kept in cells or pigeon-holes. instead of symbols of the unknown. among eidolons. because. Lord Bacon.

until that is settled. be more than any- . When we fullyunderstand this memory.I suggestedthat perhaps it might be explainedby Abracadabra. however. there was no use in prolongingthe discussion. Blest if I know. but nobody bothers about it. present and future of the race.which men have seen dailyfor thousands of years. althoughhe knew that it could be explainedphysically. on a physicalor empirical it will basis. Then / should know what God and man is. and of spiritualism. we stillcall it an impression. by reference to Carpenter'stheory of unconscious cerebration. Little flower. Seeing signs of amazement somewhere. root and all. " although we know better now. ** I hold you here. Now. it is like the sunrise.any more than he does about sunrise. MEMORY THE BATTLEGROUND 153 way. That was pro. or turn-over. Yet the whole past.religion and humanity are involved in the disputeddefinition of memory. it will be like Tennyson's flower in the crannied wall. and.as he thought. this one is con. we stillcall it sunrise. for he became angry. every living soul has the material at hand . At a Hke meeting.or even indicate any conceivable means by which it can be explained. and not a soul knew that it was an earth-sink." Here is a little hypotheticaldialoguewhich I wrote out some years ago.and explainedit.''I replied. to my regret.and all in all. He said he had thought of that too.ended the discussion.in my hand. surely. root and all. instead of a sunrise . he suddenlyasked me what I understood '' by Abracadabra. we call it impression^ an and while psychologists know that it is not an impressionat all. If anyone can explainit. but if I could understand " What you are. we must bother about it.a visitor presenteda case or a problem of occult character. such as are occurringevery day. psychology. And that. but believed that it did not fully account for it either. but a memory. And so of memory . It is easy to clear up the fallacy . So of memory. but was not at all himself satisfied with the explanation.

" ^' She winked at me when you weren't looking. till he finally tumbled off the stump amid peals of laughter. but your mother blamed it on me.and Jim. The beehives were up behind the barn." '* Then IThat was neverthe day you saw them. shot at Johnson'sold duck and missed it.and his grinbroaden and broaden. And yet it is so homely and simpleas to be almost ridiculous. we were thinkingof making a kite." spring-house '' No. you haven't any cistern.in the barn .but the old is spring-house indeliblyphotographed on my memory." '' I didn't know that." a '' Yes. that was a wasp'snest . and I guess a licking was due me for shootingat that duck ." '' No. A young student at college meets his classmate.and only last year mother told me that she had begged me off." *' Yes." . it was spring. but it's a wood-house now. He blamed it on the old duck. '' What day was that ? '' It was the 3rd of July . I can see it now with the beehive alongsideit. but I never got it.*' '* you fell into when Yes. the you visited us one several years ago. but it wasn't a cistern . on me. one of them stung you on the neck. too. I'llbet the old placeappears quitechanged with^the gone. but the springdried up. It was the day that mother went away to Uncle John's funeral. the spring-houseis still there. '* after a says to him : vacation. when we were boys. why. and father verted con- it into a cistern." '' No." '' By Jove ! how the lines of his face jumped back and reversed themselves I really thought he should " take to crying.I can see the old fellow's face graduallydraw up into puckers.154 SPIRIT AND MATTER one as yet has been able to do. I got your letter about old Aleck being drowned in your cistern . Do you know where the wood- " house used to stand ? ** Do I ? I've got that axe-scar on my ankle yet. and when we acted it out afterwards for old Aleck.

and everyone. of Harvard University. until all ideas whatever are connected up with all other ideas whatever. which each of us can make. comparativelyspeaking." Had Von Hartmann not feared to follow where his own system inevitablyled. in fact. eighty-oneshort chapterswhich make up the the Tao-Teh-King of Lao-Tsze. especially when collated with the commentaries of his .so to speak. am all I want not is choost the land what jineson to mine. I cannot better express this than by citingPro-fessor Francis Bowen. the ancient Chinese philosopher.like the old German farmer in Penn- sylvania. We would have to become. as it were. but we must beware here of the underlyingfallacy which any theory of such association of ideas with a physical substratum implies. charged with being land-greedy.he would have leftbehind him the greatestwork on the subject ever givenby mortal man. and the fabric falls.'' Or it would be like that hypothesisof continuouslycopulated telepathywhich makes all the knowledge of anyone whether past or present.they are associated as a set. if we may except a single one. who. by its own weight. practicallyomniscient. *' '* The theoryof associated ideas is called in to connect these utterly discrepant factors together.as well as by the demonstration of fact. of course. and touched upon at so many points(or must be if they are to be thrown into associated contact. If the whole set.from physical impressionson the brain-cells or elsewhere. and since they are awakened or touched upon from so many directions. possible. who wrote twenty-five hundred years ago. MEMORY THE BATTLEGROUND 155 Now this triflinglittledialogueis simply to show that memory. by a thousand diverse accidents).the common knowledge of all. But there is one qualityor character of memory which is studiouslyconcealed in presenting the physiological conceptionof memory.is im. I land-greedy. in his '' discussion of Von Hartmann's splendid Philosophy of the Unconscious. *' replied : Why. the association must be extended and extended. and itis a curious example of Lord Bacon's eidolon ofform. and must make every moment of our lives. are associated.

not of includingpurelytechnical terms mere derivatives. suffering from the ment embarrass- of riches. before we can rightly understand how far its ' operationdepends upon that power not ourselves * ' which Hartmann calls the unconscious/ An obvious illustration will make this point clear. or is at least fortythousand . ' ' SaysProfessor Bowen in his Modern Philosophy : ' * " We need to have an adequate conceptionof the magnitude and importanceof the work which memory has to do. know enough of at least four languages. But the single invisible librarian. German or Italian.The whole number English words.who wrote a century and a half later. and for each of the two or three hundred groups of hieroglyphs * ' printed it.will triumphantlyproduce any volume that may be called for. or its Englishequivalent. and English. or exist side by side with them in any well-informed mind ! Certainlysuch a mind is far more richlystocked with words and ideas than the British Museum is with books. is probably half as large. admirably That managed institution. who awaits our orders in the crowded chambers of memory. Among the treasures of memory in such a mind. and one of them.What a countless multitude of individual facts and familiar ^/i)imi^i. on the unconscious furnishes instantly us whatever we call for.French. after rummaging the catalogueand the shelves for perhapsten minutes. therefore. Kwang Tsze. A student reads a page of French or German in a minute. all of dc^ (fj^ which. 156 SPIRIT AND MATTER almost equallyillustriousfollower. to be able to read any common book in either of them with about equal facility. must be reckoned at least one hundred thousand mere words. is far more speedy and skilful in his service. or its grammatical . which is at command of a well-educated foreigner. and that portionof the vocabulary of either of the other three languages.Latin. in this country as well as in England.maintains a full staff of well-trained librarians .either its meaning. or its ety- mology. Many edu- cated persons. Q are symbols as arbitrary a s the signs in algebra. * truths in science and ordinarylife are either wrapped up in these words. with some trifling for exceptions onomatopoeia.

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else it would not be a letter. the best place to bite a man. *' that a problem of dynamics which would drive Lagrange mad is solved instanter. before. while the movement goes on. pari-passu. and thought with reason. in which will is complemented with motive. and in the latter case the statement still remains true of the original from which the copy was made. as a memory survival from earlier forms. before men were created. travelling along. algebraically written out. power with design. but a copy . and a series of pickers. which is not a chaos. and in which the movements of the atoms and molecules are so co-ordinated and controlled. all to teach ants.'* They are alHed with that instinct which Kant '' declared to be The voice of God. the whole of memory belongs to that psychical world which Sir John Herschel described. and in which a differential equation which. would belt the earth. and which could not possibly have known the very thing which their successors are assumed to have learned from them " and how ? By physical memory " impressions. transmitted through countless generations. . And in writing a letter all the sentences are and the juxtapositions of all the new. for example.158 SPIRIT AND MATTER and co-ordinated. that pseudo-scientific notion of instinct. instead of better informed. As a matter of fact." and Von Hart- '' " mann the Action of the Unconscious but not . ideas are also new. and from ages progenitors which were less informed. equally countless. is integrated in an eye-twinkle.

the will to examine.as soon as it strikes the unknown it creeps behind the Moloch of superstition. its validity is found to be estab- lished as soon as the clues have been run out. '' and is religiously damned with the same bell.and talking.and thinking. and on what basis it has done it. of its agnostic denial of any human abilityto search out and determine these fundamentals of life and mind. and stillworse.but it is immeasurably degradedby its denial of. and how. So. of the very the actuality bases on which it is established . but that did not matter so long as science refused to run them out. Wherever science put down an a priori. CHAPTER XXI THE SOLE ALTERNATIVES : DEITY AND SPIRITUALISM.or refusal to investigate. OR ELSE ZERO AND NIHILISM Spiritualism merely encountering is to-day the old odium theologicum." or what is the same thing. " by the refusal of what Professor James calls the will to believe. and proving. and its greatest.its only enemy is that same old a priori.book ^ and candle*' as have been encountered by all great scientificreforms .and so doing alone. and so doing. instead of merely talking.which has held back the knowledgeof man. the value of science to man is in nowise diminished by a full and fair knowledge of what it reallyhas done.it has worked merely with weights and measurements. and opprobrium scientice.starting with and taking cognisance of the mere apparent phenomena of physics. which all new lightand all new science has ever encountered. you may mark well that. 159 . and talking. into whose red-hot gridiron bars it has alreadyhelped to flingthe haplessfew who have been looking.

what is remorse. or intellect.or love. and stantly in- put on your tongue the word your ness conscious- need feels the of. descriptive and mechanical results in the physicsof life and mind ? That is not psychologyat all. what is mind. what is it that pops the '' missingword up. what is reason. or whatever makes man differ from and superior to the brutes. in any known language. per.while you. so that a man is constantlydying and being made over. what is memory. how does it travel at all. when ''the giftofconsciousness"hasbeenbestowedupon the mind. as it were. what is perception. exceptingman ? and he only. and the brutes superiorto crude matter ? Why do living thingsgrow internally.whole cataracts of the intimate cules mole- of worn-out cells and detritus are pouring off continuously. shot up from the *' hidden depth below (indeed. Far be i'tfrom any of us to decry the practical re- .as dealingwith psychology. are talking about crops. What is life. and why.i6o SPIRIT AND MATTER What matters it. like Niagara.or genius. and what is it that travels ? So of the distance at which two calliper pointson the skin will feel as one prick.or all the formal. when.or as two ? or what appears when an ignorantsavage tries to count above five. chance.as Ladd says. what is art. as Ladd says. does the living organism remain the same ? Is not a man with a legand arm off stillthe same man ? Is he not the same man as he was years ago ? What is it that works while we and sleep. and new ones growing in everywhere. but does not itself know how to express ? And when the pickermisses fire.how long it takes a sensation from a pin-prickto travel from the finger to the brain or spinalcord and back again? The question obviously is. while our consciousness has to sleepone-third of the time in order to work the other two-thirds ? What is that pickerwhich travels through a series of invisible dictionaries of forty thousand words each. when the word was wanted when you were talkingan hour ago about Egyptian hieroglyphs ? What man is sufficient unto himself ? Yet what is sufficient at all on this earth. never wearies.an intelligence with knowledge and power has shot it up).

I have settled the French question long ago.but equallyfar be it from us to decry the higherwork of those who are able to deal with the foundations of science. and by the scientific method." " They reckon illwho leave me out. granted that mind exists and who denies it ? and " " that it is operatingall around and within us.standing on this pleasant lea. it ought to be the simplestof all the problems of science to solve. When Me they fly.and not know " what they are ? We can all admire. in his poem of " Brahma. on a priori grounds . but I daresay I could if I should twy/' The a priori professor of science. for such was the penalty of the riddle propounded of old by .the feeling of Wordsworth when he says : '* Great God ! I'd rather be A Pagan in suckled a creed outworn.but until recentlyit was dealt with as a mere metaphysicalsuperstition. Only to-day is it awakening to the task. I never speak anything but English. would '' have answered : There is no such thingas French ." And it must be solved or we die. and not know what is passingwithin it to " superviseand direct man's thinking. and understand. they merely jabber. And it would have been solved long ago. '* " A fop was asked." These great questionsof mind are not insoluble .and especially far be it from them decry what they have never to honestly tried.'* before the British Royal Institution : *' Shall philosophypretend to regulatethe human spirit. Do you speak French ? and '* replied. I have nevah twied. Have glimpsesthat would make me less forlorn. had science even tried to solve it.and am proud of it . or a sort of brain secretion. THE SOLE ALTERNATIVES i6i suits of science. So might I. indeed. It is shameful to say it. however. in his lectures on Recent British Philosophy." '' Says Masson. volatile and fugitive. Ah.Yet mind itself was the instrument they used to deny the existence of mind./ am the wings. As Emerson says.

if one boy has no apple and .took into its body and made a part of its structure.and it is the basis of all spiritualism as well. We are not yet at zero .' Or. . or else the true originof the whole evolution is not Zero but Deity. and to be expected. Masson clearlygivesus the solution . long after indeed. and. it is either God or zero. but like the other old belief that the moon influenced the tides. we do reach Zero. even here.and its revelations to the kindred psychism of man.even so sceptical a leader as John Stuart Mill concedes that revelation is but ordinary and normal. if empiricism[materialism] pushes the disputefurther back. And with a Deity once granted. as from nothing nothingcan come. there is no other.or Nothingness. It is a valid im- mutable belief. what becomes of Deity ? Is Deity at the back of the originalzero or Nothingness.i62 SPIRIT AND MATTER the Egyptian sphinx. There is no evolution from zero " try it on a slate. still. at every ' stage the assertion recurs. both by direct evidence in all ages and places all mankind and by the even still more " among " controlhngfact that there is no alternative .this knowledge of the psychismof the universe. if at last. and from zero. nothingcan come.after Newton had pointedthe way.out of which all else has been evolved or convolved empirically ? Then either Zero would have remained such. I must allow a very definite amount of priorbequest in that human mind wherewith to grasp and mould experience. however multipUed. and which science. such as the childhood beliefthat the moon is made of green cheese. Or. there would have been no evolution whatever. . Says Masson : I cannot conceive anything as resultingfrom the experience of a zero unless I start with a . indeed the solution is everywhere except '' where it was looked for.'* It is a solemn that the alternative is either truth Deity or nihiUsm . something structural and predetermined.somewhere behind the Nebula. And this belief is not merely a belief. And this spiritualrevelation is the basis of all religion. something is antecedent. . and mind de- finable human as zero.

you will have an infinite God.the underlyingcondition of philosophy. be no philosophyor science . therefore.spiritthe " interpreters-matter the passive.and carry out His eternal purposes. it is the acme of hard-headed common-sense and tion demonstra- and certain knowledge. we naturally believe. therefore. it is the basis of all religion and morals and virtue. But if we come from God. '' '' There are. not only can there be no religion. and can trust. They are the bases. THE SOLE ALTERNATIVES 163 another boy has twice as many. no but there can virtue. It is also a datum. Belief of this rests on precisely the same basis as our belief in external Nature.we know Him also . not the goalof reasoning.far more certain than anything can be made by proof. Both. see what it does for man's brotherhood and God's fatherhood. (Without a belief in spirit. he will stillhave no apple. the eminent geologist and biologist.in fact. . littleas psychism is. there is no longerany significance in man or in Nature. are equally certain. '' " in his Religionand Science : '' That man is an immortal spiritis the doctrine of Scripture: it is more .of the University of California. and. Says Professor Joseph Le Conte. a clear revelation of consciousness Belief in this is immediate.'') This is the very reverse of superstition. indeed. the other a direct revelation of consciousness. We may learn to disbelieve.the starting pointsof reasoning. Andsee where this psychicalindividualism of man. two bases of philosophy.all that ennobles our humanity. honour and serve Him and ourselves. our if you multiplyit by an infinite psychicaluniverse. at its best. then. The one is a direct revelation of sense. intuitive .two poles of existence matter " and spirit matter.and. and universal in all minds unplagued by metaphysical subtleties.*' he says. . and how it takes . not the subject matter of philosophy. spirit the thing perceiving ^matter the revelation. the thingperceived. These are the foundations. by knowing our- selves at the best.spiritthe active principle.leads us .

i64 SPIRIT AND MATTER hold. with hooks of steel. we see it presented in the divine psychism of an honest human life. and how the spiritual power of an eternal Fatherhood rises in its revelation above the human creeds and the entanglement of sectarian theology. . of each one of as soon as us.

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and that in all primitivereligions the great overgod is found intact. and that the phenomena relied upon to establish them among men were tical iden- with all the various phenomena of spiritualism. and the recognitions of direct communication with man are full and explicit.no race. Even the religionof Islam. so that. and that the principles of religion were the outcome of spiritual revelation to man. or else of a primarily implantedrevelation in man . AND II. which have fullyoverthrown the earlier and more dogmatic teachings of a less developed pology. anthro- I also showed that the basis of every religion is spiritualistic.by any spiritual or divine test that we can apply.in any age. I have endeavoured to that all historic show religions embody the same principles. but that. and are based on the same truths. that their principles are those of modern and ancient spiritualisms. 167 .to alter or vary a line or letteris to betrayGod Himself by forgery. starts with a transcendent miracle as its basis . no tribe.than many later ones. but that many of them are far higher. tHAPTER XXII^^^^^ J^Jt^^y^^ SUMMARY OF PARTS I. that the Koran was not only a direct revelation from God. perhaps the most rationalisticof allreligions. I have also shown that in moral and spiritual loftiness the earlier religions are not deficient. no people. but was an autograph from God. In the first part of this work. I endeavoured to show that religion was as old and as universal as mankind .and that the prehistoric or un- historicreligions are identical with these.at all events. and I cited the most recent investigations. was devoid of religion .

but this position was absolutely necessary if the revolt. and with the Hebrew faith and practiceof which it was the out- come. in the old church. The first fallacywas that while the spiritualism of their own day. I am merely citing facts.when we undermine the false data and hypotheseson which it was built. bound- while yet its existence everywherewas not denied.without dissent or cavil anywhere. was to succeed at all. I am not denying the beneficence of. as claimed by the old church. for that church believed and taught spiritualism.and nothingelse. or a collection of historic documents. that both it and its religion were from Christ and His apostles. but between man and individual spirits.on and produced the New Testament. either by church or people. *y*". prior to the Reformation in the sixteenth century. which was preciselylike the spiritualism of to-day. I showed also that Luther's revolt was only possibleby deprivingthe old church of its spiritual dominance. but that this spiritualism. Spencerian that the notion that religion came from ghosts and dreams is absolutely futile. and was the direct and body of Christ.and not from the New ment. This involved two fallacies. had become the property of the church. or to account for the phenomena of later religions. and falls not only by its own weight.the same had spirituahsm nevertheless . or necessityfor. i68 SPIRIT AND MATTER not only between man and God. was denied by the reformers. Testa- but the contrary. the whole Christian religion. I have shown you what all advanced gists anthropolo- now agree upon. Dealing with the Christian religion. the church preceded that. and was demned con- when practisedoutside its sacerdotal ary.but totallyfails to interpret the religions of earlier peoples.it was necessary to repudiatethe whole spiritualism of the time.the revolt .ascarried out. spiritual To give the Protestant revolt any locus at all. and to fall back on the New Testament as a purely historic document. I have shown that. was spiritualisti / to the backbone .

there was no evidence of any authentic revelation or Bible at all. materialistic science. whether in the individual or the race. ligion has always arisen from one common ground of agreement. in the absence of direct.and atheism made common cause with this practically suspended theism. '' Says Romanes : The conflict of science and re.or can ever encounterin the future. which suited itsneeds exactly. arise. continuing. who had made a mutilated and written record. instead of divine control. The hypothesis or fundamental postulatein questionis. Hence. into the government of the universe. And hence. It was the tion concep- of a great anonymous God. and left it for man. which cast out three-fourths of the originally accepted documents. . He is not immediatelycon- cerned with natural causation'' Here we see the momentous consequence of divorcing religionfrom a continuously acting. spiritualistic volition and and so divorcing revelation. spiritualistic revelation. was only possible by a great spiritualistic intervention. These errors forced Protestantism into a position which has done enormous harm.uniting in this crusade. from the self- same ground of this highlydubious hypothesis. the old church asked. . inasmuch as there would then have been no field for battle. SUMMARY OF PARTS I. and arise exclusively. . AND II. valid to make or unmake the whole record.and long after the time of Christ. and then abdicated until the far-off time of the promisedjudgment. then about beingborn. or fundamental postulateof both parties " without which indeed it would plainlyhave been impossiblethat any conflict could have arisen.why not such intervention afterwards ? The second fallacy lay in the fact that the author- ship of most of the writingsof the New Testament was anonymous. . for the vaHdity of the canon. // there he a personalGod. As a consequence. and this occurred but a few centuries before the Protestant revolt. 169 giventhe Protestants their own Bible . flungnatural causation. Quite apart from modern science all the difficultiesonthe side of intellect (orreason)which belief has ever religious encountered in the past.

neither knowing to what they were attached. when carried alongthrough unknown seas. with these data alone. by perverting or ignoring opposing facts.of the infinite. without actuallybeing limited in inter. and suppressing all opposingevidence. pretation to any singleone.That what the physicalsciences reallycould take cognisanceof. and I showed that this a priori was as gross a superstitionas that of the lowest and most degradedsavages . that this failure was priori^ due to an a a prepossession. but that the new psychology involved much more. a grosser one. of lifeor of mind. and that probablyintegrations were at hand which would include all apparently supernormal phenomena.nor anythingof the mechanism or structure of the vessel . and other writings.has failed to investigate phenomena which crowded upon it on every side .as erroneouslyconceived the universal spiritualistic of.dealingsimply with the surrounding and temporary phenomena of physics. a state of mind which assumed before investigation that there was nothingto investigate . nay.itself.any of the propositions on which the physicalsciences themselves were founded .were totallyin- capable of investigating.so to speak. or of spirit. in fact. that those scientific writers who fused re- investigatewere to obligedto sustain their publishedtheses. or any singleclass of these.170 SPIRIT AND MATTER it from its basic truths and phenomena.from *' all that is commonly called spiritualism. I also endeavoured to show that the physical sciences." In the second part of this paper I endeavoured to show why modern science. I also endeavoured to show that that question was not one of mere communication between those now and the living spiritual individualities of those already dead. of matter even. of time and space. I showed scientificmen that whenever investigated these phenomena they were convinced of their and actuality.were such facts as a set of barnacles on a mighty ocean steamship could consider. that by these sciences alone we could know nothing of causation.

that he acknowledged his incompetency to deal with the problems he treated. the facts which came before them.that these ments state- are true. as automatic. '' '* I use the term materialism not in a restricted sense as dealingwith our conceptionsof what we gard re- as matter. a universe in which no sonal per- God is concerned in causation. and as divorced from controlling. when not the opposite. from the words of the most eminent of the teachers of physicalscience. I shall endeavour to show that the great thinkers and writers. as synonymous with empiricism. and in the single case of Haeckel.as stated by Romanes. In the third part of this work I shall deavour en- that the whole basis of materialism to show is a mistake in source.in which divine volition is not the ever-present factor.that his facts were fically scienti- misstated. and that the actual concrete ments achieve- of physicalscience in these directions are mostly confined to simply observing.not one of them.and in which spiritualismis but a man-implanted super-stition. on whom he most relied. is self-sufficient in itself. recordingand classify- ing. or of the boundless uni- verse around.finally. It could not be otherwise.extraneous any or invoking spiritual intelligence and control . ever taught or believed anythingof the sort. before they ceased writingthey explainedor recanted the views attributed to them . in which the material or substance.and that. SUMMARY OF PARTS I. as contradistinguished from transcendentalism . or of the minds and forces which directed and moved them.that they have been totallymisunderstood. or phenomenal. 171 which carried them. as well as in fact. so to speak. as. And I have shown.and that their actual beliefs and teachingswere quitethe opposite. Romanes. that they were led into failures con- ceded by themselves . AND II.on whose testimonythe popularviews of believers in materialism rest. but in the acceptedbroader sense. and that when such behefs were justlyeven attributed to them. in fact. and often not even most of these.after Haeckel's . the very authority.

SPIRIT AND MATTER 172 work had appeared. and after Romanes had actually studied the questions for himself. and fully accepted. the spiritualistic position as already established. repudiated the whole scheme of Haeckel. . and re demonstrated.

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but it contra- dicts every axiom of physicalscience itself. scientifically Who knows what is ? infinity and yet who knows . one alternative of each of which must be true.nor can there be a gravitational push. When we reach the basic facts which alone make the acquirements of science valid.is doubtful. no one can explainanything that reallyneeds explaining .while we have abandoned the emission theory for another.there is not a of science in the world who can man tell you what gravitationis.are inconceivable.the whole field is befogged. yet what is there to take its place? Nothing which science has found. Not only this. in fact.174 SPIRIT AND MATTER The arraignmentis not overdrawn -. yet of which speaking. and at all velocities. For example.and is only held to as a working hypothesis. itself. on the con- trary it might be greatlylengthened. And this re- lates to littlefacts which came directly under scientific cognisance. and yet. which. ablaze Chemical affinity works in unknown and diverse ways in different substances. yet the ether heat and electricity. The atomic theory has long been known to be unten- able.from phenomena which it cannot explain. A thing cannot act where it is not . both.of the stars . for Maxwell showed that lines of pushing force by their impingement would set every bit of concrete matter in the universe in ten seconds. No explaina sun-spot.it contradicts the principles of specific heat.and there is very littleactual lightof science anywhere.yet no one can tell why. no one can explain one can the proper motions in all directions. We even hold fast to the emission-terminology of light. is altogether incompatiblewith any other physical substance known to science. as I have alreadystated. while Kant's table of antinomies gave a series of scientific propositions. A forcecannot be providedwith hooks to reach across space and pullobjects.the physical sciences are all based on gravitation. We predicatedthe ether to explain the have phenomena of light. and yet gravitation acts '' " across void spaces of millions of millions of miles.

and all the numerical calculation worked out in a way to frightenZerah Colburn. . A problem of dynamics which would drive Lagrange mad is solved instanter. their inter- changes. Their movements.and we have not yet begun in our descent to the infinitely little. we can divide and subdivide to infinity. their hates and loves. A differential equation which. a distinguished member rose and demanded that the miserable ventriloquist be draggedout from under the machine.and that we do not even know how to approach it. those wonderful '' atoms. like Romanes. the same savant proclaimedagain. George Bidder.their correlations.sure-enoughscience. and such men as Sir William Crookes and Lord Kelvin look on aghast. relatively as largeas our own solar system. would belt the earth. their what not. When the phonograph was first exhibited before the French Academy of Sciences. are all determined on the very instant."he says.however large.'' But he does not pause here . There is no tion. algebraically written out. a mathematical problem out of the mass . And six months later. we know something of ^^ what that implies.their attractions and repulsions.is in- tegrated in an eye-twinkle . The real problems are not investigated by science at all. METHODS AND ACQUISITIONS 175 how there can be only a possibly finiteuniverse ? In measuringan infinite universe an inch and a thousand million miles precisely are of the same dimensions.no trial and error. We spend our time in teachingschool-book science. when phonographs were selling at ten dollars apiece. infinitely is small. and in these days. and yet one rotatingsystem. he pursues force to its ultimate.on pure a prioriy '' that vile metal could never reproduce human phonation. by chance. If we descend the scale.or Jedediah Buxton. Jevons says that the chances are a million to one that it cannot be solved at all.says Flammarion. and declares that force." Take. that is. hesita- no blundering. involve all the ologiesand all the ometries. and exposed to the wrath of the genuine men of science there present. Yet Sir John Herschel tells us that the atoms. or any other.

Thought opposed to Reason. Power without Design. by the popular vote of a few friends in the gallery. how many fanciful creations have resulted in philosophyfrom the love of a useless simplicity ? No one denies. *' wrote in the prefaceto his work.no science would be possible . No doubt matter and mind must have .. and very powerfulnow " viz. we may say.in continuing. and in which Huxley took little interest. one singlelaw. gotten that in accountingfor the universe by a series of accidents without significance. This tendency is. was just emerging.. one singlephenomenon. when rational psychology. The Materialism of the Present Day.176 SPIRIT AND MATTER any force. with intellect.all force of which we ^^ have cognisance is connected with volition. and with all those attributes of mind in which personality consists. that unity is the ultimate substratum of things. .of course. *' says : Will without Motive. but would render little aid in accountingfor anything else. and Hume dreamed that such thingswere to be gotten rid of as superstitions. and is itselfequally '^ without significance. a useful and necessary one . Not searchingin these fertile fields. the accounting itselfis one of these very accidents." Paul Janet." It was againstthis spiritually manifested basis that Herbert Spencer rang the changes of his a priori^ which settled it without investigation . without it. No one denies that one and the same harmony governs the visible world and the invisible world. how many importantomissions. People want to explainall thingsby one singlecause. but of how many errors is it not the source ? How many imaginary analogies. natural to the human mind.writingso long ago as 1864. where then did the men of physicalscience of those days search ? In those fields of which Sir John Herschel." as follows : " "The fact which explains the success of materialism is an inclination. would be admirable in explaininga chaos. bodies and spirits." It must not be for.and by inevitable conse- quence with motive.no doubt. the inclination to unity. both at the beginningand at the end. The motto must be All or none.

when I the whole basis of genuine science flouted and . METHODS AND ACQUISITIONS 177 a common reason in the thought of God. circle.but the latchets of whose shoes they are un- worthy to unloose. crude speculations presentedas facts.and which we might call infinite dust ! Can we now see why so eminent a man of science as Huxley justlydrew the physicalcircle of solid and sure enough scientificachievement so small that he could advise us to neglect as worthless even the minute residuum left within its invisible boundaries ? Surely there is ample room here for modesty.when I find sham and charlatanry take the place of honesty and investigation.what weakness. far be and it from me to decryknowledge at all. specialists. '' Someone has said to me : You are hard on " science . at least. nameless in every ' ' '* language. some semblance of ' ' solidity. and there it is that we should seek their ultimate unity. none at all. and for the past fortyyears I have done almost nothing else. school-book science. but except among very greatest leaders of science the we find very littleof it. and to worship.and among as a rule.not even the atom which had. the test of even a penny-dip without instant disap- pearance.which disprove themselves as soon and which will not bear as printed. I science . But when I see the speak for bigotryof men who claim to science. Science issystematisedknowledge.as solid chunks of wisdom and demonstration.which claims and gives. All honour to such leaders as rule the world of science.I breathed it in the home I have always loved and followed science.and stillfurther to decry the systematisationof knowledge. I was am born into not hard on an atmosphere of science. as the new materialists do. what ignoranceit is to limit the real existence of thingsto those fugitive appearances which our senses perceive. to take our imaginingsas the measure of creation. but an I know not what . But what eye has penetratedso far ? Who can imagine that he has explained that origincommon to all creatures ? Who can do so except him who is the reason of everything? Above all.but let us not be beguiledby the imitation.

What is wanted is to see science put on her spec- tacles. will be tried by a jury of its peers. for an intellectual shame has been put upon science which it does not deserve. and the opinionrendered. and it is rapidlycoming.and sohd achievements will come in all directions.'* Philosophy in every age and of every grade has always held to the spiritual theory.and will not represent merely a self- sufficient ignoringof the whole testimony. Not a vaUd system of philosophyhas ever been pre- sented of which this is not true. that we are going to '' learn dumber.inconvenient facts will not be suppressed. a which is the exact measure of a man's unfaiUng ignorance and conceit . planation has gone to the wall as inadequateand un. When that time comes. supported and is the onlyexplanation while this is left. but I do know that psychologyis coming to simply because every other ex- its own.to save its own position. psychism. if science has so often changed its position. I have also been asked. I do not beheve. to use a State of Maine colloquialism. left to account for the facts.as it would be by skilled lawyers. now the despair of science. more. then I want to sound justone note of warn- ing. as it would be by able and impartial judges. and get honestlydown to hard work on these difficultbut universal and most importantsubjects. in that day the judgment will be found flected re- upon and applicableto many other great problems. Science. and science will then win a crown of imperishable glory. and the verdict will be in accordance with the evidence of all mankind. the truth will be elicited.and should not be made to bear. has always contended that philosophy .in its broadest sense. everywhere and from the beginning. The facts will not be superciliously thrown aside.and an a priori prejudgment of the whole case.the evidence will not be pervertedor garbled.how do you know that what you claim as scientifically true of these demonstrations and conclusions will not also be displacedin favour of somethingelse ? I do not know. Nay.178 SPIRIT AND MATTER repudiatedin the name of an priori.

heat and electricity.it will find that these problems and those of the other phenomena of nature are identical. and then. that the phenomena encountered. shall we take it ? Scientificteachers have been in the habit of ing speak- too much ex cathedra. which will include all the phenomena of psychism.that it was and imagina- speculation tion. and the demonstrations become clearer and surer in the same proportion.as it examines light. And I know this . are inexplicable. and when science examines transcendentalism. METHODS AND ACQUISITIONS 179 was worthless. Everything is leadingdirectlyaway from brute matter as it was once taught. and nothing is left but to take up the flouted problems.but in every branch of religionand science. study.and cannot explainits own fundamentals .and for science to deal with these problems in a wider way. except by takingin psychism as a prime factor . If there is a greater integration at hand. and that the problemsbecome simplerevery time the base is broadened. It has been said that much of the dogmatic teachingof the clergyhas been due to the fact. The knowledge of infinitethingsis within our grasp .that when preachers stand up in their puJpitsand jaw.we will have to land in transcendentalism. unless the universe and mankind are one huge and ghastly jest. . observe. think and demonstrate. not only in spiritualism. so longas we have to use it to think with .nay.and go over the abundance of evidence from clouds of honest witnesses. but the supernormal will remain. but must improve and increase as rapidlyand as certainlyas we dispassionately take hold. which is what we think with.nobody else has a rightto jaw back. and mind. that never has a universal consensus prevailedamong mankind in which further research has not demonstrated the presence of a great truth .into mind as it expands and broadens before and around us. of common life even. But now science has proven itselfworthless to account for its own facts.can never be displaced. The natural super- will have disappeared.it can only be by includingthe physicalas well.

crawling.whole new sciences. The newer and and greater psychologists men of science and philosophyare all with us to-day. A third of a century or more ago the prospect was black indeed . dyed to escape detection. to their diet of because mud. Do not for a moment imagine that all men of science are of that ilk. manu- goingto manufacture.and a new era dawned. What we have to encounter now is that dumb inertia born in those old. and it never will be . they stopped learning. and in its remaining progeny. those half-taught stick followers who. livingprotoplasm or in gallipots . or gettingready to crawl. Of this they were guilty. when their old half-blind leaders ascended to heaven and learned better. like all operativemachines. ''Theyneed taming. and their greatest crime. and. in fact. for blunders some are worse than crimes. As Professor De Morgan said of those pseudo-teachers.and thereby they betrayed science. new means. was their dogmatisingon insufficient data. came into existence almost with their disappearance. black days of brute matter and em- pirical materialism . like clay-eaters.all over the bottom of the sea . can only be produced by intelligence of a purposive character . and.with but another short step. . they were facturing. for we now know that living protoplasm is a livingmachine." Such people need to rub against each other and againstother peoplemore and harder. it could be compounded in the chemist's laboratory. and with the generaldisappearance of this school slowlypassed away the dark clouds.and what is happening to-daywith science. and believed and taught that the physicalbasis of life was a chemical glue.and fed the lowest passions(^f-^n ignorant and credulous public.i8o SPIRIT AND MATTER The Bible tells us that the countenance of a friend sharpeneththe countenance that is of a friend. But livingprotoplasm never was so compounded. But we must not forgetthat the fault was not altogether with these teachers . and that. and will get it ? They wear a priest's cast- off garb.

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But there is one eminent writer and man of science of whom I wish to speak more especially. \ unknown and unsuspected. c' ru. livingcreatures.with all the acts and movements. Among the great factors of these demonstrations iwas the study of the psychism of lower animals. and then came like a rush the fierce demand for more and harder work. for deeper investigation. it inevitablypointsto a higher and fuller future life. It is the late lamented Romanes. i82 SPIRIT AND MATTER of intelligence over ignorance. Here are thinking. continued for years.feel. with memory.and. as it cannot fail to lead to a living ledge know- of man's brotherhood and God's fatherhood. ship. for broader study. and intellectual peace and spiritual rest. but living forms far below and which heretofore had been wholly / the cell itself. but this time doubt of materialism. with all the mental and psychical attributes manifested in man.the psychologyof livingcreatures too minute to be seen except with ~~high-power microscopes . of honest scientific methods over a physical hypothesis which begins with the world around us and runs into a cul de sac both backwards and for- wards . and demonstration followed demon- stration. then again. as it must . (/IHCii^. and the whole crumbled before lightof investigation the and trial. and manifesting the power of deliberate choice .-^ counterpart of his. and at last there came final certainty of the dominat- ^ ^ ing truth.its lath and plasterfell away. not merely monocellular organisms. doubt once more.and make oppressionand selfishness opprobrious. ing. Born and nurtured in a somewhat loose orthodoxy. in many . sporting. then infidelity.of demonstration over a priori.and so transform all our ethics. and the horizon widened. and surrender to materialism . friend- love. in fact. as years passed on there came doubt.and a recognition as well of the loftiness and dignityof man and his universal mental structure and belief . instead of a vague and ineffective routine. as it is a vindication of both philosophyand science.with likes and dislikes. the old black structure of nihilism splitinto cracks. and as it spells freedom. as the work went on. because my own experiences have been a humble c^uL. in kind.

Here we have choice. and his expounder and commentator after his teacher's death. which serves these livingbodies as a sub. K/^^'^^ man into human soul and highestreason . In those darker days from which." which was the best and strongestof the . but the livingbuds of future life. and it is a '^-/ psychiclife which would shame man. able assistant and co-worker with Charles Darwin. the material. not the promise. and living structure built up /T) y . \ J^rc"^ * And it bears widespread the buds. '' he published a short treatise. stratum.pupil. he had not yet emerged. as Binet says : ''In both vegetable and animal organisms micro- phenomena are encountered which pertain to a highlycomplex psychology.and of it much more.intention. as that which surrounds and penetrates livingman to-day.memory. It is a divine panorama moving before ~/ his eyes . If this was evolution. of psychiclife apart ^ from physicalstructure. while ever striving to emerge. with wondrously intelligent a foresight.the young friend and companion. his library fame is world-wide. the matter. I am sure. if man himself J^^'^ " had not this psychiclife as well. fright. Cambridge graduate.was at once immersed in the world of scientific blackness and materialism of his day. as he is convinced that he can see. that no competent observer can possibly penetrate these arcana. and not return as firmly convinced of God and religion.but came with a leap. and here we find the same wonderful psychi- cal phenomena working in this substratum (and only restricted in degree by physiological structure). A Candid Examination of Theism.it did not come by slow degrees.'* It is the microscopicalmass. it is a livinggarden which blossoms out in. THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY 183 cases. in 1878. God opens wide all His doors down there. His works are in every . George John Romanes. I) know. and think ^^ ^ and reason. and followed physicalbiologyas one of its most learned and able students and writers.and which appear quiteout of proportionto the minute mass that serves them as a substratum. orthodox in childhood. alone by the living hand of a livingand mind-giving"JhdjC^ God.

" '' " The witness referred to is revelation from the divine spiritual. no other evidence. he entered upon a new work.under two of the three criteria . It does not leave Him without witness at any during the historical period.paintsof the soul-starving misery of a material- istic philosophy. 2nd.but it contains the direct and requiring proofwithin itself." of in which he says : When I wrote the precedingtreatise I did not sufficiently appreciate the immense importance of human nature as distinguished from physicalnature. But twenty years later. time It gives ample scope for perseveringresearch at all times. Gradual evolution is in analogy with God's other work. A Candid " Examination Religion. but without indisputablecommunication between the spiritual and ourselves.one not merely without spirit. This I ought to have anticipated on merely a priorigrounds. who had been through it all.seekingminds.Intelligent or souls. I would be willing to stake the whole validity of spiritual- ism on this eternal sense of starvation alone .and notlong before his *' death. in any inquiry touching Theism. But since then I have seriously studied anthropology(including the science of com- parative rehgions).and no doubt should have perceived.with the result of clearly seeingthat human nature is the most important part of nature as a whole whereby to investigate the theory of Theism. and with a sceptical which conclusion. it is not only totallyinexplicable without spiritualism. Constituted as we are. edited by Gore. had I not been too much immersed in merelyphysical research. No wonder Haeckel loved Romanes " then. can learn no greater lesson than from these posthu- mously publishedand fragmentarypapers of Romanes.i84 SPIRIT AND MATTER books tillthen opposing the spiritual written philo- sophy of man." What a pictureRomanes." '* His final conclusion is as follows : " 1st. 3rd. and published under the title *' Thoughts on Religion. was extensivelyand triumphantly quoted by the opponents of true psychology. psychologyand metaphysics.

. THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY 185 of direct truth formulated by President McCosh.or protectors. does prevent the fact of not their beingmiserable. to which I shall later refer.sport. but am also well aware that when all these are taken togetherand well sweetened to taste.this great investigator original and scientific writer continues : '' Some men are not conscious of the cause of this misery . business. speculation. in respect of consequent reputation. '' Some men never even acknowledge this articu-lately or distinctly to themselves. Speaking of the misery of '* those whodeny or heed not the internal intuition of divineorigin. For the most part they conceal from themselves. etc.even though of much less tastefulness as far as the palateis concerned.another is pined for. Says Wordsworth : " Trailingclouds of glory do we come From God. and as soon as one end of distinction is reached. means. absent friends.or.however. know not a few of the famous men of our generation.yet always show it plainly enough to others. He may cheat himself for a time " especially if he be a strong man ^into the belief " that he is nourishinghimself by denying his natural appetitebut soon finds he was made for some together al- different kind of food. art. who is our home. .. this. the whole concoction is but as high confectionery to a starvingman. social position."as Romanes calls it.while disease and death are alwaysstanding . This. There is no finality to rest in. and I have always observed that this is profoundly ' ' true. frivolityof all kinds. is but to fill the starvingbellywith husks. if intellectually with disposed. this soon pallsby custom. the fact as well as possible by occupy- ing their minds with society. I know from experi- ence the intellectual distractions of scientificresearch.etc.however." Peoplewho have never had a home. literature. science.and philosophical artistic pleasures . never known parents. Homesickness is a direct proof of a home. Like all other moral satisfactions. It has been my lot to . can never know what it is to be homesick.

and miserable even though blind to the cause of their ever-present and obvious misery. On the other hand are those who have nothing. and with it all.But even to-daythis is the promisedreward . yet the want is there. and hold fast in a death-grapple. in this world. travel. and when the whole world has seen and knows then the great earthlyreward " will come for all. everythingto gratify their desires. everything ay. wealth. and whose life has been largely cast among the living exemplars of the great truth that men may have everythingto make them happy. thingsto cheat them.work or idleness as they prefer. and yet for whom.and makes our lives worth living. is but as high con." We have heretestimony of a great student. and that one is " faith in God. everythingto oc. which is spiritualism.as well for those who now feed on husks in misery as for those who feed on the great provender of the spirit. reputation. It will not be always so. '' I take it then as unquestionablytrue that this whole negativeside of the subjectproves a vacuum in the soul of man which nothing can fillsave faith in God. amid this tangle of ever-present selfishness. this spiritualism has no earthly or physicalreward.fame. who have poverty.i86 SPIRIT AND MATTER in the background. and that the spirituafistic faith in God. but. fectionery to a starvingman. far hark to the message . lack of friends. who has himself gone through all these experiences. . it is growing better day by day. selves with. it is a Christian hymn. everythingto satisfytheir wants. everythingbut one.with all that this world can give. lack of everythingbut one. but who yet grasp with a wild joy.they but feed their starvingbellies with husks " they are filled with misery. scientific recreations.so far as not to make them reaUse what is wanting . to that sole thing which makes life worth having. pleasure.an expert. the a great leader. privation. intellectual pursuits.a great teacher. lack of help. material advantages. and without that all they have pallsby custom. cupy their minds.lack of opportunity. Custom may even blind men to their own misery.

if I follow. THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY 187 more. But he had forgottenthe past. '' He had found a good bank of grass. as monarch. a crown in very surety. ' That His brow adorns ? * Yea.and spiced with the thistle of his ancestors.'* '' That is the teachingof spiritualism . Crockett. it is a universal^ spiritual hymn.' " ' If I find him. wherein he was a better philosopher. the hymn of self-sacrifice: " ' Is there diadem. It was shut in by twitch . many a labour. '' Do rightto the widow. The clear water of a canal was on the other side of the way to drink from when he was athirst. has learned its higher life.' " * If I ask him to receive me. R. and this lesson spiritualism alone can teach and bring home to every wandering soul. defend the orphan. in his Adventurer in Spain. enduringbed-straw. laugh not a lame man to scorn. Will he say me nay ? ' * Not till earth. giveto the poor.' " Think of Thermopylae ! and then think of a successful speculationin stocks ! Many a labour. judge for the fatherless. com- His sides were plump with the fulness of them. fenced about with succulent reed. for God is a spirit. take and bury them.His mind to him a kingdom was " ^the realm of the present. Many a tear.and would do so again. clothe the naked. and not tillheaven Pass away. heal the broken and weak. defend the maimed. Cudgel had thwacked his sides. and never learned to forecast the future.'* apostrophises a donkey who has broken his tether. and let the blind man come into the sightof thy clearness. '' " many a tear ! Ay. and all that therein is. many. ' What his guerdon here ? * Many a sorrow. He had all at mand." '' Mr S. But of thorns. Whenever thou findest the dead. Keep safe the old and young within thy walls. tillthe round world.

He had to be roused up that his panniersmight be placed astride his back. But these were only asleep. Such an infinity as this lies hidden in this littleflower. as a student of all religions.every stamen in its cup. Death " he had never even heard of that. whose entire competency. It is one of the millions of sisters now blossoming alongall the rivulets and in all the meadows of earth. If we look up to the sky. the eye suddenly recognisesa blue forget-me-notin the cool shade. and no power on earth can make the number more or less.i88 SPIRIT AND MATTER grass. with superhuman power. cate fibre. and too wise to waken. no one will question: '' the waterfall has clothed the grey Here."of Max Mtiller. we see again the same system " the moons revolving around the t he planets. where rocks on either side with green moss. cast a searchingglanceinto more the secrets of nature.the same form-world would reveal itself. when we strain our weak eyes and.the bud and the blossom. do we recognise the ever-recurring form in the most minute tissues and cells. He had. every fibre of its roots. when the microscopediscloses to us the silent laboratoryof the seed. Still more. barriered by ground ivy. and the eternal unchangeablenessof Nature's plansin the most deli. Could we piercestill deeper. seen thingsthat lay still" things that the futile two- legged put into deep holes. and down the long vista which is futurityhe would see only infinite thistle and infinite wild teasle. Every vein in its leaves. planets . and sometimes his master would mount behind up " but why think of such things? Had he yet eaten all the thistles ? No ? Worlds and worlds of thistles " without end ! Amen ! How like Romanes* description of this ilk among the two-legged! Contrast with this the pictureof the beautiful aspiringreligious soul. is numbered. indeed. Besides. and the vision would lose itself as in a hall hung with mirrors. and which have blossomed ever since the first morn- ing of creation shed itsentire inexhaustible wealth over the world.the Hke would never happen to him.from the ''Memories.

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His is man with his joys and sorrows. And man dare lift his comrade eyes with God. we lift our eyes to it in the glorious heavens it surrounds and leads and follows . Vast nebulae. as space recedes. Higher far than e'er the most aspiring mortal dared to crave. To lead to higher realms the set-free slave. We hear it in darkness and sorrow. God's glorious starry wheels. Before their awful majesty the staggered vision reels . ** The bright celestial wheels. Star clusters jewel-dyed. of course. the virtues of the dead . The hearse's solemn wheels." . But to welcome the supernal Home again to life eternal. ** The slow sepulchral wheels. and not from something to nothingness. and death is but a transition from place to place. and pierce the veil. new processions now are passing overhead. new countless millons are. us. While friends recount. That bear the sacred form whose lips eternal silence seals . is the grand sweet of the song eternal spiritualism of the universe. Not to leave a fellow-mortal at the grave. And evermore. which flush and pale. The dead ? Nay. The mourners softly weeping. Sun-couples. SPIRIT AND MATTER igo and thorns. 'Twixt sun and outer planet A billion leagues to span it. with measured voice. Ten thousand times that vast expanse to reach the first fixed star . The cortege slowly creeping. slowly wheeling. ' The least important thing does not happen except * " as God wills it ! '' '* This. revealing New sun and world births in their eddying trail.

the locum tenens. Here is a local newspaper item in point : '' Lights went out for half-an-hour last night in the Universitydormitories. but he represents a type of that form of Christianity which has made almost impossible religion among its abjectdisciples as a vitalising power .a proprietor.which Romanes characterised as a fatal mistake. and God is relegated to a seat somewhere aloft.and even schools for adults. who says that the idea that Christ is here on earth with us is nonsense. has swept countless millions into infidelity. as one may say. and that those who believe such nonsense are encumberers of the earth. is altogetherdue of to the sectarian alliance with materialism. and which.is always at hand to obstruct and confound. due to a broken dynamo at the power-house. while Satan. who takes no account of the working of his own establishment. Primary schools. but only turns up at pay day. This heathen notion of an absentee God. scripture. call out to the pupilsthat the teacher has gone off home. There was a generalrush for 191 . of a broad knowledge. during school hours. CHAPTER XXV SECTARIAN THEOLOGY IN THE LIGHT OF UNIVERSAL RELIGION What a sharp comedown it should be for the evangeHst I have alreadyreferred to. by its example to the public. It is not the evangelistwho is important to me. No one could carry on a successful business in that way. as I have already explained. and then watch for the ensuing entente.are hard to keep in order at best " let someone. derived from a careful instead culling. by which nature is made the producerand sustainer.

you know. O Lord. itselfis concededlyso blind that it can itself not see. Fireworks and red fire were set oil. and then concluded.192 SPIRIT AND MATTER the triangle. and an ear-splitting din arose from tin- horns.then heaven is any- . In half-an-hour the lights were on againand the students studyingharder than ever. with the bulk of the people. and smellers and tasters. every- and watches everythingI do. tin-pansand throats. with all of such people.and for little Cousin Mamie. and for mama and for poor papa. at last indignantly exclaimed *' to him : I know that God follows me around where.and with sickness prevalentamong many of her relatives. and for Cousin Charlie. and always will be going on. we will all go to pieces. tryingin vain to drive her dog back. It is this theologicalnotion that has re- legated God and Christ to a distant heaven. pistols." The whole is simply and difficulty solelydue to the strange fact that." But this latter would not have happened. who is not at all well. Nature. Conceive for one moment that creation has never ceased . where they are sittingbeside each other to the sound of music. who is so sick.they do not exist.'* Or that of another littlegirlwho. they say. though it is supposed to manufacture seers. but heaven is wherever God is. *' And do you. and that nature is something actingin the present as a sub- stitute. and Tm not going to have you trapesingafter me too. for if anythinghappens to you. performs and looks after and yet nature everything. and. To this absentee sort of theologyI much preferthe religionof the little girlwho. prayed for poor dear auntie. God is in heaven . and the allied to look materialistic-science notion that. since souls cannot be physically seen. returningfrom one uncle's funeral. or smelt. and nature after the bodies . or tasted.creation is looked upon as something which took place in the past. take rightgood care of yourself too. that it is always goingon .and have left the devil to look after the souls. and the whole difficulty vanishes. if the lights were not to be relit until the Day of Judgment. nor can it smell or taste. if God is omnipresent.

and being designed. At all the ages of humanity. in ancient times as in modern times. in his Psychology of Peoples. in consequence. but he " is compelledto say : Among the various ideas by which the peopleshave been guided. if at the present day old society our totters on its foundations. of their history. and volitions and intelligence are everywhere. We are in this vast workshop. The most considerable historical events.where machineryis not merelybeingused. never That religionis too deeply embedded in the very structure of mankind to permit even society to continue except on a religious basis is clearly '' pointedout by Gustave Le Bon.those which have had the most colossal influence. the reason is that it is losingmore and more the beliefson which it had existed up till now. SECTARIAN THEOLOGY 193 where and everywhere. As Christ said : The kingdom of heaven is within yourselves . and the human body is the Hving temple of God. yesterday. Religious beliefs have always con- stituted the most important element in the life of peoples. Historyshows us that peoplesdo not long survive the disappearanceof their gods. as regardsits consequences. will necessarily take its place.to-day and for ever . and the universe His workshop. and finds all its institutions profoundlyshaken.the ideas which are the beacons of history.and creative power and intellectare absent for an instant. If humanity could allow its gods to die it might be said of such an event that.*'The author is himself intensely rationalistic.but is beingbuilt. the polesof civilisation.have been the birth and death of gods.in the larger sense of the term. The civilisations N .and.*' *' Moreover. a new civilisation.the fundamental questions have been rehgious always questions. With a new religiousidea a new civilisation is born into the world. religious ideas have played too preponderatingand too fundamental a part for us not to devote a special chapterto them. it would be the most importantevent that had taken placeon the surface of our planetsince the birth of the firstcivilisations. founded on a new faith. When itshall have lost them entirely.and planned and carried out.

and worship them. Anything else than this is nonsense. If positivismerred so far. But Le Bon is wrong believing in that men create their own gods.not to represent. and then crouch down and worship them. or marble . duces in colour. and the inventor must have his invention ready for use before his reduces it to practice.in making humanity in mass a deity. Be a religious man. miserable and defenceless indeed.or bronze.who suffers beneath the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. in the sense that they consciously make images representing nothing.that is. without these we are poor. who is about to face the unknown wonders of death." We say to one who is about to be overwhelmed by disaster. our present knowledge and our faith and hope and charity. They may make images of their gods.nor to embody." for that is conceded to be the only manhood which counts or which can count in our present world. and what lies beyond. the conceptionof. and the result was so preposterous that Huxley could only say of it that he would as soon think of worshippinga wilderness of apes. with them There is nothingso destructive as the dust of dead gods. the bridge-builder must see his bridgein all its form and material before he puts it into shape . With these we are triply armed . The artist must have the model in his soul far more vividlythan that which he afterwards repro. '' " Be a man ! If Le Bon is right.and then convert them into gods. *' this is the same as to say.and he is right.194 SPIRIT AND MATTER that are born also die with them. how much more preposterous to imagine that men deliberately set themselves to work to manufacture gods. with our present civilisation. nor to present to conscious sightpre-existing gods.embody in representative form the intuitional and disembodied gods which are implanted in their souls. out of stone.if that is what he means by the phrase. in cold blood. Men could never endow their gods with super- .but to actually manufacture them de novo. the architect must see his completedstructure before he puts pencil to paper . mud or stick.

Captain Dennett. while in the process of manufacture. in his narrative of Parry's second voyage to the Arctic regions. mented (Fig. says : *' The idols.and which description is of extreme interest. R. as shown in Fig." Imagine. Dresden." etc.if you can.Government tions Contribu- to North American Ethnology. One of the instruments used by them in carvingtheir wooden images. and Dr Cyrus Thomas. Troano. the whole process of manufacturingtheir idols is depicted. inserts about a hundred pages ' relatingto the psychic life of the Eskimos..35. SECTARIAN THEOLOGY 195 natural powers. and if they had this knowledge beforehand. and what they did was simply to give them tangiblere- presentation. 33^ whichshows also the method of Carving (see Plate XV.another paint- ing the figure . I judge from its form. .*) . another boring out the eyes. etc.written by the Maya priest- hood long before the Spanish conquest. And the Mayas were among the most religiouspeoplesof antiquity.34). from the records of the first Christian missionaries who visited these natives. it would be idiocy. in his study of the manuscript Troano (U. without any other lines than those necessary to show the parts ororgans.S. those yet not paintedor ornamented. Borgian. In the illustrations contained in survivingMaya manuscripts and codices of Yucatan. are usuallyrepresented by the heads only . Here we see one man chopping out the figure of the face with a hatchet. before they made them.not manufactured by them. of supernatural powers . I will make a few very brief extracts : '' Before any missionaries arrived in the country^ Greenlanders were supposed to be gross idolaters.. unless they had cognisance. a tombstone-maker carving '' a slab.N.then the supernatural powers were the gods. those which are painted or orna. was metallic. sacred to the memory. as in Fig. in which the objectto which the memory was sacred was to be the tombstone itself! That would not be ignoranceor insanity. another chiselling the nose into shape. 1882)..

in which. and varietyof circumstances. From free conversations' with the natives in their perfectly wild state. whence came But the firstman ? He may have grown out of the earth. it is very apparent that their fore- fathers believed in Being who resides above the a clouds. for who could have informed us of their ' existence.196 SPIRIT AND MATTER who prayed to the and sacrificed to the devil.from their various notions concerning the soul and spirits in general.One of the party immediatelyrose ' up and spoke as follows : It is true. which they could not understand. that they had spent their lives in a state of such complete ignoranceand thoughtlessness. easilyspoils Now the least bird is composed with greater art than the best Kayak. and not to insist upon any duties to which they are disinclined. and they come again from their parents.the missionaries were led to entertain a contrary opinion. care must be taken to make no personalapplica- tions.'* '' A company of baptisedGreenlanders one day expressed their astonishment. Mariners were led to these conclusions from the discourse of the natives. and no man can make a bird. and he who does not know the use of it it. but must be made with the skill of men's trouble and hands . moon and stars pro- ceed ? There must necessarily be someone who has created everything. how- ever. we were ignorantheathens. But why do men not grow out of the earth nowadays ? And from whence do the earth. sun that he might be propitious to them in their fishery. and from their evident anxietyabout their probable state after death.before you (addressingthe missionaries) * arrived. who has always existed and can have no end : he must be inconceivably more ful power- and skilful than the wisest of men : he must also .and knew nothingof God and of a Redeemer . sun." from a '' But after obtaininga more intimate ance acquaint- with their language. Yet I have often thought.a Kayak with the darts belongingto it does not exist of itself.sea. Who then has made him ? He comes from his parents.and to whom they paid religiousworship. Man is still more exquisitely framed than all other animals.

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then they came to all prehistoric America from the same source. exist is also shown by the conceded fact that all American languages have a polysynthetic type of their while the languages of the Eastern world own.J. implanting must have back to interglacial times gone at least. even in the few necessary pages of Dennett. with prehistoric American cults and practices. for human remains and productions have been discovered in various places in America dating back to that remote epoch. it is only to study their cults. deep down in the glacial drift. then it is equally true of our latest scientific demonstrations. Europe or Polynesia. We know as now. are not polysynthetic at all * America developed and grew independently of Asia. . which came down with the cap ice- from the north That this eastern priority did not ..198 SPIRIT AND MATTER Bon asserts of primitive man is true. they are entirely at variance with the corresponding ideas of the Eastern world " that is to if these behefs came from the Eastern world say. where they had been found in abundance. N. generally speaking. that the exact reverse is the case * that if there was priority. ethnologists have demonstrated (see Brinton and others). notably near Trenton. it was for America that such . To contraindicate the idea that these Eskimo beliefs and demonstrations might have been a duum resi- from European or Asiatic sources. Africa. to the Eskimos. to perceive that while they harmonise.

and whole bodies of Jews and Christians. have started back from this apparent danger so violentlyas to blindly fling themselves into materialism. does that make his books on history. and that the sources and lines of communication in the case of spiritualism are to a great extent identical with those of religion . Many leaders and teachers in spiritualism have somewhat looselybut erroneously held this opinion.to the great detriment both of itself and of religion . spiritand matter. anatomy and pathology overlap each other " so the historyof the Jews and the religion of the Jews overlapeach other . but of all. Is spiritualism then identical with religion ? By no means. not only of one religion. so astronomy and chemistry. CHAPTER XXVI SPIRITUALISM THE SUBSTRATUM OF RELIGION. and of other religions. Because one of commerce sort is carried over a railway. or his novels.does that bind all transport over the same line to that class ? Because one great writer has written books of inestimable value on religion.one may say. overlapeach other. are all His records and miracles to be considered parables? spiritualism Because and religionalways. they 199 . or rationalism as it is euphemisticallycalled.equally books on religion ? Because Christ spoke parables.to escape this apparently obvious peril. BUT NOT IDENTICAL WITH IT In the previouschapters I have endeavoured to show that the phenomena of spirituaUsmare in a large degree identical with those of religion . overlapeach other.nay more.geologyand paleontology. life and death.does that imply any identity ? So physiology.

will iterate and reiterate the grand con. *' *' *' There is no spiritual death . from telepathy often doubtless . and. that we live on after death." . broad-minded. Spiritualism comes from the beyond. I am alive .but does that imply that they are identical ? What then binding force which is the holds ligion re- and together? It is the spiritualism common union and the unseen." we are no longer '' listening. from the spirit of the universe possibly. through the subconscious department of the mind. and it comes power with to act on the mental and spiritual within us. and upon our own physical and the physicalaround us. in this religion. and is strong only in the earnestness of purpose which. and Sir John Herschel as volition manifest- ing upon the material.and from an outside source. happy. to make its pathsstraight .while it comes in the same garb. to a wilderness of apes. religiontells its own story . " ridiculing the religion of humanity. as it were. Still. it does this often in uncouth and unsanctified ways. independent of matter. yet not always a difference. I am alive. trolling '' '' '* '' teaching: It is I . as Huxley said. but religion. and Lamarck as that spirit. intelli- awake. of the seen It is the ment embodi- *' of the union with Stewart and Tait's Unseen Universe/' It is what Romanes described as the Spiritof the Universe. which forms and rules all things. gent. thatis the radical difference. from some outside and undetermined almost intelligence certainlyin many cases . but as spiritualismfulfils its appointed lot in teachingus to know by demonstration. so. through every difficulty. if it is de- monstrated (and it certainly has been) religion gets its solid foothold and base." Now then.and Lord Kelvin as the per- petual miracle of life. it comes to prepare the way for religion.The revelations are from the beyond .200 SPIRIT AND MATTER measure each other. with this in hand. in one case from departed spiritspossibly. and (in most cases).and not accept by a hazy and blind faith. and so does religion. So does religion. comes also from a divine source .

but progression does. truthtellers and '' '' liars. vision and foresight. all religion " is an ignisfatuus.the kind and unkind. nor. Indian girls.curates.and great. spiritualism. we know not what successive spheres of lightwe may traverse through eternity. or cheat us. We can be justas good. universality. omnipotent. prove the truth. since we know by the mere contemplation of the universe that there is something perfectin its in. and wise.it isn't reasonable. we can all of us know that we may be shavingsfrom that great spiritual sphere. telligenc power. Suffer them to come unto me. sweet- hearts. by any amount of acquirablepower. with its fishwives. for of such is the kingdom of heaven. men we have known and admired. It isn't right. children. power. majesty and perfection of that sphere. from our knowledge of them. and. grown-up sons and daughters.even born still- babes. and they do all those multitudinous things in all those multitudinous ways which.and the absence of which would make them to us unknown and negligible quantities.perfect . nor even if actual eternityis for us . there is not a sane livingwho believes that by any amount man of acquirable knowledge he can ever become omniscient. '' Christ said of littlechildren. or fancy for us.brothers. come and tell us the truth. SPIRITUALISM AND RELIGION 201 Under religionlies this basic the foundation of proofof a future life without that. soldiers. with its sailors who often swear spooks like German . rough and often mean . lovers. so near to the heart of nature . cheap and chattering . baby. we should expect. by any increase of goodness. little and babbling.cowboys.or else play with us. For example. even so. and useful. friends. nor. all sorts and conditions of men decarnated. relatives.sisters. wives. merry kobolds . and hence. father and mother. but the war is . poltergeists .as we can be^ and that is precisely what we ought to try to be .but that we can never have the rotundity.partners in business. Perfection does not belongto us here or hereafter." So we may learn wisdom from babes.that we should. if real.

of physical science. in type. between spirit the worker and the material universe. if we live after death. is it not then a frightful mistake ? It is indeed a frightful mistake . and a new destiny. the cheated-with-vanities. are. only in some degree and at some time helped. how could such a mistake have occurred ? and how could so many millions of mankind have fallen . which is all it has or can have. and there must make a fresh start with our acquiredcapitalhere. is all a mistake. if it has turned out. darkness and degradation.the starved-on- husks. stand still. comrades of God the universal. as we make use of the opportunities of this lifeof probation.the soul misery. and continue our advance there as we have advanced here . if we are to stand still. sorrow.the worked in and on.as may be. and one may well ask. of Romanes.and life and mind will have a new meaning. past. that the materialistic. and for which propaganda physicalscience must transcend our physics. advance or retrograde. by the purer spirits weeping tears of sorrow for our misery. comrade the universal. will pass away like a tale that is told.and whisperingwords of hope and encour. continue on. and. earthbound there.as a drowning man catches at straws. empirical. agement amid the long blackness of despair. if we are here on probation. remorse.earthbound here . If we are allied to spirit. as Romanes says . to religion And with this. take upon mankind.when attemptingto cross the impassablechasm. or retro- grade there. universal and eternal .202 SPIRIT AND MATTER won if we win survival after death. and in pain. to save ourselves there.and all the rest we can implicitly trust to the power which made us and preservedus. to clingto something. as we have stood still. If it should turn out. the unthinkable chasm. which lies between mind and matter.atheistical propaganda of what has so often gone under the name of science.present and future. then we can see the terrificresult of such a mis. or endeavour in speechlessagony to catch up. And justas we the little.so is spiritualism the little. willy-nilly.

" and thought that they could be happy with that.but Romanes showed that they were all miserable together. the dissipations and fashion. I think he was right." But men are prone to seek the reward without the toil . nay. It lifts the weary heart to-day.future. When men are drafted out from the ranks for execu- tion.whether among the pursuits of physics. but only for the moment.and indeed of frivolity beneath every coveringsham. but the ward re- is as greatas it is inevitable. Of faith to God or truth to man. anxious.and promised eternal death and '' silence. to learn of some way by which the end of lifemight better become the end of all thingsfor themselves. SPIRITUALISM AND RELIGION 203 into this error. it is better to draw a blank than a number . they turned with a jest Well. desertion comes more easy. which they flung over their poverty and nakedness. And nerves it for to-morrow. The noblest one is Duty. It brings a zest to every joy.than that they should have to bear the responsibility of a fathomless. perchance an unhappy. But promotion must be worked for . I have known many such myself. and it cannot be done. we'll be a " long time dead. " Of all the words the language bears Of splendouror of beauty.and they are a . And when physicalscience appeared before them as a one-eyed and impassivegod. if well-deserved.the gatheringand scattering of wealth. A balm to every sorrow. though they well know that it would have been better stillto draw a promotion. who spake as one with authority. While others fought to win the prize '" And sailed through bloody seas ? Men were very ready. Says the old hymn : '* Shall I be carried to the skies On flow'rybeds of ease. and subjectedthemselves to this delusion ? The path of duty is not always easy.

one and all.'* which is ridiculous.204 SPIRIT AND MATTER dissatisfied lot. each seeking to diminish his own misery by a propaganda to make others lieve be- '' the same thing. and come into the crowd. and would be. if even they were convinced and sincere. .

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but a believer in and demonstrator of continuous revelation.accordingas they are employed. to direct our minds to the consideration of God for the clearest and spirits.communicates to mankind that portionof truth He has laid within the which reach of their natural faculties : revelation is natural reason enlarged by a new set of discoveries com- municated by God immediately. from Locke was not only a theist.and there is no .when properly understood. which He has given to man. and spiritualism." Our organs themselves. What he attacked so relentlessly was the Cartesian theory of innate ideas.have gone." revelation.*' *' Again : How much of our knowledge depends upon the rightuse of those powers nature hath be- stowed upon us.as they are usually counted." " Again : ''I judgeit not amiss.Locke says : God having fitted men with faculties and means to discover.that at once.which.2o6 SPIRIT AND MATTER '' pounded theory of innate principles/' as contrasted with divinely implanted faculties.v/herebythe eternal Father of Ught. idea of active powers. We cannot believe it impossible. having been boldly stated in the philosophyof Descartes.and of God.in teachingmaterialism. and more ways to convey into the understandingthe notice of corporeal things than these five." he '* says. for example.receive and retain truths. '' As. to seek to impressLocke into its motley ranks ! Locke's philosophy. are '' God-given. Both these men were among the greatest mathematicians known to history. etc.by this intimation *^ (ofactive and passivepower).was afterwards taken up and still more thoroughly elaborated by Leibnitz.'' etc." You will see these brief extracts. '' *' So of revelation he says. accordingto Locke. and Fountain of all knowledge. to God to make a creature with other organs.but on the contrary was directly in its favour.: is natural Reason. was not at all directed against spiritualism. and how little upon such innate principles.How far astray then must physicalscience.

who is our home. with a subconsciousness and a receptivity for acquiring spiritual food.a material- istic foundation. by its livingparticles. with and from God and spirits. and to be againtransmitted. as a source of intuition or even of instinct. they are faculties.through unnumbered generations. for in the offspring. Certain sects of Christians.is the voice of God. and stilllargersects of other religions. POPULAR ERROR 207 more materialistic science than that of pure mathematics.which. It had. inherent in the minutest bit of invisible livingprotoplasm.the physicaltheory of heredity.came down from heathen times. is practically one of innate ideas." but these are not innate ideas.is unquestion- able '' '' this is the " faculty of Locke.with a basis of physicalids or plasms.*' but the soil in which acquiredideas subconsciously are and will be implanted. inbred or surrounded.in the embryo ideas organism as a part of its equipment. each is *' '' after its kind. This theory of innate posited. perhaps. or as Words- worth says : "" Trailingclouds of glory do we come From God. indeed. certain em.*' That man bringsa spiritual endowment is most certain.and forms . which I will consider later on. and that his constitution itselfis permeated. or was capableof having. would expand and culminate in many of the developedforms of ideas and beliefs. the swing of the pendulum is nowtoward the Kantian view '' that instinct.and. It was this physicaltheory that Locke strove to supplantby substituting direct spiritual contact and revelation. later on. uncounted generations yet to come. bryonic ideas which. to the minutest bit of livingproto- plasm." Butthey are clouds that we trail .inherited for millions of years. have clung to this theory of innate ideas.as a complement to the conscious ideas which come from observation and experience. capacities and habits. to grow and mature as the livingform grows and matures. . in connection with Haeckel. in fact. but. like this other.

that incredible. Here. but I have never heard one of them talk . and that without was the source of that intuition at that time. referring especially to the chapter dealingwith the Patent System. which is. of course. of the future must be carried indefinitely along in complete form from the pre-amoeba. then the invention was not patentable). and if the creation was an intuition which no man ever before consciously had. and. then it surelycame to him from without. but revelations. and. then it is the source of other kindred ideas and intuitions. if of that intuition. or knew of. " which in Locke's system was to replace innate ideas/' It is for instance.in fact. these kinds of little thingsre- quire a creator. both reduced to practice in the productionof developed forms of crude matter. for no one can contend that the human race ever can exhaust all possible ideas.but I have never heard anyone say that a steam-engineor a phonograph could create itself . worse still. it is practically working a intuition. but this is not an idle dream . before this particular man (forif there had been such before him. can be said that solar systems create themselves. and. or a universe. It. So intuitions are not dreams.and a practically working intuition of an invention is of the same order as a practically working intuition of a solar system. there could indeed be no priorityor right in invention . the rule of common-sense. If this were so. in an invention. This again contradicts the law of parsimony.we have an intuition . I have heard many materialists (I use the term in the sense in which Mr Huxley used it)talk about Hume. uncounted millions of valuable ideas which must perishfor ever unfructified.2o8 SPIRIT AND MATTER Much has been by me said in the preceding chapters concerning this inspirationor intuition . or knew of the means to reduce it to practice. it seems to me that we will be able to understand very clearlywhat this intuition is. the idea of the sewing machine or telegraphshould have been innate in all animal lifefrom time immemorial. nay all possibilities more.

always with a spark." Auguste Comte is another materialistic philosopher who is alwaysquoted at second-hand. I refer to him. POPULAR ERROR 209 Hume himself. it is said. as a whole. in his work on '' " *' the SpeculativePhilosophy of Europe : The philosophyof Hume. In Hume's reduction (he never beheved it himself. professinguniversal unbelief. But in buildinghis great work on positivephilosophyhe abandoned the re- ligious basis of St Simon.then split up again. and when recantation once begins. but it is the inevitable result of every system. and a good many of our ethical-culture friends believe also that they think they believe in him too. A more partial and less daring scepticism might.'' As Morell says." As Sir James Mackintosh well says. As Winston Churchill says '' of two of his characters. a sort of Aladdin's palace.as we see clouds do in the sky.and againreunited. and this disappearedalso. the wires of their lives had crossed.because we could only under- stand matter by means of mind. originatedand fell with himself.to destroy itself. so that he compelled to get his God out of was this human coterie.by the way) the physicalworld of Locke disappeared.and since then had crossed many times again. because it is said that there is one man who stillbe- lieves in him.or else recant his whole lifework .leavingclouds so of unmeaning consciousness floatingabout in an immaterial chaos. have gained many followers . Comte discipleof St Simon. on which concession Berkeley assumed the individual mind or ness conscious- to be the sole factor . Later on. and certainly constructed a magnificent system. But Comte had already left his great philosophywith nothing in it higher than man.no follower has any . the was a theistic French Socialist.but it had no foundation and would not stand alone.he fell in love with a married woman whose untimelydeath caused him to revise his atheism. probably. but Hume found no more warrant for individual mind than for individual matter. which by their contacts emitted sparks. ** there can be no belief that there can be no belief.

The real stumbling block is perhaps not in any theory of the fact.one mode of statingit only appears more incomprehensible than another.isolated examples.that something which has ceased. hes in the fact that there can be no such universal unity or community of all human existences.whom he calls Humanity/' The fallacy. '' Starting with Hume's ultimation.he was obligedto confess that his artificialand laboured system broke down. all I can do is to show that in the fulness of his power. which/' says his biographer. there are " thoughts and feelings ." It was on the phenomenon of memory and states of present and past consciousness. We now come to John Stuart Mill. or the universal unity of all existences in one great Being. and is so incongruous with the other that it cannot be expressedin any terms which do not deny its truth. So Comte '' dealt with rehgion.in the absence of a common source or parentage. in general.from his logic and philosophy. But even Comte abandoned his own basis of universal unity in finding all sorts of exceptionsin higher.It would be impossible to trace his work here . that his whole theory broke down.in this work. or is not yet in existence. naming the months after these (on his theory) pathognomonicfreaks. and.but in the fact itself. and he was brave enough to confess it.whose name looms largely. and these he made the subjects of worshipby various homages and festivals.as I have shown before. can . because the whole of human language is accommodated to the one. this radical basis alone on '' he built his constructive idealism. as Sir William Hamilton observes. and outside our presenthumanity. we inevitablyarrive when we reach ultimate facts .210 SPIRIT AND MATTER confidence left as to where it may end. and was futile. He says : ''We are here face to face with that final inexplica- bilityat which. *' he conceived to be the complete harmony of human existence. and after all his labours. and reformed the calendar. beyond. The true incomprehensibility perhaps is.individual and collective.and to find that you must go back.

single present conception. accompanied by a belief in its reality. into a up." . can be gathered as it were. POPULAR ERROR 211 still be. in a present that a series of manner. " feelings the infinitely greater part of which is past or future.

and that the part of that something which we call the nervous system is an apparatus for supplyingus with a sort of algebra of fact. struggling toward the higher light. CHAPTER XXVIII TYNDALL. A brain may be the machinery by which the material universe becomes conscious of itself. while still strivingfor the coming day. bound down. which he felt must come. HAECKEL In dealingwith John Tyndall as a sheet-anchor for materiaUsm. I need only repeat his statement that between mind and matter there is a chasm ally intellectu- impassable. I do refer to his not popular lectures. " What noble words are these ! For anything that may provedbe to the contrary.based on these symbols.but trammelled.though not likenesses. and the data were not in his possessionwhich his own positionsde- manded. againsthimself. are symbols of that something .he when. that sensations. discussing says : The honest and rigorousfollowing up of the argument which leads us to materialism inevitably carries us beyond it. '' Berkeley. and almost strangledby physicaltheories which he could not controvert.but to those writingsin which be was dealingwith in- tellectua forces equal to his own. HUXLEY. SPENCER.'* Huxley's misfortune was that he lived in the early dawn of a new psychological age. and was driven. but which had not yet arrived. But it is important to notice 212 . For example.to try to accept. He has always presentedto me the picture of a man of great power. there may be a real something which is the cause of all our im- pressions . Scant comfort will the materialist obtain from Huxley.

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from this author. what . to learn and to suffer as they become individualised. When examined. at death. must not that Infinite and Eternal Energy also be individualised and specialised ? If they are of the same order (and. this is all the most ardent lover of truth could hope for." Now what argument can be adduced in its favour ? If these individualities are pushed escape. and that at death its elements lapseinto the Infinite and Eternal energy whence they were derived.each one of which had become an anchor to hold him fast againstwinds and currents. '' He says that our consciousness is specialised and '* individualised . finds as such an oppositeending '* strange and repugnant.and far more than one had any rightto expect. all religionof every type and land and age claims this fact also .if our no consciousness is specialised and individualised. Spiritualists claim that they have this evidence . now. they must be of the same order)they must both be inevitably so. But there is ground for such inference. '* And then the consciousness itself what is it " during the time that it continues ? And what be.being the same in derivation. it concedes the insufficiency of any materialistic or agnosticphilosophybased on his earlier writings. conscious- Spencer says.214 SPIRIT AND MATTER his last breath it becomes to each the same thingas though he had never lived. comes of it when it ends ? We can only infer that it is a specialised and individualised form of that Infinite and Eternal Energy which transcends both our know- ledge and our imagination.'* In view of the long series of works issued by Herbert Spencer. and enables us to correct this last statement by the concessions he makes in statingit. the elements of this *' " specialised and individualised consciousness of ours will lapse into the source from which it was derived. our own ness. the most that can be said is that this is a questionto be settled by evidence. " He infers that. if derived from that Infinite and Eternal Energy. to become out or specialised. .

and care. power or happiness of that great source ? What is all our trials. and pain. Whether materialism be conceived of as extended into idealism. providedthey are conceived of as automatic. so structive con- '' '* idealism and crass materialism are the same. no source. " And we shall sit at endless feast Enjoying each the other's good.'* We know better now. ** Is faith as vague. The essence of these two is the same.the same source from which they were rived de- ? Would they add anythingto the knowledge. Says Tennyson : " That each. What vaster dream can hit the mood Of love on earth ? " Some of the men I have named were known as idealists.self-derived and self- operative. nothing. and worri- ment for. or fall into. when we meet . and grief. some materialists. and arrive at the same result. Just as I showed you that credulity and incredulity were different presentations of the selfsame unscientific superstition. And I shall know him. and they depend upon empiricismfor their logic. And what pushes. who seems a separate whole.or the reverse.and what pulls? Spencer here has been betrayed by a false analogywith the physical phenomena of gravita- tion.just as spiritualism depends upon transcendentalism for its basis. no origin.is or can be bettered or benefited by this incessant push and pull. and some alternately one or the other. broken and empty-handed. OTHER EARLIER WRITERS 215 would begainedby having them againabsorbed into. . Eternal form shall still divide The eternal soul from all beside .in such a case ? We come back battered. they are all dealt with by the same arguments.but the type was the same in all. and his hypothesiswas only tenable in those pre-scientific days when philosopherstaught that *' Nature abhors a vacuum. should fall Remerging in the general soul. and no one. Should his rounds. they are alike . as all unsweet. and move fusing all The skirts of self again. some semi-materialists.

intellect and life . that God is a spirit. and walled in by agnosticism. " I smiled to think God's greatness flowed around our incompleteness. soul." To quote from Murdock.in its essence. Round our His restlessness. but with a field Hmited only by the universe eternity. it finds these fundamental questions forced upon it. but even the ground which it occupies. soul.amid the tragedy of life and death. human and divine. and with intelli- " gence kindred with our own. And in this sense the word scendentali tran- is now most used.the transcendental." and finding that empiricismleaves unconsidered not only everythingoutside its micro- scopic field. 2i6 SPIRIT AND MATTER Hence these two sharply differentiated and tradictory con- theses are known as the empiricalon the side. The one works in a dark room with a rushlight. The one empiricalfinds its home and faith in the contempla- tion and rationale of what we see about us. Transcendentalism claims to have a true knowledge of all thingsmaterial and immaterial. on the contrary. uses these tools in the only way possible. and having mind.'' You will that majesticdemands see such require that the spiritualismof the universe shall be cognisable. as its etymologyimplies. " climbs beyond. and hence finds the of mind. As Mrs Browning said. soul. and and with sources and origins only compatiblewith the universal.the other infinite spirit and an eternal God. Beyond all questionevery one of these greattruths . open the other in the fields with sunlight. source in the only conceivable source of mind.intellect and life in its pos-session. handled by syllogisms. onethe a nebula and a finds stone wall.intellect and life. and to the whole extent available and sure. rest. cited in Webster's '' Dictionary.so far as the mind is capable of knowing them.and that all religionis. the revelation from God and the reception by man of divine truth.that the psychism of the universe is akin to and interpretable by our own psychism.and the transcendental on the other. and thence deductively traces down the line by rigid experiment.

and are those who stand in the populareye. But there is yet one who must be considered.which has erected a nettingof transparent a priori.*' Uni- For the skilled student this is a good book to read. You will recollect that even Romanes was obligedto ^^"/^'^*^ revise his whole work on these subjects. shows his partialities and shortcomingsso luminously that one can see precisely how the reader is sought to be misled." as the quack medical advertisements run. and for especially popularreading.psychology and anthropology. There are many other names beside those I have referred to.because he is the most recent. and his work is so materialistic and at the same time so '' popular. because the author unconsciouslyuncovers himself. OTHER EARLIER WRITERS 217 has been scientifically worked out and demonstrated. as soon as he had gone deeplyinto biology. It is not for those who have never tried it to deny it .to get down to work. but it is. '' as a teacher ? He says in his preface. have we so capablea man. After what I have alreadysaid in these chapters. lawn-tennis to sit behind it and nurse its misery there are too " many looking on. and take J a' ^^^ ^*^ff oppositeground. if the facts were correctly and scientifically stated. My own . and we well know what happens to every honest investigator who does actually get down to work.and how. for materialism in all its various garbs.^.that when all else fails. in Ernest Haeckel.and that he /^/v^ confessed that he would have learned the truth long '' before if he had not been too deeply immersed in " merely physical research ! Now.for all this ilk. the scepticsconsult '' ^^ Haeckel. it is not for those whose pet superstition is incredulity to deny it . which will come to you. it is not for physicalscience.the conclusions would be precisely the opposite. but the men I have mentioned are types of all the various classes. in all the various sciences that the occasion requires. and keep working.^ ^ . you will all agree that to properly handle these subjects.a writer jc^j^^m^ must be thoroughly capableand excellently equipped. and his particularly Riddle of the verse.

** Haeckel's latest book is more defective even than his earlier ones. for the destruc- tion of the stillprevalentsuperstition that man owes his personalexistence to the favour of God. but also the soul of the new stem-cell makes its appearance. nothing of the polar bodies ." His argument.moreover. as understood in biology.the same animal re- ft produces indifferently by one mode or the other. he says nothing of the centrosomes. has a beginningof existence . perverts .to which we shall return later on. many times. It suffices. But his whole description of sexual generation is false.he ignores. too. worms Silk- are now always bred from virginmothers. Where was *' '* copulation there ? In fact. 2i8 SPIRIT AND MATTER command of the various branches of science is uneven and defective. nothing of the chromosomes . but the essential ideas are the same. and point outthe pervadingunity of its parts. a nd.I will quote the following : " '' By these empiricalfacts of conception. that every man. and for one case of amphimixis(sexualgeneration) there are uncounted millions of karyokinesis(asexual generation). every one that is so born. This fact suffices of itself to destroy the myth of the immortalityof the soul. those commanding generalswho marshal their chromatin into platoons from a distance. living animals far below the smallest cells. you will see. the further fact of extreme importanceis established. nothing of the independent psychic life and antics of the zoogonidia. falls of itself. and the offcast of vegetablegrowths as low as seaweeds.march them about like soldiers.however imperfectbe the execution. the zoospores. the completecopulation of the two sexual cell-nuclei marks the precise moment when not only the body. like every other animal. for there are probably millions of livingbeingsnever born of sexual union at for all. and order one-half to break to the rear and march off the field . '* ** There is no fusion as he says there is . so that I can attempt no more than to sketch the generalplan of such a world-picture.neither of which has he correctlystated. lA*r^^ The '' souls must ** here be in a mixed-up state surely. To illustrate this. The factors employed are heredityand environment.

environment which modified him. is a part of the man himself environment is . . The hill does nothing if he sits . then the exertion he puts forth modifies the but it was not the man. A man walking along a road comes to a long. nothing in itself the man is everything. no power anything. acquire- man. for he fully stood under- '' '* the truth. sur- it has of itself to modify as means. all the essential keynote facts which we should expect from the a priori of a man who has been writing. steep hill. over- or failure to overcome. which acts. used environment without qualification at times. and this has become a leth shibbo- with the half-educated. unfortunately. as he for a generation with an says. or roundings. Environment. down there it is just as though there were no hill . Charles Darwin. It is the coming. . and that is inside the is part of his endowment or ment. imperfect and defective command of the various branches of science of which he claims to treat. OTHER EARLIER WRITERS 219 and conceals. but if he undertakes to climb the hill.

" But HaeckeFs scheme heredity(which Weis- of mann.amounting to perhaps the intelli- gence of zoospores or bacteria. If the earUest forms of animal or vegetablelife were secretlyendowed with the genius of a Shakespeare. that. or from an invertebrate of the Devonian. one of these might not better have struck Lord Kelvin in the nine- teenth century. or a verte- brate of the is incredible Triassic. who is om: home. reachingon from genera- tion to generation. to me. if such sudden endowments were flyingabout. for millions of years.by a survival of memory from an amoeba. which they certainly never needed and never used.or Newton. or other almost superhuman men. or Copernicus. Haeckel and his friends would have to explainwhere these suddenly endowed ancestors obtained all their knowledge. in far more and more scientific. CHAPTER XXIX HEREDITY So of heredity. and thesewing machine from a polyp a quarter of an inch long. Even if true. But how a man like Lord Kelvin should have obtained abilityand his knowledge. might leave us some heredity.I believe with Wordsworth. then I could understand how some subconscious memory. I believe in heredity. than a tadpolein the year one. " Trailingclouds of glory do we come From God. dainty.but only 220 .is also incredible to me. as I have alreadysaid. And how James Watt and Eli Whitney and Elias Howe could have gotten the steam-engine. except by accident.the cotton gin. and whether.ten million years ago. and which never got its head above sea water.

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222 SPIRIT AND MATTER '' Now this unityof feeling is a thingby itself. which Von Hartmann characterises as clairvoyance from the unconscious." Professor Shaler emphasisesthe necessity of this caution. the dominant characteristic of man. The unity of feeling has the additional advantage of being a fact.the anthropoids.whereas the agent is not a fact.while the frame remains essentially unchanged.but in which each loses its character as a separate thing. It it thus like an agent which under- stands all that is goingon. When we come to man. Professor Shaler." This alone would lead us to deal most cautiously " with any charge that these factors. in that there came into it all the parts and experiencesof the organism.'* deals with this questionof heredityvery fully. and the intellectual parts developwith extraordinaryrapidity. He says : Gradually it has been forced upon them that they too have to assume the intangible if they would take any firm . only that in the latter case every difference in the organism has its place as an difference explicit in the mind of the agent.and shows that even materiaHstic naturalists " have yieldedtheir consent. It has been won by an entire change in the limitations of his psychic development. It is not physical. of course. hence must be spiritual.and Kant as the voice of God.which enables us to class man as an entirely new kind of animal. corresponding to the vis medicatrix naturcB of the livingorganism. The author says: "The success of has been man due. for which each change in the body has its value. we appear to find the old bondage of the mind body to the swept away . The physicalorganisation of man can in no wise account for his advancement. whereas in the case with which we have to do the resultant state of feelingis an apparentlyhomogeneous unity.for in his frame he is much like his kindred." The action is psychical. not to any very peculiar accomplishmentof an organickind. It belongsto the same category as instinct.in his" Interpretation of Nature." could be a physicalsurvival from lower organs or organismswhich are devoid of " this dominant characteristic.

the most pragmatic naturalist is sure to learn some caution in his criticism of philosophers and theologians.*' The onlyconclusion.namely. in his ''Varieties of Religious '' Experience. which Darwin offered tentativelyonly. A our study of organicphenomena. he says. as tradistinguished con- from latent physical properties.that mind is the key that unlocks the vis-viva. Professor Shaler " says : Admirable as is the hypothesisof pangenesis when considered merely as a daring feat of the scientific imagination. not the vis viva itself. ' Each of us . This is in substantial accord with the views of Sir John Herschel. Apart from all religiousconsiderations. but what Mr Myers said in 1892 in his essay on the Subliminal Consciousness is as true as when it was firstwritten. but the hair-trigger which by the lightest touch explodesa mine. at least at the present time. HEREDITY 223 the series of facts with which they steps in explaining have to largepart of this caution is due to deal.** Referring to the theory of pangenesis. there is actuallyand literally more life in our total soul than we are at any time aware of. '' The way in which the generational transmission is affected not only goes quite beyond our field of knowledge but appears also to transcend the limits of the scientific imagination. or molecule. but leaves us in the densest fog of speculation. and I believe that in it we have exactlythe mediatingterm required.may contain a practically infinite body of latent powers. The ploration ex- of the transmarginalfield has hardly yet been seriously undertaken.** says : The subconscious selfis now- adays a well-accredited psychological entity. Professor James. that it shall bring a portionof the unknown within the limits of the understanding. is that matter even in its simpler states of organisation in the atom. In face of the facts of descent. It does not in the least extend or simplify our conception. especially in that part of the biologicfield where the investigator has to consider the marvellous truths of inheritance.it is evident that it utterly fails to satisfy the first condition of a theory.

some power of organicexpression in abeyance or reserve/ *' In it many of the performancesof geniusseem also to have their origin. We and God have business with each other .so I will call this higher part of the Universe by the name of God. What the rest of me may be doing. more.in his Presidential Address in 1904. perhaps it is asleep. I do not know . in our study of con- version. '*Iftelepathy be indisputable.' Says Professor Barrett. in adult life. only a portion. certainly not in childhood . In fact.the teachingof science has ever been that we are not isolated in. the open vision. is it all completelyinactive with the people called * " mediums.for the supreme reality.I venture to think likely. perhaps. The Self manifests through the organism .for these few years while I am here. I do not myself hold that the whole of any one of us is incarnated in these terrestrial bodies . without voice or sensation.or . if ourcreaturely minds can. and of prayer.an individualised.but to all of us there comes the echo of that larger at times Life which is slowlyexpressingitself in humanity as the ages graduallyunfold. but there is always some part of the self unmanifested . and always. but probably it is not so entirely asleepwith men of genius. as it seems. but not perhaps so very much more.the Infinite mind is likely itself in all ages to responsivehuman hearts.'' Says Sir Oliver Lodge.224 SPIRIT AND MATTER is in realityan abiding psychicalentity far more extensive than he knows an individuality " which can never express itself completely through any corporealmanifestation. nor. and. we have seen how strikinga part invasions from this regionplay in the individual life/' Again: "God is the natural appellation. of a much largerwhole. a definite portion. of mysticalexperiences. in his Presidential Address before the Societyfor PsychicalResearch in 1902 : '* To tell the truth. What is manifested in this body is. Some may have the spiritual ear. for us Christians at least. and in opening ourselves to His influence our deepest destinyis fulfilled.impress each thus to have revealed other.

We ai'e apparently as far from the real goal of a natural explanationof life as we were before the dis- covery of protoplasm. Thomson. must suspend further inferences. the minutest molecule and the most distant orb are bathed in one and the self-same medium.'' '' Says Prof."republished from the originalEnglish edition by the sonian Smith- Institution. .at present.in 1902. with the conditions of such a separate existence ? On account of that deficiency. what is there incon- ceivable about its separate existence. . this careful writer. everywhere is energy. merely because we are unacquainted. HEREDITY 225 from. But surelybeyond and above all these material links is the solidarityof Mind. . which ever and anon changing and moving.all around us everythingis moving.and the problem of explaininglife even in the simplestform known. through space with an inconceivable speed.which alreadywe have been told can give no intimation of what mind is although we know that there must be such a thing " as mind ? '* Says Professor Conn : At the present time we know of no simpleprotoplasm capableof living such activities apart from machinery. . Huxley himself often maintaining that it is the first of all realities. Nature's immeasurable. . . limit of perceptionof our senses the spirit still can guide us. the electrical discoverer. remains the problem of explaininga machine. all-pervading energy. . the Hght of suns and stars reaches us. says : While in other branches . in " one of his lectures : Nature has stored up in the universe infinite energy. the mysteriousforce of gravitationbinds the whole material universe into an organicwhole." '' In Bateson's Problems of Heredity. in his Material-ism " and Modern Physiologyof the Nervous System : '' Now with the fact obstinately remainingthat mind is a great reality. . like a soul animates the inert universe. William H." Says Nikola Tesla. the great Cosmos . Far beyond the . We are whirling .Fellow *' of the Royal Society. . . we and return to matter and force.

and how Haeckel is put to shame by his chosen exemplar.226 SPIRIT AND MATTER of physiology such great progress has of late been made. Of the nature of the .. I recommend those of my readers who are interested . for I can quote from Haeckel what his own opinionof. I wish that I could reproduce more of this evidence. physicalbasis of hereditywe have no conceptionat all.and its specialapplication to the different sections of psychic activity. Let us recognisefrom the outset that as to the essential nature of the phenomena of hereditywe stillknow absolutelynothing.and reliance on. The process is as utterlymysteriousto us as a flash of lightning is to a savage.'' Among the examples cited by Bateson are two speciesof pea. or mental picturethat has thus far helped in the sUghtestdegreeto penetrate beyond what we see. We have no glimmer- ing of an idea as to what constitutes the essential process by which the likeness of the parent is trans- mitted to the offspring. Says Haeckel : ''To George Romanes we owe the further developmentof Darwin's psychology. Romanes was. The two volumes of this work which were completed are among the most valuable productionsof psychological literature. the other a dwarf. . our knowledge of heredityhas increased but little. Unfortunately.not even whether it is a material agent or not. the progeny one reap- pears or the other unchanged. When these are either cross-bred. psychologist .. One is a tall stem. No one has suggestion. .workingyet any hypothesis. The distinguished . gives a convincingproof that the psychologicalbarrier between man and the brute has been overcome. and then show you what befell Romanes when he did what Haeckel confesses that he himself did not do. his premature decease prevented the completion of the great work which was to reconstruct every section of comparative chology psy- on the lines of monistic evolution. permanent and longestablished. . We do not know what is the essential agent in the transmission of parentalcharacters. or new offspring i else the s much taller than the taller of the two parents. But I can do better.

had I not been too much immersed in merely physical research. and no doubt should have perceived. but not as Haeckel expected and you " will not find the answer in Haeckel at all. Had Haeckel seen these small thin volumes of Romanes. but the last work of Romanes. the fruit of his deeper studies and investigations.** '' Now. he would either have revised his own eulogy of Romanes. Says '' Romanes : Physicalcausation cannot be made to '* supply its own explanations. had not yet appeared. when Haeckel had finished his Riddle of the Universe/*Romanes alreadydead. regrettingwas with tears that his work was only half finished .even when derived from sound premises. I am completely at one with him and Darwin in almost all their views and convictions. HEREDITY 227 in these momentous questionsof psychologyto study the profound work of Romanes. in any enquiry touching Theism. The second was. psychology and metaphysics. But since then. with the result of clearlyseeingthat human nature is the most important part of nature as a whole whereby to investigate the theoryof Theism. This I ought to have anticipatedon merely a priori grounds.because Haeckel had ceased to study before Romanes had actuallybegun. Wherever an apparent discrepancy is found between those two authors and my earlier productions.in regionsof such high abstraction. or else the text of his own Riddle. in completion of his psychology. The first was undue fidence con- in merely syllogistic conclusions. in not being suffi- . having been publishedposthumously. as distinguished from physicalnature. I have seriously studied anthropology(including the science of com- parative religions).'* When I wrote the precedingtreatise [in1878].I did not sufficiently preciate ap- the immense importance of human nature. For Haeckel has left us a riddle which Romanes has fullyanswered. *' I now perceivetwo well-nighfatal oversights which I then committed. it is either a case of imperfectexpression on my part or an unimportant difference in tion applica- ofprinciple.

These men all professedto be agnosticsat the very time when thus so egregiously violating their philo- sophy by their conduct. 4. and is usually due to indolence.it can be verified by the organ of immediate intuition. that is. Agnosticsmust investigate religion.'' 6. To never a believe requiresa spiritual use of the imagination.the vaHdity of its premises. Disbelief is easier than belief. '* 9. The attitude of scientificmen towards spiritual- ism. the mystic might claim higher authorityfor his direct intuitions. Probation is the onlyrational explanationof life . either intellectual or spiritual. 8." 7." He says that theologianshave . merism " to warn them. volition is the only known cause.and is thing to be proud of. if in accordance with environment or custom. 3. In considering the hypothesisof design. putes between Science and Religionhave arisen. The common hypothesison which all dis. which is supplementaryto the rational.228 SPIRIT AND MATTER cientlycareful in examining the foundations of my criticism. from the same ' standpointof pure reason. shows that scientificmen are quiteas dogmatic as the straitest sect of theologians. especially with such phenomena as those of mes. If choice has to be made between mysticism '' and agnosticism. 5. un- 2 . It is on all sides worth considering(blatant ignoranceor base vulgarityalone excepted) that the revolution effected by Christianity in human life is immeasurable and unparalleled by any other move- ment in history.is highly dubious. " In that treatise I havesince come to see that I was wrong touching what I constituted the basal argument for my negative conclusion. Therefore I now feel it obligatoryon me publishthe follow- to ing results of my maturer thought.' Here is the summary of a few of the results : 1. for their own belief. The theory of causation lands us in mystery . even if it is to be considered only as intuitional. and very few unbelievers have any justification.

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form and obvious design. jaws. in a long my woman and so marked from birth. and of still more wonderful. with location. grasping at the throat. ij\j/^ a " "^ and sprawling down the chest. of great dog. deed. then in foetal life. of like breed. until dragged off. shape. I refer also to the cases mentioned by Professor Oliver Wendell Holmes. a few months before the birth of the child. in the Epistolary Chapter (xvi. an eminent medical authority. and also of "J "*' great size and fury. history which I have narrated from the mother. etc. at a specific place. 230 SPIRIT AND MATTER offspring. colour. the indelible imprint. tail. from a prenatal mental shock to the mother.'* .) of his well-known '' Elsie Venner. In- medical history is full of such instances. and which can only have many a psychical interpretation. with the hair. to correspond with the J^ similar attack of a real dog. which had attacked and attempted to throttle the mother. upon an unborn child. There is no possible physiological connection from mother to foetus which could locate.. legs. and with the grown-up. I have had such a case in practice. are entirely inexplicable on any physical theory. and in directive relation.

which is not that of any of the human beingspresent. But when it comes to what is the cause of these phenomena.where he took his degree as fourth wrangler. in the prefaceto From Matter to Spirit. it But.who studied for the bar.I cannot but suspect that a small proportionof these agencies say five " thousand may be severally " competent to the pro. or may be quiteup to the task among them. in 1863." a work of his wife.things called spiritual. The physicalexplanations 231 . which cannot be taken by a rational being to be capable of explanationby imposture.and was a voluminous writer on mathematics. I find I cannot adopt any explanationwhich has yet been suggested.intellect and physicalpower.as follows : " '' I am perfectlyconvinced that I have both seen and heard in a manner which should make unbelief impossible.I should say that there is some combination of will. So far I feel the ground firm under me. a man of world-wide celebrity as a leader of scientific '' thought. and was a strong and influential advocate for decimal coinage. logicand biography . CHAPTER XXX SPIRITUALISM PURSUES THE METHODS OF SCIENCE " SIR WILLIAM CROOKES' PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS BEFORE THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION The late Professor De Morgan. thinking very likely that the universe may contain a few agencies say half-a-million " about " which no man knows anything.duction of all the phenomena. who was for eighteenyears secretaryto the Royal Astronomical Society. and afterwards Dean of University College. If I were bound to choose among things which I can conceive.London. wrote.coincidence or mistake. many years Professor of Mathematics. a Cambridge graduate.

have striven . in the track that has led to all advancement in physicalscience : their opponents are the tives representa- of those who againstprogress. more than all nations and all ages have assumed. If he should take the concurrent of feeling mankind as presumption in favour of such a world " a thing which may be known " he is on more reasonable ground the than opponent. and the puerilities which some of them have exhibited. .232 SPIRIT AND MATTER which I have miserablyinsufficient. . wholly unchecked by fear of beingdetected in the investigation of nonsense.there is a uniform vein of description running through their accounts which. In spiteof the inconsistencies. seen are easy. are .are very. dence : he may have enough or he may not . . should they be reallyhuman impostures. which all who think him a fool ought to laugh at. who draws its impossibilitya thingwhich " cannot be known " out of the minds of a very small minority. supposing it to be laid down by a combination of impostors. . but hypothesisis sufficient but ponderously the spiritual difficult. in order to gain belief in the genuinenessof their pretensions. but he relies on what he has seen and heard. the eccentricities. . The rappingspirits. What was that spirit ? It was the spirit of universal examination. Again. . . if impostorsthey be.*' '' Again he says. their views. the spiritualists have taken the method of the old time. even marvellous. beyond a doubt. I have said that the deluded spirit-rappers are on the righttrack : they have the spirit and method of the grand time when those paths were cut through the uncleared forest in which it is now the dailyroutine to walk. When he assumes that there is a world of it is no spirits. and many on allegedrecords of actual communication. The spiritualist .'' Modern has spiritualism never ceased to advance.is more than remarkable. it being remembered that the mediums are scattered through the world .have combined to oppose all the current ideas of a future state. but other and greater part of it is that the im- the postors. The spiritualists. appeals to evi- . . . very singular. The agree- ment is one part of the wonder.

. for the fires of persecutionhave brought hosts of new investigators. which regulate the investigations. consistingof thirty-three actingmembers. And with precisely the same effect. says : '' Of this committee. and with telling effect. and the unanimous report as publishedof the eminent experi. Concerning this body of investigators. as persecution of the truth always does. in 1872. Significant facts are appearing in every direction. internal prevision.and of many psychological facts. There is hardly a great institution of learningin Europe or America which does not number among its professors and teachers more than one. which prove that a great movement infavourof spiritualism. are everywherebeingrigidly applied.fully established all these and many other facts. and often many. at the commence. teach and demonstrate the principles and teachingsof this philosophy. Wallace.menters was to establish the truth of the phenomena of clairvoyance. while not more than four accepted the spiritual theory. SPIRITUALISM PURSUES SCIENCE 233 in spiteof a persecutionas rigorousand generalas many of those physical persecutionsof old. ment. one of its most eminent members. among the learned. for opinion'ssake. the contemporary with Darwin.as related to the proximate and remote phenomena of so-called animal magnetism. believers in the reality of the phenomena. who study. the trained.is now under way with an irresistible and constantly increasingmomentum. So long ago as 1831 the medical section of the French Royal Academy of Sciences took up these questions. only eightwere. which depopulated provinces.and slaughteredmillions.and the men of science. capableof actingon physicalbodies to produce physicalresults.or of his school. Books by eminent men of science on this subjectare constantly appearing. utterly at variance with the hypothesis of Dr Carpenter. in his work on evolution. The Dialectical Societyof London. ively conclus- demonstratingthe existence of an extra-human intelligence. Alfred R.and the correct scientific principles.

was established our .enables me to state that the degreeof conviction produced in the minds of the various members was.having regard to the exceptionalcharacter of the phenomena. and to the fact that no philoso- phical explanationof them has yet been arrived at.and in consequence have become thorough spiritualists. referred to the high character and great intelligence of many of the witnesses to the more extraordinary facts. At least three members who were previouslysceptics pursued their investigations outside the committee meetings. is a characteristic result of the examination into any natural phenomena.as a member of the committee and of the largestand most active subcommittee. approximately proportionate to the amount of time and care bestowed on the investiga- tion. and further. deem it incumbent them uponto state their con- viction that the subjectis worthy of more serious attention and careful investigationthan it has hitherto received. 1882. This fact. in presenting its published '' report. a largenumber of persons in every grade of societyand over the whole civilised world who are more or less influenced by a belief in their supernaturalorigin. and almost wholly by meansof themediumshipof members of the committee. The examination into an imposture or delusion has invariablyexactlyoppositeresults .the extent to which their testi. those who have slender experiencebeing deceived.while those who perseveringly continue the inquiry inevitablyfind out the source of the deceptionor delusion.234 SPIRIT AND MATTER During the course of the inquiry(which extended over two years). allowing for marked differences of character. mony is supportedby the reportsof the subcommittee and absence of any proofof impostureor delusion as regards a large portion of the phenomena . My own observation.at least twelve of the complete scepticsbecame convinced of the realityof many of the psychicalphenomena through attendingthe experimentalsubcommittees.'' The generalcommittee.'' Ten years afterwards.which is what occurs in all investiga- tions into these phenomena.

then a In Fellow of the Royal Society. the practical introducer of spectroscopic analysisinto England . in which the sanitary use of carbolic acid was first popularised . the discoverer of the now universally employed sodium amalgamation process in gold and silver metallurgy. was editor of The QuarterlyJournal of Science . a fection for diseases of cattle. 1871-1872Professor William Crookes.andmany men and women of mark and rank. the con. a practical worker in astronomy for twelve months at the Radcliffe Observatory. it was stated. among whom are included many dignitaries of the church. . by a unanimous vote. were returned to the author.These papers were both thrown out by the Council of the Society. and the influence of the societyhas extended so as to receive world-wide recognition. and an vestigato in- and experimentalist of high repute in opticsand polarisedlight. concerningthese questions. and the papers. a great work for humanity and for the true advance- ment of science. Its publicationsand proceedings include many volumes. To show the vast change in scientific sentiment duringthe last quarter of a century. structor of the spectrum microscope. its monthly journalgoes to every part of the world.It is to-day one of the great intellectual and scientificforces of the age. in their importance and ability. which now numbers nearlyof quitetwelve hundred living members.it is only necessary to narrate the following record of facts. a well-known scientific writer on photography . sent two papers on the subjectof psychicforce and allied phenomena to that institution for readingand publication. and is doing. many men eminent in science through- out the world. the discoverer of the metal thallium high authorityon disen- . SPIRITUALISM PURSUES SCIENCE 235 great London Societyfor PsychicalResearch. At this time Professor Crookes was alreadyeminent in science : he had been editor of The Chemical the News since 1859. and its roll of officers and members it would be impossibleto duplicateanywhere. and the polarisa- tion photometer. when it was founded .It has done.

who boastfullyproclaimed his rejectionin their publiclectures.in fact. transit-taking. Movements of heavy substances when at a distance from the medium.and celestial photography . and who was honoured by the Royal Societyitself by a money grant to carry on his work . the ground of or psychicforce. and in The QuarterlyJournal of Science forJanuary 1874 he summarised and describedt the phenomena which he had proven. But. one of those who had only attached himself to astronomy. The alteration of weight of bodies. fell under the same ban. '* " and are known wherever Crookes-tubes are known. were the best extant. for years. because he certified as a witness to some of the phenomena. and was treated."by Dr Carpenterand others. while The QuarterlyReview took up and carried on the attack in what Professor Crookes '' calls the spiteful. undeterred by hostile criticism. who was one of the British Govern- ment's EclipseExpedition to Oran .just as all advocates for a scientific investigation of this subject have been treated by the bigoted pseudo-physicists and their credulous following in the past. and in radiant energy wherever science is recog- nised. the eminent astronomer. The movement of heavy bodies with contact but without mechanical exertion. 4. in enteringupon spiritualism. and he was indirectly stigmatisedas a brewer. 2. and whose ventions in- and discoveries in the intricate phenomena of in vacua electric-lighting made the X-rays possible.he put beyond the at once himself pale. 3. The phenomena of percussiveand other allied sounds. but '' was scourgedand humiliated. bad old style which formerly characterised this periodical. But. the experi- ments of Professor Crookes went on. in planet-hunting. . a scientific amateur." And Dr Huggins.and was not only ignominiouslyrejected. under the followingclasses : " 1.236 SPIRIT AND MATTER Oxford.and made to point a moral and adorn a tale. whose lunar photographs.

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is. and notwithstanding our professed reverence for its Creator. This delicate task needs a rigorous employment of the method of exclusion a constant " settingaside of irrelevant phenomena that could be explainedby known causes. and my veil no man hath yet lifted.so bewildering. I have glimpsesof some- thing like coherence among the strange elusive phenomena .and discerned in that matter.. * An eminent professorin this chair declared that by an intellectual necessity he crossed the boundary of experimentalevidence.' Not thus do modern . of phenomena must be scientificallylifted before we effectuallygrasp a facultyso strange. better still. I think .and were attested by my own sober senses. and to say that in life I see the promise and potency of all forms of matter. A formidable range . of something like continuitybetween those unexplained forces and laws alreadyknown.have hitherto covered with opprobrium.or ever will be .238 SPIRIT AND MATTER that certain phenomena new to science had assuredly occurred. includingthose far too familiar conscious and causes. which we in our ignoranceof its latent powers.the potency and promiseof all terrestriallife.. It would be well to begin with telepathy^ with the fundamental law.. and for ages so inscrutable as the direct action of mind on mind..' I should preferto reverse the apothegm. unconscious fraud. as I believe it to be. Egyptian days a well-known inscription '' In old was carved over the portal of the temple of Isis : ' I am whatever hath been. *' This advance is largelydue to the labours of another association of which also this year the I have honour to be the president ^the Society for " Psychical Research " and were I now introducing for the first time these inquiriesto the world of science I should choose a starting pointdifferent from that of old. I see a little farther now. by automatic record. that thoughts and images may be transferred from one mind to another without the agency of the recognised organs of sense " that knowledge may enter the human mind without being communicated in any hitherto known or recognised ways. and.

and her face more grows beautiful. unflinchingly. and to prophesy what she yet shall be. SPIRITUALISM PURSUES SCIENCE 239 seekers after truth confront Nature " the word that stands for the baffling mysteries of the universe " steadily. from what she is to reconstruct what she has been. we strive to pierce the inmost heart of Nature. august and wonderful with barrier every that is withdrawn/' . Veil after veil we have lifted.

honour. if religion is true . decency. a future What are called spiritualistic phenomena may be true. this book.are endowed with the same kindred of spiritualpowers in individualised and specialisedform as the great psychism from which we are derived.a non-intelligent " causation.chastity.in itslargerscope. '' *' No one. ^ to universe in which the force know a only we or can know is volition . then of a surety religion itself of every cult and kind. or theology rather.love.manhood. CHAPTER XXXI THE ONLY SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF EVOLUTION IS VOLITION \I HAVE spoken of in spiritualism. purity.a developer and a har- moniser . motherhood and brotherhood.honesty. to a universe in which law and order. and in which we human beings. But if spiritualistic phenomena are not true. only because it is impossiblethat they should be true. probably are true. and yet resultingin intelligent order. And our individualities are here under probation for beyond the grave. but the life and movement of all things. virtue. i coincident with a universe controlled by a psychism . are none of them true. in granting natural physicalcausation that is. has as yet learnt this lesson of religion to anything Hke 240 . in a / broad sense. fatherhood. fidelity."how religion itself.''he says. even the most orthodox.in his *' Candid Examination of Religion. Romanes has told us in pregnant sentences.morality. truth.and that it had aUied itself with materiahsm. for these two are kindred.as even Herbert Spencer concedes. which is that only the God is not source. I have made it.had thrown away its God- given charter. are the results of a law-maker and an orderer.justice.development and harmony. womanhood.

and we do have. that thingsproceedin an orderlyand com. With this divine volition conceded."he says. directive. or plan.and most other great scientificauthorities. But only disorder.pur- posive and impelling volition. which we recogniseas the order of nature.or process. for evolution is the evolving. Without such there is no order. without it there is. ** Only because we are so familiar with the great phenomenon of causalitydo we take it for granted.accidental jumblingsand breakings-up. from the relatively lower to the relativelyhigher an intelligentand " intelligible evolution .so to speak. God is still grudged His own universe.as far and as often as He possibly can be. an and progression. There is no other which we can see. and think that we reach an ultimate explanationof anything when we have succeeded in findingthe ' ' cause thereof : when. under- stand. save on the basis of this common hypothesis. prehensible manner is proof absolute that they pro- . intelligent."he says. know. ever-acting. the out-turning. of the scheme. . agree that the only known force and known cause of anythingis volition.that there must be something inexplicableor miraculous about a phenomenon in order to its being divine. no '' " evolution at all. or of which we can conceive. can see. as all intelligent plan. we can have. THE BASIS OF EVOLUTION 241 fulness. . *' '' What else. '' we have only succeeded in merging it into the mystery of mysteries.and hence as to whether the causation of such or such a phenomenon has been ' ' ' natural or ' supernatural ? For even the dis- putes as to science contradicting scriptureultimately turn on the assumption of inspiration (supposingit ' ' genuine)being supernatural as to its causation. there can be. ' ' Once grant that it is natural and all possible ground of dispute is removed. It is still assumed on both sides (that is.by this theology and this materialism). in point of fact. . continuous. as well go backward as forward . have science and religion ever had to fight about." Both Romanes and Sir John Herschel.

and rose a plant. who wrote seven centuries ago : " I died from rock and sand. in other words there is. 'twill be to die from man. if. can follow with comprehending eyes the macrocosm which carries all things along with it. climbing unending mountains for truth. he may pass by many names. a Sufi poet.' And I shall wing my way to higher spheres. And with such a real God all that we see going on around us. And on angel wings to higher place. To Him indeed we shall return. which was before nature. who. a single feather from her glorious plumage.242 SPIRIT AND MATTER ceed by means of an orderer. Then let me now be naught.** Here is a little Persian Poem from Jalalu'd-Din. he have not these qualifications. ing youth. I died from lower flesh.' . with his flag on the mountain peak. but. who can comprehend or feel with Longfellow's aspir. Why should I fear ? What have I lost by death ? When next I die. and is. the microcosm. an intelhgentpower which transcendsnature. at his highest ascent. at last saw. and much of which we can comprehend. and there died content ? Be sure Professor William James is right when he says. and that this orderer was. he is not God. save alone His face. and controls nature to do its will " and this is what we call God .the prior comprehender .as Lamarck held. though he be called God in a hundred languages. and grew a living breath. " Excelsior. and is independent of nature. rise And from the angel still shall rise. * For all shall perish. Through all the world-process is orderliness and advancement . Outside this. and rose a man. then. I died from plant. for the harp-string * " Crieth. fluttering down to him. or learn. '' We and God have business with each other. And transcend all I here can know. if he have these qualifications. is preciselywhat we ought to expect." and the dead body which has won by its losing. then he is God . and we.on the contrary.and rise. or Olive Schreiner's dream-hero.

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Protestant- ism. all the strengthof a spiritual religion and a scientificpsychologywas spent in vain. for centuries. Natural science. and used in the same sense. was compelled to crush spiritualism in order to secure its own position. and in the day of its world- conquering dominion. by centuries of pressure. that when the full triumph of the new faith had come. in attackingthe old and corrupt accretions of ecclesiastical organisation. and the divine preservationof the Bible.so that art itself became sacerdotal. Turning from the of religions other peoples to our I have own. iron. and religion and art againwent hand in hand. in this theology without TheoSj and these two forces claspedhands . like a young it giant. and its beautiful arms were so entwined. had forced spiritualism into a like sacerdotal bondage to the church.and the onlydifference between them was that . it was compelled to positan ever-present and operative Nature. vealed in the promisesof its Founder.new-born as it was. to take the placeof an ever-present and inworkingGod. Driven perforce from the divine control of the church. " " Natural Causation became the god of both creeds.and. I endeavoured to show that Christianity with all its power.246 SPIRIT AND MATTER I have cited all the principal of history. with older and falser accre- tions. the ages of bronze. and intertwined with mythology. art again was welcomed.from the supernormal as re. found its vogue. as God's most beautiful giftto man. and when the greatrevolt of the sixteenth century came. also. was forced to crush out art in crushingpaganism.up to our highestand and shown latest civilisations. that they could all unite with their fundamental beliefs in the same words. But I endeavoured to show. that Christianity when arose in its strength. and a new and popular ally. alas ! gold. shown how ancient paganisms had graduallyforced art into their service. religions and those prehistoricones which have cast their beams of lightthrough the stone age. driven from miracles.steel. and againstthem. So too.

" was her beautiful reply. or from one side.paralysedthe power of the church in dealingwith the forms and forces of materialism. for the occasion then must have longpassedby) some monstrous form would come out of the clouds. when what Romanes '' '' called the nearly fatal mistake had been made.. by their very presence and authority.AND III. no one could say. and all mine. againstthe code. to God.'' I do not mean to say that that whole branch of the church was in this lamentable state . and which could not be boldlyde- fended in public.'* '' After a pause.whether above or below. but it was a baseless. while ever present and n the aggressive. II. 247 faith(and such faith)taught one wing that later on (how. On the contrary I believe that the vast preponderance of all that has worked for man's advancement. and enjoy it. I said.with the blare of trumpets. to quote Burns* prayer. I am speakingof the rockbound forbidding creeds '' *' and confessions which. upon one occasion. credulous superstitious. the real truth and significance of all thingshad no chance whatever.and who died unconverted. of the and never could accept.if you knew that your mother was now being burned alive by wicked " *' people next door ? Heavens. no ! Why do you *' say that ? "I understand that you had a brother whom you dearlyloved. has been due to just this and like popular movements. and indeed for his spiritual enfranchisement and poten- tiality. or why. or to what purpose. REVIEW OF PARTS L. or where. " Send ane to heaven and ten to hell. I will trust him. far from it. or when. faith.to a sweet-faced '' Presbyterianlady : Could you sit here quietlyand listen to this music.and separate the goats from the sheep. A' for thy glory. a vague and shadowy faith was left. bulk people never did accept. but which.but could only be wept and prayed . and shout of the archangel. and. With this perverted theology and baseless piricism em- so bound up together.

" full-armed and full-panoplied. golden. and divine volition and spiritualism advancing.248 SPIRIT AND MATTER over in private and for demonstration of the eternal . and the sky is all alight with their approach. this time they come to stay . But they grind exceeding small. and empiricism and materialism are retreating. with a new weapons and new facts is now coming. power matter. glorious. - The mills of God grind slowly. God proposed to destroy the of over power matter over mind. ." Time needed for the seed to be and was sown. during this time of ing. with ** Banners yellow. machines to be discovered. The time has come at last. to ripen into the gleaming harvest time for new . sciences to be created for. by the of mind new . everything else has been tried and failed. and perfected for new . with giant And are sweeps. wait- even weary and reawakened psychology. lines of investigation to be carried out for whole . there was but one thing left to do " ^to wait.

for the specialists in these lines are both born with the power and developed by its use. thought-transference. of the individual spiritualism of the working mind and instinct ".and it is the co-VvOrker and supporter of religion. with some reluctance.we all mediums. justas we are are all poets. there were many men eminent who wrote letters to the Dialectical Society. inspiration and other forms of what the ancient Chinese named '' '' ling . vival after death. This latter form of spiritualism. but partially developed un- ones . or farmers. and also of the phenomena mediumship. which is the basis of all religions .earthly spiritualism of the lowest forms of life . I feel that I ought to say something of my own personal studies in this field. previsionand clairvoyance . of the spiritualism of the subconscious department of the mind.invention. of Broadly speaking. IN LETTERS TO THE DIALECTICAL SOCIETY. which most certainlyleads us to the knowledge of higher planesof the supernormal. IN FAVOUR OF THE TRUTH AND IMPORTANCE OF SPIRITUAL PHENOMENA I HAVEspoken much of spiritualism in the preceding chapters. or soldiers.of the cosmical spirituaHsm of telepathy. I have spoken of the broad spirituaHsmof the universe. '' George H. Referringagainto the London Dialectical Society. is that which can be best and most easily investigated. by givingcertaintyto our sur. from which I will make very brief extracts. CHAPTER XXXIII TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES. and of genius. especially of n the human mind. prefatoryto my own observations. of the primordial. Lewes wrote : When any man says that phenomena are produced by no known physical 249 . mediumship. and.

Hawkins Simpson. and tend to elevate ideas of the I continuityof life. wrote : The facts of spiritualism are to me as certain and indisputable as those table. of the same apparentlyobjectiveview. the supreme management.. Garth Wilkinson wrote : I have been a believer in the spiritual world.and to reconcile. M." Mr Newton Crossland.A. mentions a case of crystalvision which illustrates what I shall say later on regardingthe simultaneous appearance in the crystalapparently. the extraordinarystates- manship." of the multiplication r Edwin Arnold (afterwardsSir Edwin Arnold). of Bristol. 250 SPIRIT AND MATTER laws.. is equally applicable: " When any man says that certain phenomena are not produced by any laws. of course. but have convinced of many me great and solemn truths in regard to the future of man which.wrote. and deemed scarcely worthy of the nursery. that they have not only removed whatever doubts did once belong to me. by a number of persons lookingat the same time into the crystal. nearlyall my life." '^ Dr J. are in the highest / degree interesting." The converse. who experimentedwith Mr Home. a proofof the economic wisdom.he declares that he knows all the laws by which phenomena are produced/' Dr J. G. J.of Lynton Lodge. the materialist and metaphysician. '' 1 M. were altogether ignoredby me. and its nearness to the natural world. of the Almighty. Blackheath. there is a body of well-established facts i beyond denial and outside any existing philosophical J explanation.Vanburgh '' Park Road.D. which facts promise to open a new world \ of human inquiryand experience. Davey. And the rareness of communication between the two is to me one of the greatestof miracles . *' He says : When I tell you that a largelandscape ." Mr J.perhaps. regarding '' his investigations. rubbish of much ignoranceand some deplorablefolly j and fraud.wrote : The statement to which I am prepared to attach my name is this : that conjoinedwith the .he declares he knows the laws by which they are produced. anterior to 1862.

except Mr Home. in my picture. and she saw it was splendidlydone but too small to read. for each separate gazer.but while I.which would not play. havingcollected.used. as.R. although the individuals composing the party occupied oppositeplacesto each other. '' etc. and she could then read ." This. who held the crystal. Mr Hockley *^ says that.a most unexpected and totally '* unknown circumstance. and. more than twelve thou- sand answers to questions. faced the risrht.etc.and many other instances. I gave her a powerful reading-glass. and his testimonyis corro." Mr Hockley.in her ex- cellent '* Essays in PsychicalResearch. with a brother then there. on one occasion. a friend dropped in accidentally. furnishes a number of unusual cases. Scryer. borated by like facts from other sources. After the ladies had left home for this visit. seem to show that the vision is not merely a replica of a visualised idea in the clairvoyant's mind.fixed n it up and set it going. so to speak. a At her home was an old hand-organ. and which was kept in a glass case. Says Miss Freer : In the crystalwe both saw the followingscene : we saw " them sitting opposite at sides of the in fireplace the room where it was kept. and no one.my friend faced the left. a witness who gave his testimony concerningcrystalgazing to the Dialectical Society (seeReport pp. Goodrich-Freer of the S.. TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES 251 view. 184-187). and subjectto the usual laws of '' position and perspective. was within three feet of the crystal .in my was made perfectly visible in the sphericalcrystalto everyone in a dark room.''c ites a case in which she and a friend went to the new galleryto '* " see the shew-stone which the Kelley. you will admit that a field of inquiryis here opened up which would yieldresults increasingour knowledge of mental action.. They both gazed into it simultaneously.P. Miss A. We were particularlyanxious to *' achieve collective vision. a man appeared in the small crystal with a book before him.he says.as carried brain. hundreds of years ago. '' says the author. It is as though the object was under inspection.

and never a thing to be proud of .outside of mere conscious antagonism." Belief is something to be earned . are not uncommonly met with. and have lost what Professor James *' calls the will to believe. They ** are usually those too much immersed in merely physical research. and must be considered as fair subjectsof scientific study." To this letter he appended an abstract in support '' " '' of his recognition of these physiological laws. says Mr Tyndall. as Romanes says. John Tyndall wrote the Dialectical Societyvery courteously. doubt may be scientific. paid him a visit.often to prejudice. that the source of these phenomena does not lie in any communication ah extra^but that they depend upon the subjectivecondition of the individual which operates according to certain recognised physiological laws.to whom Romanes refers.which latter. but denial on an a priori never. tain phenomena which are quite genuine. Carpenterwrote : ''There are cer.and n6t the former.for the glassincreased the size. My inquirieshave led me to the conclusion.252 SPIRIT AND MATTER it.as made consciouslymiserable by feedingon the husks of materialism. but he appeared to have used very scientifictests.as his examination by the committee shows." At the Earl of Stanhope's request he obtained for Lieutenant (Captain)Burton. in which not one experimentis reported bearingon these subjects but in which philosophicalspeculation takes the part of practical study. Dr William B. until they have been bound down thereby. I throw all into confusion. .however." Such personalities.which Burton afterwards used in the East. unbelief is usuallydue to indolence. that my presence at a seance resembled that of a great magnet among a number of smaller ones. pending investigation."or those others.a well-known spiritualist." coveringmore than ten printedpages.but stated that Mr Cromwell Varley.but relied on what the visualiser told him. a crystaland a black mirror. This witness never could see anything in a crystalhimself.and told *' him.

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moving of the hands after a questionhas been asked. I think." From personalexperienceI can say that the re.*' seems to prove this fact.254 SPIRIT AND MATTER on the stage before an audience. with the result that some rather startling replies were elicited. correctly given. justas if one should ask someone in company a question. upon the whole. was not Long after- a wards.and under the stances circum- encountered by himself. and that number was at once. Some others of the party then tried the same experiment.thought of another number. the result (barring one mistake) was exactly similar. in his book of reminiscences. "What I Remem- ber. which was at once correctly given. and the probability of misunderstanding.' In this experimenthe confined himself to numbers. In fact. which seems to afford evidence in ' the other direction .and was answered wrong. Mr TroUope spiritualist. I asked one of the sitters . and before it has been answered. seems to produce a feeling of disguston the part of the manipulating agency. I asked if ' ' the spiritwould name a number I should think of. and then turn away before listening for the reply.'' he says : ''I have spoken at lengthin my former ' ' volume of the various spiritualistic or table- moving experiences. Only a few days ago. I then replacedmy hands on the table. Numbers of questionswere asked. a rather unfavourable impression of the genuinenessof the phenomena I recorded. which was accordinglypromised.and stated that the number they had thought of had been correctly named. I thought of five. I tried again.but I do not think that they would have seemed the same to him as they did in the silence of the night. But as all this was liable to more or less of doubt.but care- lessly removed my hands from the table. " asked for mentally. to the possibility of trickery. and without any tenta- tive guesses. On a subsequent occasion. I think it honest therefore to mention here a record taken from my diary at a much later date. which I have met with at various times : I gave.he told the '' doctor that they were which inexplicable.

and particularly to his last interview and final parting with this materialised visitant from the past.in general. they are only spoken.describing these phenomena. The result was that it took about ten minutes to woo back the offended mechanician. of an apparently supernormal character. to dispassionately describe examples of such phenomena as have manifested themselves to us.and wrote down the answer whatto I had just asked. saw- bump. bump. bump-bump-bump . I need hardly refer the reader to the published records of the well-known experimentsof Sir William Crookes. his own house. Mrs Lsetitia Lewis wrote the Dialectical Society : '' I must inform you that I am not a medium and had no belief in spiritstill I became convinced almost againstmy will. most wonderful spiritualmanifestations occurred spontaneouslyto myself and daughter. TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES 255 at the table to reach for a pencil. sources and departments. while the medium lay silent and unconscious by her side. largelyrelating to a lost will.before the interruption. bump (no).'* She appends a privateletter to a near relative. with Katie King. in fact.faculties. and automatic writing.and thus ** advance our knowledge of the character. bump.but visible in another room.and which nearlyscared the daughterto death. These were in the nature of rappings.or distant from her. Surely. bump-bump- bump . and especially to his most fascinating nar- ratives of his materialising in experiments. to keep up the inter- est of the others present.and the connections . extent.in the cause of science.it is not only a rightbut a duty. It is justas common an experiencefor a table to answer mental questionsas spoken ones. bump.in view of the experiencesnarrated by others. bump (yes). bump .a clergyman in the Church of England. which was the orthography of an unknown name then being given. Whilst residingat my home in South Wales during the springof the present year (1870).althoughhe had been working the like a table. mill. etc. poltergeistphenomena.bump.

one quarter-plate.one half- plate. fifteen-year-old the domiciled in his own house. consisting of five cameras. and with his family.and it is most pathetic as well as instructive.*'to an inexperienced public.before the British Association for the Advancement of Science. and two binocular stereoscopic cameras. Five complete sets of photographic apparatus were accordinglyfitted up for the purpose. alongthese lines and to his own records of the same " '' I have nothing to retract. by thoroughly practicaland scientificmethods. at my house almost to enable me to photograph her by artificial light. The narrative of Sir William Crookes of the last '* " appearance of the materialised form of Katie King '' is contained in his book entitled.for during the few inter- vening years its whole status has been changed. en- titled. which were all brought to bear upon Katie at the same time on each occasion on which she .to the he most eminent scientific audience possibleto be assembled.referring to his own work. and to avoid the startling5 and I should hesitate to present this narrative of Sir William Crookes. as it is told.256 SPIRIT AND MATTER of the human mind."reprintedfrom The of QuarterlyJournal of Science. and that so recentlyas September 1898 declared.*' And in this Presidential Address. I adhere to my alreadypublishedstatements. where the experiments took place. that. one of the whole-platesize. The followingis the narrative : " *' During the week before Katie took her ture depar- she gave seancesnightly.were it not that the distinguishedauthor was himself the experimenter. The scientific world has been the of beneficiary his teaching." In the cases which I have cited in this volume I have endeavoured to use them only for illustration.he clearly set forth the only possibleway in which science can be advanced. Researches in the Phenomena Spiritualism. Indeed I might add much thereto. that he wrote down the narrative with his own hand . '' The Last of Katie King. that every scientific pre- caution was taken with medium.

and to enter and leave the cabinet almost whenever I pleased.there is absolutelyno opportunityfor any preparation. some inferior. Those of our friends who were present were seated in the laboratoryfacingthe curtain. and some excellent. giving at least fifteen separate picturesat each seance . so that there might be no hitch or delay during the photographingoperations.Five sensitising for her and fixing baths were used. I . Each evening there were three or four exposures of platesin the five cameras. during the day she is constantlyin the presence of Mrs Crookes. not locked . even of a less elaborate character than would be required for enacting Katie King.and the cameras were placed a little behind them.and some in regulating the amount of light.Katie and her white robes having instantaneously disappeared. which were performed by myself. Altogether I have forty-four negatives.ever the curtain was withdrawn for the purpose. not sleepingby herself. aided by one assistant.some indifferent.when. one of these doors was taken off its hinges. TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES 257 stood portrait.myself.and.and a curtain suspended in its placeto enable Katie to pass in and out easily. followed her into the cabinet. I have frequently . " '' Katie instructed all the sittersbut myselfto keep their seats and keep conditions. to but for some time past she has givenme permissionto do what I liked " to touch her.and to photograph anything also inside the cabinet. and plenty of plateswere cleaned ready for use in advance. remaining sometimes a week at a time. '* My librarywas used as a dark cabinet.'' '' During the last six months Miss Cook has been a frequentvisitor at my house. She bringsnothingwith her but a little hand-bag.but most generally I have found nobody but the entranced medium lying on the floor. and have sometimes^ seen her and the medium together. some of these were spoiltin the developing. ready to photograph Katie when she came outside. It has foldingdoors opening into the laboratory.or some member of my family.

and usually.and I.I have one photograph of the two together. and keep pos- session of the key all through the seance . We did not on these occasions actuallysee the face of the medium because of the shawl. and near the cabinet.for of late she had become very nervous. I frequentlydrew the curtain on one side when Katie was standingnear. the gas is then turned out. During the photographicseances. and we heard her moan occasionally. in consequence of certain ill-advised suggestionsthat force should be employed as an adjunctto more scientific modes of research. She said she always wanted me to keep close to her. *' enteringthe cabinet Miss Cook lies down On upon the floor. she has her bare feet upon a particular part of the . and where they should be placed. Katie muffled her medium's head up in a shawl to prevent the lightfalling upon her face.after Miss Cook has been dining and conversingwith us and scarcelyout of our sight for a minute. and tests were freelygiven that would have been unobtainable had I approached the subjectin another manner. until she refused give to a charge seance unless I took of the arrangements." '' One of the most interesting of the picturesis one in which I am standing by the side of Katie . entranced. She often consulted me about persons present at the seances. but we saw her hands and feet . lock its second door.and I found that after this confidence was established. we saw her move uneasilyunder the influence of the intense light. and is soon with her head on a pillow. at her request. '' During the time I have taken an active part in these seances Katie's confidence in me graduallygrew. and it was a common thingfor the seven or eightof us illthe laboratoryto see Miss Cook and Katie at the same time.but Katie is seated in front of Miss Cook's head. she walks direct into the cabinet. and Miss Cook is left in darkness.258 SPIRIT AND MATTER prepare and arrange my librarymyself as the dark cabinet. the phenomena increased greatlyin power . under the full blaze of the electric light.and she was satisfied that I would not break any promise I might make to her.

placedexactly as in the other experiment. Accordinglywhen she had called each of the company up to her and had them a few words spoken in to private.she gave some generaldirections for the future guidanceand protectionof Miss Cook. when she has been illuminated by the electric light.I am enabled to add to the pointsof difference between her and her medium which I mentioned in a former article. placed her myself in exactlythe same and position. and pulsating even more steadily than did Miss Cook's heart when she allowed me to try a similar experiment after the seance. TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES 259 floor. " Having seen so much of Katie lately. In the breadth of her face. and which she allowed me her luxuriant tresses. while Miss Cook's pulse a littletime after was going at its usual rate of 90.. and we were photographed by the same cameras. . self coincide exactlyas regardsstature. It beat steadilyat 75. and looks a big woman in comparison with her.etc. When these two pictures are placed over each other.the two photographs of my. Several little marks on Miss Cook^s face are absent on Katie's " Miss Cook's hair is so brown dark as almost to appear a black . Afterwards I dressed Miss Cook like Katie. she differs essentially in size from her medium. I have the most absolute certainty that Miss Cook and Katie are two separate individuals so far as their bodies are concerned.is a rich golden auburn. and ated illumin- by the same light. for at the time I tried my experiment Miss Cook was under medical treatment for a severe cough. *' When the time came for Katie to take her fare- well that she would I asked let me see the last of her. and the photo-graphs show several other pointsof difference. On applying my ear to Katie's chest I could hear a heart beating rhythmicallyinside . ** On one evening I timed Katie's pulse.having to cut from firsttraced it up to the scalpand satisfied myselfthat it actually grew there. From these. in many of the pictures. a lock of Katie's which is now before me. Tested in the same way Katie's lungswere found to be sounder than her medium's.but Katie is half a head taller than Miss Cook.

' Katie replied. For several minutes the two were conversingwith each other. sobbinghysterically. and then continued speakingto Miss Cook. I can't . .' Miss Cook then woke and tearfully entreated Katie to ' stay a little time longer." With reference to the photographs described in the above narrative (of which I am the possessor of one).instead of for research and evidence In regardto these phenomena. FollowingKatie's instructions. Florrie. * Wake up. was Stooping over her." in a previouschapter. and that they are scientifically possible.through- out. God bless you.for he has more strength.and the printstherefrom. But there are other spirit-photographs. forms and faces which were visible in- and intangible. As soon as Miss Cook was calmed. I quote the ' following : " Mr Crookes has done very well. her Katie invited me into the cabinet with her. and I leave Florrie with the greatest confidence in his hands. and said.' Having concluded directions. I then came forward to support Miss Cook. My dear. wake up ! I must leave you now. If I can show the scientificstatus of these phenomena. He can act in any emergency better than I can myself. feeling he will not abuse perfectly sure the trust I placein him.I looked round. a lightwas sufliciently procuredand I led her out of the cabinet.because popular ignorancehas here left an open door for scepticism and denial. and then walked across the room to where Miss Cook lying senseless on the floor. and allowed me to remain there to the end. my work is done. who was fallingto the floor. and which in many cases are identifiable as portraits of loved ones now dead. Katie touched her.till at last Miss Cook's tears prevented her speaking. '' as with reference to miracles.then my . '' the curtain she conversed After closing with me for some time. of which I feel that I should say something. but the white- robed Katie had gone. I am not called upon to assert the actuality of such photographs which reveal upon the plate.26o SPIRIT AND MATTER which were taken down in shorthand.it should be noted that these are photographs of a visible and tangibleform.

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1895). But I am interested in showing that invisible and intangible objectscan be and often are photographed. Thomson (Lord Kelvin). in his Physics (1897). and they can be photographed. I only say that some. '' and quite as clearlyand conspicuouslyas crude matter.'' In fact. The circumstances I did not know.and the character was such as ^as recognisable by me.appear in the distance real enough to carry conviction to anyone ? I have seen these both in northern and tropical regions. but such were the facts.and adds immensely to our knowledge of the elementary forces which govern the universe.262 SPIRIT AND MATTER friends knew nothing of. '' " Marmery. and yet these portray merely ethereal lightplayingupon invisible strata of an invisible atmosphere. I do not say that it was not a bad flaw of the developingfluid . chemical compounds.in that room afterwards. which closed in 1865. in his Progressof Science (London. and there was a tradition of the tragical death of a young girlin this house about 1863 or 1865. and Tesla.says: ''The one result which surpasses all others in importance. as they had not then been born. yet here we look upon a plate or printitself composed of physicalmatter. thing came on that plate which was not seen hand. I had moved into theneighbourhoodin 1868. I do not say that this picturerepresentsthat girl. before- and was never seen.if we depended on the visible and tangiblewe could not photograph at all. and it was not then well to inquireabout. " " of Edinburgh University. or anybody . is millions of times greater and more powerfulthan any with which we are acquainted. says of sound : ** The ear is sensitive to impulsesonly when these come faster than 20 or 30 times a second.and often have been.in which beauti-ful scenes. and more . lakes.and the like.and duringthe latter part of the war. nor anything like it. is the ascertaining that atomic energy as shown by Crookes." So Professor Knott. this fine old residence had been used for quite other purposes. Who does not know of the mirage.

and most of those also who all those do not claim to be religious. There is an invisible spectrum far beyond /\ '^\'' the visible. and we know how the microphone will so translate and emphasise inaudible sounds that the step of a housefly's foot will sound like the crack of a bat againsta baseball. about The limits vary a good deal with different ears.and an intelligently controlled medium but it may be here said . but in total darkness. it was before. We know too that.and. If one paints on a sheet of white paper a portraitor scene with a solution of a salt of quinine.''I have italicised the part which dogmatism denies. when it sheet of paper will be as white as dries. It is well known many lower forms that of certain life. comprisesubstantially all peopleof all races and in every age). in the phenomena of light. in fact who which. if normally invisible and intangible exist spirits (and surely all religious people so believe. TESTIMONY OF ABLE AUTHORITIES 263 slowlythan 70. and expose it to sunlight. and far more extensive. v when we set a bar of iron into low red incandescence. as it glows to full incandescence. Nor does lightstop painta picture at this.in Chapter XLIIL. Further along.and this will im. If we :on a sheet of paper with an anhydrous paintof many of the sulphides. it will send only red rays by oscillations of the adjacentether. hear sounds which are to us altogether inaudible . elsewhere shown.then if these spirits are . insects and lower. But if placedbefore a camera it will j photograph this invisible portraitor scene with all the i ^ ^ force and vigourof a man or a landscapeif these were as physicalas all brute creation. i it will send the whole solar spectrum. I have dealt with the ether as a motive force. the ethereal waves of lightwill set up such a commotion in the chemical coatingthat all nightlong the picturewill glow with all the force and fire of the original. that. u(i^'^^^ press a photographicplateas stronglyas the visible part. as I have believe in a future life. But we cannot .the .4 see it all.when others hear nothing. some are sensitive to highshrill sounds. say calcium sulphide.000 times a second.

264 SPIRIT AND MATTER anything at all they must be something. and if they ethereal then they and are part of that are occupy which is immeasurably the most dynamic and the most capable of doing photographic work in all the realm of nature. .

and ' ' magical Open Sesame ! every time I pleaseto pay twopence. were some far deeper law. of Miracles.In his Sartor Resartus he says: ''Deephas been.might have worked a miracle. and vial of vitriolicether. perhaps.from the supernormal side. the significance far deeperperhapsthan we imagine. but I will make a brief extract here from one who has influenced mankind as largely. To my unhappilyis still Horse. Whom I answer by ' ' this new question: What are the Laws of Nature ? To me perhaps the raisingof one from the dead were no violation of these laws. but quiteunnecessary.who more unscientific. again.and by SpiritualForce. even as the rest 265 .the question of questionswere : What speciallyis a miracle ? To that Dutch King of Siam. and open for him an impassableor shut turnpike? '' 'But is not a real miracle simplya violation of the ' Laws of Nature ? ask several. ignorance or misunderstanding concerning these very common experiments. Meanwhile. and certainly supernormal. I have usuallyquoted from recent scientific authorities in support of my views. ^i- CHAPTER XXXIV CARLYLE ON MIRACLES " EVIDENCE BY CHRISTIAN VERTS CON- OF THE REALITY OF SUPERNORMAL FESTATIONS MANI- OF ESKIMO AND OTHER PSYCHICS I HAVE frequently been asked to giveexamples of such apparentlyspiritualistic. and is. whoso had carried with him an air- pump. There seems to be a general. an iciclehad been a miracle . do not I work a miracle. but a confirma- tion . phenomena. as I have spoken of in these chapters.as any during recent years I " '^ *' refer to Thomas Carlyle. now first pene- trated into.

I make the old inquiry: What those same unalterable rules. *' They stand written in our Works of Science.say you. truly. to o f the First Century.too. come and declare that thenceforth he can ' teach Religion ? To us.aiid gauged everythingthere ? Did the Maker take them into His counsel . that they read His ground-plan of the incomprehensible All . such declaration were ineptenough . that Nature.forming the complete Statute-Book of Nature. too not without ishment aston- ' : On what ground shall one. does move by the most unalterable rules. that the Universe. " Here may some inquire. too. - '' Custom doth make dotards of us all ! What isPhilosophy throughout but a continual battle against Custom . good friends : Nay. in the accumulated records of Man's Experience. ' and can say This stands marked therein. must believe that the God whom ancient ' inspiredmen assert to be without variableness or ' shadow turning does indeed never of change . an ever-renewed effort to scend tran- the sphere of blind Custom. In narratingany events of more or less interest. scientific individuals yet dived down to the founda- tions of the Universe. and so become ' ' Transcendental . that can make Iron swim. . 266 SPIRIT AND MATTER have all been brought to bear on us with its Material Force.of the Nineteenth Century. '' * But is it not the deepestLaw of Nature that she ' ' be constant ? cries an illuminated class : Is not the Machine of the Universe fixed to move by alterable un- ' rules ? Probable enough. And now of you.and no [ more than this ? Alas. may possiblybe. I. then. which. our fathers.which no one whom it so pleasescan be prevented from callinga machine. not in anywise ! These ' \ scientific individuals have been nowhere but where I we also are . nevertheless. \bottom as without shore. to see how it all went on ? Have any deepest . have seen some hand-breadths deeper \ than we see into the Deep that is without infinite.was full of meaning. Was man with his experience present at the Creation.

to the sceptic. sionary after his baptism.occurring in their own experience. not only appeared. the rule is that converts maintain the genuinenessof the phenomena.and though majority of their the '' Angekoks are doubtlesslymere jugglers. cited elsewhere. While there always will be. who would instruct him in the knowledge of Him who created heaven and earth. the class includes a few people of real talent and penetration.and physically held him.whose understandinghas been subverted by the influence of some impressionstronglyworking on their fervid imagination.are steadfast in asserting that there is an interference of some super- . in fact.. Dennett. ing lead- " Christian lives. etc. and Sahagun and other early writers on the Mexican and Central American religions firm con- such statements almost universally. but spoke and prophesiedthat he would come to strange people. while the boy was playingnear her grave. a doubt of the accuracy of reported phenomena.'* (a clerical misnomer). for the rest of their lives.N." *' Again : So much is certain that Angekoks who have laid aside their professionin the waters of baptism. ligion. R. all these will be found to be of types well known to psychological investigators. and perhaps a greater number of phantasts. In Nevius' Demon Possession.while they acknowledge that the main part is a tissue of fraud and imposture. and probably ought to be. and were. tained to have been genuine after these mediums or psychics have been converted and baptised as Christians. The missionaryaccount states of these phenomena that while coarse imposture was made apparent in many instances. and confirmed by many others.. F. CARLYLE ON MIRACLES 267 as I shall do.The same is true of the Red Indians. In the missionary accounts given by Captain J. it may be in place to say that such manifestations among heathen people. his Chinese records are full of these cases. and to those who deal with the phenomena of comparative re. and was related by the boy himself to a mis. an apparition of a boy'smother. have in generalbeen main.and.

Quoting from a late book dealing with the Cornwall fisheries. or rowing in his erect posture. The narratives which follow startling.or its con. necessarily more and more difficult of explanation on what. if there's " ." nonsense. suggestionand magnetism. '' '* '' to miraculous. at present." satisfying. a tub of water is procured. And when all other explanationfails.which is now universallyacknow- ledged even in the Bible. are really supernormal.and I use the term merely in the sense that most of us use the words '' " " extraordinary. as it has so often failed. in which apparently the normal explanationspossible in the simplercases successively fall away." ^'lies." "chatter.and as we sink in the intellectual scale." remarkable. there stillremains the long-derided.and shaded by the person inquiring." illuminating.''thus indicating the fate of the absent one.one of their form of crystalvision. They are mostlyunpublished. but latelyacceptedtelepathy. In case an Eskimo out in his kayak is missing." said the vicar. and then lead up to more complicatedphenomena.and hypnotism. my dear.. nor are not are they intended to be.as we rise in the intellectual scale." etc." astonishing." and the like such " phrasesshadingoff." and the like.'' surprising.cannot be attributed to imposture. My objectis to commence with the simplerphenomena of mere telepathyor thought-transference.to be a means of'Working through the subconscious." "bosh." "fraud." " " wonderful. but are unable to describe/* One mystical practices. '' '' '' to beautiful.which is not uncommon.would be considered a normal basis. and must be replacedby new experiences.geners. and there they behold the absentee either overturned in his kayak. something which they now abhor." gross '' superstition. For I do not by any means grant that any of these phenomena.The '' Angekok then looks into the water. " Magaetism. and principally the result of investigations by members of the Societyfor PsychicalResearch." incredible. in fact any phenomena of nature.268 SPIRIT AND MATTER natural agency ."re- '' vealing.

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" and the word translated '' divine '* has elsewhere the