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spherical inclusions

Radim Ciz

CSIRO Petroleum, ARRC, Kensington, Perth, Australia

Curtin University of Technology, Department of Exploration Geophysics, Perth, Australia

ABSTRACT: Mesoscopic heterogeneity in a fluid-saturated poroelastic host medium causes significant atten-

uation and dispersion of seismic waves due to wave-induced flow of the pore fluid between more compliant

to less compliant areas and vice versa. This paper analyzes the model of a plane elastic wave propagating in

a poroelastic medium with spherical mesoscopic heterogeneity of another porous material. The resulting scat-

tered wavefield consists of the scattered normal compressional and shear waves and Biots slow wave, which

attenuates rapidly with distance from the inclusion and represents the main difference with the elastic case. The

obtained analytical expressions for reflected fast compressional wave and Biots slow wave amplitudes can be

used in conjunction with the multiple scattering method of Waterman & Truell (1961) to compute frequency

dependent velocity and attenuation in a fluid-saturated medium with a random distribution of spherical inclu-

sions. The frequency dependence of the attenuation has a form of a relaxation peak, with the maximum of the

dimensionless attenuation at a frequency at which the wavelength of the Biots slow wave is approximately

equal to the characteristic size of the inclusion. Attenuation scales with at low frequencies and with 1/2

at high frequencies. These asymptotes are consistent with the double porosity model of Pride and Berryman

(2003).

layers of gas and liquid saturation. Along with a 3-D

Seismic attenuation and dispersion are wave field model of an array of spherical gas patches embedded

characteristics that can provide important information in a homogeneous liquid-saturated porous background

about the structure and composition of a medium. It is (White, 1975). The results of these studies were later

well known that Biots (1962) theory of elastic wave rederived using Biots (1962) theory of poroelastic-

propagation in homogeneous porous media underes- ity by Norris (1993) and Dutta and Ode (1979a,b),

timates the observed attenuation and dispersion by respectively.

at least one order of magnitude. One-possible cause Common to all of the above formulations, was

of the larger than predicted attenuation; is associated the fact that, they modeled regular (periodic) het-

with the presence of spatial heterogeneities. When a erogeneities of the porous medium. For 1-D media,

porous medium contains regions of variable compli- this was recognized as a limitation by Gurevich and

ance, the passing compressional wave can cause pore Lopatnikov (1995), who developed a theoretical model

fluid to flow from more compliant to less compliant for elastic wave attenuation and dispersion in randomly

areas and vice versa. Analysis of this phenomenon layered porous materials. They showed that behavior

requires a theoretical model of wave propagation in of the frequency dependent attenuation and dispersion

an inhomogeneous porous medium. is quite different for random and periodic layering.

Theoretical studies of elastic wave attenuation and For 3-D heterogeneities, Johnson (2001) developed

dispersion in saturated porous media due to the pres- an approximate theory, which generalizes the results

ence of small-scale heterogeneities were initiated in of White (1975) to a periodic ensemble of fluid patches

the 1970s, when J.E. White and his colleagues intro- of arbitrary shape. Recently, a more general model

duced two theoretical models of this phenomenon. was proposed by Pride and Berryman (2003a,b) which

They developed a 1-D model of a finely layered porous allows for an ensemble of inclusions with contrast in

201

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

any material properties ( the so-called double-porosity, grains is characterized by bulk modulus K0 , shear mod-

dual permeability medium). However, common to all ulus 0 , density 0 and permeability . The inclusion

the 3-D models proposed so far, is the fact that, parameters are denoted by the same symbols with a

they are limited to regular spatial configurations of prime. These poroelastic constants are related as (Biot,

heterogeneities. An exception is the work of Gurevich 1962):

et al. (1998) who analyzed the propagation of an elastic

wave in a porous medium with randomly distributed

spheriodal inclusions. However this particular work

was based on the solution of a scattering problem using

the Born approximation. Thus, it was limited to small

contrasts in material properties between the inclusion

and host medium a situation of limited interest for

most applications.

In this paper we study the attenuation and disper-

sion of elastic waves in a porous medium, caused by the

presence of randomly distributed spherical inclusions where K is the undrained bulk modulus of the fluid

of another porous material. The size of the inclusions saturated medium.

is assumed to be mesoscopic, i.e., much larger than an The solution of a harmonic plane wave field in

individual pore size, but much smaller than the wave- spherical coordinates, in terms, of spherical Bessel

length of a fast compressional and shear wave. The functions and Legendre polynomials is well known

problem is solved by firstly considering the interac- (Yamakawa, 1962, Berryman, 1985). The solution

tion of a plane elastic P-wave with a single spherical must obey boundary conditions on the poroelastic

inclusion, then by applying an approximate theory of interface, i.e. continuity of normal and tangential

multiple scattering (Waterman & Truell, 1961), the stresses, and continuity of solid and relative fluid

effect of an ensemble of inclusions is estimated. displacements (Deresiewicz & Skalak, 1963). The

analysis and derivation of Biots slow wave amplitude

is given in (Ciz & Gurevich, 2005). We extend this

analysis and derive the fast P-wave amplitude scat-

2 SINGLE INCLUSION

tered by the spherical poroelastic inclusion embedded

in the poroelastic host medium. The expressions for

Following Berryman (1985) we consider the problem

the fast P-wave amplitude will be used for computing

of scattering of an elastic wave in a poroelastic medium

the attenuation and dispersion.

(called host or background medium) by a spherical

The solution for the radial component of the dis-

inclusion, having radius a, of another poroelastic mate-

placement of the scattered wave into the background

rial. Specifically, we consider a fast compressional

medium in the far field is

plane-wave incident on a spherical inclusion. When

this incident wave interacts with the inclusion, it pro-

duces fast and slow compressional waves and a shear

wave in the background (called scattered or reflected

waves) and waves of the same three kinds inside the

inclusion (called refracted waves). We assume the size

of the inclusion to be much smaller than the fast com-

pressional wave, no limitation is required with respect where k+ is the wave number of the fast compres-

to the wavelength of the Biots slow wave. This is sional wave, k represents the wave number of the

the main difference from Berrymans long-wavelength slow compressional wave and Pn ( cos ) is the Leg-

solution assuming the size of the inclusion to be much endre polynomial of the order n. The coefficients for

smaller than both wavelength of fast compressional the scattered fast wave are Bn+ for n = 0, 1, 2; for the

wave and wavelength of Biots slow wave. The elas- scattered slow wave, they are Bn for n = 0, 1, 2.

tic properties of both porous materials saturated by The higher order terms neglected for the scattered

a compressible fluid are assumed to be described by fast wave are of the order (k+ a)5 and therefore small

Gassmanns (1951) equation. The dynamic behavior of (Yamakawa, 1962). In the analysis below we also

both materials is described by Biots (1962) equations neglect the slow wave coefficient B1 and coefficients

of poroelasticity. We consider a porous background Bn3 . It has been shown by Ciz & Gurevich (2005) that

medium with uniformly distributed porosity whose the contribution from these terms are proportional to

pores are filled with a viscous fluid with bulk modulus k+ a, and thus these terms are small (B1,n3 <<B0 and

Kf , density f and viscosity . The grains of the solid B1,n3 <<B2 ) We can therefore conclude that for small

are characterized by bulk modulus Kg , shear modulus (compared to the wavelength of the incident wave)

g and density g . The solid skeleton formed from the inclusions the first-order term corresponding to the

202

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

reflected slow wave can be neglected. The scattering 0 Born and present work - low contrast

amplitude for n = 0 is given by the expression: present work - high contrast

Born approx. - high contrast

-2

Log Amplitude

-4

-6

~1/2

where the prime denotes parameters inside the inclu- -8

(1)

sion, A0 is the amplitude of the incident P-wave, h1 , ~3/2

(1)

h0 , j0 , j1 define spherical Bessel functions of orders -10

0 and 1, H
= K
+ 4/3,

= k
a, and

= k
a.

The full expression for n = 2 is very complicated, but -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

can be simplified assuming that the amplitude of the Log Frequency (normalized)

scattered fast (normal) compressional and shear waves

Figure 1. Scattering amplitude of the Biot slow wave versus

are well approximated by the solution of the equiva-

normalized frequency. Derived solution and Born approxi-

lent elastic problem. This assumption yields a simple mation (solid line) are identical for low contrast in material

approximation for the amplitude of the scattered slow parameters. Born approximation (dashed line) and derived

wave, which is quite accurate for a wide range of mate- solution (dotted line) are different for high contrast in material

rial properties and is sufficient for the analysis of the properties.

scattering amplitude as a function of frequency. This

expression reads attenuation analysis, we use the same concept. We

solve the 4 4 system of boundary conditions for

the coefficient of order n = 0 at the inclusion sur-

face and the 6 6 system of boundary conditions for

n = 2. These solutions give the expressions for the fast

compressional wave coefficients B0+ and B2+ :

and

(1) (1)

where h1 , h2 , j1 , j2 define spherical Bessel func-

tions of orders 1 and 2, ,
represent fluid saturated

Lam coefficients in the host and inclusion. In the

long-wavelength limit equation (4) reduces to the long- where K = K0 + C and K
= K0
+
C
are fluid

wavelength approximation of B0 derived by Berryman saturated bulk moduli. Provided the coefficient B1

(1985). In the low-contrast limit equations (3) and is small, the coefficient B1+ can be approximated

(4) reduce to the solution derived by Gurevich et al. by the effective elastic solution given by Yamakawa

(1998) using the Born approximation. Figure 1 shows (1962). In the long-wavelength limit the coefficient B0+

the comparison between these solutions. As expected, from expression (5) converts to the long-wavelength

these solutions are identical in case of low-contrast approximation derived by Berryman (1985).

of elastic parameters between the inclusion and host It is easy to check that, if the fluid bulk modulus

medium. However, these two solutions differ when the vanishes Kf 0, then C 0 so B0 0 and both (5)

contrast is large as this violates the assumption for the and (6) reduce to the expressions B0 and B2 in the

Born approximation. In the low frequency limit, Biots elastic limit derived by Yamakawa, (1962). In sum-

slow wave amplitude scales with 3/2 while for inclu- mary, derived expressions (5) and (6) are therefore

sions larger than the wavelength of Biots slow wave, consistent in the limits with the known exact long-

the scattering amplitude is proportional to 1/2 . wavelength solution of Berryman, (1985) and with the

To derive the fast compressional wave coeffi- solution for elastic wave scattering from a spherical

cients of the scattered wave amplitude needed for the inclusion derived by Yamakawa, (1962).

203

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

3 ATTENUATION AND DISPERSION 4 ATTENUATION IN THE MODEL

WITH POROELASTIC SPHERICAL

To compute the frequency dependent velocity and INCLUSIONS

attenuation, the coefficients for the fast and slow com-

pressional wave amplitudes are used in the multiple To derive an analytical expression for the attenua-

scattering theorem of Waterman and Truell (1961). tion we substitute the scatter amplitude for the fast

The total wave field at any point is the sum of the compressional wave into equation (11).

incident and all scattered wave fields. From the multi-

ple scattering field calculation, the complex effective

wave number keff is:

scatterers. Substituting full expressions for B0+ and B2+

from (5) and (6), we obtain

where k+ = /v+ is the real wave number of the fast

P-wave, is the density or number of scatterers per

unit volume. Scatterer amplitudes f (0), f () are

from the solution of a 6 6 system of boundary con-

ditions satisfied on the surface of a single spherical Noting that, only two terms (n = 0,2) of Biots slow

inclusion. wave amplitude significantly contribute to the atten-

By making a weak scattering approximation and uation (Ciz & Gurevich, 2005). Furthermore, the

neglecting quadratic terms, the effective wave number attenuation given by (13) is due to mesoscopic fluid

(7) reduces to flow induced at the boundary of randomly distributed

poroelastic spherical inhomogeneities in poroelastic

host medium.

In the special case of patchy saturation, where only

the fluid properties differ between the inclusion and

This situation arises physically under circumstances the host medium, the attenuation is

where the number of scatterers per unit volume is suffi-

ciently small or where the individual scatterer is weak.

The latter arises when the material of the scatterer has

elastic properties very similar to those of the matrix

medium or when the gradient of the elastic properties

is small.

The real part of equation (9) represents the effec-

tive velocity veff dispersion in media with a low

concentration of scatterers, it is given by Before we plot effective attenuation in the full fre-

quency range we analyze the asymptotical behavior at

low and high frequencies.

The imaginary part of equation (9) gives the dimen- 5 ANALYTICAL ASYMPTOTES AND

sionless attenuation (inverse quality factor) NUMERICAL EXAMPLE

frequency limits, we carry out the following deriva-

The above expressions (10) and (11) allow us to model tion. In the low-frequency limit we substitute into

the dispersion and attenuation caused by the scattering (13) spherical Bessel functions with their approximate

of a plane elastic wave by poroelastic inclusions ran- expressions for small arguments, i.e. | |<<1. After

domly distributed throughout a poroelastic medium. some manipulation we obtain

In this study we investigate the special case of disper-

sion and attenuation using the amplitudes derived in

the previous section.

204

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

where, -1

-2

~

-3

Log Attenuation

-4

-5

-6 ~-1/2

a=1m

For the high-frequency limit we substitute into (13) a = 0.1 m

-7

spherical Bessel functions with their approximations a = 0.01 m

for large arguments, i.e. | | >>1. This gives the high

-8

frequency asymptote for effective attenuation -2 0 2 4 6

Log Frequency

velocity in the poroelastic medium with spherical poroelastic

inclusions.Attenuation maximum shifts to higher frequencies

Expressions (15) and (18) represent asymptotes of as the inclusion radius a decreases.

elastic wave attenuation in poroelastic media having

low concentrations of spherical inclusions of another cubic cells. Each cell is approximated using a con-

porous material. centric sphere geometry, where the inner sphere is

The high frequency asymptote (18) is consistent saturated by one fluid type and the outer shell is sat-

with asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the gen- urated by another fluid. The porous frame properties

eral diffusion equation at high frequencies. Diffusive are everywhere uniform.

processes scale in the high frequency limit as 1/2 Johnson (2001) developed a patchy saturation

and Biots slow wave is described by the diffusion model for a periodic ensemble of fluid patches of

equation. Our high frequency asymptote is also con- arbitrary but identical shape. For a given shape,

sistent with the Born approximation (Gurevich et al., Johnson (2001) derived asymptotic solutions for

1998), whereas our low-frequency asymptote differs. low and high frequencies. The solution for interme-

The Born approximation scales with frequency as diate frequencies was constructed using a branching

1/2 . As near field terms in the wave field expan- function that ensures causality of the solution and

sion were neglected by Gurevich et al. (1998), their convergence to low and high frequency results. For

low frequency asymptote is incorrect. Our low fre- comparison we assume the simple geometry of con-

quency asymptote (15) shows that attenuation scales centric spherical patches, equivalent to those used

with frequency as . by White (1975).

Since the derived expression for effective attenua- A recent model proposed by Pride & Berryman

tion (13) is rather complex, we carry out numerical (2003) considers the porous medium as a double-

computations to study the attenuation effect in the porosity dual-permeability medium, that is, an

whole frequency range. The frequency dependence of ensemble of representative volumes each contain-

the attenuation has a form of a relaxation peak, with ing two distinct porous materials. For our study we

the maximum of the dimensionless attenuation at a use one variant of this theory which assumes that

frequency at which the wavelength of the Biots slow all frame properties of the two materials are the

wave is approximately equal to the characteristic size same and only fluid properties differ. Although the

of the inclusion. Figure 2 confirms the asymptotical model of Pride et al. allows arbitrary geometries to

behavior derived. The attenuation maximum shifts to be considered, explicit analytical solutions are hard

higher frequencies as the inclusion radius decreases. to formulate for geometries other then concentric

spheres.

The scattering model is limited to low concentration

6 COMPARISON WITH PERIODIC MODELS

of inclusions and therefore the following situations

were compared: (a) water inclusions (030% satura-

We consider three mesoscopic models with regular

tion) in a gas filled background medium, and (b) low

distribution of patches:

concentration of gas inclusions (05% saturation) in

The first model of patchy saturation was proposed water-filled background medium. The models were

by White (1975). It consists of a periodic array of tested for three different gas types with bulk moduli

205

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

7 CONCLUSIONS

tative model of scattering of elastic waves by spherical

poroelastic inclusions randomly distributed in a poro-

elastic host medium. We have studied the attenuation

and dispersion of the incident fast compressional wave

due to mode conversion into Biots slow wave. This

mechanism concerns wave-induced flow caused by

heterogeneity in the elastic moduli at mesoscopic

scales. Mesoscopic heterogeneity over the scale of a

wavelength can be responsible for considerable atten-

uation. At low frequencies, the attenuation scales with

frequency as 1/2 and in the high frequency limit the

attenuation is proportional to frequency as 1/2 .

The quantitative comparison of compared models

shows very good agreement for water inclusion satu-

rations of up to 30%. The scattering model slightly

underestimates the attenuation in comparison with

Figure 3. Attenuation due to water saturated spherical

other models. We conclude that, in contrast to 1-D case,

patches (10% water saturation) in an air-filled poroelastic

host medium. random but isotropic distribution of heterogeneities

in a porous medium produces essentially the same

attenuation and dispersion as their regular distribution.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

for Exploration and Production Geophysics, Curtin

Reservoir Geophysics Consortium, CSIRO Postdoc-

toral Fellowship Program and CSIRO postgraduate

scholarships.

REFERENCES

ity in a fluid-saturated porous medium. J. Math. Phys.

26 (6): 14081419.

Biot, M.A. 1962. Mechanics of deformation and acoustic

propagation in porous media. Journal of Applied Physics

Figure 4. Dispersion due to water saturated spherical 33(4): 14821498.

patches (10% water saturation) in an air-filled poroelastic Ciz, R. & Gurevich, B., 2005. Amplitude of Biots slow

host medium. wave scattered by a spherical inclusion in a fluid-saturated

poroelastic medium. Geophys. J. Int., in print.

Deresiewicz, H. and Skalak, R., 1963. On uniqueness in

dynamic poroelasticity: Bull. Seis. Soc. Am. 53: 409416.

Kgas = 0.0001 GPa (air), Kgas = 0.1 GPa (light gas) and Dutta, N.C and Ode, H.C. 1979a. Attenuation and disper-

Kgas = 0.25 GPa (heavy gas). Figures 3 and 4 show the sion of compressional waves in fluid-filled rocks with

attenuation and dispersion curves for water inclusions partial gas saturation (White Model)-Part I: Biot theory.

in an air-filled background medium. The concentra- Geophysics, 44: 17771788.

tion of the water inclusions is 10%. All four models . 1979b. Attenuation and dispersion of compressional

exhibit the same attenuation behavior, scaling with waves in fluid-filled porous rocks with partial gas sat-

at low frequencies and 1/2 at high frequencies. The uration (White Model)-Part II: Results. Geophysics, 44:

17891805.

random model shows slightly lower attenuation. The Gassmann, F. 1951. Elastic waves through a packing of

velocity dispersion curves are in excellent agreement spheres. Geophysics, 16: 673685.

and all models fit the static limit given by Woods for- Gurevich, B. & Lopatnikov, S.L. 1995. Velocity and atten-

mula (lower bound) and the no-flow limit expressed uation of elastic waves in finely layered porous rocks.

by Hills theorem (upper bound). Geophys. J. Int. 121: 933947.

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Gurevich, B., Sadovnichaja, A.P., Lopatnikov, S.L. & Governing equations and acoustic attenuation. Physical

Shapiro. S.A. 1998. Scattering of a compressional wave Review E, 68(3): 036603-1036603-10.

in a poroelastic medium by an ellipsoidal inclusion. Waterman, P.C., & Truell, R. 1961. Multiple scattering of

Geophys. J. Int., 133: 91103. waves. J. Math. Phys., 2(4): 512537.

Johnson, D.L. 2001. Theory of frequency dependent acous- White, J.E. 1975. Computed seismic speeds and attenua-

tics in patchy-saturated porous media. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., tion in rocks with partial gas saturation. Geophysics, 40:

110(2): 682694. 224232.

Norris, A.N. 1993. Low-frequency dispersion and attenua- White, J.E., Mikhaylova, N.G. & Lyakhovitskiy, F. M. 1976.

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359370. rocks: Phys. Solid Earth, Trans. Izv., 11: 654659.

Pride, S.R., & Berryman, J.G. 2003. Linear dynam- Yamakawa, N. 1962. Scattering and attenuation of elastic

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207

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

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