U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
5.7 million adults in the United States were under correctional supervision in 1997 1,176,900 558,000 3,266,800 690,800 in jail on probation on parole in prison

1.7 million in local jail or prison 1,602,000 132,900 871,500 816,600 female white black male

3.9 million on probation or parole 3,195,300 762,300 2,557,500 1,333,300 black female white male

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 Janet Reno Attorney General Daniel Marcus Acting Associate Attorney General Mary Lou Leary Acting Assistant Attorney General

Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Office of Justice Programs World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

Bureau of Justice Statistics World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

For information contact: BJS Clearinghouse 1-800-732-3277

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

November 2000, NCJ 177613

Contents
U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director This volume resulted from a collaborative effort of the BJS Corrections Statistics unit, under the supervision of Allen J. Beck. Paula M. Ditton coordinated the preparation of the volume. Allen Beck updated the correctional population trends section. Thomas P. Bonczar, assisted by Lauren E. Glaze collected the data and prepared the tables for the probation and parole sections; Darrell K. Gilliard prepared the section on jail inmates. Caroline Wolf Harlow, Ph.D., assisted by Christopher J. Mumola and Tracy L. Snell, prepared the tables for the Survey of State and Federal inmates. Tracy L. Snell prepared the section on capital punishment. Christopher J. Mumola prepared the sections on military corrections. Paula M. Ditton prepared the section on prisoners. Tom Hester, Ellen Goldberg, and Ida Hines produced this volume. Jayne Robinson supervised final production for printing. La Terri Bynum, Elizabeth Griffin, Marita Perez and Laarni Verdolin, under the supervision of Kathleen Creighton and Gertrude B. Odom, of the Crime Surveys Branch, Demographic Surveys Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, coordinated data collection and processing of the Survey of State and Federal prisoners. Christopher Alaura, Lawrence Altmayer and Ruth Breads of the Crime Surveys Programming Branch provided programming assistance under the supervision of Stephen T. Phillips and Dave Watt. The questionnaire was programmed by Ellen Soper of the Technologies Management Office under the supervision of William Mockovak. Sample design and weighting were provided at the Statistical Methods Division by Denise Lewis and Andrew Zbikowski under the supervision of J. Michael Roebuck and Thomas Moore. Interviews were conducted by the Field Division and coordinated by Medell Ford II and John Godenick under the supervision of Richard Ning. Christopher Innes, assisted by Susan Allison, Denise Golumbaski, Nancy Miller, Vicki Russell, Allyson Suski, and Ina Winn at the Federal Bureau of Prisons, coordinated data collection in Federal Facilities. Lisa McNelis, assisted by Martha Greene, Henrietta Herrin, and Duane Cavanaugh, under the supervision of Stephanie Brown of the Governments Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, collected and processed the Annual Survey of Jails. Steven M. Bittner, Patricia A. Clark , Marc I. Roemer, and Laarni Verdolin of the Crime Surveys Branch, Demographic Surveys Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, collected, processed, and tabulated the data on prisoners and capital punishment. They worked under the supervision of Gertrude B. Odom and Kathleen P. Creighton. Highlights Note to readers Introduction: Definitions of common terms used in tables Data sources Trends in U.S. correctional populations Jail inmates in 1997 Probation in 1997 Survey of State and Federal inmates, 1997 Prisoners in 1997 Parole in 1997 Capital punishment in 1997 U.S. military corrections in 1997 Index iii vi

vii viii

1 19 29

49 75 115 133 181 191

This report and its data are available on the Internet: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/ The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data also offers the data for jails and capital punishment: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/ home.html

ii Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Highlights
An estimated 5.7 million adult residents of the United States were under some form of correctional supervision in 1997. Seven in 10 were supervised in the community, through probation or parole. About 2.8% of all adult residents of the United States were under correctional supervision in 1997, up from 1.7% in 1985. About 9.0% of black adults, 2.0% of white adults, and 1.3% of adults of other races were under correctional supervision in 1997. Jails On June 30,1997, local jails held an estimated 557,974 adults. Men comprised 89% of adult jail inmates. White nonHispanic inmates accounted for 41% of the total jail population; black nonHispanics, 42%; and Hispanics, 16%. The total number of adults in local jails increased by approximately 47,600 during the year ending June 30, 1997, or 9.3%. The growth rate during 1997 was nearly twice that of the average annual increase between 1990 and 1997. Probation Nearly 3.3 million adults were on probation on December 31,1997. Probationers made up 57% of all adults under correctional supervision in 1997. Twenty-one percent of the probationers were women, a larger proportion than for any other correctional population. About 64% were white and 34% black. Between yearend 1996 and 1997, the number of adults on probation increased by 101,841 (3.2%). From 1990 to 1997 the probation population grew by nearly 600,000 people, an average of 2.9% annually. About 62% of all adults discharged from probation in 1997 had successfully completed their sentences. Nearly 20% were incarcerated, 5% under a new sentence and 14% with the same sentence. Prisons Nearly 1.2 million men and women were in the custody of State and Federal prisons at yearend 1997. Approximately 94% were men. About 48% of the inmates were white, 49% black, and 3% American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian, or Pacific Islander. The number of inmates in State and Federal custody rose by 49,158 (4.4%) during 1997. Between 1990 and 1997 the prison population increased by nearly 434,000 inmates, or an average annual growth of 6.8%. The number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 U.S. residents increased from 297 in 1990 to 444 in 1997. Between 1990 and 1997 the imprisonment rate of white inmates rose 36% from 139 to 189 per 100,000; the rate for blacks increased 63% from 1,067 to 1,743; and the rate for Hispanics grew 35% from 548 to 738. Among whites, prisoners age 30-34 had the highest incarceration rate in 1997: 476 per 100,000 white residents. Among blacks, prisoners age 25-29 had the highest rate: 4,564 per 100,000. Approximately 62% of sentenced inmates entering prison in 1997 were new court commitments. Just over a third were parole or other conditional release violators, up from 29% in 1990. Around 334,500 sentenced offenders were admitted as new court commitments to State prisons during 1997. Between 1990 and 1997, the number of persons entering State prison for a violent offense increased by 16% from 86,600 in 1990 to 100,200 in 1997. Admissions for public-order offenses were up by 37%, from 26,000 in 1990 to 35,700 in 1997. Property offenses decreased by 9%, from 104,400 in 1990 to 94,700 in 1997. For the fourth consecutive year, the largest number of admissions to State prison were for drug offenses, 102,600 drug offenders were admitted in 1997, up from 102,400 in 1990. There were 39,431 sentenced offenders admitted to Federal prison in 1997. Fortysix percent were drug offenders, 27% were public-order offenders, 20% property offenders, and 7% violent offenders.

Adults on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole, 1985-97

Number of adults 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 1985 Prison Parole Jail Probation

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

Highlights iii

Parole and post-release supervision An estimated 690,750 adults were on parole at yearend 1997, a 1.6% increase from 1996. The average annual rate of growth between 1990 to 1997 was 3.8%. Among persons released from prison in 1997, around 83% were placed on probation, parole, or some other type of conditional release. The number of persons leaving State prisons based on parole board decisions declined from 39% in 1990 to 28% in 1997. During the same period, the number exiting by mandatory release grew from 29% to 40% of all releases, and the number whose sentence expired increased from 13% to 17%. Slightly fewer than 9 in 10 parolees were male. An estimated 54% of persons on parole were white; 44%, black; and 2%, other races. Around 6% of the parole population was under intensive supervision. Nearly half (45%) of all exits from parole were successful completions, 41% were returned to incarceration. One in every 8 parolees were returned to prison with a new sentence. The proportion of adults being actively supervised (80%), those being supervised out of State (5%), and the number of

Characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, 1985, 1991, and 1997
State 1991 Federal 1985 1997 1991

1997 Gender Male Female Race White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other races* Age 17 or younger 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 or older

93.7% 6.3

94.6% 5.4

95.6% 4.4

92.8% 7.2

92.2% 7.8

33.3% 46.5 17.0 3.2

35.4% 45.6 16.6 2.4

40.0% 45.0 13.0 3.0

29.9% 37.8 27.3 5.0

38.4% 29.9 28.0 3.8

0.5% 19.3 38.1 29.4 9.8 2.2 0.7

0.6% 2.3 45.7 22.7 6.5 2.4 0.7

0.5% 26.7 45.7 19.4 5.2 1.9 0.6

0.0% 8.9 36.6 30.6 16.3 6.2 1.4

0.0% 9.3 36.0 32.9 15.0 5.7 1.1

*Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

absconders (7%) remained relatively unchanged between 1996 and 1997. The number of parolees classified under inactive supervision (7%) decreased slightly. Capital punishment

Seventeen States executed 74 male prisoners during 1996, including 45 whites, 27 blacks, 1 American Indian, and 1 Asian person. Between 1977 and 1997 a total of 432 prisoners were executed under civil authority in the United States. Military confinement

During 1997, 256 inmates were received under sentence of death by State and Federal prisons. As of December 31, 1997, the Nation's prisons held a total of 3,335 inmates under sentence of death. An estimated 56% were white and 42% were black. Half had been under sentence of death for at least 6 years and 7 months.

On December 31, 1997, the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy held a total of 2,772 prisoners in 64 facilities. The Coast Guard operated no confinement facilities.

Probation
Persons serving a sentence to probation usually  received the sentence from a court as an alternative to confinement  live unconfined in the community while meeting certain conditions  must fulfill conditional requirements like keeping a job, not drinking, not using drugs, not keeping company with known offenders, paying restitution or fine, and regularly reporting to a probation officer.

Jail
Persons in jail usually  are confined in a facility owned by a county or city  are in facility that holds people for 72 hours or more, as opposed to a temporary lockup  if they are sentenced, are serving a sentence of a year or less or are waiting for transfer to prison or for disposition of charges of violation of a conditional release  if they are unsentenced, are waiting for a trial or hearing or for transfer to juvenile, court, or mental health authorities.

Prison
Persons in prison usually  are confined in a facility owned by a State or by the Federal Government  are serving a sentence of more than a year (except in six States combining jails and prisons  Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont).

Parole
Persons on parole or post-release supervision usually  received the parole from an executive authority or received a sentence to post-release supervision from a judicial authority, after a time in prison or jail  live unconfined in the community while meeting certain conditions  must fulfill conditional requirements like keeping a job, not drinking, not using drugs, not keeping company with known offenders, and regularly reporting to a parole officer.

iv Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Approximately 98% of the prisoners held by the Army, 87% of those held by the Air Force, 79% of those held by the Navy, and 75% of those held by the Marine Corps at yearend 1997 were convicted inmates; the remainder were unconvicted persons whose cases had not yet been tried. Half of convicted military prisoners had committed a violent offense. About a third were confined for rape (16%) or sexual assault (15%). A fifth were serving sentences for drugs. Eleven percent were sentenced for larceny/theft, and 11% for murder. Approximately 8% were confined for military infractions, such as AWOL, insubordination, or failure to obey a lawful order. Ninety-eight percent of all prisoners held in military confinement facilities in 1997 were men, and 2% were women. About 52% were non-Hispanic whites; 35%, nonHispanic blacks; 9%, Hispanics; and 4%, other races. Around 98% were enlisted personnel, and 2% officers. 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities The 1997 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities conducted face-to-face interviews with prison inmates from June through October 1997. The Surveys obtained detailed information about State and Federal prison inmates' current offenses and sentences, their criminal histories, personal and family characteristics, drug and alcohol use, treatment, health care, and prison conditions. State prison inmate surveys were also conducted in 1974, 1979, 1986, and 1991. Federal inmates were surveyed for the first time in 1991. During the period that interviews were conducted, 1,409 State prisons held 1,059,607 inmates, and 127 Federal prisons held 89,072 inmates. Since 1991, when the previous survey was conducted, the State and Federal prison population grew by 51%.

The percentage of white, black, and Hispanic State prison inmates remained relatively unchanged between 1991 and 1997. Thirty-three percent of State inmates were white non-Hispanic, 47% black non-Hispanic, and 17% Hispanic. The percentage of black inmates in Federal prison increased from 30% in 1991 to 38% in 1997. The State prison population grew increasingly middle-aged between 1991 and 1997. In 1991 inmates between age 35 to 44 comprised 23% of the population, the same group accounted for 29% in 1997. Overall, the median age increased from 30 years in 1991 to 32 years in 1997. The median age of Federal prisoners remained unchanged at 36 years. Just under half of inmates in State prison were incarcerated for a violent offense in both 1991 and 1997. The percentage of property offenders dropped from 25% in 1991 to 22% in 1997, while public-order offenses increased from 7% to 10% during the same period. In both years about 2 in

10 State inmates were incarcerated for a drug offense. The percentage of inmates held for a drug offense in Federal prison continued to rise, from 58% in 1991 to 63% in 1997. Nearly half were drug trafficking offenders. Just under half of all inmates in State prison and a quarter of those in Federal prison were on probation or parole at the time of their current arrest. The percentage of recidivists among State prisoners, those with a prior sentence to probation or incarceration, declined from 81% in 1991 to 76% in 1997. Nearly 43% of State inmates said they had served three or more prior sentences. At the time of the offense, just over half of State inmates in 1997, and a third of Federal inmates were under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. Among State inmates, 37% were under the influence of alcohol, and 33% were under the influence of drugs. Among Federal inmates, 20% were drinking and 22% were using drugs.

Criminal justice characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, 1991 and 1997
Percent of prison inmates State Characteristic Total Offense Violent Property Drug Public-order Criminal justice status at arrest Any statusa Probation Parole Criminal history Priorsa Violent recidivist Nonviolent recidivist Under the influence of alcohol at time of the offenseb Prior drug use Evera Regularly In month before the offense At time of the offense Substance abuse treatment Since admission
a

1997 100% 47.2% 22.0 20.7 9.9 47.3% 22.2 24.4 75.4% 46.8 28.6 37.2% 83.0% 69.6 56.5 32.6 24.4%

1991 100% 46.6% 24.8 21.3 6.9 46.5% 23.0 22.4 80.7% 48.8 31.9 32.3% 79.4% 62.2 49.9 31.0 29.6%

Federal 1997 1991 100% 100% 14.8% 6.8 62.6 14.8 27.2% 13.4 13.5 60.3% 23.2 37.1 20.4% 72.9% 57.3 44.8 22.4 24.5% 17.3% 10.2 57.9 12.4 24.2% 11.7 11.7 56.7% 22.6 34.1 11.0% 60.1% 42.1 31.8 16.8 19.4%

Detail may add to more than total; inmates may fit more than one category. b See Comparing Federal and State Prison Inmates, 1991 (NCJ 145864).

Highlights vv Highlights

Reported drug use by State and Federal prison inmates increased between 1991 and 1997. Nearly 57% of State inmates were using drugs in the month before the offense, up from 50% in 1991. Drug use among Federal inmates increased from 32% in 1991 to 45% in 1997. Overall, the percentage of inmates who reported receiving drug treatment and programs since admission to State prison declined from 30% in 1991 to 24% in 1997. Among federal prisoners, 25% reported participation in drug treatment or programs in 1997, up from 20% in 1991. Among those who used drugs regularly in the month before the offense, 35% of State prisoners and 40% of Federal inmates in 1997 had participated in a drug treatment or drug abuse program since admission. Prior to admission to prison, 57% of female State prison inmates and 16% of males said they had been physically or sexually abused. Lower rates of abuse were reported by Federal inmates, 7% of males and 40% of females reported prior abuse.

Important Note
Correctional Populations in the United States presents numbers that describe persons under some form of correctional supervision. In this compilation the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) seeks to help users by 
To make comparisons across years or between jurisdictions BJS makes every effort to report numbers that are consistent in interpretation with those of the past and between separate jurisdictions in the present. Data collection rules and reporting protocols that fit historical statistics and that impose the least burden on respondents are used. Some jurisdictions depart from the reporting conventions, and some categories for counting have shifted over the years. Users who try to draw conclusions from such numbers by comparing years or jurisdictions must take into account special circumstances and changes. Footnotes, table notes, explanatory notes, and other material highlighting the tables must be consulted for a full understanding of the data. The following symbols are used in the tables: / not reported : not known Category definitions are available in three places: the explanatory notes in the appendices of sections, the questionnaires also in the appendices, and the definitions of common terms in the Introduction on page 2. ... not applicable 

making readily apparent the links
between different correctional institutions or methods in each State 

suggesting the similarities and
differences between States and regions as our system of criminal justice responds to both common and disparate needs 

permitting comparisons, however
limited they must be, with previous years' statistics. Helping readers find a single number Through an index at the end of the volume, readers can find all topics treated in the tables. The index numbers refer to the tables. Footnotes give extra information about how to interpret the numbers in the tables.

vi Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Definitions of common terms used in tables Custody. To have custody of a prisoner, a State must hold that person in one of its facilities. Early statistical reports gave custody counts that largely have been replaced by jurisdiction counts of State prison populations. A State may have custody of a prisoner over whom another State maintains jurisdiction. The tables present both kinds of counting procedures, with jurisdiction counts being more complete; States reporting only on custody are noted. Detention status. This term distinguishes between prisoners, usually in jail, who were convicted or awaiting judgment. Discretionary parole. A release from prison to supervision is discretionary when it is decided by a board or other authority. Hispanic origin. A person of Hispanic origin may be of any race; however, a few States treat the ethnic category as a racial one. Jurisdiction. Jurisdiction refers to a unit of government or to the legal authority to exercise governmental power. According to the latter meaning, the prisoners under a State's jurisdiction may be in the custody of local jails. (See "Custody.") Mandatory parole. Mandatory parole results from statutory or correctional guidelines, and no judgment by a panel or board is required for release of a prisoner to supervision outside prison. Maximum sentence length. Some jurisdictions sentence offenders to a range of years; the larger number in that range is the most that a prisoner may serve on a sentence. Often, good time is subtracted from the maximum sentence. When the tables report on prisoners with sentences longer or shorter than a year, the maximum sentence is used where applicable.

Military justice terms  General court-martial is the highest military court for judging the most serious offenses. A military judge presides. This court includes members (jurors) at the election of the accused, except when the court must have members for imposition of the death penalty. If an enlisted person is accused, in the absence of exigent circumstances at least a third of the court must be enlisted members who are not lower ranking than the accused. A general court-martial may be used to try any person subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice.

includes probation violators entering prison for the first time on the probated offenses. Parole violators are excluded from this category. One-day count. For a 1-day count a jurisdiction or facility is asked to report how many people were on its roll on a certain day. The average daily population is a year's total number of people on the roll each day, divided by the number of days. The methods of counting in aggregate do not yield estimates of either the number of persons in a status during the year or the average amount of time persons remain in a status. Parole. Unless otherwise specified, parole includes all types of supervision in the community in which the period of community supervision was affixed at the time of release from a prison or jail. Includes discretionary parole, mandatory parole, and other forms of post-release supervision. Excludes persons initially sentenced to incarceration followed by a period of probation, often referred to as a “split sentence.” Race. Classification by race often depends on the reporting program and the State. A few States reported two categories: white and nonwhite. A few others categorized Hispanic offenders as belonging to "Other race." The number of persons with certain racial backgrounds were sometimes estimated. Reporting time. The prison and capital punishment figures are from December 31, 1996, unless otherwise noted. The Bureau of the Census surveyed jails on June 30, 1996. The bureau conducted the Survey of Inmates in Local Jails from October 1995 through March 1996. Revisions. Many States revise the yearend number reported for the previous year. Those revisions are made in the total, not the detail. For example, the number of blacks, whites, and members of other races for 1995 were not changed by a State in 1996 to equal its revised 1995 total.

Special court-martial is used for judging offenses less serious than those in a general court-martial. A military judge presides. A special court-martial may not impose the following: the death penalty, a dishonorable discharge, dismissal of an officer, confinement in excess of 6 months, hard labor without confinement for more than 3 months, forfeiture of pay in excess of two-thirds of pay per month, or forfeiture of any percentage of pay for more than 6 months. Summary court-martial is the least formal military court, consisting of one active-duty commissioned officer. This court promptly adjudicates minor offenses under a simple procedure. Punishment may not exceed confinement for 1 month, hard labor without confinement for 45 days, restriction to specified limits for more than 2 months, or forfeiture of more than two-thirds pay for more than 1 month. If the service member is above the rank of E-4, the presiding officer may not impose confinement, hard labor without confinement, or reduction of more than one grade.
Movement. In corrections, a movement is an admission to or a release from a status such as prisoner, parolee, or probationer. Unless specifically noted, a transfer between facilities does not count as a movement. Most serious offense. The offense with the longest term of incarceration imposed. New court commitments. Inmates who were admitted to prison directly from a court with all new sentences. This category

Highlights vii

Data sources

Series based on reported individual offenders
NPS-8. Characteristics of persons admitted to, under, or released from a sentence of death during the year. NCRP-1A. Individual record data on each offender admitted to prison during the year, covering race, age, Hispanic origin, jail credits, prior prison credit, offenses and number of counts, and maximum and minimum sentence. NCRP-1B. Individual record data on each offender released from prison during the year, covering data from NCRP-1A, offenses and sentences since admission, time spent in halfway houses, time served, and category of discharge. NCRP-1C. Individual record data on each offender discharged from parole supervision, covering data contained in NCRP-1A and NCRP-1B, parole discharge, and category of discharge.

Series that aggregate by reporting unit
NPS-1. Annual yearend count of prisoners present by jurisdiction, gender, race, Hispanic origin, and admissions and releases during the year. NPS-1A. Count of prisoners present on June 30 by jurisdiction. NPS-1B. Advance yearend count of prisoners; emergency releases because of prison crowding; rated, operational, and design capacities of prison facilities. NPS-8A. Yearend count of persons in prison under sentence of death. NPS-8B, 8C. Complete survey of States to determine any significant changes in statues or case law relating to the death penalty. CJ-8. Yearend count, admissions, and releases of persons on probation by jurisdiction. CJ-7. Yearend count, admissions, and releases of persons on parole by jurisdiction. CJ-5. Annual survey to estimate the population and rated capacity of jails. CJ-43. Census every 5 to 6 years of all State and Federal prison facilities to record their characteristics. CJ-3. Census every 5 to 6 years of all jail facilities to record their characteristics.

Series based on interviews of sampled prisoners
SIJ-43. Survey every 5 years of a random sample of jail inmates to determine criminal history, drug and alcohol use, and personal background. NPS-25. Survey every 5 years of a random sample of prison inmates to determine criminal history, drug and alcohol use, and personal background.

viii Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Trends in U.S. correctional populations

Tables By Allen Beck, Ph.D., BJS Statistician 1.1 Number of adults on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole, 1990-97 Estimated number of adults on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole and their percent of the adult population, by gender and race, 1997 Estimated number of adults under correctional supervision, by gender and race, 1990-97 Percent of adults under correctional supervision, by gender and race, 1990-97 Number of adults in custody of State or Federal prisons or local jails, 1990-97

each group, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1990 and 1997

5

1.24 Estimated number of sentenced prisoners returned to State prisons, for a parole revocation, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 12 1.25 Percent of sentenced prisoners returned to State prisons for a parole revocation, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 1.26 Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 1.27 Percent of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court, by the most serious offense, 1990-97

2

1.2

1.12 Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 residents in each group, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997 5 1.13 Estimated number of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 1.14 Percent of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by the most serious offense, 1990-97

13

2

1.3

6

14

2

1.4

7

15

3

1.5

1.15 Number of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990 and 1995-97 8 1.16 Percent of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990 and 1995-97 9 1.17 Trends in State prison admissions and releases, 1990-97 9 1.18 New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by gender, 1990-97 1.19 New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by gender, 1990-97

3

1.28 Number of persons held in State or Federal prisons and local jails per 100,000 residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997 16 1.29 Number of adults on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole per 100,000 adult residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997 17 Explanatory notes 18 18

1.6

Number of adults held in State or Federal prisons or in local jails, by gender and race, 1990-97 3 Number of adults held in State or Federal prisons or local jails per 100,000 adult U.S. residents in each group, by gender and race, 1990-97 3 Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender and race, 1990-97

1.7

10

Technical note Figures

1.8

10

1.

4

1.9

Estimated number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 U.S. residents in each group, by gender and race, 1990-97 4

1.20 New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1990-97 1.21 New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1990-97

Percent of U.S. adult population in State or Federal prisons or local jails, by race and gender, 1984-97 4 Number of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by offense type, 1990-97 New court commitments of State prisoners, by race, 1980-97 New court commitments of Federal prisoners, by race, 1980-97 Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by offense type, 1980-97

10

2.

6

11

3.

1.10 Number of sentenced Hispanic and American Indian sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender, 1990 and 1995-97 5 1.11 Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 U.S. residents in

1.22 Estimated number of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 11 1.23 Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990-97 12

7

4.

8

5.

13

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 1

Table 1.1. Number of adults on probation, in jail or prison, or on parole, 1990-97
Total estimated correctional populationa 4,348,000 4,535,600 4,762,600 4,944,000 5,141,300 5,335,100 5,482,900 5,692,500

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Percent change 1996-97 Average annual percent change 1990-97

Probation 2,670,234 2,728,472 2,811,611 2,903,061 2,981,022 3,077,861 3,164,996 3,266,837

Jailb 403,019 424,129 441,781 455,500 479,800 499,300 510,400 557,974

Prison 743,382 792,535 850,566 909,381 990,147 1,078,542 1,127,764 1,176,922

Parole 531,407 590,442 658,601 676,100 690,371 679,421 679,733 690,752

3.8%

3.2%

9.3%

4.4%

1.6%

3.9%

2.9%

4.8%

6.8%

3.8%

Note: Counts for probation, prison, and parole populations are for December 31 of each year and have been revised based on the most recently reported counts. Jail population counts are for June 30 of each year. Prison counts are of inmates in custody. a A small number of individuals may have multiple correctional statuses; consequently, the total number of persons under correctional supervision is an overestimate. b The adult jail population counts are estimated for 1993-96. The jail population counts for 1994-97 exclude persons supervised outside jail facilities.

Table 1.2. Estimated number of adults on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole and their percent of the adult population, by gender and race, 1997
Gender Totala Total Probation Jail Prison Parole U.S. adult resident populationb Percent under correctional supervision 5,692,500 3,266,800 558,000 1,176,900 690,800 200,032,000 2.8% Male 4,797,200 2,582,300 498,700 1,103,300 613,000 97,691,000 4.9% Female 895,300 684,500 59,300 73,600 77,800 103,340,000 0.9% White 3,429,000 2,177,300 301,600 569,900 380,200 167,372,000 2.0% Race Black 2,149,900 1,035,000 242,200 574,400 298,300 23,858,000 9.0% Other 113,600 54,500 14,200 32,600 12,300 8,802,000 1.3%

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. The numbers for gender and race were rounded to the nearest 100. In cases where gender or race was unknown or not reported, counts were estimated first on the self-reported racial identification of Hispanics in BJS surveys and then the residual was allocated based on the known cases. Estimates will differ from counts reported in chapters dealing with jail inmates, probation and parole populations, and State and Federal prisoners. a A small number of individuals have multiple correctional statuses; consequently, the total number of persons under correctional supervision may be an overestimate. See Technical note. b Based on the resident population 18 years or older on July 1, 1997, and adjusted for the undercount in the 1990 census.

Table 1.3. Estimated number of adults under correctional supervision, by gender and race, 1990-97
Gender Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total 4,348,000 4,535,600 4,762,600 4,944,000 5,141,300 5,335,100 5,482,900 5,692,500 Male 3,746,300 3,913,000 4,050,300 4,215,800 4,377,400 4,513,000 4,630,100 4,797,200 Female 601,700 622,600 712,300 728,200 763,900 822,100 852,800 895,300 White 2,665,500 2,742,400 2,835,900 2,872,200 3,058,000 3,220,900 3,294,800 3,429,000 Race Black 1,632,700 1,743,300 1,873,200 2,011,600 2,018,000 2,024,000 2,083,600 2,149,900

Other 49,800 49,900 53,500 60,200 65,300 90,200 104,500 113,600

Note: Populations are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Previously published estimates for 1996 by gender and race have been revised, based on the most recently reported population totals and revised procedures for estimating missing data. See Explanatory notes.

2 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.4. Percent of adults under correctional supervision, by gender and race, 1990-97
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Total 2.3% 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 Gender Male Female 4.2% 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 0.6% 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 White 1.7% 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 Race Black 7.6% 8.0 8.5 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.9 9.0 Other 0.7% 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.1 1.2 1.3

Note: Percentages are based on the resident population age 18 or older on July 1 of each reference year and have been corrected for the undercount in the 1990 census.

Table 1.5. Number of adults in custody of State or Federal prisons or local jails, 1990-97
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Percent change, 1996-97 Average annual percent change, 1990-97
a

Total inmates in custodya 1,146,401 1,216,664 1,292,347 1,364,900 1,469,900 1,577,800 1,638,200 1,734,896 5.9%

Prisoners in custodya Federal State 58,838 63,930 72,071 80,815 85,500 89,538 95,088 101,755 7.0% 684,544 728,605 778,495 828,566 904,647 989,004 1,032,676 1,075,167 4.1%

Inmates held in local jailsb 403,019 424,129 441,781 455,500 479,800 499,300 510,400 557,974 9.3%

Incarceration ratec 460 482 507 526 562 598 615 645

6.1%

8.1%

6.7%

4.8%

State and Federal inmate counts exclude those under State or Federal jurisdiction who were housed elsewhere, as in county or local jails. b Jail population counts for 1993-96 are estimated. c Total number of adults held in the custody of State, Federal, or local jurisdictions per 100,000 U.S. residents on December 31 of each reference year.

Table 1.6. Number of adults held in State or Federal prisons or in local jails, by gender and race, 1990-97
Year Males White Females Males Black Females

1990 545,900 39,300 508,800 38,000 1991 566,800 42,200 551,000 40,600 1992 598,000 44,100 590,300 42,400 1993 627,100 46,500 624,100 47,500 1994 667,400 51,300 676,000 52,300 1995 723,800 55,100 704,900 56,800 1996 751,100 60,800 714,200 59,600 1997 806,300 65,200 753,600 63,000 Note: Populations are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Previously published estimates for 1996 by gender and race have been revised, based on the most recently reported population totals.

Table 1.7. Number of adults held in State or Federal prisons or local jails per 100,000 U.S. adult residents in each group, by gender and race, 1990-97
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 White Males Females 711 732 766 797 842 907 933 990 48 51 53 55 61 65 71 76 Males 5,161 5,503 5,793 6,032 6,443 6,618 6,608 6,838 Black Females 329 346 356 393 426 456 472 491

Note: Data are based on resident population for each group on July 1 of each year and have been adjusted for the census undercount.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations

3

Figure 1. 1. Percent U.S. adult population in State or Federal prisons Figure Percent of of U.S. adult population in State or Federal prisons or in local jails, by by race and gender, 1984-95 or in local jails, race and gender, 1984-97 Percent of U.S. adult population for each group 8% Black males (6.8%) 6%

4%

2% White males (0.99%) Black females (0.49%) White females (0.08%) 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997

0% 1984

Table 1.8. Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender and race, 1990-97
Number of sentenced prisoners Male White Black All* 350,700 369,200 394,500 428,700 465,300 487,400 511,300 541,300 340,300 366,500 393,700 434,900 474,800 509,800 528,600 548,500 40,564 43,802 46,501 54,037 60,125 63,963 69,599 73,794

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Total 739,980 789,610 846,277 932,074 1,016,691 1,085,022 1,137,722 1,194,581

All* 699,416 745,808 799,776 878,037 956,566 1,021,059 1,068,123 1,120,787

Female White 20,200 21,100 22,200 25,800 28,800 30,500 33,800 36,300

Black 19,700 22,000 23,600 27,300 30,200 31,900 34,000 35,500

Note: Previously published estimates by gender and race have been revised. Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year. The numbers for gender and race were rounded to the nearest 100. *Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

Table 1.9. Estimated number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 U.S. residents in each group, by gender and race, 1990-97
Number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 residents Male Female Allb,c White Black Allb,c White Black 564 595 631 685 739 781 810 840 338 352 373 402 432 449 468 491 2,234 2,368 2,499 2,718 2,923 3,095 3,164 3,251 31 33 35 40 45 47 51 53 19 19 20 23 26 27 30 32 117 129 136 155 169 176 183 192

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Totala 297 313 332 359 389 411 427 444

Note: Sentenced prisoners are those with a sentence of more than 1 year. Previously published numbers for 1996 have been revised. a Rates are based on the U.S. resident population on December 31 of each year. b Rates are based on the U.S. resident population on July 1 of each year and have been adjusted for the census undercount. c Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

4 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.10. Number of sentenced Hispanic and American Indian prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender, 1990 and 1995-97
Sentenced Hispanic prisonersa Number Per 100,000 Hispanic residentsc Male Female Total Male Female 123,500 6,500 548 675 688 698 1,016 1,264 1,279 1,272 56 64 78 87
b

Year 1990 1995 1996 1997

Total 130,000 190,100 200,400 213,000

Total 6,000

Sentenced American Indian prisonersb Number Per 100,000 American Indian residentsc Male Female Total Male Female 5,600 400 800 900 1,000 275 419 462 492 516 769 850 905 35 72 77 80

181,300 8,800 189,300 11,100 200,200 12,800

9,800 9,000 11,000 10,100 11,900 10,900

a Numbers of Hispanics with a sentence of more than a year were estimated for each year using the 1991 and 1997 inmate surveys and the NPS sentenced inmate counts.

The number of American Indian inmates was based on reports from NPS, which exclude those held in detention facilities in Indian country. c Rates are based on estimates of the U.S. resident Hispanic and American Indian populations on July 1 of each year and adjusted for the 1990 census undercount.

Table 1.11. Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 U.S. residents in each group, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1990 and 1997
Number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in each population groupa Age Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older Total 1990 1997 292 271 652 799 708 526 375 211 49 440 412 1,042 1,144 1,092 913 666 365 71 1990 564 518 1,220 1,493 1,327 989 715 410 109 Male 1997 840 775 1,954 2,141 2,000 1,681 1,256 700 154 Female 1990 1997 31 13 61 95 87 67 41 21 3 53 28 78 134 176 141 82 42 5 Whiteb 1990 1997 139 90 295 354 336 245 196 137 32 189 140 403 434 476 405 308 195 44 Blackb 1990 1997 1,067 1,084 2,296 2,949 2,640 1,973 1,433 590 168 1,743 1,377 3,677 4,564 4,240 3,799 2,622 1,470 243 Hispanic 1990 1997 548 360 972 1,341 1,185 1,069 779 535 142 738 677 1,509 1,617 1,608 1,385 1,289 731 203

a Based on estimates of the U.S. resident population on July 1 of each year and adjusted for the 1990 census undercount. b Excludes Hispanics.

Table 1.12. Number of sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction per 100,000 residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997
Number of sentenced prisoners per 100,000 residents of each age groupa Male Female Blackb Hispanic Total Whiteb Blackb Hispanic Total Whiteb 840 775 1,954 2,141 2,000 1,681 1,256 700 154 386 274 788 867 949 806 614 394 100 3,206 2,585 6,993 8,623 7,479 6,809 4,837 2,773 509 1,272 1,183 2,600 2,701 2,585 2,206 2,215 1,262 394 53 28 78 134 176 141 82 42 5 25 17 41 58 83 66 37 21 4 199 83 215 452 650 546 337 154 20 87 30 128 210 235 213 131 99 10

Age Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older

a Based on estimates of the U.S. resident population on July 1 of each year and adjusted for the 1990 census undercount. b Excludes Hispanics.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations

5

Figure 2. Number of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by offense type, 1980-97 Number of State prison inmates 600,000

500,000 Violent 400,000

300,000

200,000 Property Drug 100,000 Public-order

0 1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996 1997

Table 1.13. Estimated number of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Murdera Manslaughter Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violentb Property offenses Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other propertyc Drug offenses Public-order offensesd Other/unspecified
e

1990 684,544 313,600 72,000 13,200 24,500 39,100 99,200 53,300 12,400 173,700 87,200 34,800 14,400 20,200 17,100 148,600 45,500 3,100

1991 728,605 339,500 77,200 13,100 25,500 43,000 107,800 59,000 13,100 180,700 90,300 35,700 16,000 20,400 18,200 155,200 49,500 2,900

1992

Number of inmates in State prison 1993 1994 828,400 393,500 92,800 14,600 27,100 49,000 122,100 72,200 15,600 189,600 94,300 35,300 18,900 21,300 19,800 177,000 64,000 4,300 904,647 425,700 100,700 15,200 27,700 53,300 131,700 80,100 17,000 207,000 101,800 39,600 19,700 23,600 22,300 193,500 74,400 3,900

1995 989,005 459,600 110,600 16,300 28,500 57,000 139,600 89,000 18,600 226,600 108,900 44,500 21,300 26,300 25,600 212,800 86,500 3,500

1996 1,032,676 484,800 118,200 16,800 28,200 60,700 146,100 95,200 19,600 231,700 111,700 45,000 20,200 27,600 27,200 216,900 96,000 3,200

1997 1,075,167 507,800 125,800 17,000 27,500 64,200 152,000 100,500 20,700 236,400 114,900 45,100 19,800 28,900 27,700 222,100 106,200 2,700

778,245 369,100 85,900 14,000 27,300 46,200 113,600 67,600 14,500 181,600 90,500 33,500 18,100 20,200 19,400 168,100 56,300 3,200

Note: Previously published estimates for 1992-96 have been revised based on data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. The offense distributions for yearend 1991 and 1997 are based on survey data. The offense distributions for other years are estimated using forward and backward stock-flow methods. See Explanatory notes for further details on the estimations. All estimates are based on the total number of prisoners in physical custody, including those with sentences of 1 year or less and those who were unsentenced. See definitions for the distinction between custody and jurisdiction counts. Due to rounding, detail may not sum to total. a Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. b Includes extortion, intimidation, criminal endangerment, and other violent offenses. c Includes possession and selling of stolen property, destruction of property, trespassing, vandalism, criminal tampering, and other property offenses. d Includes weapons, drunk driving, escape, court offenses, obstruction, commercialized vice, morals and decency charges, liquor law violations, and other public-order offenses. e Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified felonies.

6 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.14. Percent of prisoners in custody of State correctional authorities, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Percent of inmates in State prison 1992 1993 1994 1995 100% 47.4% 11.0 1.8 3.5 5.9 14.6 8.7 1.9 23.3% 11.6 4.3 2.3 2.6 2.5 21.6% 7.2% 0.4% 100% 47.5% 11.2 1.8 3.3 5.9 14.7 8.7 1.9 22.9% 11.4 4.3 2.3 2.6 2.4 21.4% 7.7% 0.5% 100% 47.1% 11.1 1.7 3.1 5.9 14.6 8.9 1.9 22.9% 11.3 4.4 2.2 2.6 2.5 21.4% 8.2% 0.4% 100% 46.5% 11.2 1.6 2.9 5.8 14.1 9.0 1.9 22.9% 11.0 4.5 2.1 2.7 2.6 21.5% 8.7% 0.3%

Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Murdera Manslaughter Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violentb Property offenses Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other propertyc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Other/unspecifiede
d

1990 100% 45.8% 10.5 1.9 3.6 5.7 14.5 7.8 1.8 25.4% 12.7 5.1 2.1 3.0 2.5 21.7% 6.6% 0.5%

1991 100% 46.6% 10.6 1.8 3.5 5.9 14.8 8.1 1.8 24.8% 12.4 4.9 2.2 2.8 2.5 21.3% 6.8% 0.4%

1996 100% 46.9% 11.5 1.6 2.7 5.9 14.1 9.2 1.9 22.4% 10.8 4.4 2.0 2.7 2.6 21.0% 9.3% 0.3%

1997 100% 47.2% 11.7 1.6 2.6 6.0 14.1 9.4 1.9 22.0% 10.7 4.2 1.8 2.7 2.6 20.7% 9.9% 0.2%

Note: Previously published estimates for 1992-96 have been revised based on data from the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. The offense distributions for yearend 1991 and 1997 are based on survey data. The offense distributions for other years are estimated using forward and backward stock-flow methods. See Explanatory notes for further details on the estimations. All estimates are based on the total number of prisoners in physical custody, including those with sentences of 1 year or less and those who were unsentenced. See definitions between custody and jurisdiction counts. Due to rounding, detail may not sum to total. a Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. b Includes extortion, intimidation, criminal endangerment, and other violent offenses. c Includes possession and selling of stolen property, destruction of property, destruction of property, trespassing, vandalism, criminal tampering, and other property offenses. d Includes weapons, drunk driving, escape, court offenses, obstruction, commercialized vice, morals and decency charges, liquor law violations, and other public-order offenses. e Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified felonies.

Figure 3. New court commitments of State prisoners, by race, 1980-97 Number of new court commitments to State prison 400,000

All races 300,000

200,000 Blacks Whites 100,000

0 1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996 1997

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 7

Table 1.15. Number of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990 and 1995-97
Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Homicideb Assaultc Robbery Other violentd Property offenses Burglary Fraude Larceny/theft/other propertyf Drug offenses Public-order offenses Immigration Weapons Escape/courtg Other public-orderh Otheri Unknown Number of inmates in Federal prisona 1995 1996 1997 88,101 92,672 98,944 11,321 966 2,633 6,341 1,381 7,524 164 5,629 1,731 51,737 15,762 3,612 7,519 367 4,264 0 1,757 11,523 1,084 645 8,334 1,460 7,781 181 5,807 1,793 55,194 17,227 4,476 7,696 325 4,730 0 947 11,658 1,015 670 8,464 1,509 8,151 181 6,148 1,822 58,610 19,197 5,454 8,082 373 5,288 0 1,328

1990 56,989 9,557 1,233 1,964 5,158 1,202 7,935 442 5,113 2,380 30,470 8,585 1,728 3,073 417 3,367 442 0

Note: All data are from the BJS Federal justice database. Data for 1990 and 1995 are for December 31. Data for 1996 and 1997 are for September 30. Numbers may differ from the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ count because the Federal Justice Statistics Program includes prisoners in transit. a Includes prisoners of any sentence length. b Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter. c Beginning in 1996 assaults with intent to commit robbery were coded as robbery. d Includes kidnaping, rape, other sexual assault, threats against the President, and other offenses. e Includes embezzlement, counterfeiting, forgery, bankruptcy, and fraud (excluding tax fraud but including securities fraud). f Includes motor vehicle theft, trespassing, destruction of property, and transport of stolen property. g Includes flight to avoid prosecution, escape, parole and probation violation, and other court offenses. h Includes liquor laws, national security laws, income tax, selective service acts, bribery, gambling, traffic offenses, and other public-order offenses. i Includes offenses not classifiable or not a violation of the United States Code.

Figure 4. New court commitments of Federal prisoners, by race, 1980-97 Number of new court commitments to Federal prison

30,000

All races 20,000

Whites 10,000 Blacks

0 1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996 1997

8 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.16. Percent of sentenced inmates in Federal prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990 and 1995-97
Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Homicidec Assaultd Robbery Other violente Property offenses Burglary Fraudf Larceny/theft/other propertyg Drug offenses Public-order offenses Immigration Weapons Escape/courth Other public-orderi Otherj Percent of inmates in Federal prisona 1990 1995b 1996b 1997b 100% 100% 100% 100% 16.8% 2.2 3.4 9.1 2.1 13.9% 0.8 9.0 4.2 53.5% 15.1% 3.0 5.4 0.7 5.9 0.8% 13.1% 1.1 3.0 7.3 1.6 8.7% 0.2 6.5 2.0 59.9% 18.3% 4.2 8.7 0.4 4.9 0.0% 12.6% 1.2 0.7 9.1 1.6 8.5% 0.2 6.3 2.0 60.2% 18.8% 4.9 8.4 0.4 5.2 0.0% 11.9% 1.0 0.7 8.7 1.5 8.4% 0.2 6.3 1.9 60.0% 19.7% 5.6 8.3 0.4 5.4 0.0%

Note: All data are from the BJS Federal justice database. Data for 1990 and 1995 are for December 31. Data for 1996 and 1997 are for September 30. a Includes prisoners of any sentence length. b Percents are based on prisoners for whom most serious offense was known. c Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter. d Beginning in 1996 assaults with intent to commit robbery were coded as robbery. e Includes kidnaping, rape, other sexual assault, threats against the President, and other offenses. f Includes embezzlement, counterfeiting, forgery, bankruptcy, and fraud (excluding tax fraud but including securities fraud). g Includes motor vehicle theft, trespassing, destruction of property, and transport of stolen property. h Includes flight to avoid prosecution, escape, parole and probation violation, and other court offenses. i Includes liquor laws, national security laws, income tax, selective service acts, bribery, gambling, traffic offenses, and other public-order offenses. j Includes offenses not classifiable or not a violation of the United States Code.

Table 1.17. Trends in State prison admissions and releases, 1990-97
Admissions to State prison Percent of all admissions Conditional Admission New court release ratea commitments violators 72.7% 67.6 65.6 60.9 58.0 55.7 51.2 51.3 70.1% 68.0 69.5 66.9 64.5 64.7 63.7 62.1 29.1% 30.5 29.5 30.8 33.6 33.7 33.7 34.7 Releases from State prison Percent of all releases Mandatory Other Expiration release conditional of sentence 28.8% 29.9 29.5 31.6 35.6 39.0 38.0 39.7 15.5% 14.2 14.1 13.4 12.6 10.1 10.2 10.4 12.7% 10.8 11.4 11.9 12.5 14.5 16.7 16.8

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994c 1995 1996 1997

Number 460,739 466,285 480,676 475,100 498,919 521,970 512,618 538,375

Other 0.8% 1.5 1.0 2.3 1.9 1.6 2.6 3.2

Number 405,374 421,687 430,198 417,838 418,372 455,140 467,193 489,914

Release rateb 37.0% 36.5 35.5 33.3 30.8 31.2 30.9 30.9

Parole board 39.4% 39.7 39.5 38.8 35.0 32.3 30.4 28.2

Other 3.6% 5.3 5.5 4.4 4.3 4.0 4.7 4.9

Note: Releases exclude escapees, AWOL’s and transfers. All data are limited to prisoners with a sentence of more than 1 year. a The number of admissions per 100 State prisoners at the beginning of each year. b The number of releases per 100 State prisoners at the beginning of each year plus the number admitted during the year. c Releases in Alaska, by type, were estimated for 1994.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 9

Table 1.18. New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by gender, 1990-97
New court admissions to prison Total Males Females 341,545 337,478 356,498 341,722 346,097 361,464 353,893 365,085 311,600 306,800 324,900 310,493 314,788 326,403 317,989 327,933 30,000 30,700 31,600 29,209 29,290 35,061 35,904 37,152 New court admissions to State prisons Total Males Females 323,069 317,237 334,301 318,069 322,141 337,492 326,547 334,525 294,877 288,408 304,772 288,883 292,972 304,567 293,151 300,239 28,192 28,829 29,529 27,166 27,150 32,925 33,396 34,286 New court admissions to Federal prisons Total Males Females 18,476 20,241 22,197 23,653 23,956 23,972 27,346 30,560 16,700 18,400 20,100 21,610 21,816 21,836 24,838 27,694 1,800 1,900 2,100 2,043 2,140 2,136 2,508 2,866

Year 1990a 1991a 1992a 1993 1994b 1995 1996 1997

a The total number of Federal admissions for 1990-92 is from the National Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP). The breakdown by gender is calculated by taking the percentage reported for each year and applying that to the total number of admissions. b The number of State admissions for Alaska was estimated.

Table 1.19. Percent of new court commitments to State and Federal prison, by gender, 1990-97
Total number of admissions 341,545 337,478 356,498 341,722 346,097 361,464 353,893 365,085 Percent of State and Federal admissions Males Females 91.2% 90.9 91.1 90.9 91.0 90.3 89.9 89.8 8.8% 9.1 8.9 8.5 8.5 9.7 10.1 10.2 Total number of State admissions 323,069 317,237 334,301 318,069 322,141 337,492 326,547 334,525 Percent of State admissions Males Females 91.3% 90.9 91.2 90.8 90.9 90.2 89.8 89.8 8.7% 9.1 8.8 8.5 8.4 9.8 10.2 10.2 Total number of Federal admissions 18,476 20,241 22,197 23,653 23,956 23,972 27,346 30,560 Percent of Federal admissions Males Females 90.4% 90.9 90.6 91.4 91.1 91.1 90.8 90.6 9.7% 9.4 9.5 8.6 8.9 8.9 9.2 9.4

Year 1990a 1991a 1992 1993 1994b 1995 1996 1997

Table 1.20. New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1990-97
Total number of admissions 341,545 337,478 356,498 341,722 346,097 361,464 353,893 365,085 Estimated number of State and Federal admissions White Black Othera 169,300 163,200 175,700 168,700 172,800 186,700 185,700 193,300 169,500 170,700 177,400 169,500 169,200 170,800 163,800 167,100 2,800 3,600 3,500 3,600 4,100 4,000 4,400 4,700 Total number of State admissions 323,069 317,237 334,301 318,069 322,141 337,492 326,547 334,525 Estimated number of State admissions White Black Othera 157,100 149,900 161,300 153,700 158,000 170,800 168,600 173,500 163,600 164,300 170,100 161,400 160,700 163,500 154,500 157,300 2,400 3,100 2,900 3,000 3,400 3,200 3,400 3,700 Total number of Federal admissionsb 18,476 20,241 22,197 23,653 23,956 23,972 27,346 30,560 Estimated number of Federal admissions Othera White Black 12,200 13,300 14,400 15,000 14,800 15,900 17,100 19,800 5,900 6,400 7,300 8,100 8,500 7,300 9,300 9,800 400 500 600 600 700 800 900 1,000

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997

Note: For Hispanic inmates of unknown racial origin, race was estimated using the racial distribution of Hispanics for whom race was known. All data are based on prisoners with sentences of 1 year or more. Numbers by race are estimated from the NCRP (1990-97) and the Federal Justice Statistics Program (1993-97). a Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives. b Federal admissions data for 1990-93 are from the NCRP and for 1994-97 from the National Prisoners Statistics with detail by race from the Federal Justice Statistics Program.

10 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.21. New court commitments to State and Federal prison, by race, 1990-97
Total number of admissions 341,545 337,478 356,498 341,722 346,097 361,464 353,893 365,085 Percent of State and Federal admissions Total White Black Othera 100% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 48.0% 46.3 45.9 46.4 46.8 51.7 52.5 52.9 51.1% 52.7 53.0 52.5 51.7 47.3 46.3 45.8 0.9% 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.2 1.3 Total number of State admissions 323,069 317,237 334,301 318,069 322,141 337,492 326,547 334,525 Total number of Federal admissionsb 18,476 20,241 22,197 23,653 23,956 23,972 27,346 30,560

Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994c 1995 1996 1997

Percent of State admissions Total White Black Othera 100% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 48.6% 47.2 48.3 48.3 49.1 50.6 51.6 51.9 50.6% 51.8 50.9 50.7 49.9 48.4 47.3 47.0 0.8% 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1

Percent of Federal admissions Total White Black Othera 100% 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 66.0% 31.7% 2.3% 65.9 31.7 2.4 64.7 32.7 2.6 63.3 34.2 2.5 61.7 35.5 2.8 66.5 30.4 3.1 62.6 34.2 3.2 64.6 32.1 3.2

Note: For Hispanic inmates of unknown racial origin, race was estimated using the racial distribution of Hispanics for whom race was known. All data are based on prisoners with sentences of 1 year or more. Numbers by race are estimated from the National Corrections Reporting Program (1990-97) and the Federal Justice Statistics Program (1993-96). a Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives. b Federal admissions data for 1990-93 are from the National Corrections Reporting Program and for 1994-97 from the National Prisoners Statistics with detail by race from the Federal Justice Statistics Program. c The number of State admissions for 1994 was estimated for Alaska.

Table 1.22. Estimated number of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense All offenses Violent offenses Murderb Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultc Robbery Aggravated assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Public-order offenses Other Number of new court commitments to State prisonsa 1992 1993 1994 1995 334,301 95,600 9,700 4,000 19,100 33,100 25,100 4,300 104,300 44,500 27,100 8,400 12,700 12,000 101,600 29,400 3,700 318,069 93,000 9,500 4,000 19,200 31,300 24,500 4,600 97,000 41,000 25,400 7,500 12,200 10,900 95,100 29,500 3,400 322,141 94,400 10,000 3,900 19,700 30,600 25,800 5,200 95,400 39,900 24,800 7,700 12,600 10,300 97,300 32,200 2,900 337,492 97,200 10,000 4,000 19,800 30,400 27,600 5,400 99,400 40,000 26,200 8,000 13,800 11,400 104,100 34,500 2,300

1990 323,069 86,600 8,700 3,900 17,800 29,700 22,600 4,200 104,400 46,800 26,200 8,400 12,600 10,300 102,400 26,000 3,600

1991 317,237 91,700 9,500 4,100 17,800 32,000 24,100 4,400 98,700 42,800 25,400 7,600 12,100 10,800 95,200 28,200 3,500

1996 326,547 96,300 9,200 3,600 19,700 29,700 28,400 5,700 94,800 39,000 24,400 6,800 13,200 11,400 98,700 34,600 2,100

1997 334,525 100,200 9,100 3,500 20,700 30,600 29,800 6,400 94,700 39,200 23,500 6,900 13,400 11,600 102,600 35,700 1,400

Note: All data were estimated. For each year, the proportion of new court commitments in each offense category was multiplied by the total number of new court commitments and rounded to the nearest hundred. (See table 1.23 for percentages.) Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year. b Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. c Includes rape and other sexual assault.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 11

Table 1.23. Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Murderb Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultc Robbery Aggravated assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Public-order offenses Other Percent of new court commitments to State prisonsa 1992 1993 1994 1995 100% 28.6% 2.9 1.2 5.7 9.9 7.5 1.3 31.2% 13.3 8.1 2.5 3.8 3.6 30.4% 8.8% 1.1% 100% 29.2% 3.0 1.3 6.0 9.8 7.7 1.4 30.5% 12.9 8.0 2.4 3.8 3.4 29.9% 9.3% 1.1% 100% 29.3% 3.1 1.2 6.1 9.5 8.0 1.6 29.6% 12.4 7.7 2.4 3.9 3.2 30.2% 10.0% 0.9% 100% 28.8% 2.9 1.2 5.9 9.0 8.2 1.6 29.5% 11.9 7.8 2.4 4.1 3.3 30.8% 10.2% 0.7%

1990 100% 26.8% 2.7 1.2 5.5 9.2 7.0 1.3 32.3% 14.5 8.1 2.6 3.9 3.2 31.7% 8.0% 1.1%

1991 100% 28.9% 3.0 1.3 5.6 10.1 7.6 1.4 31.1% 13.5 8.0 2.4 3.8 3.4 30.0% 8.9% 1.1%

1996 100% 29.5% 2.8 1.1 6.0 9.1 8.7 1.8 29.0% 12.0 7.5 2.1 4.1 3.3 30.2% 10.6% 0.7%

1997 100% 29.9% 2.7 1.0 6.2 9.2 8.9 1.9 28.3% 11.7 7.0 2.0 4.0 3.5 30.7% 10.7% 0.4%

Note: Data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program and are based on the most serious offense as reported by participating States. Data may not sum to total due to rounding. a Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year. b Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. c Includes rape and other sexual assault.

Table 1.24. Estimated number of sentenced prisoners returned to State prisons for a parole revocation, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense All offenses Violent offenses Murderb Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultc Robbery Aggravated assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Public-order offenses Other Number of parole violators returned to State prisonsa 1992 1993 1994 1995 141,961 34,900 2,300 700 4,800 17,700 8,100 1,200 58,600 29,100 15,700 5,200 5,200 3,300 38,400 9,900 300 146,366 36,200 2,200 700 4,600 18,700 8,700 1,200 57,800 28,100 15,700 5,500 4,900 3,400 41,500 10,600 300 168,504 42,000 2,600 900 6,000 20,400 10,500 1,700 64,100 30,500 17,500 6,500 5,300 4,300 49,500 12,500 300 175,726 42,800 2,700 900 6,400 19,800 11,100 2,000 65,100 30,500 17,700 6,800 5,500 4,600 53,900 13,600 400

1990 133,870 33,200 2,300 700 4,000 18,100 7,200 900 61,700 31,300 16,600 5,600 5,500 2,700 30,900 7,800 300

1991 142,100 34,200 2,600 700 5,300 16,800 8,000 1,000 61,700 30,100 16,900 6,000 6,000 2,700 36,900 9,000 300

1996 172,633 43,000 2,400 700 7,200 19,000 11,700 1,900 60,600 26,400 17,300 7,700 4,700 4,500 54,300 14,300 300

1997 186,659 45,700 2,600 700 7,300 19,800 12,900 2,400 64,400 28,400 17,500 7,100 5,600 5,800 59,400 15,500 1,700

Note: Data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program and are based on the most serious offense as reported by participating States. Data may not sum to total due to rounding. a Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year. b Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. c Includes rape and other sexual assault.

12 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.25. Percent of sentenced prisoners returned to State prisons for a parole revocation, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense Total Violent offenses Murderb Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultc Robbery Aggravated assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Public-order offenses Other Percent of parole violators returned to State prisonsa 1992 1993 1994 1995 100% 24.0% 1.6 0.5 4.0 12.2 5.6 0.8 40.3% 20.0 10.8 3.6 3.6 2.3 26.4% 6.8% 2.5% 100% 24.2% 1.5 0.5 3.0 12.5 5.8 0.8 38.6% 18.8 10.5 3.7 3.3 2.3 27.7% 7.1% 2.4% 100% 24.5% 1.5 0.5 4.0 11.9 6.1 1.0 37.4% 17.8 10.2 3.8 3.1 2.5 28.9% 7.3% 1.9% 100% 24.0% 1.5 0.5 3.0 11.1 6.2 1.1 36.5% 17.1 9.9 3.8 3.1 2.6 30.2% 7.6% 1.7%

1990 100% 24.8% 1.7 0.5 3.0 13.5 5.4 0.7 46.1% 23.4 12.4 4.2 4.1 2.0 23.1% 5.8% 0.2%

1991 100% 24.1% 1.8 0.5 4.0 11.8 5.6 0.7 43.4% 21.2 11.9 4.2 4.2 1.9 26.0% 6.3% 0.2%

1996 100% 24.6% 1.4 0.4 4.0 10.9 6.7 1.1 34.7% 15.1 9.9 4.4 2.7 2.6 31.1% 8.2% 1.4%

1997 100% 24.5% 1.4 0.4 3.9 10.6 6.9 1.3 34.5% 15.2 9.4 3.8 3.0 3.1 31.8% 8.3% 0.9%

Note: Data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program and are based on the most serious offense as reported by participating States. Data may not sum to total due to rounding. a Includes only those with sentences of more than 1 year. b Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. c Includes rape and other sexual assault.

Figure 5. Percent of sentenced prisoners admitted to State prisons, by offense type, 1980-97 Percent of new court commitments to State prisons 50% Property 40% Violent 30% Drug 20%

10% Public-order 0% 1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996 1997

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 13

Table 1.26. Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court, by the most serious offense, 1990-97
Most serious offense Totalb Violent offenses Homicidec Sexual assaultd Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraude Otherf Drug offenses Trafficking Possession Public-order offenses Immigration Weapons Escape Regulatory Otherg Number of offenders sentenced to Federal prisona 1992 1993 1994 1995 33,622 2,618 135 271 1,860 282 70 6,557 106 901 251 5,039 260 16,401 15,987 414 8,045 1,741 3,426 475 856 1,547 34,844 2,679 148 227 1,950 272 82 6,980 158 929 321 5,378 194 17,343 16,667 676 7,833 2,099 2,910 438 912 1,474 31,586 2,443 222 215 1,628 284 94 6,466 131 851 308 4,967 209 14,835 14,272 563 7,838 2,243 2,812 448 876 1,459 31,805 2,209 307 242 1,289 281 90 6,709 74 754 264 5,258 359 14,067 13,133 934 8,813 3,169 2,803 485 572 1,784

1990 28,659 2,032 144 226 1,313 282 67 5,885 83 940 200 4,464 198 14,092 13,640 452 6,650 1,876 1,894 545 799 1,536

1991 30,555 2,260 140 254 1,504 283 79 6,033 119 951 170 4,542 251 15,012 14,558 454 7,250 1,742 2,632 470 884 1,522

1996 36,373 2,419 233 326 1,515 220 125 7,161 58 805 94 5,751 453 16,492 15,248 1,244 10,293 4,492 2,773 435 540 2,053

1997 39,431 2,619 233 422 1,691 171 102 7,686 38 850 92 6,282 424 17,964 16,718 1,246 10,813 5,502 2,662 410 603 1,636

Note: Data are from the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Data for 1990-94 are based on persons sentenced during each calendar year. Data for 1995-97 are based on the fiscal year ending September 30. a Includes all offenders sentenced to incarceration. Excludes offenders with suspended sentenced to time already served, and those convicted of petty offenses. b Total may include offenders for whom the offense category could not be determined. c Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter. d Includes rape and other sex offenses. e Includes forgery, fraud, embezzlement, and counterfeiting. f Includes arson, transportation of stolen property, and other property offenses. g Includes bribery, perjury, national defense, tax law violations (excluding tax fraud), racketeering extortion, gambling, liquor offenses, mail or transport of obscene materials, and other public-order offenses.

14 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.27. Percent of offenders sentenced to Federal prison in U.S. district court, by the most serious offenses, 1990-97
Most serious offense Totalb Violent offenses Homicidec Sexual assaultd Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraude Otherf Drug offenses Trafficking Possession Public-order offenses Immigration Weapons Escape Regulatory Otherg Percent of offenders sentenced to Federal prisona 1992 1993 1994 1995 100% 7.8% 0.4 0.8 5.5 0.8 0.2 19.5% 0.3 2.7 0.7 15.0 0.8 48.8% 47.5 1.2 23.9% 5.2 10.2 1.4 2.5 4.6 100% 7.7% 0.4 0.7 5.6 0.8 0.2 20.0% 0.5 2.7 0.9 15.4 0.6 49.8% 47.8 1.9 22.5% 6.0 8.4 1.3 2.6 4.2 100% 7.7% 0.7 0.7 5.2 0.9 0.3 20.5% 0.4 2.7 1.0 15.7 0.7 47.0% 45.2 1.8 24.8% 7.1 8.9 1.4 2.8 4.6 100% 6.9% 1.0 0.8 4.1 0.9 0.3 21.1% 0.2 2.4 0.8 16.5 1.1 44.2% 41.3 2.9 27.7% 10.0 8.8 1.5 1.8 5.6

1990 100% 7.1% 0.5 0.8 4.6 1.0 0.2 20.5% 0.3 3.3 0.7 15.6 0.7 49.2% 47.6 1.6 23.2% 6.5 6.6 1.9 2.8 5.4

1991 100% 7.4% 0.5 0.8 4.9 0.9 0.3 19.7% 0.4 3.1 0.6 14.9 0.8 49.1% 47.6 1.5 23.7% 5.7 8.6 1.5 2.9 5.0

1996 100% 6.7% 0.6 0.9 4.2 0.6 0.3 19.7% 0.2 2.2 0.3 15.8 1.2 45.3% 41.9 3.4 28.3% 12.3 7.6 1.2 1.5 5.6

1997 100% 6.7% 0.6 1.1 4.3 0.4 0.3 19.7% 0.1 2.2 0.2 16.1 1.1 46.0% 42.8 3.2 27.7% 14.1 6.8 1.0 1.5 4.2

Note: Data are from the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Data for 1990-94 are based on persons sentenced during each calendar year. Data for 1995-97 are based on the fiscal year ending September 30. a Includes all offenders sentenced to incarceration. Excludes offenders with suspended sentenced those sentenced to time already served, and those convicted of petty offenses. b Percents exclude offenders for whom the offense category could not be determined. c Includes murder, nonnegligent manslaughter, and negligent manslaughter. d Includes rape and other sex offenses. e Includes forgery, fraud, embezzlement, and counterfeiting. f Includes arson, transportation of stolen property, and other property offenses. g Includes bribery, perjury, national defense, tax law violations (excluding tax fraud), racketeering, extortion, gambling, liquor offenses, traffic offenses, mail or transport of obscene materials, and other public-order offenses.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 15

Table 1.28. Number of persons held in State or Federal prison and local jails per 100,000 residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997
Number of persons in prison and jail per 100,000 residents in each groupa Male Female All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 1,207 1,880 3,023 3,036 2,846 2,315 1,663 892 187 595 875 1,408 1,370 1,465 1,194 865 513 125 4,470 5,860 10,219 11,658 10,278 9,138 6,257 3,511 599 1,773 2,570 3,928 3,760 3,501 2,847 2,769 1,565 465 97 88 190 265 318 231 134 60 7 48 59 110 130 155 113 67 31 5 349 215 491 868 1,196 865 495 213 26 139 95 280 343 347 304 201 135 11

Age Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older

Total 642 1,011 1,645 1,659 1,587 1,275 894 468 86

Midyear population estimates in 1,000’s for the calculation of total incarceration rates, 1997 Adjusted male U.S. resident count All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 133,416 95,980 15,996 15,741 3,951 9,322 9,824 10,604 11,478 10,730 16,516 24,266 2,608 6,088 6,571 7,320 8,341 8,045 12,969 20,143 572 1,261 1,231 1,307 1,340 1,197 1,583 1,975 593 1,495 1,493 1,496 1,322 1,052 1,328 1,434 Adjusted female U.S. resident count Blackb Hispanic All Whiteb 138,269 99,854 17,655 14,787 3,724 2,474 8,828 5,822 9,698 6,553 10,520 7,275 11,431 8,250 10,846 8,019 17,162 13,203 31,133 25,626 577 1,324 1,379 1,436 1,486 1,351 1,896 2,835 507 1,241 1,235 1,284 1,178 986 1,343 1,791

Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older

Total 271,686 7,675 18,150 19,522 21,125 22,908 21,526 33,679 55,399

Estimated total custody population in prison and jail, 1997 Male inmates Total All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 1,744,022 1,610,489 571,182 715,051 279,018 77,566 298,559 323,904 335,332 292,072 192,959 157,690 47,704 74,289 22,818 33,495 281,825 85,699 128,854 298,243 90,017 143,498 301,844 107,253 134,371 265,695 99,612 122,413 178,431 69,563 74,869 147,409 66,519 55,602 45,465 25,170 11,840 15,251 58,735 56,147 52,390 37,649 29,132 20,783 6,668 Female inmates All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 133,533 47,863 61,697 20,531 3,277 1,466 16,734 6,385 25,661 8,523 33,487 11,262 26,377 9,319 14,528 5,393 10,281 4,107 2,239 1,288 1,241 6,497 11,967 17,174 12,859 6,684 4,044 724 479 3,468 4,234 4,459 3,578 1,985 1,808 192

Total 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older
a

b

Based on estimates of the U.S. resident population on July 1 and adjusted for the 1990 census undercount. Excludes Hispanics.

16 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 1.29. Number of adults on probation, in jail, in prison, or on parole per 100,000 adult residents, by gender, race, Hispanic origin, and age, 1997

Age Totalc 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older

Total 2,850 3,180 6,114 5,519 5,009 4,005 2,703 1,491 314

Number of adults under correctional supervision per 1000,000 residents in each groupa Male Female All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 4,970 5,567 10,436 9,277 8,147 6,522 4,449 2,533 656 3,141 3,861 7,150 6,191 5,327 4,439 2,937 1,699 467 16,423 13,487 27,828 27,443 24,468 19,840 14,320 8,496 2,180 6,726 5,562 10,475 9,744 8,770 6,921 5,405 3,800 1,144 867 647 1,550 1,712 1,846 1,476 975 490 47 648 506 1,179 1,428 1,468 1,168 804 362 40 2,279 881 3,126 3,949 4,540 3,631 2,173 1,411 114 1,054 1,274 1,828 1,177 1,549 1,407 1,045 638 60

Midyear population estimates in 1,000’s for the calculation of total incarceration rates, 1997 Adjusted male resident count, All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 133,416 95,980 15,996 15,741 36,726 3,951 9,322 9,824 10,604 11,478 10,730 16,516 24,266 23,896 2,608 6,088 6,571 7,320 8,341 8,045 12,969 20,143 5,531 572 1,261 1,231 1,307 1,340 1,197 1,583 1,975 5,526 593 1,495 1,493 1,496 1,322 1,052 1,328 1,434 Adjusted female resident count, 1997 Blackb Hispanic All Whiteb 138,269 99,854 17,655 14,787 34,927 3,724 8,828 9,698 10,520 11,431 10,846 17,162 31,133 22,632 2,474 5,822 6,553 7,275 8,250 8,019 13,203 25,626 5,370 577 1,324 1,379 1,436 1,486 1,351 1,896 2,835 5,220 507 1,241 1,235 1,284 1,178 986 1,343 1,791

Total <18 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older

271,686 71,653 7,675 18,150 19,522 21,125 22,908 21,576 33,679 55,399

Total under correctional supervision, 1997 Adult males Total All Whiteb Blackb Hispanic 5,701,600 4,805,800 2,263,888 1,718,655 687,070 244,100 1,109,700 1,077,400 1,058,200 917,400 583,100 502,300 173,800 220,000 972,800 911,400 864,000 748,600 477,300 418,300 159,100 100,700 435,300 406,800 389,900 370,300 236,300 220,400 94,100 77,100 33,000 350,900 156,600 337,800 145,500 319,900 131,200 265,800 91,500 171,300 56,900 134,500 50,500 43,100 16,400 Adult females Whiteb Blackb 500,514 279,945 12,500 68,600 93,600 106,800 96,300 64,500 47,700 10,300 5,100 41,400 54,500 65,200 54,000 29,400 26,700 3,200

Totalc 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55 or older
a

All 895,800 24,100 136,800 166,000 194,200 168,800 105,800 84,000 14,700

Hispanic 100,827 6,500 22,700 14,500 19,900 16,600 10,300 8,600 1,100

Note: Populations are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Based on estimates of the U.S. resident population on July 1 and adjusted for the 1990 census undercount. b Excludes Hispanics. c Includes persons under age 18 under adult correctional supervision.

Trends in U.S. correctional populations 17

Jail inmates in 1997
Tables By Darrell Gilliard, BJS Statistician 2.1 Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status and type of program, midyear 1995-97

20

2.2

One-day count and average daily population of jail inmates, midyear 1990-97 20 Gender, race, and Hispanic origin of jail inmates, midyear 1990-97 20 Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, midyear 1985-97 21 Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, midyear 1985-97 21 Conviction status of adult jail inmates, by gender, midyear 1990-97 Jail capacity and occupancy, midyear 1990-93 and 1995-97

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

22

2.7

22

2.8

The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population, and rated capacity, midyear 1995-97 23 Standard error estimates for the Annual Survey of Jails, 1997 23

2.9

2.10 Standard error estimates for the number of inmates and rated capacity for the Annual Survey of Jails, midyear 1990-97 23 Figure 6. Number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, 1985-97 21 24

Methodology Questionnaire 1997 Annual Survey of Jails

25

Jail inmates in 1997 19

Explanatory notes

Offense distributions are estimated
The offense distributions of State prisoners at yearend were estimated for 1990-97 by combining data from the 1991 and 1997 State prison inmate surveys, counts by offense of annual admissions and releases in the National Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP, 1990-97), and NPS data for 1990-97. The following procedures were used: 1. The total number of sentenced prisoners under State jurisdiction in 1990 by offense was estimated using the forward and backward stock-flow procedures, as outlined in Correctional Populations in the United States, 1995 (NCJ 163916). 2. The offense distribution for 1991 was obtained from the 1991 State prison inmate survey and then multiplied by the total number of sentenced inmates under State jurisdiction (from NPS-1) to obtain estimates by offense at yearend. 3. The offense distributions for 1992-96 were derived from the NCRP. In each year forward estimates of the number of inmates by offense were calculated by adding all admissions and subtracting all releases from the base population of the previous year. The estimated end-of-year distribution was then used as the base for the next year. This procedure was repeated for each year through 1996. Backward estimates were obtained annually by adding releases and subtracting admissions from the yearend base populations. This procedure was repeated for each year until the 1991 survey year was reached. 4. Final estimates were obtained by calculating a weighted sum of the forward and backward estimates. The forward and backward estimates were weighted inversely to the elapsed number of years (up to 6 years) from the base population and then summed.

5. Because the 1991 and 1997 survey estimates were based on custody counts, the final estimates (which were based on the sentenced jurisdictional counts) were then converted to custody counts. To estimate the number of inmates by offense, the total number of inmates in physical custody was multiplied by the proportion of inmates in each offense category.

unknown race. The racial distribution of these inmates was then calculated using the racial self-identification in the 1991 and 1997 prisoner surveys (and interpolated for other years). The race of the remaining inmates (with an unknown race) was then based on the combined distribution of inmates for whom race was known. 4. The racial distributions of new court commitments to State prison for 1990-97 were obtained from NCRP. For Hispanic inmates of unknown racial origin, race was estimated using the racial distribution of Hispanics for whom race was known. By combining these estimates with the known totals from NCRP, the distributions were recalculated and then multiplied by the total number of new court commitments with sentences of more than 1 year (from NPS-1) to obtain estimates by race. Technical note To estimate the total correctional populations, the four correctional populations were assumed to contain individuals with only one status at a time. This assumption may not be valid. Multiple correctional statuses may occur because 

Racial distributions of offenders are estimated
The following procedures were used to estimate counts by race: 1. For the probation and parole populations in 1995-97, estimates were obtained by summing the number of Hispanic probationers and parolees in States that reported Hispanics as having an unknown race. The race of these Hispanic offenders was then calculated, using racial self-identifications reported in BJS surveys. For probationers, the racial identification of Hispanics in the 1995 Survey of Adults on Probation was used; for parolees, the race of Hispanic inmates in the 1997 State prison inmate survey. An estimate of the counts by race were then obtained by multiplying the total number of Hispanics with unknown race by the proportions from each survey. The racial distribution of the remaining probationers and parolees (with an unknown race) was then calculated using the combined distributions for whom data on race were reported. 2. The racial distributions of jail inmates in 1995-97 were estimated by combining estimates from the Annual Survey of Jails (ASJ) in each year and the 1996 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails (SILJ). Estimated proportions from SILJ by race and sex were multiplied by the national estimates by sex from the ASJ. 3. Estimates of State inmates at yearend for 1990-97 were obtained by first summing the numbers of Hispanic inmates among States that reported Hispanics as having an 

probation and parole agencies are
not always notified of new arrests, jail entries, or prison admissions; 

absconders on agency caseloads
in one jurisdiction may actually be incarcerated in another jurisdiction; 

individuals may be admitted to jail or
prison before formal revocation hearings by a probation or parole agency. By adding the number of persons on probation, on parole, in jail, and in prison, we may count some persons more than once; consequently, the sum will be an overestimate of the total number of persons under correctional supervision at any one time. The magnitude of the overestimation is not known; however, past estimates have suggested the double counting may total about 4%. (See Correctional Populations In the United States, 1995.)

18 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 2.1. Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status and type of program, midyear 1995-97
Number of persons under jail supervision 1995 1996 1997 Total Held in jail Supervised outside a jail facilitya Electronic monitoring Home detentionb Day reporting Community service Weekender program Other pretrial supervision Other work programsc Treatment programsd Other 541,913 591,469 507,044 518,492 637,319 567,079

34,869 6,788 1,376 1,283 10,253 1,909 3,229 9,144 -887

72,977 7,480 907 3,298 17,410 16,336 2,135 14,469 10,425 517

70,239 8,699 1,164 2,768 15,918 17,656 7,368 6,631 6,693 3,342

--Not available. a Excludes persons supervised by a probation or parole agency. b Includes only those without electronic monitoring. c Includes persons in work release programs, work gangs/crews, and other work alternative programs administered by the jail jurisdiction. d Includes persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other medical treatment.

Table 2.2. One-day count and average daily population of jail inmates, midyear 1990-97
Number of jail inmates Census Annual Survey of Jails of Jails, 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 466,155 479,757 509,828 515,432 556,586 459,804 455,500 411,500 44,100 4,300 3,300 1,000 486,474 479,800 431,300 48,500 6,700 5,100 1,600 507,044 499,300 448,000 51,300 7,800 5,900 1,800 518,492 510,400 454,700 55,700 8,100 5,700 2,400 567,079 557,974 498,678 59,296 9,105 7,007 2,098

Average daily populationa One-day countb Adults Male Female Juvenilesc Held as adultsd Held as juveniles

Annual Survey of Jails 1990 1991 1992 408,075 422,609 441,889 405,320 403,019 365,821 37,198 2,301 -2,301 426,479 424,129 384,628 39,501 2,350 -2,350 444,584 441,780 401,106 40,674 2,804 -2,804

Note: Data are for June 30 in 1992-95 and 1997; for June 29, 1990; and for June 28, 1991 and 1996. Detailed data for 1993-96 were estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Previously published numbers for 1994-95 have been revised to include only inmates physically held in jail facilities. --Not available. a Inmate counts for 1990-93 include an unknown number of persons who were under jail supervision but not confined. b The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in a jail each day for a year, divided by 365. c Juveniles are persons defined by State statute as being under a certain age, usually 18, and subject initially to juvenile court authority even if tried as adults in criminal court. In 1994 the definition was changed to include all persons under age 18. d Includes juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

Table 2.3. Gender, race, and Hispanic origin of jail inmates, midyear 1990-97
Characteristic Total Gender Male Female 1990 1991 Number of jail inmates 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1990 100% 1991 Percent of jail inmates 1992 1993 1994 100% 1995 1996 1997

405,320 426,479 444,584 459,804 486,474 507,044 518,492 567,079

100% 100%

100% 100%

100% 100%

368,002 386,865 403,768 415,600 437,600 455,400 462,500 507,200 37,318 39,614 40,816 44,200 48,800 51,600 55,800 59,900

90.8% 90.7% 90.8% 90.4% 90.0% 89.8% 89.2% 89.4% 9.2 9.3 9.2 9.6 10.0 10.2 10.8 10.6

Race and Hispanic origina White non-Hispanic 169,600 175,100 178,200 180,900 190,100 203,300 215,900 230,300 Black non-Hispanic 172,300 185,300 195,900 203,500 213,400 220,600 213,100 237,900 Hispanic 58,100 60,700 64,500 69,200 74,900 74,400 80,900 88,900 Otherb 5,400 5,400 6,000 6,200 8,100 8,800 8,600 10,000 Note: Data on race and Hispanic origin were reported for 89.7% of inmates in 1990, 91.1% in 1991, 97.6% in 1992, 85.1% in 1993, 95.8% in 1994, 97.1% in 1995, 99.3% in 1996, and 99.1% in 1997. Data for 1990-93 may include persons supervised outside of jail facilities. Data for 1994-95 were estimated for only those persons held in custody.

41.8% 41.1% 40.1% 39.3% 39.1% 40.1% 41.6% 40.6% 42.5 43.4 44.1 44.2 43.9 43.5 41.1 42.0 14.3 14.2 14.5 15.1 15.4 14.7 15.6 15.7 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Detailed data for race were rounded to the nearest 100. b Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

20 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 2.4. Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, midyear 1985-97
All jail inmatesa 567,079 518,492 507,044 486,474 459,804 444,584 426,479 405,320 395,553 343,569 295,873 274,444 256,615 Inmates per 100,000 residents 212 196 193 187 178 174 169 163 160 141 122 114 108 Adult jail inmates 557,974 510,400 499,300 479,800 455,500 441,781 424,129 403,019 393,303 341,893 294,092 272,736 254,986 Adult inmates per 100,000 adult 282 260 257 249 239 234 277 218 214 189 164 154 145

Table 2.5. Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, midyear 1985-97
Number of jail inmates Per 100,000 white U.S. residents Black 138 130 122 117 111 109 109 106 106 96 86 79 73 246,200 220,600 232,000 224,900 214,100 195,200 188,300 174,300 171,300 142,000 115,000 108,600 105,200 Per black U.S. residents 725 658 700 688 665 619 604 569 568 478 392 375 368

Year 1997 1996b 1995b 1994b 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985

Year 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985

White 306,500 285,200 266,200 253,500 239,500 233,000 229,900 221,400 220,700 197,700 176,700 160,000 147,600

Note: Inmate counts for 1985-87 and 1994-97 are survey estimates subject to sampling error. For estimates of the sampling error for each year, see table 2.10. a Inmate counts for 1985-93 may include an unknown number of persons who were under jail supervision but not confined. b The number of adult inmates was estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. See Methodology.

Note: Categories for black and white inmates include Hispanics. Inmate counts for 1985-87, 1989-92, and 1994-97 are survey estimates subject to sampling error. Data are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100.

Figure 6. Number of jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, 1985-97

Number of inmates in local jails per 100,000 U.S. residents in each group 800 Blacks 600

400

200

Whites

0 1985

1990

1995

1997

Jail inmates in 1997 21

Table 2.6. Conviction status of adult jail inmates, by gender, midyear 1990-93 and 1995-97
1990 Total Convicted Male Female Unconvicted Male Female 403,019 195,661 177,619 18,042 207,358 188,202 19,156 1991 424,129 206,458 185,947 20,511 217,671 198,681 18,990 Percent of jail inmates 1992 1993* 1995* 441,780 217,940 196,656 21,284 223,840 204,450 19,390 455,500 226,600 203,900 22,700 228,900 207,600 21,300 499,300 219,600 198,400 21,200 279,600 250,000 29,600 1996* 582,300 284,200 252,800 31,400 298,100 266,000 32,100 1997* 558,000 235,200 210,600 24,700 322,700 288,200 34,600

Note: The number of convicted inmates may be undercounted because some jail records do not distinguish between inmates who are unconvicted and those who are convicted but waiting to be sentenced. Data for 1994 are not available. *Data on conviction status by gender were reported for 88.9% of all adult inmates in 1993, 96.3% in 1995, 98.5% in 1996, and 99.6% in 1997. Totals were estimated using known data and rounded to the nearest 100. Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

Table 2.7. Jail capacity and occupancy, midyear 1990-97
Census Annual Survey of Jails Annual Survey of Jails of Jails 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 405,320 426,479 444,584 459,804 486,474 507,044 518,492 389,171 421,237 449,197 475,224 504,324 545,763 562,020

Number of inmates helda Rated capacity of jailsb Percent of rated capacity occupiedc Amount of capacity addedd

1997 567,079 581,733

104% 21,402

101% 32,066

99% 27,960

97% 26,027

96% 29,100

93% 41,439

92% 16,257

97% 19,713

Note: Data for 1-day counts are for June 30, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, and 1997; June 29 in 1990; and June 28 in 1991 and 1996. a Population counts for 1990-93 could include persons supervised outside of jail facilities. Population counts for 1994 through 1996 are for custody only. b Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned to facilities within each jurisdiction. c Percent of rated capacity occupied is based on the 1-day count of inmates. This count for 1990-93 may include some inmates not in physical custody but under the jurisdiction of a local jail, such as inmates on electronic monitoring, under house arrest, or in day reporting or other community service supervision programs. d The amount of bedspace added during the 12 months before the survey or census in each year.

22 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 2.8. The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population, and rated capacity, midyear 1995-97
Jurisdiction Los Angeles County, CA New York City, NY Cook County, IL Harris County, TX Dade County, FL Dallas County, TX Maricopa County, AZ Orleans Parish, LA Philadelphia City, PA San Diego County, CA Shelby County, TN Orange County, CA San Bernardino County, CA Santa Clara County, CA Broward County, FL Alameda County, CA Baltimore City, MD Bexar County, TX Fulton County, GA Sacramento County, CA Orange County, FL Tarrant County, TX Hillsborough County, FL Milwaukee County, WI Wayne County, MI Number of inmates helda 1995 1996 1997 18,236 18,627 21,962 18,143 19,890 17,528 8,626 8,713 9,189 8,825 7,703 8,224 6,653 6,357 7,320 5,721 5,717 5,558 5,076 6,006 5,247 5,157 4,025 4,174 3,573 3,838 3,777 3,099 2,546 3,125 3,405 3,865 2,536 2,491 2,598 6,380 5,679 5,368 5,695 5,549 5,264 5,326 3,958 4,213 3,528 3,994 3,309 3,058 2,489 3,093 3,120 2,881 2,661 2,653 2,711 6,439 6,732 6,537 5,563 5,709 5,568 5,368 4,156 4,588 4,125 4,098 3,598 3,683 3,982 3,505 3,411 3,366 3,155 2,876 2,708 Average daily populationb 1995 1996 1997 19,896 18,167 19,931 18,200 18,382 19,205 10,837 9,169 9,100 8,962 7,140 8,153 6,728 6,499 7,157 7,151 5,503 5,549 4,968 5,820 5,091 5,074 4,100 4,161 3,546 3,903 3,380 3,569 2,353 3,094 3,441 4,468 2,384 2,501 2,600 5,862 5,542 5,433 5,341 5,522 5,153 5,143 4,119 4,314 3,470 3,954 3,300 2,821 2,489 3,093 3,120 2,881 2,661 2,653 2,711 6,528 6,520 6,270 5,600 5,588 5,297 5,246 4,500 4,317 4,129 4,109 3,636 3,491 3,401 3,329 3,321 3,291 2,973 2,757 2,750 Rated capacityc 1995 1996 1997 20,049 20,099 19,033 20,862 9,317 9,617 8,698 8,698 6,604 6,387 8,629 4,910 7,174 3,750 5,670 5,512 3,821 4,930 3,774 3,656 4,063 2,933 3,640 2,353 2,749 3,329 4,369 2,649 2,274 2,628 8,374 6,252 7,174 5,600 4,653 6,364 3,821 4,957 3,774 3,656 4,264 2,933 3,640 2,320 2,749 3,329 4,193 2,757 2,274 2,658 21,416 17,643 9,376 8,657 7,519 8,182 6,252 7,174 5,600 5,539 6,532 3,821 5,000 3,774 3,736 4,218 2,933 3,670 2,987 2,749 3,234 4,193 2,877 2,274 2,850 Percent of capacity occupied at midyeard 1995 1996 1997 91 95 93 101 101 66 116 77 135 106 95 135 82 111 98 94 129 85 108 114 102 88 96 110 99 93 95 91 89 100 76 91 75 102 119 83 139 80 112 96 94 113 84 107 113 94 69 97 117 102 103 99 98 95 97 79 108 91 99 103 85 140 83 122 110 97 123 100 133 128 105 80 110 126 95

Note: Jurisdictions are ordered by their average daily population in 1997. a Number of inmates held in jail facilities. b Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30. The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail each day for a year, divided by the number of days in the year. c Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction. d The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity multiplied by 100.

Table 2.9. Standard error estimates for the Annual Survey of Jails, 1997
Characteristic Total number under supervision Held in jail Supervised outside a jail facility Average daily population Rated capacity Gender Male Female Adults Juveniles Held as adults Held as juveniles Race/Hispanic origina White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Otherb Adult conviction status Awaiting trial or in other unconvicted category Convicted
a b

Table 2.10. Standard error estimates for the number of inmates and rated capacity for the Annual Survey of Jails, midyear 1990-97
Number of inmates Relative standard Estimated error standard (percent)b Number a error 567,079 518,492 507,044 486,474 444,584 426,479 405,320 3,649 3,065 2,931 2,485 2,076 2,151 1,778 0.64 % 0.59 % 0.58 0.51 0.47 % 0.50 0.44 Rated capacity of jail Relative standard Estimated error standard (percent)b Numbera error 581,733 562,020 545,763 504,324 449,197 421,237 389,171 4,428 3,932 3,788 3,221 2,693 2,522 2,249 0.76 % 0.70 % 0.69 0.64 0.60 % 0.60 0.58

Estimate 637,319 567,079 70,239 556,586 581,733

Standard Relative error standard error 5,508 3,649 3,637 3,532 4,428 0.86 % 0.64 5.18 0.64 % 0.76 % 1992 1991 1990
a

Year 1997 1996 1995 1994

507,195 59,884 557,974 9,105 7,007 2,098

3,324 506 3,626 245 193 133

0.66 % 0.85 0.65 % 2.69 % 2.75 6.34

b

Data for 1985-93 may include persons held outside of jail facilities. Data for 1994-97 are for custody only. Relative standard error is the estimated standard error divided by the estimated number of inmates or rated capacity.

228,143 235,741 88,078 9,874

2,573 2,350 1,437 357

1.13 % 1.00 1.63 3.62

321,484 234,316

2,784 2,392

0.87 % 1.02

Excludes persons of unknown race and Hispanic origin. Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

Jail inmates in 1997 23

Methodology

Sampling error
Survey estimates have an associated sampling error because jurisdictions with smaller average daily populations were sampled for the survey. Estimates based on the sample survey may differ somewhat from the results of conducting a complete census. Different samples could yield somewhat different results. Standard error is a measure of the variation among the estimates from all possible samples, stating the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average of all possible samples. The estimated relative sampling error for the total inmate population of 567,079 on June 30, 1997, was 0.64%. (See tables 2.9 and 2.10.)

Juveniles
State statutes and judicial practices allow juveniles to be incarcerated in adult jails under a variety of circumstances. Because of the differing statutes and practices, however, accurate and comparable data on juveniles are difficult to collect. Beginning in 1994 the Annual Jail Survey provided estimates of the total number of jail inmates under age 18, the number held as adults, and the number held as juveniles. New sampling procedures were also introduced in 1994 to minimize the standard errors of these estimates. By stratifying jurisdictions based on the authority to house juveniles, the precision of the juvenile counts was improved.

Annual Survey of Jails
In each year between the full censuses, a survey of jails is conducted to estimate baseline characteristics of the Nation's jails and the inmates housed in these jails. The 1996 Annual Survey of Jails is the 13th such survey in a series begun in 1982. The reference date for the 1997 survey was June 30, 1997. Using information from the 1993 Census of Jails, a new sample of jail jurisdictions was selected in 1994. A jurisdiction is an administrative unit, such as a county (parish in Louisiana) or municipal government that administers one or more local jails. The sample included all jails in 795 selected jail jurisdictions and 25 multijurisdiction jails. A multijurisdiction jail is one in which two or more jurisdictions have a formal agreement to operate the facility. In the drawing of the sample in 1994, jail jurisdictions were first stratified into two groups: single-jurisdiction jails and multijurisdiction jails. All of the multijurisdiction jails were included in the survey. The remaining jurisdictions were then further stratified into two groups: jurisdictions with jails authorized to hold juveniles and jurisdictions with jails holding adults only. Jurisdictions were then selected based on the average daily population in the 1993 census. All jails in 204 jurisdictions were automatically included if the jurisdiction held juveniles and had an average daily population of 250 or more inmates in 1993 or if it held only adults and had an average population of 500 or more. The other jurisdictions (591) were then selected based on stratified probability sampling. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires. After follow-up phone calls to nonrespondents, the response rate for the survey was 100%. National estimates for the inmate population on June 30, 1997, were produced by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and age group and for the average daily population during the year ending June 30, 1997. National estimates were also produced for rated capacity.

Measures of population
Two measures of inmate population are used: the average daily population for the year ending June 30 and the inmate count on June 30 of each year. The average daily population balances out any extraordinary events that may render atypical the inmate count on June 30. The June 30 count provides data on characteristics of inmates, such as race, Hispanic origin, and age, that may not be available on an annual basis. For the first time in 1995 the Annual Survey of Jails obtained separate counts of the total number of offenders under jail jurisdiction, those held in jail facilities, and those supervised outside of jail facilities. Previous surveys and censuses included a small but unknown number of offenders under community supervision.

24 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

The Survey of Jails (CJ-5) questionnaire for Jail inmates in 1997 is not available electronically

Probation in 1997
Tables By Thomas P. Bonczar, BJS Statistician Assisted by Lauren E. Glaze, BJS Statistician Adults on probation, 1997 3.1 Characteristics 3.2 Counts, January 1 and December 31 3.3 Status of probation 3.4 Status of supervision 3.5 Adults entering probation, by type of sentence 3.6 Adults leaving probation, by type of exit 3.7 Gender and Hispanic origin 3.8 Race 3.9 Type of offense 3.10 Intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and bootcamp 3.11 States with the largest probation populations and growth Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Questionnaire 1997 Probation Data Survey 28

29 30 31

32

33 34 35 36

37

38

39

43

Probation in 1997 27

Table 3.1. Characteristics of adults on probation, 1997
Number of adults on probation from State or Federal courts 3,266,837 1,831,690 427,631 116,146 1,000,805 163,759 123,349 3,062,894 2,411,938 241,177 299,920 59,573 50,286 963,280 741,931 161,013 60,336 1,161,223 722,747 217,455 60,238 157,217 136,952 6,911 77,158 2,560,046 2,023,069 536,977 2,258,217 1,448,241 777,974 21,257 10,745 1,900,912 305,326 1,595,586 2,752,775 1,483,754 790,358 382,970 95,693

Characteristic Total number of adults on probation Status of probation Execution of sentence suspended Imposition of sentence suspended Direct imposition of probation Split sentence (incarceration with probation) Other Status of supervision Active supervision Inactive supervision Absconded from supervision Supervised out of State Other Adults entering probation Probation without incarceration Probation with incarceration Probation of other types Adults leaving probation Successful completions Returned to incarceration With new sentence With the same sentence Other unsuccessful Death Other Gender of adults on probation Male Female Race of adults on probation White Black American Indian/Alaska Native Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic origin of adults on probation Hispanic Non-Hispanic Type of offense of adults on probation Felony Misdemeanor Driving while intoxicated Other infractions

Percent of those persons with a known status 100% 100% 23 6 55 9 7 100% 79 8 10 2 2 100% 77 17 6 100% 62 19 5 14 12 1 7 100% 79 21 100% 64 34 1 -100% 16 84 100% 54 29 14 3

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions. For every characteristic there were persons of unknown status or type; their numbers are in the detailed tables. Jurisdictions failed to report data for 44% of “status of probation,” 6% of “status of supervision,” 44% of “adults entering probation,” 29% of “adults leaving probation,” 22% of “gender of adults on probation,” 30% of “race of adults on probation,” 42% of “Hispanic origin of adults on probation,” and 16% of “type of offense of adults on probation.” --Less than 0.5%.

28 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 3.2. Adults on probation, 1997
Percent change in probation population during 1997 3.2% -2.1% 3.3 3.8% 0.0 10.7 3.5 10.5 3.7 6.6 1.8 -3.9 9.0 3.5% 3.4 3.8 9.4 3.0 4.5 0.6 9.3 1.1 2.2 1.6 -2.3 5.0 1.6% -5.7 4.8 8.1 10.9 1.2 3.5 3.5 0.2 5.8 6.0 2.9 2.3 0.0 3.4 -0.1 1.3 8.5 6.1% 9.5 10.4 6.3 6.5 9.8 8.7 4.6 11.7 -0.1 4.0 1.7 5.0 0.7 Number on probation on 12/31/97 per 100,000 adult residents 1,649 17 1,632 1,470 2,260 909 995 556 2,153 1,369 1,229 2,607 1,833 1,588 1,370 2,222 791 850 2,122 2,641 1,159 1,198 559 1,416 641 1,422 1,850 1,100 1,419 3,225 2,560 2,146 2,699 410 1,122 1,950 556 1,899 1,178 1,512 946 3,095 589 438 1,473 1,040 1,368 1,306 1,580 1,742 741 720 884 723 1,808 690 3,177 993

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala,b State Northeast Connecticut Mainea Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisb Indiana Iowab Kansasb,c,d Michigana,b,e Minnesotaa Missourie,f Nebraska North Dakota Ohioa,b,e South Dakotaa,g Wisconsin South Alabamaa,b,e Arkansas Delawarea,b,f District of Columbia Floridaa,b,e Georgiae Kentuckyh Louisiana Maryland Mississippia,b,c,d North Carolina Oklahomaa,b,e South Carolina Tennesseeb,e Texasb,i Virginiaf West Virginiaa,f West Alaska Arizonae,f California Coloradoa,b,e Hawaii Idahoj Montanab,k Nevadaa New Mexicoe Oregon Utah Washingtona,b,e Wyoming
a

Probation population 1/1/97 3,164,996 34,247 3,130,749 551,727 55,978 7,753 44,858 4,414 125,881 174,406 110,532 20,446 7,459 708,886 115,503 93,509 15,386 15,732 147,598 90,202 42,368 14,363 2,599 116,321 3,548 51,757 1,272,488 37,865 25,178 16,528 9,740 237,117 143,457 11,689 35,375 70,553 10,376 102,483 28,090 42,417 37,002 429,329 29,620 5,669 597,648 3,999 40,607 286,526 42,688 14,027 5,855 4,473 9,760 8,903 42,292 9,306 125,780 3,432

1997 Entries Exits 1,725,431 14,726 1,710,705 249,991 38,275 : 39,021 3,585 59,651 47,634 47,366 8,473 5,986 490,901 63,296 81,799 15,428 19,502 124,731 55,258 20,718 14,696 1,498 64,512 4,768 24,695 667,472 2,153 8,529 : 9,875 196,263 65,452 6,087 11,815 39,163 3,547 59,327 13,812 15,046 20,305 193,128 22,970 : 302,341 2,038 29,604 164,882 20,153 7,521 2,308 1,257 : 7,470 16,210 4,107 44,511 2,280 1,627,142 15,559 1,611,583 229,955 38,264 : 37,449 3,123 54,967 36,159 45,405 9,271 5,317 465,189 59,318 78,263 13,980 19,029 117,525 55,509 16,785 14,534 1,440 61,957 4,764 22,085 651,235 1,669 7,315 : 8,818 196,902 60,489 5,683 11,737 35,104 3,926 56,394 13,131 15,059 19,056 193,364 22,588 : 265,204 1,659 25,398 146,877 16,051 6,147 1,796 1,052 : 7,478 14,522 3,952 38,016 2,256

Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456

: Not known. Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on December 31, 1997, does not equal the population on January 1, 1997, plus entries, minus exits. b See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Data do not include absconders. d Data do not include out-of-State cases. e Multiple agencies reporting; see Explanatory notes for more detail. f All data are estimated. g Data are for year beginning July 1, 1996, and ending June 30, 1997. h Data do not include inactive cases. I Data are for year beginning September 1, 1996, and ending August 31, 1997. j Total entries are estimated. k Total exits are estimated.

Probation in 1997 29

Table 3.3. Adults on probation, by status of probation, 1997
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
c

Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456

Execution of sentence suspendeda 427,631 0 427,631 45,894 37,481 : : 3,169 : 0 0 : 5,244 152,755 : 61,095 : 16,205 4,256 : 18,681 0 2,033 32,091 : 18,394 174,104 : : : : 809 1,270 0 0 58,190 : 96,510 13,316 : 4,009 : : : 54,878 : 43,862 : 1,324 : : : : : 3,790 0 4,442 1,460

Imposition of sentence suspendedb 116,146 0 116,146 12,789 11,248 : : 488 : 0 1 : 1,052 65,784 : 0 : : 3,458 : 22,516 0 624 3,426 : 35,760 30,706 : : : : 9,154 0 0 0 8,875 : 0 11,316 : 1,361 : : : 6,867 : 0 : 296 : : : : : 3,790 0 2,380 401

Direct imposition of probation 1,000,805 32,918 967,887 249,695 0 : : 1,219 : 135,984 112,492 : 0 72,105 : 0 ... : 47,489 : 0 12,347 0 12,269 : 0 440,065 : 25,962 : : 196,045 133,659 12,083 35,005 ... : 0 350 36,067 894 : : : 206,022 : 110 164,882 2,142 15,093 : : : : 9,454 9,461 3,575 1,305

Split sentence (incarceration with probation) 163,759 559 163,200 40,010 7,260 : : 0 : 30,918 0 : 1,832 40,170 : 19,578 : : 12,375 : 74 2,178 : 5,965 : 0 53,122 : 430 : : 10,929 13,491 0 448 7,547 : 8,906 2,626 6,337 2,408 : : : 29,898 : 841 : 301 : : : : : 25,876 0 2,590 290

Other, unknown, or not reported 1,558,496 67 1,558,429 224,206 0 8,584 46,430 0 130,565 18,979 0 19,648 0 403,223 119,481 16,372 16,834 0 86,658 90,707 5,030 0 0 64,461 3,467 213 594,342 35,723 0 17,872 10,797 22,995 0 10 0 0 10,997 0 1,125 0 29,579 429,093 30,002 6,149 336,658 4,378 0 139,649 41,384 308 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 1,070 0 119,027 0

Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshired New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indianac Iowa Kansasc Michigan Minnesota Missouric,d Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsinc South Alabama Arkansasc Delawared District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseed Texas Virginiad West Virginiad West Alaska Arizonad California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregonc Utah Washington Wyoming

: Not known. ...Not applicable. Sentence to incarceration imposed, then suspended. b Persons not fully adjudicated. c See Explanatory notes for more detail. d Detailed data are estimated for status of probation.
a

30 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 3.4. Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 1997
Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456 Number on probation in each status of supervision Inactive Absconded Out of State 241,177 975 240,202 61,441 0 0 : 1,026 18,876 ... 35,155 6,154 230 69,117 37,513 0 0 0 9,614 : 489 0 0 21,501 0 0 74,801 4,436 2,931 ... : 14,589 68 : 0 26,805 0 3,783 1,141 978 4,041 16,005 24 0 34,843 0 408 : 12,337 : 0 0 : 0 1,339 0 20,759 0 299,920 183 299,737 22,590 0 888 : 221 19,671 : 153 878 779 31,465 0 0 678 0 15,290 : 143 1,096 0 7,377 : 6,881 197,368 7,145 4,008 3,928 1,950 61,377 4,221 : 1,808 6,290 0 13,233 4,531 8,317 6,265 74,226 69 0 48,314 523 6,866 : 105 : 0 0 1,870 0 14,411 936 23,292 311 59,573 ... 59,573 7,644 0 166 : 379 3,361 2,210 181 966 381 8,826 0 0 301 0 35 : 3,480 359 333 1,954 170 2,194 33,771 1,362 1,275 1,255 995 5,909 0 : 718 2,095 0 4,398 650 1,943 0 10,261 2,910 0 9,332 435 1,612 : 1,436 : 800 0 2,223 869 494 290 802 371 Other, unknown, or not reported 254,229 0 254,229 47,010 0 0 46,430 293 0 0 287 0 0 112,612 0 2,277 0 0 18,242 90,707 12 0 0 1,374 0 0 57,108 5,000 932 0 0 3,484 0 0 0 911 0 758 0 0 4,200 35,674 0 6,149 37,499 0 3,152 0 6,430 15,401 0 0 6,809 0 0 0 5,707 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshirea New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowaa Kansasb Michigan Minnesota Missouric Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabamaa Arkansas Delawarec District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentuckya Louisiana Marylanda Mississippia,b North Carolina Oklahomaa South Carolina Tennessee Texasa Virginiac West Virginiac West Alaska Arizonaa,c California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Active 2,411,938 32,386 2,379,552 433,909 55,989 7,530 : 2,957 88,657 183,671 76,717 11,650 6,738 512,017 81,968 94,768 15,855 16,205 111,055 : 42,177 13,070 2,324 86,006 3,297 45,292 929,291 17,780 17,246 12,689 7,852 154,573 144,131 12,093 32,927 38,511 10,997 83,244 22,411 31,166 23,745 292,927 26,999 0 504,335 3,420 32,775 304,531 25,139 : 5,567 4,678 : 8,026 27,736 8,235 81,454 2,774

: Not known. ... Not applicable. See Explanatory notes for more detail. b Excludes absconders and out-of-State cases. c Detailed data are estimated for status of supervision.
a

Probation in 1997 31

Table 3.5. Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 1997
Number of adults entering probation Probation Probation Other, without with unknown, or Total incarceration incarceration not reported 1,725,431 14,726 1,710,705 249,991 38,275 : 39,021 3,585 59,651 47,634 47,366 8,473 5,986 490,901 63,296 81,799 15,428 19,502 124,731 55,258 20,718 14,696 1,498 64,512 4,768 24,695 667,472 2,153 8,529 : 9,875 196,263 65,452 6,087 11,815 39,163 3,547 59,327 13,812 15,046 20,305 193,128 22,970 : 302,341 2,038 29,604 164,882 20,153 7,521 2,308 1,257 : 7,470 16,210 4,107 44,511 2,280 741,931 14,602 727,329 118,502 : : : : 32,431 34,033 47,105 : 4,933 210,615 : 69,765 : 12,491 41,186 : 19,208 11,022 1,498 30,750 : 24,695 357,282 : 8,146 : : 158,758 59,733 6,087 11,324 6,477 2,084 55,060 7,743 13,919 16,696 : 11,255 : 40,930 649 14,823 : 3,746 : 2,308 : : : 6,435 1,711 11,258 : 161,013 94 160,919 8,729 : : : : 0 7,676 0 : 1,053 41,954 : 12,034 : 5,556 14,184 : 1,510 3,674 0 4,996 : 0 64,360 : 383 : : 11,462 5,719 ... 448 32,686 1,463 4,267 3,196 1,127 3,609 : 0 : 45,876 1,389 14,781 : 229 : 0 : : : 9,775 2,360 17,342 : 822,487 30 822,457 122,760 38,275 0 39,021 3,585 27,220 5,925 261 8,473 0 238,332 63,296 0 15,428 1,455 69,361 55,258 0 0 0 28,766 4,768 0 245,830 2,153 0 0 9,875 26,043 0 0 43 0 0 0 2,873 0 0 193,128 11,715 0 215,535 0 0 164,882 16,178 7,521 0 1,257 0 7,470 0 36 15,911 2,280

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseya New Yorka Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansasa Michigan Minnesota Missourib Nebraska North Dakota Ohioa South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisianaa Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginiaa,b West Virginiab West Alaska Arizonab California Colorado Hawaii Idahoa Montana Nevada New Mexicoa Oregon Utaha Washington Wyoming

: Not known. ... Not applicable. See Explanatory notes for more detail. b Detailed data are estimated for entries.
a

32 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 3.6. Adults leaving probation, by type of exit, 1997
Number of adults leaving probation Incarcerated With Under new current Other sentence sentence unsuccessfula 60,238 1,803 58,435 10,077 : : : 389 1,595 4,307 2,376 622 788 21,291 : 11,551 978 185 3,648 : 1,261 1,338 226 1,152 : 952 24,392 0 755 : : 13,555 2,263 124 436 3,308 9 1,075 1,168 731 968 : 0 : 2,675 340 0 : 912 : : 48 : 0 502 243 630 0 157,217 : 157,217 11,651 : : : 0 : 6,679 3,845 : 1,127 20,785 : 0 1,139 1,923 5,819 : 2,544 0 253 4,356 : 4,751 113,373 290 682 : : 28,686 2,853 2,032 2,730 4,923 1,437 17,992 819 3,648 2,309 44,972 0 : 11,408 571 3,378 : 1,408 : 411 262 : 864 3,158 354 484 518 136,952 0 136,952 6,544 0 0 0 0 6,544 0 0 0 0 31,954 0 11,793 0 7,414 3,876 0 2,795 0 0 5,865 169 42 79,338 0 0 0 3,936 46,155 6,725 0 0 3,801 0 0 1,072 0 3,412 0 14,237 0 19,116 0 10,938 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,744 271 1,215 3,532 416

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
b

Total 1,627,142 15,559 1,611,583 229,955 38,264 : 37,449 3,123 54,967 36,159 45,405 9,271 5,317 465,189 59,318 78,263 13,980 19,029 117,525 55,509 16,785 14,534 1,440 61,957 4,764 22,085 651,235 1,669 7,315 : 8,818 196,902 60,489 5,683 11,737 35,104 3,926 56,394 13,131 15,059 19,056 193,364 22,588 : 265,204 1,659 25,398 146,877 16,051 6,147 1,796 1,052 : 7,478 14,522 3,952 38,016 2,256

Successful completion 722,747 13,257 709,490 102,277 : : : 2,582 29,191 22,280 36,188 8,649 3,387 199,528 : 54,919 7,515 7,993 43,201 : 9,939 13,196 955 42,889 4,595 14,326 349,700 1,379 3,617 : 4,674 79,505 39,907 3,308 6,823 16,591 2,076 36,110 9,968 10,472 10,578 116,497 8,195 : 57,985 746 8,136 : 13,135 : 1,385 719 : 3,826 10,432 2,087 16,211 1,308

Death 6,911 169 6,742 1,227 : : : 15 375 534 288 : 15 903 : 0 0 9 298 : 206 0 6 254 : 130 4,072 0 79 : 30 450 338 54 206 338 23 462 104 208 105 1,519 156 : 540 2 49 : 1 : : 23 : 44 156 35 216 14

Other, unknown, or not reported 543,077 330 542,747 98,179 38,264 0 37,449 137 17,262 2,359 2,708 0 0 190,728 59,318 0 4,348 1,505 60,683 55,509 40 0 0 7,441 0 1,884 80,360 0 2,182 0 178 28,551 8,403 165 1,542 6,143 381 755 0 0 1,684 30,376 0 0 173,480 0 2,897 146,877 595 6,147 0 0 0 0 3 18 16,943 0

Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb New Yorkb Pennsylvaniab Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indianab Iowab Kansasb Michigan Minnesota Missourib,c Nebraska North Dakota Ohiob South Dakota Wisconsinb South Alabama Arkansasb Delawarec District of Columbiac Florida Georgia Kentuckyb Louisianab Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennesseeb,c Texasb Virginiab,c West Virginiac West Alaska Arizonab,c California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montanab Nevada New Mexicob Oregonb Utahb Washington Wyomingb

: Not known a Other unsuccessful exits include violations of probation, probation revocations, warrants issued, and some absconders. b See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Detailed data are estimated for type of exit.

Probation in 1997 33

Table 3.7. Adults on probation, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1997
Number of adults on probation Hispanic origin Not Nonreported Hispanic Hispanic 706,791 69 706,722 66,078 0 0 46,430 0 0 0 0 19,648 0 207,408 0 97,045 0 0 77,455 0 0 0 0 29,441 3,467 0 94,186 33,572 0 0 0 33,263 0 12,093 0 0 0 0 1,407 0 1 7,701 0 6,149 339,050 0 0 304,531 8,904 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 25,612 0 305,326 4,373 300,953 63,495 8,277 : : 975 15,453 33,234 5,556 : : 26,532 11,709 : 647 : 4,068 3,780 : 1,689 86 1,353 : 3,200 167,665 : 370 703 972 18,043 10 : : : : : 1,107 : 401 145,675 384 : 43,261 96 12,022 : 6,201 : 690 : 1,562 4,375 3,255 975 13,793 292 1,595,586 28,886 1,566,700 366,740 47,712 : : 3,901 115,112 84,950 106,937 : 8,128 391,610 107,772 : 16,187 : 51,443 86,927 761 12,836 2,571 61,946 : 51,167 614,761 : 26,022 17,169 9,825 187,963 8,856 : : : : : 26,219 : 33,372 275,717 29,618 : 193,589 4,282 32,791 : 28,025 : 5,677 : 9,340 3,600 40,725 8,060 57,925 3,164

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta,b Maine Massachusetts New Hampshirea,b New Jerseya,b New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisa,b Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouria,b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarea,b District of Columbiaa,b Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texasa,b Virginiaa,b West Virginiaa,b West Alaska Arizonaa,b California Colorado Hawaiia Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming
a b

Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456

Gender Male 2,023,069 24,009 1,999,060 416,123 46,919 7,546 : 3,657 107,194 155,421 88,783 : 6,603 408,049 94,748 : 13,147 13,288 58,130 71,448 36,449 11,332 2,043 65,711 : 41,753 939,936 1,691 19,620 14,208 9,178 162,185 117,975 : 27,512 61,283 8,853 83,123 20,544 35,721 30,060 324,809 23,174 0 234,952 3,548 37,009 : 28,251 12,013 4,882 3,181 8,287 7,210 35,515 7,428 85,043 2,585 Female 536,977 9,466 527,511 90,393 9,070 1,038 : 1,219 23,371 30,460 23,710 : 1,525 118,580 24,733 : 3,687 2,917 18,651 19,259 9,852 3,193 614 23,060 : 12,614 258,217 460 6,772 3,664 1,619 44,484 30,445 : 7,941 13,329 2,144 22,293 6,782 6,683 8,190 96,583 6,828 0 60,321 830 7,804 : 8,292 3,388 1,485 1,497 2,615 1,682 8,465 2,033 21,359 871

Not reported 1,365,925 285 1,365,640 142,359 0 8,584 46,430 0 0 67,697 0 19,648 0 315,895 0 97,045 0 16,205 98,725 0 45,540 0 0 54,913 3,467 0 509,913 35,723 0 0 0 33,926 139,554 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 1,407 42,404 4,478 7,701 0 6,149 397,473 0 0 304,531 11,221 15,401 0 4,678 0 920 0 426 60,296 0

: Not known. Detailed data are estimated for gender. Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin.

34 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 3.8. Adults on probation, by race, 1997
Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456 Number of adults on probation American Asian/ Indian/ Pacific Black Alaska Native Islander 777,974 8,469 769,505 169,737 13,986 : : 975 56,665 64,134 33,853 : 124 138,167 45,401 : 1,754 4,052 14,673 10,950 13,816 2,119 68 32,364 : 12,970 435,499 911 9,295 8,041 9,501 66,732 79,128 : 20,560 43,172 6,433 51,458 6,053 23,195 16,064 79,685 15,271 : 26,102 562 3,827 : 3,735 : 91 : 2,020 573 2,405 313 12,479 97 21,257 642 20,615 840 113 : : 0 201 477 1 : 48 7,113 245 : 164 : 1,362 3,032 68 368 267 27 : 1,580 4,435 : 53 15 0 147 0 : 13 63 : 2,049 1,995 22 63 : 15 : 8,227 1,293 2,496 : : : 194 : 98 650 631 288 2,507 70 10,745 1,201 9,544 1,493 157 : : 488 295 515 9 : 29 3,256 942 : 116 : 521 994 73 75 16 59 : 460 1,878 : 36 30 108 578 0 : 3 335 : 219 90 9 293 : 177 : 2,917 98 182 : : : 35 : 118 : 341 198 1,936 9 Other, unknown, or not reported 1,008,620 438 1,008,182 132,651 8,280 8,584 46,430 0 15,453 28,673 5,583 19,648 0 235,237 0 97,045 783 324 91,092 5,543 18 1,031 0 31,329 3,467 4,605 256,010 33,599 370 727 972 37,757 0 12,093 177 284 308 3,073 2,585 298 323 157,253 42 6,149 384,284 14 0 304,531 13,690 15,401 690 4,678 1,736 972 3,506 426 38,333 307

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta,b Maine Massachusetts New Hampshirea New Jerseya,b New York Pennsylvaniab Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisa Indiana Iowab Kansasc Michiganb Minnesotac Missouria Nebraskab North Dakota Ohiob South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasb Delawarea,b District of Columbiaa,b Florida Georgiac Kentucky Louisianab Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomab South Carolina Tennesseeb Texasa,b Virginiaa West Virginiaa West Alaska Arizonaa California Colorado Hawaii Idahoa,b Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregonb Utah Washingtonb Wyomingb
a b

White 1,448,241 22,794 1,425,447 267,873 33,453 : : 3,413 57,951 92,082 73,047 : 7,927 350,264 72,893 : 14,017 11,829 46,588 70,188 32,326 10,932 2,306 54,433 : 34,752 594,517 1,213 16,638 9,059 216 134,718 69,292 : 14,700 30,758 4,256 48,617 18,010 18,880 21,508 192,155 14,497 : 212,793 2,411 38,308 : 28,022 : 5,357 : 6,930 6,700 37,097 8,236 76,759 2,973

: Not known. Detailed data are estimated for race. “Other” includes Hispanic probationers of unknown race. c See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Probation in 1997 35

Table 3.9. Adults on probation, by type of offense, 1997
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
a

Probation population 12/31/97 3,266,837 33,544 3,233,293 572,594 55,989 8,584 46,430 4,876 130,565 185,881 112,493 19,648 8,128 734,037 119,481 97,045 16,834 16,205 154,236 90,707 46,301 14,525 2,657 118,212 3,467 54,367 1,292,339 35,723 26,392 17,872 10,797 239,932 148,420 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,733 42,404 38,251 429,093 30,002 6,149 634,323 4,378 44,813 304,531 45,447 15,401 6,367 4,678 10,902 8,895 43,980 9,461 132,014 3,456

Felony 1,483,754 22,623 1,461,131 256,079 30,136 : : 2,926 96,798 85,760 25,111 13,556 1,792 255,984 48,707 33,930 7,424 6,024 1,667 36,901 39,475 3,264 2,153 51,341 2,447 22,651 751,549 : 25,111 : 3,541 171,640 103,554 10,247 33,227 20,077 10,997 34,526 24,460 17,525 28,326 243,185 25,133 : 197,519 4,178 37,544 : 23,087 8,704 5,611 : : 6,149 27,060 6,491 76,377 2,318

Number of adults on probation Driving while Misdemeanor intoxicated Other 790,358 7,015 783,343 171,669 25,853 : : 975 24,425 67,288 42,124 6,092 4,912 252,673 18,995 63,115 9,410 7,979 39,474 21,176 6,065 5,251 410 48,377 1,020 31,401 309,479 2,151 1,104 : 5,950 42,206 42,694 1,846 2,009 54,014 0 49,440 1,140 5,860 7,517 91,727 1,821 : 49,522 50 1,918 : 5,565 6,697 0 : : 1,075 10,085 2,582 20,709 841 382,970 2,094 380,876 105,659 : : 18,767 975 9,342 29,949 45,202 : 1,424 101,477 11,619 0 0 1,986 32,277 32,630 107 6,010 94 16,688 : 66 142,391 : 24 : 577 13,109 870 : 217 521 0 20,984 3,133 6,292 2,408 94,181 75 : 31,349 150 5,351 : 2,358 : 756 : : 1,656 6,078 348 14,355 297 95,693 1,812 93,881 27,719 0 0 27,663 0 0 0 56 0 0 44,614 40,160 0 0 216 3,582 0 654 0 0 2 0 0 7,459 : 0 0 729 4,458 0 0 0 0 0 466 0 0 0 0 1,806 : 14,089 0 0 0 13,713 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 376 0

Unknown or not reported 514,062 0 514,062 11,468 0 8,584 0 0 0 2,884 0 0 0 79,289 0 0 0 0 77,236 0 0 0 0 1,804 0 249 81,461 33,572 153 17,872 0 8,519 1,302 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,727 0 0 1,167 6,149 341,844 0 0 304,531 724 0 0 4,678 10,902 15 757 40 20,197 0

Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshireb New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisa Indianaa Iowaa Kansasa Michigan Minnesota Missouria,b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakotaa Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb District of Columbiaa Florida Georgiaa Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomaa South Carolina Tennessee Texasb Virginiaa,b West Virginiab West Alaska Arizonab California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming
a b

: Not known. See Explanatory notes for more detail. Detailed data are estimated for type of offense.

36 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 3.10. Adults on probation under intensive supervision, being electronically monitored, or in a bootcamp, 1997
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
a,b

Intensive supervision 104,028 : 104,028 23,692 1,549 ... : 37 1,373 6,945 13,564 224 ... 14,666 1,270 : 757 ... 1,944 ... 943 652 20 9,030 50 : 56,041 920 0 4,265 78 25,919 5,355 294 ... 1,416 ... 9,536 343 2,384 1,775 2,991 765 ... 9,629 51 3,174 : 3,778 81 126 25 374 414 502 241 814 49

Electronic monitoring 15,095 3,053 12,042 254 250 ... : 4 ... ... : ... ... 6,127 : : 18 46 2,972 ... 197 220 10 2,664 ... : 4,586 75 0 531 : 1,338 ... ... ... ... ... 887 : : 596 1,127 32 ... 1,075 ... 200 : : 10 57 100 250 23 315 23 77 20

Bootcamp 2,128 ... 2,128 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 468 ... ... ... 89 379 ... ... ... ... ... ... : 1,561 ... ... 19 199 ... 410 ... ... ... ... 283 ... ... ... 595 55 ... 99 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99

Northeast Connecticutc Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyd New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisd Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouric,e Nebraska North Dakotac,e Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarec,e District of Columbiab Floridad Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennesseed Texas Virginiae West Virginia West Alaska Arizonac,e California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montanad Nevadac,e New Mexicod Oregonc,e Utah Washington Wyoming

: Not known. ...Not applicable. Reported data include both probationers and parolees. b Intensive supervision probationers could not be separated from electronic monitoring probationers and were, therefore, reported together. c Detailed data are estimated for electronic monitoring. d See Explanatory notes for more detail. e Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision.
a

Probation in 1997 37

Table 3.11. States with the largest probation populations and growth, 1997
10 States with the largest probation populations Texas California Florida New York Michigan Georgia Washington New Jersey Illinois Ohio Persons 10 States with the supervised highest rates per 100,000 adult of supervision U.S. residents* Delaware Washington Texas Georgia Minnesota Rhode Island Connecticut Indiana New Jersey Florida 3,225 3,177 3,095 2,699 2,641 2,607 2,260 2,222 2,153 2,146 10 States with the lowest rates of supervision, 1996-97 Kentucky West Virginia Mississippi New Hampshire North Dakota Virginia South Dakota Utah Montana New Mexico

Number supervised 429,093 304,531 239,932 185,881 154,236 148,420 132,014 130,565 119,481 118,212

10 States with the largest percent Percent increase, 1996-97 increase Nevada Maine New Hampshire Arizona Hawaii Alaska Iowa Missouri Vermont Idaho 11.7% 10.7 10.5 10.4 9.8 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.0 8.7

Persons supervised per 100,000 adult U.S. residents* 410 438 556 556 559 589 641 690 720 723

Note: The District of Columbia as a wholly urban jurisdiction is excluded. For more information, see table 3.2. *Rates are computed using the U.S. adult resident population on July 1, 1997.

38 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Because many States update their population counts, the January 1, 1997, numbers may differ from those previously published for December 31, 1996. Federal Data for the Federal system are from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts as provided to the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Definitional differences exist between probation data reported here and in other BJS data series. Data do not include 344 corporations on probation on December 31, 1997. Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997, 130 corporations entered probation supervision and 101 corporations exited probation supervision. “Other” probation status includes probationers with concurrent or consecutive sentences to state/local incarceration, direct probation from court following revocation in the same case, and cases reopened statistically (table 3.3). “Other” entries include cases reopened statistically (table 3.5). “Other” exits include administrative case closings (table 3.6). “Other” offense type includes petty offenses (table 3.9). Alabama Alabama has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. Both local jurisdictions in Alabama estimated all of the data they reported. “Absconder” supervision status includes those that are located in jail for Alabama’s State agency (table 3.4).

Arizona Arizona has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. All data are estimated. “Other” supervision status includes inactive probationers serving a prison commitment and probationers deported to Mexico (table 3.4). “Other” exits include 2,893 transfers to various locations (table 3.6). Arkansas “Split sentence” refers to probationers incarcerated in a substance abuse treatment program as a condition of probation (table 3.3). “Other” exits include early discharges, administrative closures, and discharged absconders (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 370 Hispanics probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Colorado Colorado has 9 reporting agencies: 1 State and 8 local. All data were estimated by the State and one local agency. Two local agencies estimated one or more characteristics of the population on December 31, 1997. Connecticut “Other” race includes 8,277 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). “Misdemeanor” includes an unspecified number of “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” cases (table 3.9).

Delaware All data are estimated. Quality control has removed more than 2,000 duplicate records from the database since January 1, 1997, making it difficult to compare these data with those from previous years. Data do not include 259 persons on pre-trial supervision on December 31, 1997. “Other” race includes 731 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). District of Columbia “Other” race includes 972 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). “Other” offense type includes domestic violence intervention program cases and civil protection orders (table 3.9). Intensive supervision and electronic monitoring are a combined program (table 3.10). Florida Florida has 14 reporting agencies: 1 State and 13 local. Totals for Florida are inconsistent with those reported for previous years. One office with 15,085 probationers on December 31, 1996, has been eliminated because of duplicate counting. Also, a local probation authority reported data for offices in two counties that were previously not reported. Data for the same local agency do not include 2,393 ‘non-DUI absconders’ (records held open 5 years) and ‘2,930 DUI absconders’ (records held open indefinitely) in files up to 21 years old (table 3.2). Approximately 8% of the local agencies in Florida estimated all of the data they reported. In addition, approximately 54% of the local agencies in Florida estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1997. One locality did not include 200 probationers involved in an electronic monitoring program with the total population, December 31, 1997 (table 3.10).

Probation in 1997 39

Georgia Georgia has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. “Black” race includes “nonwhite” (table 3.8). “Felony” and “misdemeanor” includes an unspecified number of “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” cases that could not be separately reported by the State agency (table 3.9). Idaho “Total” entries are estimated (table 3.5). “Other” race includes 690 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Illinois Total population on December 31, 1997, does not include 1,270 probationers in a intensive supervision program and 4,825 probationers in a specialized driving under the influence of alcohol program.

Iowa “Active” and “inactive” probationers could not be separated. Active counts include an unspecified number of inactive probationers (table 3.4). “Other” exits include terminations and transfers out of State/district (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 647 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Data do not include approximately 1,500 misdemeanor cases from two districts whose records for inactive misdemeanor cases are maintained on paper only (table 3.9). Kansas Data do not include 7,029 absconders, 692 probationers supervised out of State, and 315 persons under diversion supervision (table 3.3). “Other” entries include transfers from other jurisdictions (table 3.5).

Maryland “Other” supervision status includes 911 “delinquent in custody,” probationers. (table 3.4). Michigan Michigan has 114 reporting agencies: 1 State and 113 local. Michigan’s State agency, which represents 31% of all Michigan’s probationers, did not report any detailed data. The data that the State agency provided are from January 1, 1997, to September 30, 1997. Two local agencies in Michigan did not provide data. For these agencies, the December 31, 1996, population count was used as an estimate of the January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997, counts. Approximately 38% of Michigan’s local agencies estimated all of their data. In addition, approximately 22% of Michigan’s local agencies estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1997. “Other” race includes 151 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Minnesota “Other” race includes Asian probationers, others, and unknowns (table 3.8). Mississippi Data do not include 7,053 probationers who have outstanding warrants, or whose discharges are being withheld; 964 probationers supervised out -of -State; and 46 absconders (table 3.4). Missouri Missouri has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. The State agency estimated all data. “Execution of sentence to incarceration suspended” includes 4,319 shock incarceration cases. “Imposition of sentence suspended” includes 87 shock incarceration cases. “Other” probation status includes diversion cases (table 3.3).

“Other” offense types includes 37,513 administrative cases and 2,647 traffic cases “Other” exits include 301 interstate compact cases transferred out and 1,204 transfers to (table 3.9). other jurisdictions (table 3.6). Indiana “Other” race includes American Indian and Asian probationers (table 3.8). “Other” probation status includes absconders, “shock” probation cases, inter/intra State cases, supervision in lieu of “Other” offense type includes driving with a suspended driver’s license and other traffic prosecution cases, and others (table 3.3). offenses (table 3.9). “Other unsuccessful” exits include an Kentucky unknown number of transfers and others (table 3.6). Data do not include an unspecified number of persons on inactive probation (table 3.4). “Misdemeanor” includes an unknown number of “driving while intoxicated or “Other” exits include court orders (table under the influence of alcohol” cases 3.6). (table 3.9). Louisiana “Other” entries include reinstatements (table 3.5). “Other” exits include pardons, administrative errors, transfers, unsuccessful completions, revocations (non-DOC), and overturned convictions (table 3.6). “Other” race includes Hispanic probationers of unknown race and others (table 3.8). 40 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

“Other” exits include probationers relieved of supervision, absconders, and cases returned to the court. (table 3.6). “Felony” and “misdemeanor” includes 3,914 “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” cases (table 3.9). Montana “Total” exits are estimated (table 3.6). Total population on December 31, 1997, does not include 25 probationers in an intensive supervision program (table 3.10). Nebraska “Other” race includes 1,031 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). New Hampshire “Other” supervision status includes probationers on bail supervision (table 3.4). New Jersey Total population on December 31, 1997, does not include 1,373 probationers in an intensive supervision program. “Other” entries include 12,651 pretrial intervention and conditional discharge cases, 8,558 community service cases, and 6,011 supervised collections (table 3.5). “Other” exits include 7,803 community service cases and 9,459 unknown cases. “Other unsuccessful” exits include 3,331 probation violation cases and 3,213 absconders (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 15,453 Hispanics probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). New Mexico New Mexico has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. The local agency estimated “total” entries and exits (table 3.5 and table 3.6). Total population on December 31, 1997, does not include 33 probationers in an intensive supervision program (table 3.10).

New York “Other” entries include local conditional releases from incarceration and others (table 3.5). “Other” exits include records that were removed in a maintenance purge and others (table 3.6). Ohio Ohio has 52 reporting agencies: 1 State and 51 local. Ohio’s State agency estimated sex, race, and Hispanic origin characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1997. Approximately 8% of Ohio’s local agencies estimated all of their data. Additionally, approximately 18% of Ohio’s local agencies estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1997. Ohio’s State agency reported 1,614 “other” entries as county transfers that were restored (table 3.5) and 682 “other” exits as county and interstate transfers (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 470 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Oklahoma Oklahoma has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. “Other” probation status includes 68 probationers who have not been sentenced (table 3.3). “Other” race includes 1,107 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). One of Oklahoma’s local agencies reported that data do not include an unknown number of absconders. The same agency reported “misdemeanor” includes an unspecified number of “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” cases (table 3.9).

Oregon “Other” probation supervision includes 551 diversion cases and 519 conditional releases (table 3.3). “Other” exits include 2 administrative errors and 1 transfer (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 3,255 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Pennsylvania “Other” exits include commuted sentences, transfers, and absconders at the county level (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 5,556 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). South Dakota The data provided are from July 1, 1996, to June 30, 1997. “Misdemeanor” includes “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” cases (table 3.9). Tennessee Tennessee has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. “Other” exits include 899 internal transfers, 574 interstate compact cases, 206 court orders, and an unspecified number of appeals (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 317 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Total population on December 31, 1997, excludes 40 probationers in an electronic monitoring at one local agency (table 3.10).

Probation in 1997 41

Texas Data are for year beginning September 1, 1996, and ending August 31, 1997. Data do not include 614 persons on civil probation. “Active” includes interstate transfers to Texas (table 3.4). “Other” exits include 18,535 administrative closures and 11,841 pretrial terminations (table 3.6). Of the 44,972 parolees discharged to incarceration, the number incarcerated with a new sentence or under a current sentence is unknown. “Other” race includes 79,685 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Utah “Other” entries include reinstatements (table 3.5). “Other” exits include 18 probationers released on court orders (table 3.6).

Virginia All data are estimated. “Other” entries include post release, restored, transferred, and other cases (table 3.5). “Other unsuccessful” exits include “incarcerated with new sentence,” transfers, out-of-State terminations, and other cases (table 3.6). “Other” offense status includes 1,806 special penalties (table 3.9). Washington Washington has 24 reporting agencies: 1 State and 23 local. Washington’s State agency, which represents 60% of all Washington’s probationers, estimated all the data reported. Approximately 22% of the local agencies in Washington estimated all the data they reported. Additionally, approximately 35% of the local agencies in Washington estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1997. “Other” race includes 327 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).

Wisconsin “Other” probation status includes 213 “deferred” cases in which there was no conviction (table 3.3). “Other” exits include 927 early release cases, 757 court orders, and 200 closed cases (table 3.6) Wyoming “Other unsuccessful” exits include an unknown number of bench warrants and interstate transfers (table 3.6). “Other” race includes 292 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).

42 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997  

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Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Tables By Caroline Wolf Harlow, Ph.D. Tracy L. Snell BJS Statisticians Christopher J. Mumola BJS Policy Analyst 4.15 Drug use, by type of drug, 1991 and 1997

61

4.16 Levels of prior drug and alcohol abuse, by selected characteristics of State and Federal prisoners, 1997 62 4.17 Substance abuse treatment history of State prisoners, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997 63 4.18 Substance abuse treatment history of Federal prisoners, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997 63

State and Federal prison inmates 4.1 Selected characteristics, 1997 and 1991
4.2 4.3 Selected characteristics, by gender, 1997 and 1991 Current offense, 1991 and 1997 

48 49 50

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Current offense, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 Current offense, by age, 1997

51 52

State and Federal prisoners’ participation since admission  4.19 Types of drug treatment, by prior drug use, 1991 and 1997 64
4.20 Drug treatment or abuse programs, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997

Current offense, by gender and by race/Hispanic origin, 1997 53 Current offense, by gender and age, 1997 Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for State prison inmates, 1997 Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for Federal prison inmates, 1997 54

64

4.21 Drug treatment, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997 65 55 4.22 Drug abuse programs, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997 4.23 Type of alcohol treatment, by prior alcohol use, 1997 Appendix tables 4.A1. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, State prison inmates, by gender, 1997 67 4.A2. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997 68 Methodology 69

4.9

56 57 58 59

65 66

4.10 Criminal history, 1997 and 1991 4.11 Criminal history, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 4.12 Criminal history, by age, 1997 4.13 Physical or sexual abuse before admission to prison, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 4.14 Alcohol or drug use at time of offense, by type of offense, 1997

60

61

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 47

Table 4.1. Selected characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State inmates Federal inmates 1997 1991 1997 1991 93.7% 6.3 94.6% 5.4 92.8% 7.2 92.2% 7.8

Characteristic Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other* Age 17 or younger 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 or older Median age Marital status Married Widowed Separated Divorced Never married Educational attainment 8th grade or less Some high school GED High school graduate Some college College graduate or more Median education Military service Veterans Non-veterans U.S. citizenship Citizen Other countries Mexico Central or South America Other Number of prison inmates

33.3% 46.5 17.0 3.2

35.4% 45.6 16.6 2.4

29.9% 37.8 27.3 5.0

38.4% 29.9 28.0 3.8

0.5% 19.3 38.1 29.4 9.8 2.2 0.7 32 yrs

0.6% 21.3 45.7 22.7 6.5 2.4 0.7 30 yrs

0% 8.9 36.6 30.6 16.3 6.2 1.4 36 yrs

0% 9.3 36.0 32.9 15.0 5.7 1.1 36 yrs

16.6% 1.9 5.8 18.6 57.1

18.2% 1.9 6.2 18.5 55.3

30.4% 1.7 5.8 20.5 41.6

37.9% 1.8 6.7 21.0 32.6

14.2% 28.9 25.1 18.5 10.7 2.7 12 yrs

14.3% 26.9 24.6 19.4 12.2 2.7 12 yrs

12.0% 17.4 19.8 24.3 17.5 9.1 12 yrs

11.0% 12.3 22.6 22.4 21.3 10.4 12 yrs

12.5% 87.5

16.3% 83.7

14.5% 85.5

19.9% 80.1

95.0% 5.0 2.9 1.6 0.5 1,059,607

95.6% 4.4 2.1 0.6 1.7 704,203

81.7% 18.3 9.0 7.7 1.5 89,072

81.6% 18.4 4.1 6.3 8.0 54,006

Note: In 1997 State inmate data were missing for marital status on 0.2% of the inmates; for education, 0.4%; for military service, 0.1%; and for citizenship, 0.1%. In 1997 Federal inmate data were missing for marital status on 0.2% of the inmates; for education, 0.4%; for military service, 0.1%; and for citizenship, 0.2%. State inmate data for 1991 and Federal inmate data for both 1991 and 1997 include sentenced inmates only. * Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

48 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.2. Selected characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates 1997 Characteristic Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other* Age 17 or younger 18-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65 or older Marital status Married Widowed Separated Divorced Never married Educational attainment 8th grade or less Some high school GED High school graduate Any college Military service Veterans Non-veterans Number of prison inmates State inmates Male Female 33.3% 46.4 17.1 3.2 33.2% 47.7 15.4 3.7 Federal inmates Male Female 29.9% 38.1 27.0 5.0 29.1% 34.5 32.2 4.2 State inmates Male Female 35.4% 45.5 16.8 2.3 36.2% 46.0 14.2 3.6 1991 Federal inmates Male Female 39.2% 29.2 27.8 3.8 29.0% 38.6 29.5 2.9

0.6% 19.8 18.8 19.0 17.3 11.8 6.2 3.6 1.5 0.7 0.7

0.6% 10.9 17.8 25.7 22.4 11.8 6.5 2.5 1.2 0.4 0.3

0% 8.9 18.5 18.2 15.7 14.8 9.8 6.3 4.6 1.7 1.4

0% 8.6 15.6 19.8 16.5 15.5 12.5 5.7 3.1 1.6 1.1

0.7% 21.6 24.1 21.3 14.0 8.6 4.4 2.2 1.5 1.0 0.8

0.1% 16.3 26.1 24.2 16.6 8.9 4.0 2.1 0.9 0.4 0.4

0% 9.1 16.2 19.5 17.5 15.5 9.4 5.9 3.8 2.0 1.1

0% 11.3 19.5 20.7 19.4 11.9 8.4 3.8 3.2 1.1 0.7

16.6% 1.6 18.5 5.6 57.8

17.3% 5.8 19.9 9.8 47.1

30.4% 1.4 20.4 5.5 42.2

29.5% 6.0 21.1 10.0 33.5

18.1% 1.6 18.4 5.9 55.9

17.3% 5.9 19.1 12.5 45.1

38.7% 1.4 20.9 6.3 32.6

28.8% 5.7 22.5 10.6 32.3

14.0% 25.4 29.0 18.5 13.2

13.2% 28.3 22.4 19.3 16.8

11.7% 14.6 24.3 22.9 26.5

11.1% 13.8 26.3 20.0 28.9

14.4% 26.7 24.7 19.5 14.7

12.1% 29.5 20.2 20.2 18.0

11.0% 12.0 22.6 22.6 31.8

12.0% 15.3 19.6 23.0 30.1

13.3% 86.7 993,364

1.6% 98.4 66,242

15.5% 84.5 82,646

2.2% 97.8 6,426

17.2% 82.8 672,847

1.9% 98.1 38,796

21.7% 78.3 49,784

1.4% 98.6 4,222

*Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 49

Table 4.3. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State inmates Federal inmates 1997 1991 1997 1991 47.2% 11.7 1.6 1.2 2.6 6.0 14.1 9.4 0.8 22.0% 10.7 4.2 1.8 0.5 2.7 1.6 0.5 20.7% 8.8 11.3 0.6 9.9% 2.4 3.1 4.3 0.2% 1,046,705 46.6% 10.6 1.8 1.2 3.5 5.9 14.8 8.2 0.6 24.8% 12.4 4.9 2.2 0.7 2.8 1.4 0.4 21.3% 7.6 13.3 0.5 6.9% 1.8 1.6 3.4 0.4% 704,181 14.8% 1.5 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.6 10.0 1.3 0.6 6.8% 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.3 4.9 0.5 0.1 62.6% 11.5 45.5 5.6 14.8% 6.8 0.8 7.2 1.1% 88,018 17.3% 1.9 0.3 1.0 0.3 0.4 11.2 1.5 0.6 10.2% 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.3 6.9 0.8 0.1 57.9% 13.6 42.9 1.4 12.4% 5.7 0.8 5.9 2.2% 53,689

Current offense Violent offenses Murdera Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violentb Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraudc Stolen property Other propertyd Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weaponse Violation of probation/parolef Other public-orderg Otherh Number of prison inmates

Note: Current offense data were available for 98.8% of State prison inmates and 98.8% of Federal prison inmates. Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. Data for Federal prison inmates include sentenced only. a Includes murder and nonnegligent manslaughter. b Includes blackmail, extortion, hit-and-run driving with bodily injury, child abuse, and criminal endangerment. c Includes Federal offenses of embezzlement, fraud, forgery, and counterfeiting. d Includes destruction of property, vandalism, hit-and-run driving without bodily injury, trespassing, and possession of burglary tools. e Includes Federal firearm and explosives violations. f Includes escape, AWOL, flight to avoid prosecution. g Includes obstruction of justice, traffic, driving while intoxicated, driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol, drunkenness, vagrancy, disorderly conduct, unlawful assembly, morals, commercialized vice, rioting, abandonment, nonsupport, immigration violations, invasion of privacy, liquor law violations, tax evasion, bribery, and Federal regulatory and common criminal enterprise offenses, tax law violations, racketeering, and extortion. h Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified offenses.

50 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.4. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates Male 48.5% 11.9 1.5 1.2 2.7 6.3 14.6 9.5 0.7 21.7% 11.1 3.9 1.9 0.5 2.2 1.6 0.5 19.7% 8.4 10.8 0.5 9.8% 2.5 3.0 4.3 0.2% 980,971 Percent of State prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 28.2% 8.5 2.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 7.2 6.8 1.3 26.6% 5.0 8.6 1.1 0.4 10.1 1.1 0.2 34.4% 14.6 18.5 1.3 10.5% 1.0 4.8 4.7 0.3% 65,735 47.0% 11.2 1.7 1.5 3.5 10.6 8.8 8.7 1.1 28.3% 13.6 4.8 2.1 0.8 4.2 2.1 0.7 11.8% 5.6 5.7 0.5 12.8% 2.0 3.3 7.5 0.1% 346,733 48.3% 12.5 1.4 0.9 2.3 3.1 18.5 9.0 0.6 19.1% 9.4 4.1 1.4 0.4 2.1 1.3 0.4 25.0% 10.3 13.9 0.7 7.4% 2.7 2.8 2.0 0.3% 488,210 43.5% 10.7 1.8 1.2 1.2 4.4 12.9 10.8 0.6 18.4% 8.9 3.4 2.5 0.2 1.5 1.5 0.4 27.4% 11.4 15.6 0.4 10.3% 2.6 3.3 4.5 0.3% 178,657 Other 54.2% 10.4 2.5 1.2 4.4 7.7 13.4 13.4 1.2 18.2% 8.7 4.4 1.3 0.5 1.6 1.5 0.3 13.8% 6.1 7.4 0.3 13.2% 3.7 4.2 5.3 0.6% 33,106 Male 15.4% 1.5 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.6 10.5 1.3 0.6 6.4% 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 4.4 0.5 0.1 61.9% 11.6 44.5 5.8 15.4% 7.3 0.8 7.3 1.0% 81,623 Percent of Federal prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 6.7% 0.8 0.3 0.3 0 0.1 3.4 1.0 0.8 12.2% 0.1 0.6 0 0.1 10.4 0.8 0.2 71.7% 10.1 58.1 3.5 7.8% 1.3 0.5 5.9 1.7% 6,396 18.6% 1.2 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.3 13.7 1.0 1.2 13.0% 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 10.0 0.7 0.2 49.4% 6.1 39.7 3.6 18.0% 8.8 8.6 0.6 1.0% 26,345 15.3% 1.3 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 11.7 1.3 0.3 4.3% 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 2.7 0.5 0.1 67.2% 10.5 50.3 6.4 12.2% 8.1 3.3 0.8 1.0% 33,264 6.8% 0.9 0 0.4 0.1 0 4.5 0.8 0.2 2.6% 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.5 0.3 0 74.0% 19.5 47.8 6.8 15.5% 3.0 11.7 0.9 1.0% 24,153 Other 32.8% 7.1 0.5 0.5 2.0 9.5 4.5 6.4 2.3 11.4% 0 0.7 0.3 0.7 8.9 0.3 0.4 42.7% 6.8 30.7 5.1 10.8% 6.8 3.2 0.8 2.3% 4,256

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 51

Table 4.5. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by age, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates 24 or younger 53.1% 11.1 1.8 0.9 1.0 2.5 21.2 13.5 1.1 20.8% 11.2 2.9 2.9 0.4 1.7 1.2 0.6 17.9% 7.8 9.8 0.3 7.9% 3.6 2.7 1.6 0.3% 207,639 25-34 42.8% 9.6 1.6 0.9 2.0 4.9 14.0 9.1 0.7 24.4% 12.0 4.5 2.0 0.5 3.0 2.0 0.4 22.2% 9.5 12.1 0.6 10.3% 2.7 3.5 4.2 0.3% 399,543 35-44 45.3% 11.5 1.2 1.5 3.5 7.3 12.2 7.6 0.5 22.6% 10.8 4.7 1.4 0.5 3.0 1.6 0.5 21.2% 9.1 11.6 0.5 10.7% 2.0 3.3 5.4 0.2% 307,874 45-54 54.1% 17.9 2.2 1.5 4.7 9.5 9.1 8.3 0.9 16.1% 6.2 4.3 0.9 0.7 2.5 1.2 0.2 19.9% 8.3 10.6 1.0 10.0% 1.2 2.4 6.4 0.0% 101,348 55 or older 61.4% 23.8 2.4 1.4 3.7 18.2 4.2 6.3 1.5 12.6% 3.5 3.6 0 1.2 3.3 0.4 0.7 16.3% 6.7 9.4 0.3 9.3% 0.8 1.1 7.4 0.3% 30,301 24 or younger 17.8% 1.9 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 12.2 1.7 1.0 3.8% 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.9 1.5 0.2 0.0 62.6% 10.7 49.5 2.4 14.7% 8.6 0.0 6.1 1.1% 7,831 Percent of Federal prison inmates 25-34 13.3% 1.6 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 9.1 1.1 0.3 5.4% 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 3.1 0.6 0.2 65.1% 12.1 47.8 5.2 15.1% 7.1 0.9 7.1 1.1% 32,207 35-44 15.0% 0.9 0 0.7 0.1 0.5 10.6 1.5 0.6 6.6% 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.0 0.6 0.1 62.8% 12.1 43.8 6.8 14.4% 6.7 0.8 6.9 1.1% 26,921 45-54 15.9% 1.9 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.8 10.2 1.5 0.6 10.2% 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.3 8.4 0.3 0.1 57.2% 8.2 42.8 6.3 15.7% 6.8 1.1 7.8 1.0% 14,377 55 or younger 15.0% 1.5 0 0.9 0.5 1.3 8.3 0.6 1.9 10.0% 0.2 0.2 0 0 9.2 0.4 0 60.8% 14.1 42.1 4.6 13.1% 4.1 0.3 8.7 1.1% 6,682

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

52 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.6. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates Male Female Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic 49.6% 44.7% 29.6% 28.5% 23.4% 12.8 11.0 10.8 7.4 6.0 1.3 1.8 3.3 2.6 0.9 0.9 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 2.4 1.2 0.9 0.1 0.4 3.3 4.6 1.7 0.2 0.9 19.1 13.2 5.6 8.5 7.3 9.1 11.1 4.8 8.1 6.8 0.5 0.7 1.9 1.1 0.4 18.7% 9.7 3.7 1.5 0.4 1.7 1.3 0.4 24.0% 10.0 13.4 0.6 7.4 2.8 2.6 2.0 0.3% 457,010 18.3% 9.2 3.2 2.6 0.2 1.3 1.5 0.5 26.4% 11.2 14.8 0.4 10.2 2.7 3.1 4.4 0.3% 168,477 34.1% 6.2 8.0 1.6 0.6 15.9 1.5 0.2 23.3% 11.4 10.4 1.5 12.7 1.1 4.6 7.0 0.3% 21,932 23.9% 4.6 9.6 0.7 0.5 7.5 0.8 0.2 39.3% 15.9 22.0 1.5 8.0 0.8 4.5 2.7 0.3% 31,200 20.2% 4.1 8.0 1.1 0 5.7 1.1 0.2 44.0% 16.3 27.5 0.2 12.4 1.1 6.2 5.1 0% 10,180 Percent of Federal prison inmates Male Female Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic 15.9% 7.3% 10.9% 6.5% 2.1% 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.5 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 0 0.2 0 0 12.3 4.7 5.8 3.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 1.3 1.0 0 0.3 0.2 2.2 0.4 0.2 3.9% 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 2.3 0.5 0.1 66.7% 10.6 49.6 6.6 12.4 8.5 0.9 3.1 1.1% 31,058 2.6% 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.3 0 72.7% 19.6 46.1 7.0 16.5 3.3 0.9 12.4 0.9% 22,100 23.1% 0.2 1.3 0 0.2 19.9 1.2 0.3 54.1% 2.2 49.7 2.1 9.4 1.1 0.6 7.6 2.5% 1,866 10.1% 0 0.2 0 0 8.4 1.2 0.3 73.5% 9.6 60.6 3.4 9.1 2.6 0.3 6.2 0.8% 2,206 3.0% 0 0.4 0 0.3 2.1 0.3 0 88.3% 17.7 65.8 4.8 5.0 0.4 0.6 4.1 1.6% 2,052

Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates

White 48.2% 11.3 1.6 1.5 3.7 11.2 9.0 8.9 1.0 27.9% 14.1 4.6 2.2 0.8 3.4 2.1 0.7 11.0% 5.2 5.3 0.5 12.8 2.0 3.2 7.5 0.1% 324,801

White 19.2% 1.2 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.3 14.3 1.0 1.1 12.2% 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 9.2 0.7 0.2 49.1% 6.4 39.0 3.7 18.7 9.4 0.6 8.7 0.9% 24,479

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 53

Table 4.7. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and by age, 1997
Percent of inmates Male Current offense Percent of State prison inmates Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of State prison inmates Percent of Federal prison inmates Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larcenty/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of Federal prison inmates 18.3% 2.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 12.6 1.8 0.9 3.7% 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.0 1.3 0.2 0 61.5% 10.5 48.6 2.3 15.4% 9.2 0 6.2 1.1% 7,277 13.7% 1.6 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 9.5 1.1 0.3 5.1% 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 2.7 0.6 0.2 64.5% 12.3 46.9 5.4 15.6% 7.6 0.9 7.1 1.1% 29,954 15.9% 0.9 0 0.8 0.1 0.6 11.3 1.6 0.6 6.0% 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 4.5 0.5 0.1 61.9% 12.2 42.7 7.1 15.1% 7.2 0.8 7.1 1.0% 24,868 16.4% 1.9 0 0.7 0.3 1.1 10.2 1.2 1.1 9.7% 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 8.1 0.3 0.1 57.8% 10.1 41.8 5.9 15.3% 6.3 0.9 8.2 0.8% 19,524 11.1% 0 1.7 0.8 0 0 6.9 0 1.8 4.9% 0 0 0 0 4.2 0 0.7 76.7% 12.6 60.4 3.7 6.2% 0.7 0.7 4.9 1.1% 553 8.3% 1.2 0.2 0 0 0 4.3 1.7 1.0 9.5% 0 0.5 0 0 7.9 0.9 0.2 73.0% 8.8 60.9 3.3 8.3% 1.3 0.8 6.1 0.9% 2,253 4.7% 0.8 0 0 0 0.2 2.4 0.5 0.9 13.7% 0.2 0.8 0 0.3 11.1 1.1 0.3 73.3% 11.5 57.8 3.9 6.4% 1.5 0.4 4.6 1.9% 2,053 5.4% 0.7 0.4 0.8 0 0 2.1 1.1 0.3 16.7% 0 0.5 0 0.3 15.3 0.6 0 65.6% 9.1 53.3 3.3 9.4% 1.4 0.4 7.6 2.9% 1,536 53.8% 11.1 1.8 0.9 1.1 2.6 21.6 13.7 1.1 20.5% 11.3 2.8 3.0 0.4 1.2 1.2 0.6 17.4% 7.7 9.4 0.3 7.9% 3.7 2.7 1.5 0.3% 200,008 44.0% 9.9 1.5 0.9 2.1 5.2 14.5 9.2 0.7 24.2% 12.6 4.2 2.0 0.5 2.4 2.0 0.5 21.3% 9.0 11.6 0.6 10.3% 2.8 3.3 4.1 0.3% 370,994 46.9% 11.8 1.2 1.6 3.8 7.8 12.6 7.8 0.4 22.3% 11.2 4.3 1.5 0.5 2.5 1.7 0.6 20.0% 8.6 11.0 0.4 10.6% 2.0 3.1 5.5 0.2% 285,454 57.0% 19.4 2.0 1.5 4.7 12.1 8.3 7.8 1.0 14.8% 5.8 3.8 0.7 0.8 2.3 1.0 0.4 18.4% 7.6 10.0 0.8 9.8% 1.2 1.9 6.7 0.1% 124,515 35.2% 9.9 1.9 1.3 0 0.6 10.5 8.8 2.2 28.3% 8.9 4.8 1.4 0.2 12.2 0.4 0.3 29.1% 10.3 18.8 0 7.4% 1.4 2.0 4.1 0% 7,631 27.4% 6.9 2.5 0.5 0.4 0.9 7.8 7.5 0.9 26.8% 4.8 8.4 1.7 0.3 10.1 1.5 0.1 34.4% 15.6 17.6 1.1 11.1% 1.0 5.4 4.7 0.3% 28,549 24.9% 7.8 2.2 0.2 0.6 1.0 6.8 5.0 1.4 26.6% 4.8 9.6 0.7 0.6 9.7 0.9 0.3 37.5% 15.4 20.2 2.0 10.7% 1.0 5.1 4.6 0.2% 22,420 34.6% 15.9 5.0 1.0 0.3 1.2 2.5 7.5 1.1 23.9% 2.6 10.3 0 0.6 8.9 1.5 0 30.5% 12.8 16.8 0.9 10.5% 0.3 4.7 5.5 0.6% 7,135 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45 or older 24 or younger Female 25-34 35-44 45 or older

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

54 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.8. Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for State prison inmates, 1997
Maximum sentence Number Median Mean 1,013,708 120 mo 160.4 mo 484,463 121,510 16,438 26,508 60,956 145,548 94,200 19,303 222,294 108,746 42119 18,187 27,160 16,189 9,893 208,900 89,152 114,145 5,602 95,514 24,465 28,572 42,476 2,538 180 mo 744 180 300 180 144 108 148 72 mo 108 54 60 60 60 66 60 mo 48 84 84 48 mo 54 42 48 96 mo 226.1 mo 376.5 199.9 314.0 207.3 206.2 146.7 196.9 119.0 mo 146.1 85.2 87.9 104.1 89.9 117.0 109.7 mo 90.5 124.4 115.2 81.9 mo 81.8 75.7 86.1 104.3 mo Time from sentence  To date of interview To date of expected release Median Mean Median Mean 33 mo 50.2 mo 58 mo 90.5 mo 51 mo 89 52 77 43 46 32 39 27 mo 32 21 23 19 22 28 21 mo 17 23 22 18 mo 22 19 14 35 mo 70.1 mo 107.4 57.3 92.0 55.1 61.2 44.7 60.3 37.0 mo 42.4 30.0 35.4 27.1 34.4 40.2 28.8 mo 25.1 31.6 31.5 28.1 mo 31.1 28.5 26.2 47.3 mo 97 mo 195 89 149 87 81 63 77 44 mo 54 32 39 32 38 43 37 mo 30 42 33 30 mo 38 28 26 62 mo 132.8 221.7 102.0 174.7 117.4 109.7 88.6 121.3 64.4 75.1 49.9 60.7 46.4 60.6 71.3 49.5 43.6 54.3 45.6 48.0 51.7 48.3 45.6 79.9 mo

Current offense Total Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Rape Sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other offenses

mo

mo

mo

mo

Note: Because data on sentence length and time served are restricted to persons serving sentences at the time of the survey, they overstate sentences of those entering prison. Persons with shorter sentences leave prison more quickly, resulting in a longer average sentence among persons in the inmate sample. Time served to date of interview and to date of expected release include any jail time applied to their sentence.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 55

Table 4.9. Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for Federal prison inmates, 1997
Sentence length Number Median 86,631 96 mo 12,798 1,326 678 8,685 1,114 994 5,838 265 400 4,231 943 54,314 9,764 39,628 4,922 12,771 5,981 6,791 910 125 mo 396 135 120 96 108 36 mo 72 24 33 36 114 mo 90 111 135 69 mo 95 53 97 mo Time from sentence  To date of interview To date of expected release Median Mean Median Mean 38 mo 48.5 mo 84 mo 105.6 mo 55 mo 101 60 54 56 38 18 mo 50 19 15 32 40 mo 44 37 50 28 mo 38 22 33 mo 72.4 mo 122.2 67.9 67.0 61.8 68.8 27.3 mo 60.2 39.6 21.2 39.5 47.7 mo 48.0 46.5 56.4 38.0 mo 44.1 32.7 41.5 mo 107 mo 243 125 103 102 79 32 mo 88 37 28 45 91 mo 84 90 121 60 mo 84 45 91 mo 137.4 mo 250.3 116.1 127.5 128.8 133.9 47.8 mo 116.1 55.0 38.3 68.9 109.0 mo 97.8 108.0 141.8 86.4 mo 113.0 62.5 104.6 mo

Current offense Total Violent offenses Homicide Sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny Fraud Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Other public-order Other offenses

Mean 126.5 mo 165.3 mo 251.8 192.3 157.9 157.8 152.8 59.0 mo 86.0 53.9 53.7 77.8 129.4 mo 109.7 131.3 155.5 107.2 mo 137.7 79.7 142.9 mo

Note: Because data on sentence length and time served are restricted to persons serving sentences at the time of the survey, they overstate sentences of those entering prison. Persons with shorter sentences leave prison more quickly, resulting in a longer average sentence among persons in the inmate sample. Time served to date of interview and to date of expected release include any jail time applied to their sentence.

56 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.10. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State Federal 1997 1991 1997 1991 100% 100% 100.0% 100.0% 24.1% 15.2 8.9 46.8% 16.6 18.2 12.0 29.1% 0.6 28.4 19.3% 12.7 6.5 48.8% 17.3 18.8 12.7 31.9% 1.2 30.7 39.1% 4.7 34.3 23.2% 7.2 4.2 11.8 37.8% 0.4 37.4 43.3% 4.6 38.7 22.6% 7.4 6.1 9.1 34.1% 2.3 31.8

Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates

24.5% 16.7 16.2 24.7 12.0 6.0

20.2% 19.3 16.2 25.8 12.5 6.0

39.4% 17.2 14.1 18.9 7.6 2.7

43.9% 19.4 13.0 15.8 5.6 2.3

52.7% 22.2 24.4 0.7 1,054,587

53.5% 23.0 22.4 1.1 693,373

72.8% 13.4 13.5 0.3 88,535

75.8% 11.7 11.7 0.9 53,164

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted of only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 57

Table 4.11. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates Male 100% 23.4% 15.2 8.2 48.4% 17.3 18.9 12.2 28.2% 0.6 27.6 Percent of State prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 100% 100% 100% 100% 34.9% 15.3 19.6 23.2% 5.7 8.9 8.6 41.8% 1.2 40.7 23.8% 16.3 7.5 44.7% 14.2 19.6 10.9 31.5% 0.9 30.6 22.0% 13.8 8.2 50.2% 19.5 17.7 13.0 27.7% 0.4 27.3 29.9% 16.2 13.7 41.0% 13.0 16.7 11.3 29.1% 0.8 28.3 Other 100% 26.4% 17.8 8.6 50.2% 18.7 20.6 10.9 23.4% 0.9 22.4 Percent of Federal prison inmates Male Female White Black Hispanic 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36.9% 4.8 32.1 24.5% 7.7 4.4 12.4 38.7% 0.4 38.3 67.2% 4.5 62.7 6.5% 1.3 1.9 3.4 26.3% 0.6 25.7 37.8% 6.1 31.7 25.5% 9.0 5.3 11.2 36.7% 0.5 36.2 28.2% 3.9 24.3 29.1% 8.6 4.1 16.4 42.1% 0.4 42.3 52.5% 2.0 50.0 11.7% 3.0 2.3 6.4 35.8% 0.3 35.4 Other 100% 54.3% 18.0 36.3 28.1% 9.4 9.2 9.5 17.6% 0 17.6

23.7% 16.6 16.3 25.0 12.3 6.1

35.6% 17.2 15.5 19.1 7.7 4.9

24.2% 15.4 13.4 23.7 15.1 8.1

22.3% 17.7 18.2 27.1 10.5 4.1

30.3% 16.4 16.8 20.6 9.0 6.3

26.7% 16.6 13.1 20.7 12.6 10

37.2% 17.5 14.7 19.8 8.0 2.8

67.4% 13.6 7.4 7.9 2.5 1.2

38.3% 16.4 13.0 17.8 10.4 4.1

28.4% 18.7 16.7 25.8 8.2 2.2

53.1% 16.7 12.8 11.7 4.3 1.5

55.1% 13.4 8.7 12.6 5.7 4.6

53.1% 21.4 24.8 0.7 988,572

46.8% 34.1 18.3 0.8 66,015

55.6% 23.2 20.1 1.1 350,764

50.5% 21.9 27.1 0.5 487,787

52.3% 21.0 26.3 0.4 178,487

58.3% 21.5 19.0 1.2 33,522

71.9% 13.6 14.3 0.2 82,125

84.8% 10.6 3.9 0.7 6,409

75.1% 9.6 14.8 0.5 26,448

68.2% 16.8 14.9 0.1 33,438

74.6% 13.7 11.3 0.4 24,272

84.0% 8.4 7.3 0.4 4,377

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted for only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

58 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.12. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, by age, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates 24 or 45 or younger 25-34 35-44 older 100% 100% 100% 100% 30.6% 20 10.6 45.2% 16.3 19.8 9.1 24.2% 0.8 23.5 21.2% 12.4 8.8 46.1% 15.2 18.5 12.4 32.7% 0.6 32.1 21.5% 13.3 8.2 48.3% 16.9 17.7 13.7 30.2% 0.6 29.6 28.8% 20.4 8.4 48.1% 20.6 16.3 11.2 23.0% 0.7 22.4 Percent of Federal prison inmates 24 or 45 or younger 25-34 35-44 older 100% 100% 100% 100% 30.9% 8.4 28.5 26.9% 5.7 7.7 35.4 36.2% 0.8 35.4 37.6% 4.3 33.2 22.5% 5.9 4.7 11.9 39.9% 0.4 39.6 39.0% 3.6 35.5 22.6% 8.4 3.5 10.6 38.4% 0.2 38.1 42.1% 5.5 36.6 23.6% 8.2 3.1 12.4 34.2% 0.4 33.8

Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates

30.8% 18.1 17.9 21.9 7.5 3.7

21.5% 16.9 16.4 26.3 12.9 6.0

21.9% 15.7 16.2 25.2 13.8 7.2

29.5% 16.1 13.0 22.8 11.9 6.7

37.4% 19.3 12.6 22.9 6.0 1.8

37.9% 18.7 14.5 18.5 7.4 3.1

39.4% 17.0 13.7 19.9 7.6 2.5

42.6% 14.5 14.8 16.8 8.7 2.7

53.1% 34.4 11.8 0.7 208,892

47.5% 23.0 28.8 0.8 402,356

53.9% 17.1 28.2 0.8 310,417

65.3% 12.5 21.9 0.3 132,922

69.2% 21.3 9.3 0.1 7,845

70.5% 17.9 11.3 0.3 32,473

72.7% 10.8 16.2 0.3 27,067

77.7% 6.9 15.2 0.3 21,149

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted for only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 59

Table 4.13. Physical or sexual abuse before admission to prison, by gender and race/Hispanic origin of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Characteristic of prior abuse State prison inmates Ever abused Physically only Sexually only Both Age of victim at time of abuse 17 or younger only 18 or older only Both Age of abuser Adult Juvenile only Rape before admission Completed Attempted Number of State inmates Federal prison inmates Ever abused Physically only Sexually only Both Age of victim at time of abuse 17 or younger only 18 or older only Both Age of abuser Adult Juvenile only Rape before admission Completed Attempted Number of Federal inmates 9.5% 5.8 1.6 2.1 7.2% 5.0 1.1 1.1 11.8% 8.3 1.3 2.3 4.9% 3.2 1.0 0.7 3.7% 2.5 1.0 0.1 39.9% 17.2 7.6 15.1 54.2% 22.5 8.4 23.3 35.7% 17.5 7.4 10.9 32.5% 12.5 7.3 12.7 18.7% 10.8 3.3 4.6 16.1% 10.3 2.8 3.0 24.0% 14.7 3.7 5.6 11.7% 7.4 2.6 1.7 11.9% 8.8 1.5 1.6 57.2% 18.3 10.8 28.0 71.2% 20.6 9.5 41.1 48.9% 16.7 13.3 18.9 52.3% 17.1 6.9 28.4 Total Total Male inmates White Black Hispanic Total Female inmates White Black Hispanic

11.8% 2.9 3.9

11.8% 1.7 2.5

18.8% 1.5 3.7

8.0% 1.9 1.8

8.1% 1.7 2.1

12.0% 20.3 24.7

14.4% 21.4 35.2

10.6% 20.6 17.4

11.0% 17.5 23.8

17.6% 0.9 6.0% 4.9 1.0 1,049,745

15.0% 0.9 4.0% 3.1 0.8 984,320

22.4% 1.3 6.4% 5.1 1.2

10.8% 0.7 2.8% 2.1 0.6

11.3% 0.5 2.4% 1.9 0.4 167,969

55.8% 1.0 37.3% 32.8 4.3 65,425

68.9% 1.9 48.9% 43.9 4.7 21,811

47.6% 0.8 30.9% 26.7 3.9 31,069

52.3% 0 33.8% 29.1 4.8 10,102

328,536 456,37

4.8% 2.4 2.3

4.5% 1.3 1.3

7.7% 2.0 2.1

2.7% 1.2 1.0

2.7% 0.8 0.3

8.9% 16.8 14.2

8.5% 22.4 23.3

9.4% 15.3 11.0

8.7% 14.1 9.7

9.2% 0.2 2.9% 2.3 0.5 87,953

6.9% 0.2 1.4% 1.0 0.3 81,607

11.6% 0.2 2.5% 1.6 0.7

4.8% 0.1 1.2% 1.1 0.0

3.4% 0.3 0.6% 0.2 0.1 22,005

39.0% 0.3 21.4% 17.9 3.2 6,347

54.1% 0.2 28.0% 24.5 3.5 1,866

33.8 0.6 17.8% 15.9 0.8 2,187

31.8% 0.2 20.0% 14.9 5.1 2,022

24,241 31,221

60 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.14. Alcohol or drug use at time of offense of State and Federal inmates, by type of offense, 1997
Estimated number of inmatesa State Federal 1,046,705 494,349 122,435 16,592 89,328 148,001 97,897 20,096 230,177 111,884 43,936 19,279 28,102 26,976 216,254 92,373 117,926 5,955 103,344 25,642 77,702 88,018 13,021 1,288 53 713 8,770 1,151 1,046 5,964 294 414 216 4,283 757 55,069 10,094 40,053 4,922 13,026 6,025 7,001 Percent of inmates who reported being under the influence at the time of the offense Alcohol Drugs Alcohol or drugs State Federal State Federal State Federal 37.2 % 41.7 % 44.6 52.0 40.0 37.4 45.1 39.6 34.5 % 37.2 33.7 32.2 25.2 36.0 27.4 % 29.6 25.5 29.9 43.2 % 28.3 48.1 20.4 % 24.5 % 38.7 ... 32.3 18.0 46.0 32.2 15.6 % ... ... ... 10.4 22.8 19.8 % 21.3 19.4 19.7 20.6 % 23.0 18.5 32.6 % 29.0 % 26.8 17.4 21.5 39.9 24.2 29.0 36.6 % 38.4 38.4 39.0 30.5 30.6 41.9 % 42.6 41.0 47.1 23.1 % 22.4 23.3 22.4 % 24.5 % 29.4 ... 7.9 27.8 13.8 15.9 10.8 % ... ... ... 6.5 16.4 25.0 % 25.1 25.9 17.1 15.6 % 24.4 8.1 52.5 % 51.9 % 52.4 56.0 45.2 55.6 51.8 48.2 53.2 % 55.7 54.2 51.2 42.8 53.2 52.4 % 53.9 50.9 59.2 56.2 % 41.8 60.9 34.0 % 39.8 % 52.4 ... 32.3 37.6 50.5 37.2 22.6 % ... ... ... 14.5 34.6 34.6 % 36.0 35.0 29.0 30.2 % 37.1 24.1

Type of offense Total Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultb Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Other public-order
a

...Too few cases to permit calculation. Based on cases with valid offense data. b Includes rape and other sexual assault.

Table 4.15. Drug use of State and Federal inmates, by type of drug, 1991 and 1997
Percent of inmates who reported  Using drugs in the Ever using drugs regularlya month before 1997 1991 1997 1991 Using drugs at the time of the offense 1997 1991

Type of drug State inmates Any drugb Marijuana/hashish Cocaine/crack Heroin/opiates Depressantsc Stimulantsd Hallucinogense Inhalants Federal inmates Any drugb Marijuana/hashish Cocaine/crack Heroin/opiates Depressantsc Stimulantsd Hallucinogense Inhalants

Ever using drugs 1997 1991

83.0 % 77.0 49.2 24.5 23.7 28.3 28.7 14.4

79.4 % 73.8 49.4 25.2 24.0 29.7 26.9 --

69.6 % 58.3 33.6 15.0 11.3 16.3 11.3 5.4

62.2 % 51.9 31.9 15.3 10.8 16.6 11.5 --

56.5 % 39.2 25.0 9.2 5.1 9.0 4.0 1.0

49.9 % 32.2 25.2 9.6 3.8 7.4 3.7 --

32.6 % 15.1 14.8 5.6 1.8 4.2 1.8 --

31.0% 11.4 14.5 5.8 1.0 2.9 1.6 --

72.9 % 65.2 44.8 16.1 16.5 20.9 19.0 7.7

60.1 % 52.8 37.3 14.1 13.1 16.8 14.8 --

57.3 % 46.6 28.2 8.9 8.0 12.9 6.4 2.6

42.1 % 32.2 20.6 9.3 5.3 8.3 4.8 --

44.8 % 30.4 20.0 5.4 3.2 7.6 1.7 0.5

31.8 % 19.2 15.4 5.5 1.4 3.9 1.2 --

22.4 % 10.8 9.3 3.0 1.0 4.1 0.8 --

16.8% 5.9 7.7 3.7 0.3 1.8 0.5 --

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have used more than one type of drug. --Not reported. Used drugs at least once a week for at least a month. b Other unspecified drugs are included in the totals. c Includes barbiturates, tranquilizers, and Quaalude. d Includes amphetamine and methamphetamine. e Includes LSD and PCP.
a

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 61

Table 4.16. Levels of prior drug and alcohol abuse, by selected characteristics of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Percent of inmates reporting the use of drugs In the month At the Ever in prior to time of the past offense offense 83.0 % 56.5 % 32.6 % Percent of inmates reporting prior alcohol abuse Ever had Under the Had three or a “binge influence of more positive drinking” alcohol at the CAGE b experience time of offense responsec 41.0 % 37.2 % 24.4 %

Characteristic All State inmates Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other Age 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older All Federal inmates Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other Age 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older
a b

Estimated number of prisonersa 1,059,607

993,365 66,242

82.9 % 84.0

56.1 % 62.4

32.1 % 40.4

41.8 % 29.9

37.7 % 29.1

24.5 % 23.4

352,864 492,676 179,998 34,069

83.6 % 83.7 80.7 79.0

55.2 % 58.3 55.0 52.7

33.9 % 31.9 33.0 27.8

53.5 % 31.9 39.9 49.6

42.7 % 33.0 36.7 41.7

33.5 % 18.6 22.0 27.7

209,343 404,034 311,999 103,470 30,761 89,072

84.1 % 86.4 86.3 70.5 39.0 72.9 %

63.2 % 60.0 56.5 40.4 18.4 44.8 %

33.3 % 35.0 34.5 22.7 9.7 22.4 %

40.2 % 42.3 42.3 37.4 29.3 30.3 %

30.7 % 37.7 41.3 37.7 30.2 20.4 %

15.8 % 24.8 28.6 28.5 22.5 16.2 %

82,646 6,426

73.7 % 62.8

45.4 % 36.7

22.7 % 19.3

31.2 % 18.8

20.9 % 15.1

16.6 % 11.6

26,616 33,697 24,349 4,411

77.2 % 77.5 63.5 64.2

49.4 % 47.2 37.5 38.5

28.6 % 22.2 16.9 18.1

38.3 % 25.0 28.2 34.9

22.1 % 21.1 16.8 26.0

19.3 % 12.5 17.8 17.6

7,933 32,634 27,259 14,501 6,746

80.4 % 76.0 77.2 67.6 43.6

57.2 % 48.5 46.8 35.2 24.3

28.1 % 23.0 24.7 18.8 11.8

31.8 % 32.1 30.8 29.1 20.8

18.4 % 22.5 20.5 20.2 13.4

12.0 % 15.3 17.2 19.7 14.5

Based on probability of selection in the sample and adjusted to June 30, 1997, custody counts. Binge drinking is defined as having consumed as much as a fifth of liquor in a single day, equivalent to 20 drinks, 3 bottles of wine, or as many as 3 six-packs of beer. c The CAGE questionnaire is a diagnostic instrument for detecting a person's history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In clinical tests, the presence of 3 or more positive responses was predictive of a history of alcohol abuse. See Explanatory notes.

62 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.17. Substance abuse treatment history of State inmates, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997
Gender Male Female 56.2 % 33.7 43.1 60.7 % 47.1 42.9 Percent of State inmates Race/Hispanic origin White* Black* Hispanic Other Violent 63.9 % 42.8 50.2 54.0 % 30.5 40.8 48.4 % 28.6 34.9 57.1 % 37.2 44.2 50.3 % 27.0 39.4 Current offense Property Drug 62.4 % 41.9 47.6 61.7 % 39.6 44.5

Type of treatment Ever any treatment or programs Ever any treatment Ever other alcohol/drug programs Participated while under correctional supervision Any treatment In prison/jail On probation/parole Other alcohol/drug programs In prison/jail On probation/parole Participated since admission Any treatment Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol/drug programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Number of inmates

Total 56.4 % 34.5 43.1

Public-order 63.9 % 44.7 49.0

47.8 % 26.2 % 19.7 15.0 37.5 % 33.3 17.2 32.5 % 12.0 % 6.9 5.1 0.8 0.2 27.5 % 22.7 12.6 1,047,933

47.6 % 25.6 19.3 14.4 37.5 % 33.3 16.9 32.3 % 11.7 % 6.7 5.0 0.8 0.2 27.5 % 22.6 12.7 982,597

50.6 % 34.8 25.0 23.1 37.6 % 32.7 21.3 34.7 % 16.3 % 10.2 6.5 1.0 1.0 28.3 % 24.8 11.8 65,336

53.8 % 32.0 23.7 19.3 43.5 % 38.2 22.4 36.5 % 14.0 % 8.4 6.0 0.8 0.2 31.3 % 26.1 14.7 349,780

45.9 % 23.3 17.7 12.8 35.8 % 32.5 14.4 31.6 % 11.0 % 6.3 4.7 0.5 0.1 27.1 % 22.3 12.5 486,269

40.9 % 22.4 16.9 12.7 30.2 % 25.3 14.7 26.7 % 10.6 % 5.3 4.4 1.4 0.6 20.8 % 17.2 9.2 178,139

48.2 % 26.6 21.0 15.0 38.8 % 36.1 15.7 33.8 % 12.2 % 7.4 5.4 1.0 0.0 29.4 % 23.9 12.5 33,745

42.0 % 19.4 15.6 8.9 33.9 % 31.2 10.7 30.8 % 9.9 % 5.4 4.4 0.6 0.1 26.6 % 22.0 12.2 488,390

53.9 % 32.5 23.4 21.1 42.0 % 36.7 23.3 34.2 % 13.5 % 8.3 5.7 1.1 0.4 29.1 % 23.9 13.2 228,368

52.1 % 31.0 22.8 18.3 39.0 % 33.7 20.5 34.8 % 14.5 % 8.8 5.4 1.2 0.4 28.6 % 23.3 13.5 214,476

55.6 % 35.7 25.5 24.3 43.7 % 36.8 28.5 33.6 % 14.3 % 7.7 7.1 0.5 0.3 27.9 % 24.2 12.7 101,925

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have participated in more than one type of treatment program. *Includes non-Hispanic inmates only.

Table 4.18. Substance abuse treatment history of Federal inmates, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997
Gender Male Female 46.9 % 24.6 35.9 40.4 % 24.7 30.0 Percent of Federal inmates Race/Hispanic origin White* Black* Hispanic Other 53.7 % 32.0 42.8 48.4 % 23.6 36.7 36.4 % 17.6 26.4 43.0 % 26.7 31.8 Current offense Property Drug Public-order 33.2 % 19.6 25.7 47.1 % 23.8 35.6 45.0 % 23.3 35.0

Type of treatment Ever any treatment or programs Ever any treatment Ever other alcohol/drug programs Participated while under correctional supervision Any treatment In prison/jail On probation/parole Other alcohol/drug programs In prison/jail On probation/parole Participated since admission Any treatment Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol/drug programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Number of inmates

Total 46.4 % 24.6 35.4

Violent 51.1 % 31.1 40.5

39.2 % 18.9 % 15.0 8.4 30.9 % 27.4 10.1 28.2 % 10.4 % 7.3 3.8 0.2 0.2 23.1 % 11.2 16.8 87,839

39.6 % 18.9 15.0 8.4 31.3 % 27.6 10.4 28.3 % 10.3 % 7.2 3.7 0.1 0.2 23.2 % 11.0 16.9 81,501

33.5 % 18.3 15.0 8.1 26.3 % 24.6 6.6 26.7 % 11.3 % 7.5 4.6 1.0 0.0 22.0 % 12.9 15.1 6,338

45.8 % 24.2 17.8 12.1 37.4 % 33.6 14.6 34.2 % 13.2 % 9.5 4.9 0.1 0.0 28.4 % 13.6 21.7 26,020

41.6 % 19.1 15.8 8.3 31.9 % 27.7 9.8 28.5 % 10.7 % 6.6 4.4 0.3 0.3 23.4 % 11.4 16.8 33,327

29.5 % 13.0 11.0 4.4 23.0 % 20.5 5.6 21.2 % 7.4 % 6.0 2.0 0.2 0.3 16.8 % 7.5 12.0 24,081

34.4 % 18.0 15.0 9.1 28.4 % 26.9 10.2 27.9 % 8.4 % 6.4 2.4 0.0 0.4 24.1 % 14.8 13.0 4,411

42.2 % 22.5 17.7 13.5 35.1 % 32.2 12.7 31.6 % 12.6 % 7.5 7.1 0.4 0.5 27.0 % 15.1 18.9 12,835

27.7 % 14.9 10.6 7.7 21.9 % 17.7 11.9 17.4 % 7.9 % 5.3 3.5 0.0 0.0 13.3 % 8.0 8.8 5,890

40.3 % 18.7 15.1 7.4 31.2 % 27.5 9.5 29.3 % 10.4 % 7.6 3.3 0.1 0.1 23.9 % 10.9 17.6 54,346

37.5 % 17.8 14.2 7.8 30.4 % 26.8 10.4 24.9 % 9.0 % 6.4 2.7 0.5 0.4 20.6 % 10.4 15.1 12,792

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have participated in more than one type of treatment. *Includes non-Hispanic inmates only.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 63

Table 4.19. Types of drug treatment received by State and Federal inmates since admission, by prior drug use, 1991 and 1997
Percent of inmates who participated since admission State Federal 1991 1997 1991 1997 29.6 % 24.5 % 7.3 20.5 ... ... 15.5 % 13.3 4.7 24.4 % 9.7 % 5.7 4.1 0.6 0.2 20.3 % 16.1 10.2 19.4 % 24.5 % 15.7 % 4.6 13.4 ... ... 9.2 % 6.4 3.3 0.2 0.2 Number of inmates who participated since admission State Federal 1991 1997 1991 1997 204,400 169,700 50,500 142,100 ... ... 107,200 91,900 32,700 255,600 101,200 59,400 42,600 6,400 2,200 212,900 168,700 107,300 10,300 8,300 2,500 7,100 ... ... 5,300 4,200 2,000 21,500 8,100 5,700 2,900 100 200 17,500 7,800 13,300

Type of drug treatment or program since admission Any drug treatment/program Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other drug abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program

10.1 % 20.0 % 7.8 8.9 3.8 15.2

Note: Inmates may have participated in more than one type of drug treatment or programs since admission. Data on treatment participation was missing for 1.8% of Federal and 1.8% of State inmates in 1991, and for 1.4% of Federal and 1.1% of State inmates in 1997. Data have been rounded to the nearest 100. ...Data on these specific types of programs are not available for 1991.

Table 4.20. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug treatment or abuse programs since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Estimated number of inmates 990,624 229,308 158,011 603,305 Percent of inmates participating in drug treatment or abuse programs since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and Any drugs than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 35.0 % 38.6 37.5 33.2 548,546 85,928 12,042 9,714 64,172 40.0 % 55.1 46.0 36.8 35,352 39.7 % 43.0 40.3 38.2 350,440 45.5 % 60.9 49.5 42.4 21,585 32.5 % 36.3 35.5 30.8 373,884 36.6 % 54.5 44.7 32.4 24,163 43.5 % 47.0 45.5 41.5 231,776 47.5 % 59.0 53.7 45.2 14,420 40.0 % 48.1 38.2 36.8 86,706 45.1 % 63.3 51.7 41.2 4,217 32.1 % 34.3 24.8 32.9 81,400 51.0 % 74.0 41.9 47.5 5,641

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Number of inmates Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Number of inmates

Note: Treatment for drug abuse includes time in a residential facility, professional counseling, detoxification, and use of a maintenance drug. Drug abuse programs include self-help groups, peer counseling, and education/awareness programs. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamines and methamphetamines.

64 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.21. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug treatment since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Percent of inmates reporting drug treatment since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 18.4 % 23.1 20.0 16.3 18.9 % 30.7 23.6 15.7 12.6 % 17.6 15.6 10.4 13.3 % 26.2 21.2 9.7 20.7 % 26.1 22.2 18.4 19.7 % 30.9 26.9 16.6 21.0 % 28.5 20.9 18.1 24.3 % 37.5 32.9 20.7 14.6 % 16.9 13.1 13.9 19.1 % 27.3 11.7 17.6

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year

Any 14.9 % 19.7 17.5 12.7 15.8 % 26.3 21.4 13.2

Note: Treatment for drug abuse includes time in a residential facility, professional counseling, detoxification, and use of a maintenance drug. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamine and methamphetamine.

Table 4.22. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug abuse programs since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Percent of inmates participating in drug abuse programs since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and Any drugs than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 28.9 % 30.6 30.4 28.0 32.8 % 46.7 35.4 30.3 32.4 % 33.9 32.0 31.9 36.8 % 52.6 35.8 34.4 27.2 % 29.4 29.6 26.2 31.1 % 45.8 36.0 28.1 35.2 % 36.5 35.8 34.5 37.6 % 49.0 37.2 36.5 30.2 % 36.9 26.7 28.0 34.3 % 60.1 35.2 29.3 27.2 % 28.1 22.7 28.1 43.5 % 65.1 33.8 40.1

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year

Note: Drug abuse programs include self-help groups, peer counseling, and education/awareness programs. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamines and methamphetamines.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 65

Table 4.23. Types of alcohol treatment received by State and Federal inmates since admission, by prior alcohol use, 1997
Percent of inmates Prisoners’ prior reported alcohol abuse Ever had a Ever gotten into Under the in“binge drinking” physical fights fluence of alcohol a experience because of drinking at time of offense

Type of alcohol treatment or program since admission State inmates Any alcohol treatment/programs Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Estimated number of State inmates Federal inmates Any alcohol treatment/programs Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Estimated number of Federal inmates
a

Total

Had three or more positive CAGE responsesb

24.0 % 8.4 % 5.0 3.5 0.6 0.1 20.6 % 16.9 9.7 1,047,701

36.1 % 13.9 % 8.4 5.9 1.0 0.2 30.9 % 26.3 14.3 429,222

36.6 % 14.4 % 8.5 6.6 1.1 0.2 31.7 % 26.7 15.1 401,262

38.8 % 14.4 % 8.7 6.3 1.0 0.1 33.7 % 28.8 15.6 387,137

43.6 % 17.9 % 11.0 7.9 1.6 0.1 37.7 % 32.6 17.5 255,746

20.3 % 7.0 % 5.0 2.5 0.1 0.1 16.8 % 7.9 12.0 87,790

36.1 % 13.8 % 10.4 4.7 0.3 0.2 29.8 % 16.8 19.9 26,517

36.4 % 14.6 % 11.0 4.8 0.4 0.2 30.1 % 17.6 20.1 19,937

36.0 % 13.8 % 9.6 4.9 0.4 0.1 30.5 % 17.8 19.3 17,829

41.0 % 17.5 % 12.8 6.7 0.5 0.7 33.9 % 19.8 22.3 14,241

Binge drinking is defined as having consumed as much as a fifth of liquor in a single day, equivalent to 20 drinks, 3 bottles of wine, or as many as 3 six-packs of beer. b The CAGE questionnaire is a diagnostic instrument for detecting a person’s history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In clinical tests, the presence of 3 or more positive responses was predictive of a history of alcohol abuse. See Explanatory notes.

66 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.A1. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, State prison inmates, by gender, 1997
Base of the estimate and gender 1,000 All inmates Male Female 5,000 All inmates Male Female 10,000 All inmates Male Female 20,000 All inmates Male Female 30,000 All inmates Male Female 50,000 All inmates Male Female 66,200 All inmates Male Female* 100,000 All inmates Male 200,000 All inmates Male 400,000 All inmates Male 600,000 All inmates Male 800,000 All inmates Male 993,400 All inmates Male* 0.61 0.62 0.31 0.49 0.51 0.35 0.36 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.21 0.17 0.18 0.16 0.16 1.30 1.34 0.67 1.06 1.09 0.75 0.77 0.53 0.54 0.43 0.44 0.37 0.38 0.34 0.34 1.73 1.78 0.90 1.41 1.45 1.00 1.02 0.71 0.72 0.58 0.59 0.50 0.51 0.45 0.46 1.99 2.04 1.03 1.62 1.66 1.14 1.17 0.81 0.83 0.66 0.68 0.57 0.59 0.51 0.53 2.12 2.18 1.1 1.73 1.77 1.22 1.25 0.86 0.89 0.71 0.72 0.61 0.63 0.55 0.56 2.17 2.23 1.12 1.76 1.81 1.25 1.28 0.88 0.91 0.72 0.74 0.62 0.64 0.56 0.57 0.70 0.72 0.36 1.50 1.54 0.78 2.00 2.05 1.03 2.29 2.35 1.18 2.44 2.51 1.27 2.49 2.56 1.29 0.90 0.93 0.47 1.93 1.98 1.00 2.58 2.64 1.34 2.95 3.03 1.53 3.15 3.24 1.64 3.22 3.31 1.67 1.10 1.13 0.57 2.37 2.43 1.23 3.15 3.24 1.64 3.61 3.71 1.87 3.86 3.97 2.00 3.94 4.05 2.04 1.56 1.60 0.81 3.35 3.44 1.73 4.46 4.58 2.31 5.11 5.25 2.65 5.46 5.61 2.83 5.58 5.73 2.89 2.21 2.27 1.14 4.73 4.86 2.45 6.31 6.48 3.27 7.23 7.42 3.75 7.73 7.93 4.01 7.89 8.10 4.09 4.94 5.07 2.56 10.58 10.86 5.48 14.11 14.48 7.31 16.16 16.59 8.38 17.28 17.74 8.96 17.64 18.11 9.14 Estimated percentages 80 or 20 70 or 30 60 or 40

98 or 2

90 or 10

50

1,060,000 All inmates* 0.15 0.33 0.43 0.50 0.53 0.54 Note: The reliability of an estimated percentage depends on the size and its base. Each standard error when multiplied by 1.96 provides a 95-percent confidence interval around an estimated percentage. To calculate the difference between two estimated percentages, take the square root of the sum of each squared standard error for the percentages being compared. *The total number of male, female, and all State prisoners in 1997.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 67

Table 4.A2. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997
Base of the estimate and gender 50 All inmates Male Female 400 All inmates Male Female 2,000 All inmates Male Female 5,000 All inmates Male Female 6,400 All inmates Male Female 10,000 All inmates Male 20,000 All inmates Male 40,000 All inmates Male 50,000 All inmates Male 75,000 All inmates Male 82,600 All inmates Male 89,000 All inmates* 0.29 0.63 0.83 0.96 1.02 1.04 Note: The reliability of an estimated percentage depends on the size and its base. Each standard error when multiplied by 1.96 provides a 95-percent confidence interval around an estimated percentage. To calculate the difference between two estimated percentages, take the square root of the sum of each squared standard error for the percentages being compared. *The total number of male, female, and all Federal prisoners in 1997. 0.30 0.31 0.65 0.67 0.87 0.89 0.99 1.02 1.06 1.09 1.08 1.12 0.32 0.33 0.68 0.7 0.91 0.94 1.04 1.07 1.11 1.15 1.14 1.17 0.39 0.4 0.84 0.86 1.11 1.15 1.28 1.31 1.36 1.4 1.39 1.43 0.44 0.45 0.93 0.96 1.25 1.28 1.43 1.47 1.53 1.57 1.56 1.60 0.62 0.63 1.32 1.36 1.76 1.81 2.02 2.08 2.16 2.22 2.20 2.27 0.87 0.9 1.87 1.92 2.49 2.56 2.85 2.94 3.05 3.14 3.11 3.21 1.29 1.09 1.12 0.57 2.34 2.4 1.22 3.11 3.21 1.63 3.57 3.67 1.86 3.81 3.93 1.99 3.89 4.01 2.03 1.23 1.27 0.64 2.64 2.72 1.38 3.52 3.63 1.84 4.04 4.15 2.11 4.31 4.44 2.26 4.40 4.53 2.30 1.95 2.01 1.02 4.18 4.3 2.18 5.57 5.73 2.91 6.38 6.57 3.34 6.82 7.02 3.57 6.96 7.17 3.64 4.36 4.49 2.28 9.34 9.62 4.88 12.45 12.82 6.51 14.27 14.69 7.46 15.25 15.7 7.97 15.57 16.03 8.14 12.33 12.69 6.44 26.42 27.20 13.81 35.23 36.26 18.41 40.36 41.55 21.09 43.14 44.41 22.55 44.03 45.33 23.02 Estimated percentages 80 or 20 70 or 30 60 or 40

98 or 2

90 or 10

50

68 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Methodology The U.S. Census Bureau conducted the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the 1997 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities (SIFCF) for BJS and the Bureau of Prisons. From June through October, 1997, inmates were interviewed about their current offense and sentences, criminal histories, family and personal backgrounds, gun possession and use, prior drug and alcohol use and treatment, educational programs, and other services provided while in prison. Similar surveys of State prison inmates were conducted in 1974, 1979, 1986, and 1991. Federal inmates were surveyed for the first time in 1991.

with probabilities proportionate to the size of each prison. For the sample of Federal prisons, one male prison and two female prisons were selected with certainty. The remaining 112 male facilities were classified into 5 strata defined by security level (high, medium, low, minimum, and administrative). The 20 remaining female facilities were stratified into 2 strata by security level (minimum and not minimum). Within security level, facilities were ordered by size of population and then selected with probability proportionate to size. For the State survey 280 prisons were selected, 220 male facilities and 60 female facilities. Of the 280 facilities 3 refused to allow interviewing and 2 closed before the survey could be conducted. Overall, 32 male facilities and 8 female facilities were selected for the Federal survey, and all participated.

writing that participation was voluntary and that all information provided would be held in confidence. Participants were assured that the survey was solely for statistical purposes and that no individual who participated could be identified through use of survey results.

Estimates of prisoner counts
Based on the completed interviews, estimates for the entire population were developed using weighting factors derived from the original probability of selection in the sample. These factors were adjusted for variable rates of nonresponse across strata and inmates’ characteristics and offenses. The sample for the State survey was adjusted to midyear custody counts for June 30, 1997, from data obtained in the National Prisoner Statistics series (NPS-1A). The sample from the Federal facilities was weighted to the total known sentenced custody population at midyear 1997. Excluded from the estimate of Federal inmates were unsentenced inmates and those prisoners under Federal jurisdiction but housed in State and private contract facilities. Those prisoners who were under State jurisdiction, yet held in local jails or private facilities, were excluded from the estimated number of State prisoners. As a result, the estimated prisoner counts do not match those in other BJS data series. The estimated prisoner counts vary according to the particular data items analyzed. Estimates are based on the number of prisoners who provided information on selected items.

Sample design
The samples for the SISCF and SIFCF were taken from a universe of 1,409 State prisons and 127 Federal prisons enumerated in the 1995 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities or opened between completion of the census and June 30, 1996. The sample design for both surveys was a stratified two-stage selection; first, selecting prisons, and second, selecting inmates in those prisons.

In the second stage, inmates were selected for interviewing. For State facilities interviewers selected the sample systematically using a random start and a total number of interviews based on the gender of the inmates and the size of the facility. For Federal facilities, a sample of inmates was selected for each facility from the In the first stage correctional facilities Bureau of Prisons central list, using a were separated into two sampling random start and predetermined frames: one for prisons with male sampling interval. All selected drug inmates and one for prisons with female offenders were then subsampled so inmates. Prisons holding both genders that only a third were eligible for interwere included on both lists. view. As a result, approximately 1 in every 75 men and 1 in 17 women were In the sampling of State facilities, the 13 selected for the State survey, and 1 in largest male prisons and 17 largest every 13 men and 1 in every 3 women female prisons were selected with were selected for the Federal survey. certainty. The remaining 1,265 male A total of 14,285 interviews were facilities and 261 female facilities were completed for the State survey and stratified into 14 strata defined by 4,041 for the Federal survey, for overall census region (Northeast except New response rates of 92.5% in the State York, New York, Midwest, South except survey and 90.2% in the Federal Texas, Texas, West except California, survey. and California). Within each stratum facilities were ordered by facility type The interviews, about an hour in length, (confinement and community-based), used computer-assisted personal intersecurity level (maximum, medium, viewing (CAPI). With CAPI, computers minimum, and none), and size of provide questions for the interviewer, population. A systematic sample of including follow-up questions tailored to prisons was then selected within strata preceding answers. Before the interview, inmates were told verbally and in

Accuracy of the estimates
The accuracy of the estimates presented in this report depends on two types of error: sampling and nonsampling. Sampling error is the variation that may occur by chance because a sample rather than a complete enumeration of the population was conducted. Nonsampling error can be attributed to many sources, such as nonresponses, differences in the interpretation of questions among inmates, recall difficulties, and processing errors.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 69

In any survey the full extent of the nonsampling error is never known. The sampling error, as measured by an estimated standard error, varies by the size of the estimate and the size of the base population. Estimates of the standard errors have been calculated for the 1997 surveys. (See appendix tables 2 and 3.) For example, the 95-percent confidence interval around the percentage of State inmates who ever used drugs is approximately 83.0% plus or minus 1.96 times 0.4% (or 82.2.% to 83.8%). These standard errors may also be used to test the significance of the difference between two sample statistics by pooling the standard errors of the two sample estimates. For example, the standard error of the difference between black and white State prison inmates for the percent reporting a binge drinking experience would be 1.2% (or the square root of

the sum of the squared standard errors for each group). The 95-percent confidence interval around the difference would be 1.96 times 1.2% (or 2.4%). Since the difference of 21.6% (53.5% minus 31.9%) is greater than 2.4%, the difference would be considered statistically significant. The same procedure can be used to test the significance of the difference between estimates from the two surveys. For example, the standard error of the difference between Federal and State prison inmates for the percent reporting prior drug use would be 1.1%. The 95-percent confidence interval around the difference would be 1.96 times 1.1% (or 2.1%). Since the difference of 10.1% (83.0% minus 72.9%) is greater than 2.1%, the difference would be considered statistically significant.

All comparisons discussed in this report were statistically significant at the 95-percent confidence level. To test the significance of comparisons not mentioned in this report, use percentages in text or tables and numbers of inmates. These standard errors should be used only for tests on all inmates. Comparisons of male and female inmates require different standard errors.

70 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Prisoners in 1997

Tables By Paula M. Ditton, BJS Statistician Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 All prisoners 72 Male prisoners 73 Female prisoners 74 Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1997 75 Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded State facilities, by gender, 1996 and 1997 76 Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997 5.13 All prisoners 5.14 Male prisoners 5.15 Female prisoners Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation of parole or other conditional release 5.16 All prisoners, by gender and status of sentence 87 88 89

5.5

90

Sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction 5.17 Deaths, by gender and cause of death 91

Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, 1997 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 All prisoners, by race Male prisoners, by race Female prisoners, by race All prisoners, by gender and Hispanic origin 77 78 79 80

Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997 5.18 All prisoners 5.19 Male prisoners 5.20 Female prisoners Explanatory notes by jurisdiction 92 93 94

Sentenced prisoners admitted to or released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission or release, 1997 5.10a 5.10b 5.11a 5.11b 5.12a 5.12b All prisoners admitted 81 All prisoners released 82 Male prisoners admitted 83 Male prisoners released 84 Female prisoners admitted 85 Female prisoners released 86

95

Questionnaire Summary of Sentenced Population Movement: National Prisoner Statistics, 1997 105

Prisoners in 1997 71

Table 5.1 Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermont b,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missourid Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotac Wisconsina,e South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col. b,c,f Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandg Mississippi North Carolinag,h Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseed Texasc Virginia West Virginiaf West Alaskab Arizonad Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevadad New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtond Wyoming 12/31/97 1,240,962 112,973 1,127,989 170,046 17,241 1,620 11,947 2,164 28,361 69,108 34,964 3,371 1,270 218,369 40,788 17,903 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,326 23,998 3,402 797 48,016 2,242 16,277 490,493 22,290 10,021 5,435 9,353 64,626 36,505 14,600 29,265 22,232 14,296 31,612 20,542 21,173 16,659 140,351 28,385 3,148 249,081 4,165 23,484 155,790 13,461 4,978 3,911 2,517 9,024 4,688 7,999 4,301 13,214 1,549 12/31/96 1,181,920 105,544 1,076,376 167,981 16,571 1,426 11,796 2,062 27,490 69,709 34,537 3,271 1,119 204,657 38,852 16,960 6,342 7,756 42,349 5,158 22,003 3,287 722 46,174 2,063 12,991 469,252 21,760 9,407 5,110 9,376 63,763 35,139 12,910 26,779 22,050 13,859 30,647 19,593 20,446 15,626 132,383 27,655 2,749 234,486 3,716 22,493 146,049 12,438 4,011 3,832 2,230 8,325 4,724 8,661 4,002 12,527 1,478 Percent change 5.0% 7.0% 4.8 1.2% 4.0 13.6 1.3 4.9 3.2 -0.9 1.2 3.1 13.5 6.7% 5.0 5.6 9.4 2.0 5.7 3.3 9.1 3.5 10.4 4.0 8.7 ... 4.5% 2.4 6.5 6.4 -0.2 1.4 3.9 13.1 9.3 0.8 3.2 3.1 4.8 3.6 6.6 6.0 2.6 14.5 6.2% 12.1 4.4 6.7 8.2 24.1 2.1 12.9 8.4 -0.8 -7.6 7.5 5.5 4.9 More than a year 12/31/97 1,194,581 94,987 1,099,594 161,827 11,920 1,542 10,847 2,164 28,361 69,108 34,957 2,100 828 217,383 40,788 17,730 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,306 23,998 3,329 715 48,016 2,242 15,639 479,278 21,680 9,936 3,264 9,353 64,574 35,787 14,600 29,265 21,088 13,676 27,567 20,542 20,264 16,659 140,351 27,524 3,148 241,106 2,571 22,353 152,739 13,461 3,448 3,911 2,517 9,024 4,450 7,589 4,280 13,214 1,549
c

Total Percent change 12/31/97 12/31/96 5.0% 6.9% 4.8 1.0% 4.8 14.1 -0.3 4.9 3.2 -0.9 1.2 3.4 3.4 6.7% 5.0 5.6 9.4 2.0 5.7 2.9 9.1 3.3 10.0 4.0 8.7 ... 4.5% 2.7 10.5 4.6 7.9 1.3 4.3 13.1 9.3 0.5 4.1 -0.7 4.8 2.6 6.6 6.0 1.7 15.5 6.5% 10.1 3.9 6.9 8.2 16.7 2.1 12.9 8.4 -1.2 3.7 7.6 5.5 4.8 46,381 17,986 28,395 8,219 5,321 78 1,100 ... / 0 7 1,271 442 986 0 173 ... ... ... 20 0 73 82 / / 638 11,215 610 85 2,171 / 52 718 ... ... 1,144 620 4,045 / 909 ... / 861 / 7,975 1,594 1,131 3,051 / 1,530 ... / 0 238 410 21 / 0 44,198 16,729 27,469 7,751 5,200 75 916 ... / 0 2 1,240 318 956 0 169 ... ... ... ... / 64 72 / / 651 10,581 652 415 1,991 708 17 811 ... ... 1,070 716 2,896 / 688 ... / 593 24 8,181 1,381 970 3,184 / 1,057 ... / 0 218 1,345 26 / 0 Percent change 4.9% 7.5% 3.4 6.0% 2.3 4.0 20.1 Year or less 12/31/9712/31/96 21,280 4,676 16,604 3,504 2,212 78 297 ... / 0 6 639 272 347 / 165 ... ... ... ... / 73 82 / / 27 10,225 610 85 1,181 / 52 718 ... ... 1,144 620 4,045 / 909 ... / 861 ... 2,528 528 1,131 / / 200 ... / / 238 410 21 / 0 20,050 4,222 15,828 3,162 2,061 75 216 ... / 0 0 674 136 323 / 159 ... ... ... ... / 64 72 / / 28 9,237 652 415 1,092 291 17 811 ... ... 1,070 716 2,896 / 684 ... / 593 ... 3,106 428 970 / / 119 ... / / 218 1,345 26 / 0 Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 25,101 13,310 11,791 4,715 3,109 ... 803 ... ... 0 1 632 170 639 0 8 ... ... ... 20 0 ... ... ... ... 611 990 0 ... 990 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 5,447 1,066 0 3,051 ... 1,330 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 24,148 12,507 11,641 4,589 3,139 ... 700 ... ... 0 2 566 182 633 0 10 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 623 1,344 0 ... 899 417 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 ... ... ... 24 5,075 953 0 3,184 ... 938 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

12/31/96 1,137,722 88,815 1,048,907 160,230 11,371 1,351 10,880 2,062 27,490 69,709 34,535 2,031 801 203,701 38,852 16,791 6,342 7,756 42,349 5,158 22,003 3,223 650 46,174 2,063 12,340 458,671 21,108 8,992 3,119 8,668 63,746 34,328 12,910 26,779 20,980 13,143 27,751 19,593 19,758 15,626 132,383 27,062 2,725 226,305 2,335 21,523 142,865 12,438 2,954 3,832 2,230 8,325 4,506 7,316 3,976 12,527 1,478

250.0 2.5 39.0 3.1% 2.4

14.1 13.9

-2.0 6.0% -6.4 -79.5 9.0 -6.6 205.9 -11.5

6.9 -13.4 39.7 32.1

45.2 -17.2 -2.5% 15.4 16.6 -4.2 44.7

9.2 -69.5 -19.2

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system.

Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes. Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e 1996 and 1997 data are not comparable; see Explanatory notes. f Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some unsentenced inmates. g Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. h Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.
d

72 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.2. Male prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missourid Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotac Wisconsina,e South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,c,f Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandg Mississippi North Carolinag,h Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseed Texasc Virginia West Virginiaf West Alaskab Arizonad Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevadad New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtond Wyoming 12/31/97 12/31/96 Percent change 4.9% 7.0% 4.7 1.3% 4.3 13.1 1.5 5.0 2.9 -0.7 1.5 3.8 12.0 6.5% 4.8 5.5 9.2 2.1 5.7 2.9 8.6 3.9 8.6 4.2 7.9 ... 4.5% 2.6 6.2 6.8 0.3 1.2 4.0 12.1 8.6 0.6 2.8 3.4 4.7 3.3 6.2 6.2 2.7 13.9 6.2% 12.0 4.5 6.6 7.9 23.0 2.4 11.4 8.0 -0.7 -6.7 7.8 5.9 3.5 More than a year 12/31/97 1,120,787 88,448 1,032,339 153,922 11,128 1,484 10,406 2,055 26,957 65,539 33,534 2,025 794 204,698 38,358 16,673 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,050 22,305 3,118 660 45,174 2,073 14,727 448,927 20,368 9,335 3,105 8,946 61,162 33,586 13,548 27,397 20,098 12,792 26,191 18,489 19,100 15,861 130,051 25,936 2,962 224,792 2,415 20,938 142,428 12,512 3,080 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,129 7,190 4,070 12,290 1,413
c

Total Percent change 4.9% 6.9% 4.8 1.1% 4.8 13.5 -0.1 5.0 2.9 -0.7 1.4 3.5 1.8 6.6% 4.8 5.5 9.2 2.1 5.7 2.6 8.6 3.6 8.0 4.2 7.9 ... 4.4% 2.8 10.4 5.1 7.7 1.2 4.3 12.1 8.6 0.4 3.7 -0.3 4.7 2.4 6.2 6.2 1.9 14.8 6.4% 10.0 4.1 6.7 7.9 16.2 2.4 11.4 8.0 -0.9 3.4 8.1 5.9 3.5 12/31/97 40,979 16,219 24,760 7,156 4,712 74 808 ... / 0 6 1,133 423 877 0 159 ... ... ... 18 0 62 75 / / 563 9,905 562 75 1,947 / 45 637 ... ... 1,026 542 3,561 / 771 ... / 739 / 6,822 1,446 986 2,448 / 1,380 ... / 0 185 359 18 / 0 Percent 12/31/96 change 38,986 15,136 23,850 6,668 4,577 70 627 ... / 0 2 1,085 307 908 0 155 ... ... ... ... / 53 66 / / 634 9,344 587 405 1,776 610 14 707 ... ... 984 630 2,512 / 589 ... / 510 20 6,930 1,250 870 2,495 / 975 ... / 0 179 1,136 25 / 0 5.1% 7.2% 3.8 7.3% 2.9 5.7 28.9 Year or less Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 18,398 3,964 14,434 2,898 1,875 74 114 ... / 0 5 566 264 315 / 153 ... ... ... ... / 62 75 / / 25 9,011 562 75 1,053 / 45 637 ... ... 1,026 542 3,561 / 771 ... / 739 ... 2,210 483 986 / / 179 ... / / 185 359 18 / 0 17,300 3,627 13,673 2,520 1,705 70 57 ... / 0 0 556 132 293 / 150 ... ... ... ... / 53 66 / / 24 8,159 587 405 966 259 14 707 ... ... 984 630 2,512 / 585 ... / 510 ... 2,701 386 870 / / 105 ... / / 179 1,136 25 / 0 22,581 12,255 10,326 4,258 2,837 ... 694 ... ... 0 1 567 159 562 0 6 ... ... ... 18 0 ... ... ... ... 538 894 0 ... 894 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 4,612 963 0 2,448 ... 1,201 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 21,686 11,509 10,177 4,148 2,872 ... 570 ... ... 0 2 529 175 615 0 5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 610 1,185 0 ... 810 351 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4 ... ... ... 20 4,229 864 0 2,495 ... 870 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

12/31/96 1,068,123 82,708 985,415 152,283 10,614 1,308 10,419 1,957 26,209 65,981 33,058 1,957 780 192,067 36,603 15,797 5,872 7,280 40,429 4,924 20,539 3,009 611 43,369 1,922 11,712 429,828 19,816 8,454 2,955 8,305 60,447 32,193 12,090 25,218 20,011 12,338 26,267 17,653 18,655 14,938 122,450 25,458 2,580 211,237 2,196 20,108 133,447 11,593 2,651 3,561 2,109 7,713 4,167 6,954 3,766 11,607 1,365

1,161,766 1,107,109 104,667 97,844 1,057,099 1,009,265 161,078 15,840 1,558 11,214 2,055 26,957 65,539 33,540 3,158 1,217 205,575 38,358 16,832 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,068 22,305 3,180 735 45,174 2,073 15,290 458,832 20,930 9,410 5,052 8,946 61,207 34,223 13,548 27,397 21,124 13,334 29,752 18,489 19,871 15,861 130,051 26,675 2,962 231,614 3,861 21,924 144,876 12,512 4,460 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,314 7,549 4,088 12,290 1,413 158,951 15,191 1,378 11,046 1,957 26,209 65,981 33,060 3,042 1,087 192,975 36,603 15,952 5,872 7,280 40,429 4,924 20,539 3,062 677 43,369 1,922 12,346 439,172 20,403 8,859 4,731 8,915 60,461 32,900 12,090 25,218 20,995 12,968 28,779 17,653 19,244 14,938 122,450 25,968 2,600 218,167 3,446 20,978 135,942 11,593 3,626 3,561 2,109 7,713 4,346 8,090 3,791 11,607 1,365

200.0 4.4 37.8 -3.4% 2.6

17.0 13.6

... 6.0% -4.3 -81.5 9.6 -6.4 221.4 -9.9

4.3 -14.0 41.8 30.9

44.9 -23.1 -1.6% 15.7 13.3 -1.9 41.5

3.4 -68.4 -28.0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system.

Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes. Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e 1996 and 1997 data are not comparable; see Explanatory notes. f Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year include some unsentenced inmates. g Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. h Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.
d

Prisoners in 1997 73

Table 5.3. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missourid Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotac Wisconsina,e South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,c,f Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandg Mississippi North Carolinag,h Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseed Texasc Virginia West Virginiaf West Alaskab Arizonad Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevadad New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtond Wyoming 12/31/97 79,196 8,306 70,890 8,968 1,401 62 733 109 1,404 3,569 1,424 213 53 12,794 2,430 1,071 528 476 2,056 258 1,693 222 62 2,842 169 987 31,661 1,360 611 383 407 3,419 2,282 1,052 1,868 1,108 962 1,860 2,053 1,302 798 10,300 1,710 186 17,467 304 1,560 10,914 949 518 263 167 695 374 450 213 924 136 Percent 12/31/96 change 74,811 7,700 67,111 9,030 1,380 48 750 105 1,281 3,728 1,477 229 32 11,682 2,249 1,008 470 476 1,920 234 1,464 225 45 2,805 141 645 30,080 1,357 548 379 461 3,302 2,239 820 1,561 1,055 891 1,868 1,940 1,202 688 9,933 1,687 149 16,319 270 1,515 10,107 845 385 271 121 612 378 571 211 920 113 5.9% 7.9% 5.6 -0.7% 1.5 29.2 -2.3 3.8 9.6 -4.3 -3.6 -7.0 65.6 9.5% 8.0 6.3 12.3 6.0 7.1 10.3 15.6 -1.3 37.8 1.3 19.9 ... 5.3% 0.2 11.5 1.1 -11.7 3.5 1.9 28.3 19.7 5.0 8.0 -0.4 5.8 8.3 16.0 3.7 1.4 24.8 7.0% 12.6 3.0 8.0 12.3 34.5 -3.0 38.0 13.6 -1.1 -21.2 0.9 0.4 20.4 More than a year Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 73,794 6,539 67,255 7,905 792 58 441 109 1,404 3,569 1,423 75 34 12,685 2,430 1,057 528 476 2,056 256 1,693 211 55 2,842 169 912 30,351 1,312 601 159 407 3,412 2,201 1,052 1,868 990 884 1,376 2,053 1,164 798 10,300 1,588 186 16,314 156 1,415 10,311 949 368 263 167 695 321 399 210 924 136 69,599 6,107 63,492 7,947 757 43 461 105 1,281 3,728 1,477 74 21 11,634 2,249 994 470 476 1,920 234 1,464 214 39 2,805 141 628 28,843 1,292 538 164 363 3,299 2,135 820 1,561 969 805 1,484 1,940 1,103 688 9,933 1,604 145 15,068 139 1,415 9,418 845 303 271 121 612 339 362 210 920 113
b

Total 12/31/97 5,402 1,767 3,635 1,063 609 4 292 ... / 0 1 138 19 109 0 14 ... ... ... 2 0 11 7 / / 75 1,310 48 10 224 / 7 81 ... ... 118 78 484 / 138 ... / 122 / 1,153 148 145 603 / 150 ... / 0 53 51 3 / 0 12/31/96 5,212 1,593 3,619 1,083 623 5 289 ... / 0 0 155 11 48 0 14 ... ... ... ... / 11 6 / / 17 1,237 65 10 215 98 3 104 ... ... 86 86 384 / 99 ... / 83 4 1,251 131 100 689 / 82 ... / 0 39 209 1 / 0 Percent change 3.6% 10.9% 0.4 -1.8% -2.2 -20.0 1.0 Year or less 12/31/97 12/31/96 2,882 712 2,170 606 337 4 183 ... / 0 1 73 8 32 / 12 ... ... ... ... / 11 7 / / 2 1,214 48 10 128 / 7 81 ... ... 118 78 484 / 138 ... / 122 ... 318 45 145 / / 21 ... / / 53 51 3 / 0 2,750 595 2,155 642 356 5 159 ... / 0 0 118 4 30 / 9 ... ... ... ... / 11 6 / / 4 1,078 65 10 126 32 3 104 ... ... 86 86 384 / 99 ... / 83 ... 405 42 100 / / 14 ... / / 39 209 1 / 0 Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 2,520 1,055 1,465 457 272 ... 109 ... ... 0 0 65 11 77 0 2 ... ... ... 2 0 ... ... ... ... 73 96 0 ... 96 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 835 103 0 603 ... 129 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 2,462 998 1,464 441 267 ... 130 ... ... 0 0 37 7 18 0 5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 159 0 ... 89 66 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... 4 846 89 0 689 ... 68 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

6.0% 7.1% 5.9 -0.5% 4.6 34.9 -4.3 3.8 9.6 -4.3 -3.7 1.4 61.9 9.0% 8.0 6.3 12.3 6.0 7.1 9.4 15.6 -1.4 41.0 1.3 19.9 ... 5.2% 1.5 11.7 -3.0 12.1 3.4 3.1 28.3 19.7 2.2 9.8 -7.3 5.8 5.5 16.0 3.7 -1.0 28.3 8.3% 12.2 6.6 9.5 12.3 21.5 -3.0 38.0 13.6 -5.3 10.2 30.4 0.4 20.4

-11 72.7 127.1% 75.0

-15.4 16.7

-54.1 5.9% -26.2 233.3 4.2 -7.5 133.3 -22.1

37.2 -9.3 26.0 39.4

47.0 33.3 -7.8% 13.0 45.0 -12.5 82.9

35.9 -75.6 200.0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown.

Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.

74 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.4. Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1997
Number of prisoners per 100,000 resident population More than a year Year or less/unsentenced Total Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction State custody 461 42 419 329 527 130 195 184 351 381 291 342 215 349 342 304 243 304 457 113 443 205 125 429 304 314 517 514 396 738 1,785 437 483 372 672 435 522 422 617 560 309 715 419 174 416 681 509 480 342 419 320 286 526 270 245 207 234 323 438 38 400 319 475 129 178 178 316 382 291 335 215 342 342 281 243 304 457 113 443 202 129 427 303 264 480 507 355 738 1,345 437 483 277 424 428 377 414 447 545 280 715 364 132 403 524 509 478 269 343 271 212 503 209 238 234 234 295
b

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missourid Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotac Wisconsina,e South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,c,f Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandg Mississippi North Carolinag,h Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseed Texasc Virginia West Virginiaf West Alaskab Arizonad Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevadad New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtond Wyoming

444 35 409 313 364 124 177 184 351 381 291 213 140 347 342 301 243 304 457 113 443 200 112 429 304 302 506 500 392 443 1,785 437 473 372 672 413 499 368 617 536 309 715 407 174 403 420 484 470 342 290 320 286 526 256 232 206 234 323

420 33 388 304 329 124 162 176 316 381 291 211 140 341 342 278 243 304 457 113 442 196 116 427 303 259 464 493 353 443 1,242 437 473 277 424 406 365 361 447 521 280 691 359 131 390 313 484 469 269 218 271 212 498 194 217 230 233 295

17 7 11 16 163 6 18 ... / 0 0 129 75 2 0 3 ... ... ... 0 0 4 13 / / 12 12 14 3 295 / 0 9 ... ... 22 23 54 / 24 ... / 13 / 13 260 25 9 / 129 ... / 0 14 13 1 / 0

17 5 12 15 146 5 16 2 / 2 0 124 75 1 0 3 ... ... ... 0 0 6 13 / / 5 16 14 2 295 103 0 9 ... ... 22 12 53 / 24 ... 24 5 1 14 210 25 9 / 125 ... / 5 15 21 4 1 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown.

Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.

Prisoners in 1997 75

Table 5.5. Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded State facilities, by gender, 1996 and 1997
Number of prisoners housed in jails Total Male Female 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 36,318 4,357 484 66 2,864 918 25 1,952 1,323 151 50 55 79 294 26,669 1,965 1,376 1,144 10,795 3,951 280 802 400 1,428 3,753 775 30,741 4,986 554 65 4,367 0 0 2,161 1,194 330 208 0 91 338 21,500 1,168 1,201 778 9,147 3,242 516 285 413 1,958 2,506 286 33,839 4,181 466 66 2,746 903 0 1,898 1,293 151 50 55 73 276 24,634 1,873 1,376 1,076 9,868 3,882 280 693 371 1,242 3,265 708 28,573 4,720 554 65 4,101 0 0 2,074 1,124 330 208 0 86 326 19,795 1,092 1,201 721 8,373 3,126 516 227 390 1,711 2,163 275 1,984 0 124 1,147 0 80 307 65 245 16 2,479 176 18 0 118 15 25 54 30 / 0 0 6 18 2,035 92 0 68 927 69 0 109 29 186 488 67 214 / 0 127 0 20 0 0 67 0 2,168 266 0 0 266 0 0 87 70 / 0 0 5 12 1,705 76 0 57 774 116 0 58 23 247 343 11 110 0 0 16 0 5 0 26 63 0 Prisoners in jails as a percent of all prisoners 12/31/97 2.9% 2.5% 4.1 3.0 10.1 1.3 0.1 0.9% 7.4 0.3 0.9 0.2 9.9 1.8 5.4% 8.8 13.7 7.8 36.9 27.6 0.9 3.9 1.9 8.6 13.2 24.6 1.3% 1.3 0.9 14.0 0.8 8.5 11.9 0.1 8.1 1.9

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Northeast Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Indiana Michigan* Minnesota Missouri North Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Virginia West Virginia

3,340 2,094 3,126 West Alaska 55 0 55 Arizona 211 124 211 Colorado 1,886 1,163 1,759 Idaho 31 0 31 Montana 213 85 193 New Mexico 557 307 557 Oregon 9 91 9 Utah 349 308 282 Wyoming 29 16 29 Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. Unlisted jurisdictions either had combined jail-prison systems or did not report prisoners held in local jails. Alaska, Arizona, Michigan, and New York did not include inmates housed in local jails because of crowding in their jurisdiction count;

however, the percentage of jurisdiction population was calculated for all persons serving sentences to incarceration whether in State prison or in jail. /Not reported. *Michigan is unable to distinguish the gender of prison inmates housed in jails; therefore, all inmates are reported under males.

76 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.6. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997
Number of prisoners Prisoner population 12/31/97 1,240,962 112,973 1,127,989 170,046 17,241 1,620 11,947 2,164 28,361 69,108 34,964 3,371 1,270 218,369 40,788 17,903 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,326 23,998 3,402 797 48,016 2,242 16,277 490,493 22,290 10,021 5,435 9,353 64,626 36,505 14,600 29,265 22,232 14,296 31,612 20,542 21,173 16,659 140,351 28,385 3,148 249,081 4,165 23,484 155,790 13,461 4,978 3,911 2,517 9,024 4,688 7,999 4,301 13,214 1,549 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islandera 2,121 / 2,121 0 0 / 0 0 / / / 0 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 2,121 / / 80 / 2,041 / 0 / / / / / 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticutb,c Mained Massachusettsc,e New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvaniac Rhode Islandb Vermontb,f Midwest Illinoisc,f Indiana Iowac,f Kansas Michiganc,f Minnesotac Missouri Nebraskad North Dakota Ohiod South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb Dist. of Col.b Floridac,f Georgiaf Kentucky Louisianac Maryland Mississippic North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolinac Tennesseec Texasc Virginiac,g West Virginia West Alaskab,c Arizonaf Californiac Coloradod Hawaiib,d Idahod Montanac Nevadac,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyomingc

White 505,513 65,539 439,974 65,661 4,630 1,469 5,590 2,019 7,316 29,655 11,632 2,157 1,193 97,802 9,995 10,132 4,800 4,608 18,482 2,559 12,917 2,237 611 21,846 1,705 7,910 164,099 7,615 4,448 1,942 91 27,445 11,983 8,976 6,852 4,998 3,560 10,044 11,188 6,282 8,114 38,697 9,221 2,643 112,412 1,895 18,686 46,957 9,562 1,034 3,165 2,058 5,049 3,892 5,839 3,709 9,376 1,190

Black 590,454 43,786 546,668 88,803 8,059 58 3,448 120 18,572 37,488 19,847 1,175 36 111,674 26,522 7,707 1,696 3,028 24,936 1,964 10,968 1,008 20 25,938 99 7,788 282,751 14,594 5,543 3,481 9,096 35,771 24,392 5,586 22,360 17,196 10,663 20,418 7,097 14,762 8,437 63,883 18,970 502 63,440 600 3,523 48,331 3,320 232 65 35 2,407 545 1,010 328 2,962 82

American Indian/ Alaska Native 12,373 1,817 10,556 369 26 14 35 1 5 204 71 5 8 2,208 56 45 110 149 223 383 81 135 159 48 438 381 2,273 3 8 1 0 48 57 6 7 3 14 666 1,418 18 17 / 5 2 5,706 1,451 984 1,197 268 38 162 376 159 238 181 135 427 90
c d e

Asian 6,284 1,831 4,453 801 55 0 118 21 75 391 102 34 5 426 64 19 46 66 57 / 30 18 7 48 / 71 276 1 15 6 0 3 39 7 0 8 14 43 33 3 16 / 87 1 2,950 77 60 1,311 79 754 18 0 113 13 101 99 320 5

Not known 124,217 0 124,217 14,412 4,471 79 2,756 3 2,393 1,370 3,312 0 28 6,259 4,151 0 286 60 1,073 420 2 4 0 136 0 127 41,094 77 7 5 166 1,359 34 25 46 27 45 441 806 108 75 37,771 102 0 62,452 142 231 57,914 232 879 501 48 1,296 0 868 30 129 182

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. /Not reported. a See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are in one system.

Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known." The numbers in racial categories were estimated. Massachusetts' American Indian prisoners are reported combined under "Not known." f Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not known."

Prisoners in 1997 77

Table 5.7. Male prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997
Number of prisoners Prisoner population 12/31/97 1,161,766 104,667 1,057,099 161,078 15,840 1,558 11,214 2,055 26,957 65,539 33,540 3,158 1,217 205,575 38,358 16,832 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,068 22,305 3,180 735 45,174 2,073 15,290 458,832 20,930 9,410 5,052 8,946 61,207 34,223 13,548 27,397 21,124 13,334 29,752 18,489 19,871 15,861 130,051 26,675 2,962 231,614 3,861 21,924 144,876 12,512 4,460 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,314 7,549 4,088 12,290 1,413 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islandera 1,889 / 1,889 0 / / 0 0 / / / 0 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 1,889 / / 77 / 1,812 / 0 / / / / / /

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut,b,c Mained Massachusettsc,e New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvaniac Rhode Islandb Vermont b,f Midwest Illinoisc,f Indiana Iowac,f Kansas Michiganc,f Minnesotac Missouri Nebraskad North Dakota Ohiod South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb District of Col.b Floridac,f Georgiaf Kentucky Louisianac Maryland Mississippic North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolinac Tennesseec Texasc Virginiac,g West Virginia West Alaskab,c Arizonaf Californiac Coloradod Hawaiib,d Idahod Montanac Nevadac,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyomingc

White 470,946 60,659 410,287 62,019 4,138 1,412 5,187 1,916 6,881 28,274 11,063 2,002 1,146 92,077 9,412 9,509 4,428 4,339 17,645 2,435 11,981 2,105 567 20,599 1,599 7,458 152,299 7,070 4,160 1,806 76 25,968 11,103 8,334 6,262 4,665 3,320 9,318 10,102 5,858 7,639 35,504 8,627 2,487 103,892 1,743 17,490 42,866 8,978 890 2,927 1,935 4,620 3,595 5,495 3,519 8,757 1,077

Black 553,370 40,614 512,756 84,228 7,456 56 3,290 117 17,653 35,394 19,108 1,119 35 105,028 24,841 7,262 1,569 2,830 23,763 1,858 10,225 932 19 24,344 93 7,292 264,925 13,784 5,222 3,237 8,704 33,958 22,996 5,176 21,085 16,423 9,946 19,346 6,310 13,893 8,121 58,393 17,859 472 58,575 538 3,255 44,682 3,030 208 59 33 2,208 488 940 318 2,742 74

American Indian/ Alaska Native 11,367 1,714 9,653 356 25 13 34 0 5 199 67 5 8 2,017 43 42 91 141 212 366 71 124 143 48 381 355 2,071 3 7 0 0 39 53 6 7 2 13 626 1,277 17 15 / 4 2 5,209 1,370 900 1,058 249 32 150 335 141 218 155 131 382 88
c d e

Asian 5,975 1,680 4,295 784 52 0 114 21 73 386 101 32 5 407 59 19 45 66 55 / 26 16 6 47 / 68 262 1 14 5 0 3 37 7 0 7 13 40 30 3 16 / 85 1 2,842 75 57 1,280 77 710 18 0 110 13 98 93 306 5

Not known 118,219 0 118,219 13,691 4,169 77 2,589 1 2,345 1,286 3,201 0 23 6,046 4,003 0 277 59 1,040 409 2 3 0 136 0 117 39,275 72 7 4 166 1,239 34 25 43 27 42 422 770 100 70 36,154 100 0 59,207 135 222 54,913 178 808 494 47 1,250 0 861 27 103 169

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. /Not reported. a See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system.

Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under “Not known.” The numbers in racial categories were estimated. Massachusetts’ American Indian prisoners are reported under “Not known.” f Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g Virginia’s Chinese prisoners are reported under “Not known.”

78 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.8. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997
Number of prisoners Prisoner population 12/31/97 79,196 8,306 70,890 8,968 1,401 62 733 109 1,404 3,569 1,424 213 53 12,794 2,430 1,071 528 476 2,056 258 1,693 222 62 2,842 169 987 31,661 1,360 611 383 407 3,419 2,282 1,052 1,868 1,108 962 1,860 2,053 1,302 798 10,300 1,710 186 17,467 304 1,560 10,914 949 518 263 167 695 374 450 213 924 136 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islandera 232 / 232 0 / / 0 0 / / / 0 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 232 / / 3 / 229 / 0 / / / / / /

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticutb,c Mained Massachusettsc,e New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvaniac Rhode Islandb Vermontb,f Midwest Illinoisc,f Indiana Iowac,f Kansas Michiganc,f Minnesotac Missouri Nebraskad North Dakota Ohiod South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawareb District of Col.b Floridac,f Georgiaf Kentucky Louisianac Maryland Mississippic North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolinac Tennesseec Texasc Virginiac,g West Virginia West Alaskab,c Arizonaf Californiac Coloradod Hawaiib,d Idahod Montanac Nevadac,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyomingc

White 34,567 4,880 29,687 3,642 492 57 403 103 435 1,381 569 155 47 5,725 583 623 372 269 837 124 936 132 44 1,247 106 452 11,800 545 288 136 15 1,477 880 642 590 333 240 726 1,086 424 475 3,193 594 156 8,520 152 1,196 4,091 584 144 238 123 429 297 344 190 619 113

Black 37,084 3,172 33,912 4,575 603 2 158 3 919 2,094 739 56 1 6,646 1,681 445 127 198 1,173 106 743 76 1 1,594 6 496 17,826 810 321 244 392 1,813 1,396 410 1,275 773 717 1,072 787 869 316 5,490 1,111 30 4,865 62 268 3,649 290 24 6 2 199 57 70 10 220 8

American Indian/ Alaska Native 1,006 103 903 13 1 1 1 1 0 5 4 0 0 191 13 3 19 8 11 17 10 11 16 0 57 26 202 0 1 1 0 9 4 0 0 1 1 40 141 1 2 / 1 0 497 81 84 139 19 6 12 41 18 20 26 4 45 2

Asian 309 151 158 17 3 0 4 0 2 5 1 2 0 19 5 0 1 0 2 / 4 2 1 1 / 3 14 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 3 3 0 0 / 2 0 108 2 3 31 2 44 0 0 3 0 3 6 14 0

Not known 5,998 0 5,998 721 302 2 167 2 48 84 111 0 5 213 148 0 9 1 33 11 0 1 0 0 0 10 1,819 5 0 1 0 120 0 0 3 0 3 19 36 8 5 1,617 2 0 3,245 7 9 3,001 54 71 7 1 46 0 7 3 26 13

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. /Not reported. a See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and

prisons are combined in one system. c Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known." d The numbers in racial categories were estimated. e Massachusetts' American Indian prisoners are reported under "Not known." f Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not known."

Prisoners in 1997 79

Table 5.9. Prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1997
Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda Vermonta,b Midwest Illinoisb Indiana Iowab Kansas Michiganb,c Minnesota Missouri Nebraskad North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotae Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarea District of Col.a Floridab Georgiab Kentucky Louisianae Marylande Mississippi North Carolinae Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskaa Arizonab California Coloradod Hawaiia,d Idahod Montana Nevadad New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Prisoner population NonNot 12/31/97 Hispanic Hispanic known 1,240,962 112,973 1,127,989 170,046 17,241 1,620 11,947 2,164 28,361 69,108 34,964 3,371 1,270 218,369 40,788 17,903 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,326 23,998 3,402 797 48,016 2,242 16,277 490,493 22,290 10,021 5,435 9,353 64,626 36,505 14,600 29,265 22,232 14,296 31,612 20,542 21,173 16,659 140,351 28,385 3,148 249,081 4,165 23,484 155,790 13,461 4,978 3,911 2,517 9,024 4,688 7,999 4,301 13,214 1,549 198,673 33,110 165,563 38,470 4,471 0 2,634 98 5,029 22,421 3,291 504 22 9,024 4,149 413 283 525 953 330 296 197 40 864 / 974 44,438 1 74 212 4 5,542 300 64 / / 54 / 762 119 75 37,137 91 3 73,631 138 7,732 53,580 3,731 238 513 48 1,268 2,640 867 836 1,858 182 884,571 157,718 79,863 0 804,708 157,718 130,448 12,770 1,546 9,116 1,497 23,332 46,443 31,652 2,867 1,225 206,635 36,637 17,490 6,652 7,326 43,816 4,996 23,673 3,205 757 47,016 / 15,067 1,128 0 74 197 569 0 244 21 0 23 2,710 2 0 3 60 2 0 29 0 0 136 2,242 236 Number of prisoners Male NonHispanic Hispanic 188,827 30,909 157,918 36,570 4,169 0 2,467 92 4,844 21,307 3,184 485 22 8,665 4,001 394 275 507 925 320 278 184 37 816 / 928 42,605 1 71 199 4 5,354 290 62 / / 53 / 726 116 70 35,567 89 3 70,078 131 7,365 50,995 3,550 221 476 47 1,224 2,465 860 800 1,775 169
b c

Female Not known NonNot Hispanic Hispanic known 9,846 2,201 7,645 1,900 302 0 167 6 185 1,114 107 19 0 359 148 19 8 18 28 10 18 13 3 48 / 46 1,833 0 3 13 0 188 10 2 / / 1 / 36 3 5 1,570 2 0 3,553 7 367 2,585 181 17 37 1 44 175 7 36 83 13 59,360 6,105 53,255 7,014 1,099 60 564 88 1,219 2,429 1,313 194 48 12,245 2,282 1,052 519 457 2,028 248 1,670 209 59 2,794 / 927 20,671 1,360 608 364 407 3,216 0 1,050 / / 961 / 2,017 979 793 8,730 0 186 13,325 297 1,193 7,913 714 493 155 166 651 199 443 174 804 123 9,990 0 9,990 54 0 2 2 15 0 26 4 0 5 190 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 0 0 169 14 9,157 0 0 6 0 15 2,272 0 1,868 1,108 0 1,860 0 320 0 0 1,708 0 589 0 0 416 54 8 71 0 0 0 0 3 37 0

Total 1,161,766 104,667 1,057,099 161,078 15,840 1,558 11,214 2,055 26,957 65,539 33,540 3,158 1,217 205,575 38,358 16,832 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,068 22,305 3,180 735 45,174 2,073 15,290 458,832 20,930 9,410 5,052 8,946 61,207 34,223 13,548 27,397 21,124 13,334 29,752 18,489 19,871 15,861 130,051 26,675 2,962 231,614 3,861 21,924 144,876 12,512 4,460 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,314 7,549 4,088 12,290 1,413

Total 79,196 8,306 70,890 8,968 1,401 62 733 109 1,404 3,569 1,424 213 53 12,794 2,430 1,071 528 476 2,056 258 1,693 222 62 2,842 169 987 31,661 1,360 611 383 407 3,419 2,282 1,052 1,868 1,108 962 1,860 2,053 1,302 798 10,300 1,710 186 17,467 304 1,560 10,914 949 518 263 167 695 374 450 213 924 136

825,211 147,728 73,758 0 751,453 147,728 123,434 11,671 1,486 8,552 1,409 22,113 44,014 30,339 2,673 1,177 194,390 34,355 16,438 6,133 6,869 41,788 4,748 22,003 2,996 698 44,222 / 14,140 1,074 0 72 195 554 0 218 17 0 18 2,520 2 0 2 59 2 0 24 0 0 136 2,073 222

297,746 148,309 22,289 0 9,947 0 5,131 92 9,183 166 59,018 66 0 36,205 14,536 0 / 29,265 / 22,232 14,240 2 / 31,612 19,780 0 20,679 375 16,584 0 103,214 0 0 28,294 3,145 0 169,879 4,023 15,752 97,876 9,498 4,625 2,716 2,469 7,753 2,048 7,131 3,435 11,186 1,367 5,571 4 0 4,334 232 115 682 0 3 0 1 30 170 0

277,075 139,152 20,929 0 9,339 0 4,767 86 8,776 166 55,802 51 0 33,933 13,486 0 / 27,397 / 21,124 13,279 2 / 29,752 17,763 0 19,700 55 15,791 0 94,484 0 0 26,586 2,959 0 156,554 3,726 14,559 89,963 8,784 4,132 2,561 2,303 7,102 1,849 6,688 3,261 10,382 1,244 4,982 4 0 3,918 178 107 611 0 3 0 1 27 133 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system.

Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. Michigan reported only Mexican-Americans as Hispanic prisoners and reported other Hispanic inmates as non-Hispanic. d Data for Hispanic prisoners are estimated. e State does not distinguish ethnicity of prisoners.

80 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.10a. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1997
Prisoner population 1/1/97 1,140,353 88,815 1,051,538 160,238 11,371 1,351 10,880 2,071 27,490 69,709 34,534 2,031 801 205,557 38,852 16,791 6,342 7,756 42,349 5,158 22,003 3,223 650 46,174 2,064 14,195 459,439 21,108 8,992 3,119 9,349 63,746 34,415 12,910 26,779 20,980 13,143 27,751 19,593 19,758 15,626 132,383 27,062 2,725 226,304 2,335 21,523 142,865 12,438 2,954 3,831 2,230 8,325 4,506 7,316 3,976 12,527 1,478 Number of sentenced prisoners admitted during 1996 Parole or other Escapees Returns Transfers New court conditional release and AWOL’s from appeal from other commitments violators returned returned or bond jurisdictions 365,085 30,560 334,525 42,264 886 630 2,232 677 10,147 20,804 5,975 703 210 76,510 19,495 8,989 2,870 2,778 8,230 2,540 8,241 1,322 475 16,150 950 4,470 136,568 7,796 3,262 1,063 3,429 21,580 11,717 6,004 6,411 7,263 5,204 9,078 7,211 5,817 5,001 25,408 9,451 873 79,183 1,861 6,940 46,766 4,368 1,735 1,787 826 3,295 1,839 2,097 1,385 5,804 480
c

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb,c New Yorkc Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,b Vermonta,d,e Midwest Illinoisb,d Indianac Iowad Kansasc Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiob South Dakotab Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasb Delawarea District of Col.a,b Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandc,f Mississippic,g North Carolinab Oklahomab,c South Carolina Tennesseeb Texasb Virginia West Virginiab West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiab Coloradob,h Hawaiia,f Idaho Montanab Nevadab,c,i New Mexico Oregonj Utah Washingtonb Wyomingc

Total 584,177 34,444 549,733 65,169 2,140 850 3,435 1,039 16,212 29,868 9,584 984 1,057 107,233 26,683 9,874 4,441 4,173 13,960 3,597 13,484 1,647 591 20,151 1,161 7,471 199,081 9,603 5,727 1,762 7,026 25,688 15,379 8,234 15,709 10,405 5,684 12,316 7,604 8,210 9,312 44,417 10,928 1,077 178,250 2,685 9,222 132,523 6,333 2,839 2,326 1,203 4,533 3,033 3,264 2,835 6,761 693

Other admissions 16,506 240 16,266 1,151 381 84 0 0 0 29 158 2 497 3,277 1 0 56 66 639 0 1,062 0 0 0 41 1,412 11,328 57 760 250 24 653 1 34 230 31 55 182 0 131 0 8,920 0 0 510 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 510 0 0 0 0 0

189,765 3,106 186,659 18,622 752 104 805 347 6,064 6,834 3,207 264 245 23,471 6,145 837 751 1,323 3,956 1,057 3,262 310 109 3,964 168 1,589 47,425 1,370 1,663 407 2,134 3,141 3,552 2,085 8,471 2,985 353 2,912 182 2,218 4,200 10,089 1,477 186 97,141 782 2,232 85,196 1,613 1,079 529 338 728 1,137 1,075 1,444 785 203

8,809 / 8,809 1,918 115 0 14 15 1 1,568 97 8 100 3,662 1,028 18 622 6 1,053 / 908 15 7 4 1 / 2,255 265 9 41 816 202 82 111 95 95 72 144 211 37 71 0 / 4 974 38 10 276 340 25 10 35 / 9 62 4 156 9
f

925 / 925 96 5 0 / / / 70 19 2 / 163 14 / 52 / 67 / 11 / 0 19 0 ... 609 78 20 0 0 13 5 ... 480 / / 0 0 7 / 0 / 6 57 3 0 / 6 0 0 / / 0 30 2 16 0

3,087 538 2,549 1,118 1 32 384 0 / 563 128 5 5 150 / 30 90 / 15 / 0 0 0 14 1 0 896 37 13 1 623 99 22 0 22 31 0 0 0 / 40 / / 8 385 1 40 285 6 0 / 4 / 48 / 0 0 1

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.

New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory notes. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Vermont's Escape and AWOL data may include an undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond.

Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. Other admissions may include returns from appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. h Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i Nevada's escapee returns may be included in any other admission category. j Oregon's transfers may be included in any other admission category.
g

Prisoners in 1997 81

Table 5.10b. Sentenced prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Number of sentenced prisoners released during 1997 Out on Transfers Conditional Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases releases and AWOL’s or bond jurisdictions 386,076 2,445 383,631 49,892 1,182 212 994 729 11,519 26,262 7,195 863 936 72,344 22,473 8,324 3,033 3,692 8,758 2,990 9,520 763 354 6,989 610 4,838 116,211 5,318 3,980 500 3,667 9,018 9,865 3,247 12,440 9,119 2,374 8,401 3,638 4,326 6,268 27,242 6,418 390 145,184 1,765 7,023 115,050 3,782 1,689 1,946 665 1,843 1,900 2,863 2,310 4,017 331 109,896 22,294 87,602 9,972 226 441 2,062 197 3,645 1,616 1,683 12 90 17,540 1,031 554 686 283 1,052 453 947 743 164 11,145 363 119 49,700 3,185 645 783 2,550 14,836 3,297 3,079 565 998 2,160 3,908 2,769 3,092 1,734 1,896 3,954 249 10,390 622 864 1,874 1,021 140 280 205 1,939 1,139 8 192 1,850 256
c

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,c Vermonta,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsinc South Alabama Arkansasc Delawarea,b District of Col.a,b,c Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandb,e Mississippif North Carolinac Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texasc Virginia West Virginiac West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiac,f Coloradoc,g Hawaiia,e Idaho Montanac Nevadac,h New Mexico Oregoni Utah Washingtonc Wyoming

Total 528,848 27,697 501,151 63,580 1,591 659 3,468 946 15,341 30,469 9,161 915 1,030 94,521 24,747 8,935 3,845 4,018 11,538 3,449 11,489 1,541 526 18,309 983 5,141 179,602 9,031 4,783 1,617 7,382 24,860 14,007 6,544 13,223 10,297 5,151 12,500 6,655 7,704 8,279 36,449 10,466 654 163,448 2,449 8,392 122,649 5,310 2,345 2,246 916 3,834 3,089 2,991 2,531 6,074 622

Deaths 3,110 238 2,872 501 33 1 24 5 101 221 109 6 1 488 101 45 9 24 99 6 48 10 1 117 6 22 1,415 91 31 12 25 242 114 28 80 54 47 56 68 55 70 341 92 9 468 4 61 268 34 8 10 4 25 7 19 3 23 2

Other releases 17,598 2,541 15,057 30 1 0 0 0 0 26 0 3 0 587 63 0 49 0 307 0 6 0 0 0 0 162 8,493 4 33 289 8 393 1 77 6 31 504 0 0 177 0 6,970 0 0 5,947 0 436 5,017 127 323 0 0 27 0 17 0 0 0

Prisoner population 12/31/96 1,194,581 94,987 1,099,594 161,827 11,920 1,542 10,847 2,164 28,361 69,108 34,957 2,100 828 217,383 40,788 17,730 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,306 23,998 3,329 715 48,016 2,242 15,639 479,278 21,680 9,936 3,264 9,353 64,574 35,787 14,600 29,265 21,088 13,676 27,567 20,542 20,264 16,659 140,351 27,524 3,148 241,106 2,571 22,353 152,739 13,461 3,448 3,911 2,517 9,024 4,450 7,589 4,280 13,214 1,549

8,110 / 8,110 1,818 88 5 17 15 1 1,605 79 8 0 3,380 1,060 12 6 11 1,307 / 941 25 7 8 3 / 1,811 266 9 0 483 186 69 109 97 88 66 135 180 39 78 0 2 4 1,101 41 3 407 343 37 10 36 / 9 54 3 158 0

752 / 752 217 1 0 0 0 75 105 25 11 0 140 19 / 61 8 0 / 17 / 0 34 1 ... 160 84 30 0 1 28 / / / / / 0 0 15 / / / 2 235 2 2 / 3 143 0 2 0 1 30 23 26 3

3,306 179 3,127 1,150 60 0 371 0 0 634 70 12 3 42 / 0 1 / 15 / 10 0 0 16 0 0 1,812 83 55 33 648 157 661 4 35 7 0 0 0 0 129 / / 0 123 15 3 33 0 5 0 4 / 33 / 0 0 30

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.

Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Some or all data for release categories are estimated. f Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. g Escape and AWOL data are estimated. h Nevada’s escapees may be included in any other release category. i Oregon’s transfers may be included in any other release category.
d

82 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.11a. Sentenced male prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1997
Number of male prisoners 1/1/97 1,070,440 82,708 987,732 152,291 10,614 1,308 10,419 1,965 26,209 65,981 33,058 1,957 780 193,721 36,603 15,797 5,872 7,280 40,429 4,924 20,539 3,009 611 43,369 1,922 13,366 430,489 19,816 8,454 2,955 8,919 60,447 32,240 12,090 25,218 20,011 12,338 26,267 17,653 18,655 14,938 122,450 25,458 2,580 211,231 2,196 20,108 133,447 11,593 2,651 3,555 2,109 7,713 4,167 6,954 3,766 11,607 1,365 Number of sentenced male prisoners admitted during 1997 Parole or other Escapees Returns New court conditional release and AWOL’s from appeal commitments violators returned returned or bond 327,933 27,694 300,239 38,842 813 606 1,994 620 9,262 19,129 5,547 671 200 68,461 17,495 8,163 2,538 2,433 7,603 2,308 7,252 1,191 427 14,154 831 4,066 122,517 7,004 2,955 951 3,097 19,789 10,506 5,297 5,830 6,541 4,664 8,284 6,164 5,269 4,493 22,401 8,471 801 70,419 1,611 6,376 41,563 3,931 1,478 1,540 707 2,913 1,587 1,909 1,240 5,174 390
c

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb,c New Yorkc Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,b Vermonta,d,e Midwest Illinoisb,d Indianac Iowad Kansasc Michigand Minnesota Miissouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiob South Dakotab Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasb Delawarea District of Col.a,b Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandc,f Mississippic,g North Carolinab Oklahomab,c South Carolina Tennesseeb Texasb Virginia West Virginiab West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiab Coloradob,h Hawaiia,f Idaho Montanab Nevadab,c,i New Mexico Oregonj Utah Washingtonb Wyomingc

Total 528,124 31,190 496,934 60,168 1,898 810 3,138 965 14,796 27,639 9,002 929 991 96,827 24,202 8,983 3,889 3,717 12,892 3,298 11,994 1,470 535 17,948 1,022 6,877 179,075 8,650 5,236 1,597 6,455 23,667 13,940 7,319 14,165 9,503 5,107 11,238 6,491 7,521 8,446 38,961 9,792 987 160,864 2,346 8,408 119,919 5,710 2,445 2,026 1,081 4,069 2,699 2,997 2,573 5,990 601

Transfers from other jurisdictions 2,840 416 2,424 1,066 1 31 380 0 / 522 122 5 5 138 / 27 81 / 15 / 0 0 0 14 1 0 857 33 11 1 600 97 22 0 22 31 0 0 0 / 34 / / 6 363 1 39 266 5 0 / 4 / 47 / 0 0 1

Other admissions 14,311 229 14,082 1,012 317 73 0 0 0 28 138 2 454 3,005 0 0 50 58 593 0 958 0 0 0 38 1,308 9,592 55 708 240 24 617 1 30 212 31 53 163 0 128 0 7,330 0 0 473 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 473 0 0 0 0 0

174,369 2,851 171,518 17,411 657 100 750 330 5,533 6,480 3,083 244 234 21,893 5,796 779 653 1,220 3,717 990 2,953 267 101 3,763 151 1,503 43,513 1,251 1,535 369 1,988 2,965 3,332 1,890 7,590 2,813 325 2,651 150 2,082 3,851 9,230 1,321 170 88,701 705 1,988 77,834 1,487 944 476 335 683 1,056 1,000 1,327 665 201

7,883 / 7,883 1,750 105 0 14 15 1 1,416 95 6 98 3,217 897 14 522 6 934 / 820 12 7 4 1 / 2,063 236 9 36 746 188 74 102 95 87 65 140 177 36 68 0 / 4 853 26 5 256 281 23 10 35 / 9 58 4 137 9

788 / 788 87 5 0 / / / 64 17 1 / 113 14 / 45 / 30 / 11 / 0 13 0 ... 533 71 18 0 0 11 5 ... 416 / / 0 0 6 / 0 / 6 55 3 0 / 6 0 0 / / 0 30 2 14 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.

New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory notes. Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Vermont's escape and AWOL data may include an undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond. f Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. g Other admissions may include returns from
d

appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. h Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i Nevada's escapee returns may be included in any other admission category. j Oregon's transfers may be included in any other admission category.

Prisoners in 1997 83

Table 5.11b. Sentenced male prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Number of sentenced male prisoners released during 1997 Out on Transfers Conditional Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases releases and AWOL’s or bond jurisdictions Deaths 348,158 2,361 345,797 45,780 1,005 204 874 669 10,502 24,171 6,650 812 893 65,110 20,359 7,555 2,607 3,268 8,054 2,744 8,413 644 324 6,184 538 4,420 104,215 4,751 3,598 454 3,447 8,516 8,733 2,852 11,256 8,348 2,137 7,542 3,019 4,019 5,632 23,779 5,763 369 130,692 1,559 6,310 103,921 3,418 1,461 1,656 600 1,634 1,689 2,638 2,063 3,456 287 99,806 20,173 79,633 9,303 211 424 1,879 186 3,379 1,523 1,609 12 80 15,751 988 496 633 255 1,003 422 890 685 154 9,793 323 109 45,157 2,886 616 692 2,281 13,514 3,080 2,813 515 900 1,982 3,593 2,412 2,787 1,630 1,776 3,459 221 9,422 523 811 1,731 937 120 258 194 1,769 998 7 179 1,664 231 7,361 / 7,361 1,681 80 5 17 15 1 1,481 76 6 0 3,033 924 12 5 11 1,193 / 848 22 7 8 3 / 1,671 229 9 0 452 180 64 97 97 79 60 129 159 35 75 0 2 4 976 29 0 375 286 35 10 36 / 9 52 3 141 0 657 / 657 203 1 0 0 0 71 98 22 11 0 120 17 / 54 4 0 / 16 / 0 28 1 ... 135 69 26 0 1 26 / / / / / 0 0 11 / / / 2 199 2 1 / 3 112 0 2 0 1 30 21 24 3 3,093 179 2,914 1,071 56 0 357 0 0 579 65 11 3 41 / 0 0 / 15 / 10 0 0 16 0 0 1,688 71 55 33 612 147 607 4 33 7 0 0 0 0 119 / / 0 114 11 3 31 0 2 0 4 / 33 / 0 0 30
g

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,c Vermonta,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsinc South Alabama Arkansac Delawarea,b District of Col.a,b,c,e Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandb,f Mississippig North Carolinac Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texasc Virginia West Virginiac West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiac,g Coloradoc,h Hawaiia,f Idaho Montanac Nevadac,i New Mexico Oregonj Utah Washingtonc Wyoming

Total 477,042 25,140 451,902 58,537 1,384 634 3,151 875 14,048 28,081 8,526 861 977 85,027 22,447 8,107 3,351 3,562 10,606 3,172 10,228 1,361 486 16,143 871 4,693 161,035 8,098 4,355 1,447 6,826 22,952 12,594 5,861 11,986 9,416 4,653 11,314 5,655 7,076 7,523 31,360 9,314 605 147,303 2,127 7,578 110,938 4,791 2,016 1,933 840 3,453 2,737 2,761 2,269 5,307 553

Other releases 14,987 2,198 12,789 22 1 0 0 0 0 18 0 3 0 499 63 0 43 0 246 0 5 0 0 0 0 142 6,814 4 21 257 8 338 1 68 6 28 429 0 0 171 0 5,483 0 0 5,454 0 393 4,628 113 278 0 0 27 0 15 0 0 0

Number of male prisoners 12/31/96 1,120,787 88,448 1,032,339 153,922 11,128 1,484 10,406 2,055 26,957 65,539 33,534 2,025 794 204,698 38,358 16,673 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,050 22,305 3,118 660 45,174 2,073 14,727 448,927 20,368 9,335 3,105 8,946 61,162 33,586 13,548 27,397 20,098 12,792 26,191 18,489 19,100 15,861 130,051 25,936 2,962 224,792 2,415 20,938 142,428 12,512 3,080 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,129 7,190 4,070 12,290 1,413

2,980 229 2,751 477 30 1 24 5 95 211 104 6 1 473 96 44 9 24 95 6 46 10 1 114 6 22 1,355 88 30 11 25 231 109 27 79 54 45 50 65 53 67 322 90 9 446 3 60 252 34 8 9 4 23 7 19 3 22 2

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Unconditional releases may include some

releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. c Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by gender; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. f Some or all data for release categories are estimated.

Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i Nevada's escapees may be included in any other release category. j Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.
h

84 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.12a. Sentenced female prisoners admitted from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Number of female prisoners 12/31/97 69,913 6,107 63,806 7,947 757 43 461 106 1,281 3,728 1,476 74 21 11,836 2,249 994 470 476 1,920 234 1,464 214 39 2,805 142 829 28,950 1,292 538 164 430 3,299 2,175 820 1,561 969 805 1,484 1,940 1,103 688 9,933 1,604 145 15,073 139 1,415 9,418 845 303 276 121 612 339 362 210 920 113 Number of sentenced female prisoners admitted during 1997 Parole or other Escapees Returns Transfers New court conditional release and AWOL’s from appeal from other commitments violators returned returned or bond jurisdictions 37,152 2,866 34,286 3,422 73 24 238 57 885 1,675 428 32 10 8,049 2,000 826 332 345 627 232 989 131 48 1,996 119 404 14,051 792 307 112 332 1,791 1,211 707 581 722 540 794 1,047 548 508 3,007 980 72 8,764 250 564 5,203 437 257 247 119 382 252 188 145 630 90
c

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyb,c New Yorkc Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,b Vermont a,d,e Midwest Illinoisb,d Indianac Iowad Kansasc Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiob South Dakotab Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasb Delawarea District of Col.a,b Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandc,f Mississippic,g North Carolinab Oklahomab,c South Carolina Tennesseeb Texasb Virginia West Virginiab West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiab Coloradob,h Hawaiia,f Idaho Montanab Nevadab,c,i New Mexico Oregonj Utah Washingtonb Wyomingc

Total 56,053 3,254 52,799 5,001 242 40 297 74 1,416 2,229 582 55 66 10,406 2,481 891 552 456 1,068 299 1,490 177 56 2,203 139 594 20,006 953 491 165 571 2,021 1,439 915 1,544 902 577 1,078 1,113 689 866 5,456 1,136 90 17,386 339 814 12,604 623 394 300 122 464 334 267 262 771 92

Other releases 2,195 11 2,184 139 64 11 0 0 0 1 20 0 43 272 1 0 6 8 46 0 104 0 0 0 3 104 1,736 2 52 10 0 36 0 4 18 0 2 19 0 3 0 1,590 0 0 37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37 0 0 0 0 0

15,396 255 15,141 1,211 95 4 55 17 531 354 124 20 11 1,578 349 58 98 103 239 67 309 43 8 201 17 86 3,912 119 128 38 146 176 220 195 881 172 28 261 32 136 349 859 156 16 8,440 77 244 7,362 126 135 53 3 45 81 75 117 120 2

926 / 926 168 10 0 0 0 0 152 2 2 2 445 131 4 100 0 119 / 88 3 0 0 0 / 192 29 0 5 70 14 8 9 0 8 7 4 34 1 3 0 / 0 121 12 5 20 59 2 0 0 / 0 4 0 19 0

137 / 137 9 0 0 / / / 6 2 1 / 50 0 / 7 / 37 / 0 / 0 6 0 ... 76 7 2 0 0 2 0 ... 64 / / 0 0 1 / 0 / 0 2 0 0 / 0 0 0 / / 0 0 0 2 0

247 122 125 52 0 1 4 0 / 41 6 0 0 12 / 3 9 / 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 4 2 0 23 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 / 6 / / 2 22 0 1 19 1 0 / 0 / 1 / 0 0 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.

New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory notes. Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e Vermont’s escape and AWOL data may include an undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond. f Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. g Other admissions may include returns from
d

appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. h Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i Nevada’s escapee returns may be included in any other admission category. j Oregon’s transfers may be included in any other admission category.

Prisoners in 1997 85

Table 5.12b. Sentenced female prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Number of sentenced female prisoners released during 1997 Out on Transfers Conditional Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases releases and AWOL’s or bond jurisdictions 37,918 84 37,834 4,112 177 8 120 60 1,017 2,091 545 51 43 7,234 2,114 769 426 424 704 246 1,107 119 30 805 72 418 11,996 567 382 46 220 502 1,132 395 1,184 771 237 859 619 307 636 3,463 655 21 14,492 206 713 11,129 364 228 290 65 209 211 225 247 561 44 10,090 2,121 7,969 669 15 17 183 11 266 93 74 0 10 1,789 43 58 53 28 49 31 57 58 10 1,352 40 10 4,543 299 29 91 269 1,322 217 266 50 98 178 315 357 305 104 120 495 28 968 99 53 143 84 20 22 11 170 141 1 13 186 25 749 / 749 137 8 0 0 0 0 124 3 2 0 347 136 0 1 0 114 / 93 3 0 0 0 / 140 37 0 0 31 6 5 12 0 9 6 6 21 4 3 0 0 0 125 12 3 32 57 2 0 0 / 0 2 0 17 0 95 / 95 14 0 0 0 0 4 7 3 0 0 20 2 / 7 4 0 / 1 / 0 6 0 ... 25 15 4 0 0 2 / / / / / 0 0 4 / / / 0 36 0 1 / 0 31 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 213 0 213 79 4 0 14 0 0 55 5 1 0 1 / 0 1 / 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 124 12 0 0 36 10 54 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 10 / / 0 9 4 0 2 0 3 0 0 / 0 / 0 0 0
g

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,c Vermont a,d Midwest Illinoisc,d Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsinc South Alabama Arkansasc Delawarea,b District of Col.a,b,c,e Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Marylandb,f Mississippig North Carolinac Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texasc Virginia West Virginiac West Alaskaa Arizonad Californiac,g Coloradoc,h Hawaiia,f Idaho Montanac Nevadac,i New Mexico Oregonj Utah Washingtonc Wyoming

Total 51,806 2,557 49,249 5,043 207 25 317 71 1,293 2,388 635 54 53 9,494 2,300 828 494 456 932 277 1,261 180 40 2,166 112 448 18,567 933 428 170 556 1,908 1,413 683 1,237 881 498 1,186 1,000 628 756 5,089 1,152 49 16,145 322 814 11,711 519 329 313 76 381 352 230 262 767 69

Deaths 130 9 121 24 3 0 0 0 6 10 5 0 0 15 5 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 60 3 1 1 / 11 5 1 1 0 2 6 3 2 3 19 2 0 22 1 1 16 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0

Other releases 2,611 343 2,268 8 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 88 0 0 6 0 61 0 1 0 0 0 0 20 1,679 0 12 32 0 55 0 9 0 3 75 0 0 6 0 1,487 0 0 493 0 43 389 14 45 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0

Number of female prisoners 12/31/97 73,794 6,539 67,255 7,905 792 58 441 109 1,404 3,569 1,423 75 34 12,685 2,430 1,057 528 476 2,056 256 1,693 211 55 2,842 169 912 30,351 1,312 601 159 407 3,412 2,201 1,052 1,868 990 884 1,376 2,053 1,164 798 10,300 1,588 186 16,314 156 1,415 10,311 949 368 263 167 695 321 399 210 924 136

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See

Explanatory notes. c Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by gender; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. f Some or all data for release categories are estimated.

Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. h Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i Nevada's escapees may be included in any other release category. j Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

86 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.13. Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Conditional release Supervised mandatory Parole Probation release 139,544 1,450 138,094 41,674 170 2 994 633 10,982 20,964 7,195 449 285 26,914 44 0 1,526 3,504 8,758 2 4,582 763 187 3,438 519 3,591 54,729 2,556 3,678 31 2,854 134 8,502 2,271 946 4,045 1,222 8,401 442 2,978 3,433 9,798 3,065 373 14,777 57 997 / 2,828 739 744 438 1,843 1,900 2,654 2,310 60 207 31,029 71 30,958 740 ... 210 / 80 ... 0 ... 408 42 10,522 ... 4,117 599 43 ... ... 3,418 ... 158 2,166 21 ... 15,979 2,762 ... / / 4,181 51 976 460 ... 1,152 0 2,925 1,348 1,804 303 ... 17 3,717 1,116 42 ... 221 940 1,060 214 ... ... ... 0 ... 124 195,279 924 194,355 5,298 ... 0 / / ... 5,298 ... ... ... 31,831 22,429 4,207 ... ... ... 2,585 0 ... ... 1,293 70 1,247 37,108 ... ... 469 63 ... ... ... 11,034 5,048 ... / 0 0 / 17,141 3,353 ... 120,118 299 79 115,050 733 0 ... 0 ... ... ... 0 3,957 0 Unconditional release Expiration of sentence 104,361 22,048 82,313 9,729 219 441 1,981 176 3,645 1,616 1,552 9 90 16,746 1,006 0 572 283 1,052 439 903 743 164 11,129 363 92 46,318 3,095 643 259 2,440 14,462 3,262 3,079 468 538 1,797 3,873 1,920 2,973 1,734 1,896 3,630 249 9,520 562 761 1,874 1,021 134 280 205 1,395 1,139 0 57 1,836 256

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb,c New Hampshire New Jerseyd New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island a,d Vermont a,e Midwest Illinoisd,e Indiana Iowae Kansas Michigane Minnesotaf Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotad,g Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasd Delawarea,b,c District of Col.a,b,c,d Floridae Georgiae Kentucky Louisiana Marylandc,h Mississippi North Carolinad,i Oklahomad South Carolina Tennesseed,i Texasd Virginiaf West Virginiad West Alaskaa Arizonae Californiaa,d,j Coloradod Hawaiia,h Idaho Montanad Nevadad,k New Mexico Oregonl Utah Washingtond Wyoming

Total 386,076 2,445 383,631 49,892 1,182 212 994 729 11,519 26,262 7,195 863 936 72,344 22,473 8,324 3,033 3,692 8,758 2,990 9,520 763 354 6,989 610 4,838 116,211 5,318 3,980 500 3,667 9,018 9,865 3,247 12,440 9,119 2,374 8,401 3,638 4,326 6,268 27,242 6,418 390 145,184 1,765 7,023 115,050 3,782 1,689 1,946 665 1,843 1,900 2,863 2,310 4,017 331

Other 20,224 / 20,224 2,180 1,012 0 0 16 537 0 0 6 609 3,077 0 0 908 145 0 403 1,520 0 9 92 ... 0 8,395 0 302 0 750 4,703 1,312 / 0 26 0 0 271 0 1,031 0 0 0 6,572 293 5,905 ... 0 10 142 13 0 0 209 0 0 0

Total 109,896 22,294 87,602 9,972 226 441 2,062 197 3,645 1,616 1,683 12 90 17,540 1,031 554 686 283 1,052 453 947 743 164 11,145 363 119 49,700 3,185 645 783 2,550 14,836 3,297 3,079 565 998 2,160 3,908 2,769 3,092 1,734 1,896 3,954 249 10,390 622 864 1,874 1,021 140 280 205 1,939 1,139 8 192 1,850 256

Commutation 343 246 97 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 87 0 0 0 0 53 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... / 0 4 2 2 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other 5,192 / 5,192 239 7 0 80 21 0 0 131 0 0 792 23 554 114 0 0 14 44 0 0 16 ... 27 3,295 90 2 524 110 321 1 / 97 460 363 35 849 119 0 ... 324 0 866 58 101 / 0 6 0 0 544 0 8 135 14 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Expirations of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory notes. c Unconditional releases may include some

releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. d Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. e Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory notes. g Expiration of sentence may include commutation and pardon. See Explanatory notes.

h Some or all data for release categories are estimated. i Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory notes. j Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. k Nevada's escapees may be included in any other release category. l Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Prisoners in 1997 87

Table 5.14. Sentenced male prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Conditional release Supervised mandatory Parole Probation release 125,493 1,397 124,096 38,070 156 2 874 582 10,024 19,087 6,650 411 284 24,239 44 0 1,307 3,088 8,054 2 4,009 644 169 3,225 459 3,238 48,524 2,266 3,331 31 2,649 131 7,615 2,041 827 3,566 1,102 7,542 351 2,795 3,154 8,092 2,678 353 13,263 47 893 / 2,537 658 680 385 1,634 1,689 2,444 2,063 58 175 27,219 65 27,154 709 ... 202 / 72 ... 0 ... 395 40 9,051 ... 3,674 461 37 ... ... 2,959 ... 147 1,754 19 ... 14,231 2,485 ... / / 3,885 46 811 418 ... 1,035 0 2,430 1,224 1,617 264 ... 16 3,163 969 39 ... 194 797 850 202 ... ... ... 0 ... 112 177,128 899 176,229 5,084 ... 0 / / ... 5,084 ... ... ... 29,022 20,315 3,881 ... ... ... 2,389 0 ... ... 1,195 60 1,182 33,758 ... ... 423 60 ... ... ... 10,011 4,756 ... / 0 0 / 15,423 3,085 ... 108,365 282 77 103,921 687 0 ... 0 ... ... ... 0 3,398 0 Unconditional release Expiration of sentence Commutation 94,925 19,959 74,966 9,090 205 424 1,811 171 3,379 1,523 1,488 9 80 15,057 970 0 541 255 1,003 409 850 685 154 9,780 323 87 42,211 2,805 615 243 2,171 13,167 3,045 2,813 426 499 1,673 3,566 1,690 2,685 1,630 1,776 3,186 221 8,608 473 715 1,731 937 114 258 194 1,249 998 0 57 1,651 231 303 214 89 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 80 0 0 0 0 46 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... / 0 4 2 2 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb,c New Hampshire New Jerseyd New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,d Vermonta,e Midwest Illinoisd,e Indiana Iowae Kansas Michigane Minnesotaf Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotad,g Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasd Delawarea,b,c District of Col.a,b,c,d Floridae Georgiae Kentucky Louisiana Maryland c,h Mississippi North Carolinad,i Oklahomad South Carolina Tennesseed,i Texasd Virginiaf West Virginiad West Alaskaa Arizonae Californiad,j Coloradod Hawaiia,h Idaho Montanad Nevadad,k New Mexico Oregonl Utah Washingtond Wyoming

Total 348,158 2,361 345,797 45,780 1,005 204 874 669 10,502 24,171 6,650 812 893 65,110 20,359 7,555 2,607 3,268 8,054 2,744 8,413 644 324 6,184 538 4,420 104,215 4,751 3,598 454 3,447 8,516 8,733 2,852 11,256 8,348 2,137 7,542 3,019 4,019 5,632 23,779 5,763 369 130,692 1,559 6,310 103,921 3,418 1,461 1,656 600 1,634 1,689 2,638 2,063 3,456 287

Other 18,318 / 18,318 1,917 849 0 0 15 478 0 0 6 569 2,798 0 0 839 143 0 353 1,445 0 8 10 ... 0 7,702 0 267 0 738 4,500 1,072 / 0 26 0 0 238 0 861 0 0 0 5,901 261 5,301 ... 0 6 126 13 0 0 194 0 0 0

Total 99,806 20,173 79,633 9,303 211 424 1,879 186 3,379 1,523 1,609 12 80 15,751 988 496 633 255 1,003 422 890 685 154 9,793 323 109 45,157 2,886 616 692 2,281 13,514 3,080 2,813 515 900 1,982 3,593 2,412 2,787 1,630 1,776 3,459 221 9,422 523 811 1,731 937 120 258 194 1,769 998 7 179 1,664 231

Other 4,578 / 4,578 209 6 0 67 15 0 0 121 0 0 693 17 496 92 0 0 13 40 0 0 13 ... 22 2,866 81 1 449 110 301 1 / 89 401 309 27 722 102 0 ... 273 0 810 48 94 / 0 6 0 0 520 0 7 122 13 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Expirations of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory notes. c Unconditional releases may include some

releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. d Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. e Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory Notes. g Expirations of sentence may include commutations and pardons. See Explanatory notes.

h Some or all data for release categories are estimated. i Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory notes. j Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. k Nevada's escapees may be included in any other release category. l Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

88 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.15. Sentenced female prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Conditional release Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb,c New Hampshire New Jerseyd New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islanda,d Vermonta,e Midwest Illinoisd,e Indiana Iowae Kansas Michigane Minnesotaf Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakotad,g Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasd Delawarea,b,c District of Col.a,b,c,d Floridae Georgiae Kentucky Louisiana Marylandc,h Mississippi North Carolinad,i Oklahomad South Carolina Tennesseed,i Texasd Virginiaf West Virginiad West Alaskaa Arizonae Californiad,j Coloradod Hawaiia,h Idaho Montanad Nevadad,k New Mexico Oregonl Utah Washingtond Wyoming Supervised mandatory release 18,151 25 18,126 214 ... 0 / / ... 214 ... ... ... 2,809 2,114 326 ... ... ... 196 0 ... ... 98 10 65 3,350 ... ... 46 3 ... ... ... 1,023 292 ... / 0 0 / 1,718 268 ... 11,753 17 2 11,129 46 0 ... 0 ... ... ... 0 559 0 Expiration of sentence 9,436 2,089 7,347 639 14 17 170 5 266 93 64 0 10 1,689 36 0 31 28 49 30 53 58 10 1,349 40 5 4,107 290 28 16 269 1,295 217 266 42 39 124 307 230 288 104 120 444 28 912 89 46 143 84 20 22 11 146 141 0 0 185 25 Unconditional release

Total 37,918 84 37,834 4,112 177 8 120 60 1,017 2,091 545 51 43 7,234 2,114 769 426 424 704 246 1,107 119 30 805 72 418 11,996 567 382 46 220 502 1,132 395 1,184 771 237 859 619 307 636 3,463 655 21 14,492 206 713 11,129 364 228 290 65 209 211 225 247 561 44

Parole 14,051 53 13,998 3,604 14 0 120 51 958 1,877 545 38 1 2,675 0 0 219 416 704 0 573 119 18 213 60 353 6,205 290 347 0 205 3 887 230 119 479 120 859 91 183 279 1,706 387 20 1,514 10 104 / 291 81 64 53 209 211 210 247 2 32

Probation 3,810 6 3,804 31 ... 8 / 8 ... 0 ... 13 2 1,471 ... 443 138 6 ... ... 459 ... 11 412 2 ... 1,748 277 ... / / 296 5 165 42 ... 117 0 495 124 187 39 ... 1 554 147 3 ... 27 143 210 12 ... ... ... 0 ... 12

Other 1,906 / 1,906 263 163 0 0 1 59 0 0 0 40 279 0 0 69 2 0 50 75 0 1 82 ... 0 693 0 35 0 12 203 240 / 0 0 0 0 33 0 170 0 0 0 671 32 604 ... 0 4 16 0 0 0 15 0 0 0

Total 10,090 2,121 7,969 669 15 17 183 11 266 93 74 0 10 1,789 43 58 53 28 49 31 57 58 10 1,352 40 10 4,543 299 29 91 269 1,322 217 266 50 98 178 315 357 305 104 120 495 28 968 99 53 143 84 20 22 11 170 141 1 13 186 25

Commutation 40 32 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... / 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other 614 / 614 30 1 0 13 6 0 0 10 0 0 99 6 58 22 0 0 1 4 0 0 3 ... 5 429 9 1 75 0 20 0 / 8 59 54 8 127 17 0 ... 51 0 56 10 7 / 0 0 0 0 24 0 1 13 1 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Expiration of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory notes. c Unconditional releases may include some

releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes. d Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. e Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory notes. g Expirations of sentence may include commutations and pardons. See

Explanatory notes. h Some or all data for release categories are estimated. i Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory notes. j Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. k Nevada's escapees may be included in any other release category. l Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Prisoners in 1997 89

Table 5.16. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation of parole or other conditional release, by gender and status of sentence, 1997
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsb New Hampshireb New Jerseyc,d New York Pennsylvaniae Rhode Islanda,c Vermonta,b,e,f Midwest Illinoisc,d,f,g Indiana Iowaf Kansas Michiganf Minnesota Missouri Nebraskab North Dakotab,d Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsin South Alabamag Arkansasc Delawarea,e,g District of Col.a,c Floridaf Georgiae,f Kentucky Louisiana Marylandh Mississippi North Carolinac,e Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec,e,g Texasc,e,g Virginia West Virginiac West Alaskaa Arizonaf Californiac,d,g Coloradoc Hawaiia,h Idaho Montanac Nevadac New Mexicob,d Oregon Utah Washingtonc Wyomingb Parole violators New sentence Male Female 24,534 / 24,534 1,156 9 8 / / 484 / 445 60 150 4,056 / 232 217 163 1,225 0 367 / / 1,435 8 409 17,770 56 659 43 1,928 6 2,723 144 170 949 41 2,651 103 149 2,331 5,403 384 30 1,552 26 70 / 322 34 39 5 67 / 615 371 3 / 1,885 / 1,885 58 0 0 / / 33 / 21 3 1 206 / 13 40 11 63 0 31 / / 15 0 33 1,493 5 10 2 138 0 145 6 9 58 1 261 20 9 184 592 47 6 128 3 2 / 24 27 3 1 4 / 37 27 0 / No new sentence Male Female 34,851 1,137 33,714 12,474 205 0 598 330 4,772 5,481 902 102 84 7,992 / 547 192 967 2,492 0 1,090 267 41 1,527 102 767 8,227 648 726 / / 107 609 1,430 539 1,861 72 / 47 1,111 / / 937 140 5,021 183 358 / 1,008 382 238 118 616 711 385 956 39 27 2,830 124 2,706 947 20 0 46 17 469 333 38 14 10 591 / 45 28 91 176 0 94 43 6 56 12 40 763 74 99 / / 6 75 133 67 114 4 / 12 64 / / 109 6 405 5 53 / 79 0 17 1 41 78 38 90 1 2 Other conditional release violators New sentence No new sentence Male Female Male Female 30,614 / 30,614 258 8 42 152 / / / / 56 / 4,632 4,188 / 137 13 0 131 35 0 / / 1 127 8,739 547 49 326 / 439 / 32 1,510 0 212 / / 277 1,520 3,827 / 0 16,985 108 268 16,185 61 280 44 / ... / 0 0 39 0 2,564 / 2,564 14 1 2 9 / / / / 2 / 342 306 / 19 0 0 9 0 0 / / 0 8 726 40 0 36 / 9 / 8 162 0 23 / / 14 165 267 / 2 1,482 2 9 1,406 3 53 7 / ... / 0 0 2 0 84,370 1,714 82,656 3,523 435 50 / / 277 999 1,736 26 / 5,213 1,608 / 107 77 0 859 1,461 0 60 801 40 200 8,777 / 101 / 60 2,413 / 284 5,371 3 0 / / 545 / / 0 0 65,143 388 1,292 61,649 96 248 155 212 ... 345 0 0 584 174 8,117 131 7,986 192 74 2 / / 29 21 65 1 / 439 43 / 11 1 0 58 184 0 2 130 5 5 930 / 19 / 8 161 / 48 643 0 0 / / 49 / / 0 2 6,425 67 180 5,956 20 55 26 1 ... 3 0 0 117 0

Total 189,765 3,106 186,659 18,622 752 104 805 347 6,064 6,834 3,207 264 245 23,471 6,145 837 751 1,323 3,956 1,057 3,262 310 109 3,964 168 1,589 47,425 1,370 1,663 407 2,134 3,141 3,552 2,085 8,471 2,985 353 2,912 182 2,218 4,200 10,089 1,477 186 97,141 782 2,232 85,196 1,613 1,079 529 338 728 1,137 1,075 1,444 785 203

Total 64,100 1,261 62,839 14,635 234 8 644 347 5,758 5,814 1,406 179 245 12,845 / 837 477 1,232 3,956 0 1,582 310 47 3,033 122 1,249 28,253 783 1,494 45 2,066 119 3,552 1,713 785 2,982 118 2,912 182 1,333 2,515 5,995 1,477 182 7,106 217 483 / 1,433 443 297 125 728 789 1,075 1,444 43 29

Total 125,665 1,845 123,820 3,987 518 96 161 / 306 1,020 1,801 85 / 10,626 6,145 / 274 91 0 1,057 1,680 0 62 931 46 340 19,172 587 169 362 68 3,022 / 372 7,686 3 235 / / 885 1,685 4,094 0 4 90,035 565 1,749 85,196 180 636 232 213 ... 348 0 0 742 174

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b Parole violators with no new sentences may

include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory notes. c Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes. d Other conditional release violators with no new sentences include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory notes. e Parole violators with new sentences may include

inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory notes. f Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g Other conditional release violators with new sentences include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory notes. h Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated.

90 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.17. Deaths among sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender and cause of death, 1997
Illness or natural cause Male Female 1,781 / 1,781 278 15 1 18 1 39 132 67 4 1 360 66 40 9 21 67 4 32 8 1 93 4 15 811 / 20 11 21 117 59 26 57 24 38 40 55 32 49 201 52 9 332 2 51 180 25 4 7 4 17 / 16 3 21 2 78 / 78 18 2 0 0 0 4 8 4 0 0 7 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 38 / 1 1 / 4 2 1 1 0 2 6 3 1 2 13 1 0 15 1 1 11 0 0 0 0 1 / 0 0 1 0 Number of deaths among sentenced prisoners Accidental self-injury AIDS Suicide Male Female Male Female Male Female 511 / 511 131 12 0 2 0 40 58 18 1 0 45 14 1 0 1 15 1 6 0 0 6 0 1 296 14 0 0 / 104 38 0 17 12 4 8 3 18 13 51 14 0 39 0 0 33 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 27 / 27 5 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 / 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 4 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
b

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticutc Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandc Vermontc,d Midwest Illinoisd Indiana Iowad Kansas Michigand Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delawarec District of Col.c,e Floridad Georgiad Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskac Arizonad California Colorado Hawaiic Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexicof Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Total Male Female 2,980 229 2,751 477 30 1 24 5 95 211 104 6 1 473 96 44 9 24 95 6 46 10 1 114 6 22 1,355 88 30 11 25 231 109 27 79 54 45 50 65 53 67 322 90 9 446 3 60 252 34 8 9 4 23 7 19 3 22 2 130 9 121 24 3 0 0 0 6 10 5 0 0 15 5 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 60 3 1 1 / 11 5 1 1 0 2 6 3 2 3 19 2 0 22 1 1 16 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0

Executiona Male 74 0 74 0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 0 ... ... 10 2 1 ... 0 ... ... 6 1 ... 0 0 ... 60 3 4 0 ... 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 ... 4 ... 2 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

Caused by anotherb Male 75 / 75 15 1 0 0 0 5 4 4 1 0 12 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 4 1 0 29 / 3 0 3 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 3 0 2 9 1 0 19 0 2 14 3 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0

Unspecified cause Male Female 354 229 125 10 0 0 0 0 6 0 4 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 97 71 0 0 / 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 11 0 11 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 14 9 5 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

153 / 153 32 2 0 4 3 1 14 8 0 0 32 10 2 0 2 5 0 1 0 0 9 1 2 53 / 3 0 1 4 6 0 1 8 3 2 2 1 3 16 3 0 36 1 3 18 5 3 0 0 4 / 2 0 0 0

6 / 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 / 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 / 0 0 0 0

32 / 32 11 0 0 0 1 4 3 3 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 9 / 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0

5 / 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 / 0 0 / 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a No female deaths due to execution occurred during 1997. No female deaths were reported as caused by another during 1997.

Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. d Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by gender; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. f Unable to distinguish cause of death except by execution.

Prisoners in 1997 91

Table 5.18. Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb Midwest Illinoisc Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouric Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,d Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskab Arizona Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevada New Mexicoe Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 12/31/97 Percent 12/31/96 change 4.4% 7.0% 4.1 2.1% 2.1 8.5 1.1 3.3 10.3 -0.5 1.3 2.4 13.5 5.8% 5.0 4.7 9.4 2.1 5.7 10.9 9.0 4.1 7.6 4.0 8.5 9.3 3.5% 2.6 3.5 6.4 -20.1 1.4 3.9 7.2 4.6 0.6 3.2 7.8 -1.6 3.8 11.3 6.0 -2.1 -2.9 5.3% 8.0 4.4 6.7 2.6 23.2 1.7 17.1 6.7 ... -8.1 6.6 5.1 6.9 More than a year Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 1,130,465 1,083,996 87,538 81,900 1,042,927 1,002,096 156,761 10,765 1,537 9,942 2,079 25,497 69,108 34,922 2,083 828 213,505 40,788 16,338 6,938 7,914 44,771 5,307 23,992 3,253 741 47,808 2,239 13,416 439,463 21,364 8,926 3,261 6,509 64,574 35,787 10,875 18,470 20,743 10,010 26,998 14,893 19,706 15,095 135,565 24,302 2,385 233,198 1,918 22,353 152,225 10,566 2,592 3,312 1,862 8,541 3,373 7,090 4,775 13,173 1,418 153,879 10,413 1,421 9,941 1,988 23,123 69,709 34,474 2,009 801 201,500 38,852 15,597 6,342 7,755 42,349 4,799 22,014 3,129 690 45,968 2,063 11,942 425,707 20,772 8,597 3,116 8,111 63,746 34,328 10,148 17,664 20,674 9,711 25,669 15,130 19,197 13,565 128,038 24,797 2,444 221,010 1,828 21,523 142,381 10,302 2,324 3,257 1,590 7,944 4,454 7,130 4,449 12,501 1,327 4.3% 6.9% 4.1 1.9% 3.4 8.2 4.6 10.3 -0.9 1.3 3.7 3.4 6.0% 5.0 4.8 9.4 2.1 5.7 10.6 9.0 4.0 7.4 4.0 8.5 12.3 3.2% 2.8 3.8 4.7 -19.8 1.3 4.3 7.2 4.6 0.3 3.1 5.2 -1.6 2.7 11.3 5.9 -2.0 -2.4 5.5% 4.9 3.9 6.9 2.6 11.5 1.7 17.1 7.5 ... -0.6 7.3 5.4 6.9 Total Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 46,457 14,217 32,240 7,809 4,793 64 976 25 / 275 7 1,227 442 672 0 173 ... ... ... 20 18 95 82 / / 284 15,634 610 53 2,171 539 52 718 ... ... 1,127 337 3,992 / 907 ... 4,786 330 12 8,125 1,286 1,131 3,051 / 1,486 ... / 82 266 684 86 53 0 43,768 13,188 30,580 7,330 4,820 55 862 49 / 0 2 1,224 318 928 0 169 ... ... ... 5 4 87 75 / / 588 14,102 652 78 1,991 708 17 811 ... ... 1,055 319 3,087 / 663 ... 4,345 352 24 8,220 1,140 970 3,184 / 985 ... ... 137 279 1,327 111 87 0
d

Year or less 12/31/97 12/31/96 23,427 3,207 20,220 3,173 1,681 64 292 19 / 275 6 564 272 361 / 165 ... ... ... ... 18 73 82 / / 23 14,034 610 53 1,181 221 52 718 ... ... 1,127 337 3,712 / 907 ... 4,786 330 ... 2,652 270 1,131 / / 172 ... / 82 266 684 27 20 0 21,585 2,926 18,659 2,726 1,680 55 176 38 / 0 0 641 136 327 / 159 ... ... ... 0 4 62 75 / / 27 12,485 652 78 1,092 291 17 811 ... ... 1,055 319 2,810 / 663 ... 4,345 352 ... 3,121 230 970 / / 96 ... ... 137 279 1,327 29 53 0

Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 23,030 11,010 12,020 4,636 3,112 ... 684 6 ... 0 1 663 170 311 0 8 ... ... ... 20 0 22 ... ... ... 261 1,600 0 0 990 318 ... ... ... ... ... 0 280 ... ... ... ... ... 12 5,473 1,016 0 3,051 ... 1,314 ... ... 0 0 ... 59 33 0 22,183 10,262 11,921 4,604 3,140 ... 686 11 ... 0 2 583 182 601 0 10 ... ... ... 5 ... 25 ... ... ... 561 1,617 0 0 899 417 ... ... ... ... ... 0 277 ... ... ... ... ... 24 5,099 910 0 3,184 ... 889 ... ... 0 0 0 82 34 0

1,176,922 1,127,764 101,755 95,088 1,075,167 1,032,676 164,570 15,558 1,601 10,918 2,104 25,497 69,383 34,929 3,310 1,270 214,177 40,788 16,511 6,938 7,914 44,771 5,327 24,010 3,348 823 47,808 2,239 13,700 455,097 21,974 8,979 5,432 7,048 64,626 36,505 10,875 18,470 21,870 10,347 30,990 14,893 20,613 15,095 140,351 24,632 2,397 241,323 3,204 23,484 155,276 10,566 4,078 3,312 1,862 8,623 3,639 7,774 4,861 13,226 1,418 161,209 15,233 1,476 10,803 2,037 23,123 69,709 34,476 3,233 1,119 202,428 38,852 15,766 6,342 7,755 42,349 4,804 22,018 3,216 765 45,968 2,063 12,530 439,809 21,424 8,675 5,107 8,819 63,763 35,139 10,148 17,664 21,729 10,030 28,756 15,130 19,860 13,565 132,383 25,149 2,468 229,230 2,968 22,493 145,565 10,302 3,309 3,257 1,590 8,081 4,733 8,457 4,560 12,588 1,327

6.1% 7.8% 5.4 6.5% -0.6 16.4 13.2 -49.0

250.0 0.2 39.0 -27.6% 2.4

300.0 350.0 9.2 9.3

-51.7 10.9% -6.4 -32.1 9.0 -23.9 205.9 -11.5

6.8 5.6 29.3 36.8 10.1 -6.3 -50.0 -1.2% 12.8 16.6 -4.2 50.9

-40.1 ... -48.5 -22.5 -39.1

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length

is unknown. b Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.

Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. e New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not comparable because New Mexico included inmates in local jails or out of State because of crowding in their custody figures prior to 1997.

92 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 5.19. Male prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federala State Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb Midwest Illinoisc Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouric Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,d Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskab Arizona Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevada New Mexicoe Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 12/31/97 Percent 12/31/96 change More than a year Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 4.3% 7.0% 4.0 2.0% 4.0 7.1 0.4 4.6 9.5 -0.7 1.5 3.4 1.8 5.8% 4.8 4.3 9.2 2.2 5.7 10.5 8.5 4.4 6.2 4.2 7.7 12.0 3.2% 3.0 3.3 5.1 -20.1 1.2 4.3 5.9 3.8 0.3 1.3 5.9 -1.7 2.5 10.4 6.3 -1.6 -2.0 5.4% 4.5 4.1 6.7 2.9 11.2 1.8 17.2 7.4 ... -1.0 7.6 5.8 4.4 Total Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 40,486 13,029 27,457 6,832 4,304 60 689 4 / 244 6 1,102 423 625 0 159 ... ... ... 18 15 80 75 / / 278 13,043 562 42 1,947 454 45 637 ... ... 1,009 273 3,487 / 769 ... 3,512 296 10 6,957 1,175 986 2,448 / 1,325 ... / 76 210 611 77 49 0 38,368 12,191 26,177 6,341 4,293 49 601 13 / 0 2 1,076 307 878 0 155 ... ... ... 5 4 72 66 / / 576 11,975 587 68 1,776 610 14 707 ... ... 969 283 2,680 / 566 ... 3,386 309 20 6,983 1,042 870 2,495 / 908 ... ... 133 234 1,124 94 83 0
d

Year or less 12/31/97 12/31/96 19,634 2,702 16,932 2,654 1,464 60 114 4 / 244 5 499 264 322 / 153 ... ... ... ... 15 58 75 / / 21 11,631 562 42 1,053 193 45 637 ... ... 1,009 273 3,240 / 769 ... 3,512 296 ... 2,325 249 986 / / 152 ... / 76 210 611 23 18 0 18,301 2,541 15,760 2,187 1,420 49 45 11 / 0 0 530 132 293 / 150 ... ... ... 0 4 50 66 / / 23 10,547 587 68 966 259 14 707 ... ... 969 283 2,433 / 566 ... 3,386 309 ... 2,733 211 870 / / 83 ... ... 133 234 1,124 28 50 0

Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 20,852 10,327 10,525 4,178 2,840 ... 575 0 ... 0 1 603 159 303 0 6 ... ... ... 18 0 22 ... ... ... 257 1,412 0 0 894 261 ... ... ... ... ... 0 247 ... ... ... ... ... 10 4,632 926 0 2,448 ... 1,173 ... ... 0 0 ... 54 31 0 20,067 9,650 10,417 4,154 2,873 ... 556 2 ... 0 2 546 175 585 0 5 ... ... ... 5 ... 22 ... ... ... 553 1,428 0 0 810 351 ... ... ... ... ... 0 247 ... ... ... ... ... 20 4,250 831 0 2,495 ... 825 ... ... 0 0 0 66 33 0

1,103,289 1,057,755 94,691 1,008,598 156,062 14,499 1,546 10,208 1,973 24,211 65,783 33,512 3,113 1,217 201,689 38,358 15,470 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,074 22,317 3,126 757 44,997 2,070 12,960 426,464 20,627 8,373 5,049 6,651 61,207 34,223 10,209 17,529 20,769 9,454 29,212 13,578 19,358 14,490 130,051 23,410 2,274 224,383 2,993 21,924 144,392 9,744 3,685 3,082 1,776 7,992 3,265 7,342 4,598 12,303 1,287 88,539 969,216 152,703 14,093 1,437 10,080 1,896 22,108 65,981 33,001 3,020 1,087 190,850 36,603 14,828 5,872 7,277 40,429 4,581 20,554 2,989 708 43,190 1,922 11,897 412,398 20,077 8,133 4,728 8,365 60,461 32,900 9,640 16,882 20,679 9,348 26,961 13,808 18,700 13,130 122,450 23,805 2,331 213,265 2,781 20,978 135,481 9,473 3,031 3,028 1,516 7,506 4,352 7,922 4,297 11,667 1,233

4.3% 1,062,803 1,019,387 6.9% 4.1 2.2% 2.9 7.6 1.3 4.1 9.5 -0.3 1.5 3.1 12.0 5.7% 4.8 4.3 9.2 2.2 5.7 10.8 8.6 4.6 6.9 4.2 7.7 8.9 3.4% 2.7 3.0 6.8 -20.5 1.2 4.0 5.9 3.8 0.4 1.1 8.3 -1.7 3.5 10.4 6.2 -1.7 -2.4 5.2% 7.6 4.5 6.6 2.9 21.6 1.8 17.2 6.5 ... -7.3 7.0 5.5 4.4
b

5.5% 6.9% 4.9 7.7% 0.3 22.4 14.6 -69.2

81,662 981,141 149,230 10,195 1,486 9,519 1,969 24,211 65,539 33,506 2,011 794 201,064 38,358 15,311 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,056 22,302 3,046 682 44,997 2,070 12,682 413,421 20,065 8,331 3,102 6,197 61,162 33,586 10,209 17,529 19,760 9,181 25,725 13,578 18,589 14,490 126,539 23,114 2,264 217,426 1,818 20,938 141,944 9,744 2,360 3,082 1,776 7,916 3,055 6,731 4,521 12,254 1,287

76,348 943,039 146,362 9,800 1,388 9,479 1,883 22,108 65,981 32,999 1,944 780 189,972 36,603 14,673 5,872 7,277 40,429 4,576 20,550 2,917 642 43,190 1,922 11,321 400,423 19,490 8,065 2,952 7,755 60,447 32,193 9,640 16,882 19,710 9,065 24,281 13,808 18,134 13,130 119,064 23,496 2,311 206,282 1,739 20,108 132,986 9,473 2,123 3,028 1,516 7,373 4,118 6,798 4,203 11,584 1,233

200.0 2.4 37.8 -28.8% 2.6

260.0 275 11.1 13.6

-51.7 8.9% -4.3 -38.2 9.6 -25.6 221.4 -9.9

4.1 -3.5 30.1 35.9 3.7 -4.2 -50.0 -0.4% 12.8 13.3 -1.9 45.9

-42.9 ... -45.6 -18.1 -41.0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence

length is unknown. Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.

Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. e New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not comparable because New Mexico included inmates in local jails or out of State because of crowding in their custody figures prior to 1997.

Prisoners in 1997 93

Table 5.20. Female prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
a

12/31/97 73,633 7,064 66,569 8,508 1,059 55 710 131 1,286 3,600 1,417 197 53 12,488 2,430 1,041 528 479 2,056 253 1,693 222 66 2,811 169 740 28,633 1,347 606 383 397 3,419 2,282 666 941 1,101 893 1,778 1,315 1,255 605 10,300 1,222 123 16,940 211 1,560 10,884 822 393 230 86 631 374 432 263 923 131

12/31/96 70,009 6,549 63,460 8,506 1,140 39 723 141 1,015 3,728 1,475 213 32 11,578 2,249 938 470 478 1,920 223 1,464 227 57 2,778 141 633 27,411 1,347 542 379 454 3,302 2,239 508 782 1,050 682 1,795 1,322 1,160 435 9,933 1,344 137 15,965 187 1,515 10,084 829 278 229 74 575 381 535 263 921 94

Percent change 5.2% 7.9% 4.9

More than a year Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 67,662 5,876 61,786 7,531 570 51 423 110 1,286 3,569 1,416 72 34 12,441 2,430 1,027 528 479 2,056 251 1,690 207 59 2,811 169 734 26,042 1,299 595 159 312 3,412 2,201 666 941 983 829 1,273 1,315 1,117 605 9,026 1,188 121 15,772 100 1,415 10,281 822 232 230 86 625 318 359 254 919 131
b

Total Percent 12/31/97 12/31/96 change 5,971 1,188 4,783 977 489 4 287 21 / 31 1 125 19 47 0 14 ... ... ... 2 3 15 7 / / 6 2,591 48 11 224 85 7 81 ... ... 118 64 505 / 138 ... 1,274 34 2 1,168 111 145 603 / 161 ... / 6 56 73 9 4 0 5,400 997 4,403 989 527 6 261 36 / 0 0 148 11 50 0 14 ... ... ... 0 0 15 9 / / 12 2,127 65 10 215 98 3 104 ... ... 86 36 407 / 97 ... 959 43 4 1,237 98 100 689 / 77 ... ... 4 45 203 17 4 0
d

Year or less 12/31/97 12/31/96 3,793 505 3,288 519 217 4 178 15 / 31 1 65 8 39 / 12 ... ... ... ... 3 15 7 / / 2 2,403 48 11 128 28 7 81 ... ... 118 64 472 / 138 ... 1,274 34 ... 327 21 145 / / 20 ... / 6 56 73 4 2 0 3,284 385 2,899 539 260 6 131 27 / 0 0 111 4 34 / 9 ... ... ... 0 0 12 9 / / 4 1,938 65 10 126 32 3 104 ... ... 86 36 377 / 97 ... 959 43 ... 388 19 100 / / 13 ... ... 4 45 203 1 3 0

Unsentenced 12/31/97 12/31/96 2,178 683 1,495 458 272 ... 109 6 ... 0 0 60 11 8 0 2 ... ... ... 2 0 0 ... ... ... 4 188 0 0 96 57 ... ... ... ... ... 0 33 ... ... ... ... ... 2 841 90 0 603 ... 141 ... ... 0 0 ... 5 2 0 2,116 612 1,504 450 267 ... 130 9 ... 0 0 37 7 16 0 5 ... ... ... 0 ... 3 ... ... ... 8 189 0 0 89 66 ... ... ... ... ... 0 30 ... ... ... ... ... 4 849 79 0 689 ... 64 ... ... 0 0 0 16 1 0

64,609 5,552 59,057 7,517 613 33 462 105 1,015 3,728 1,475 65 21 11,528 2,249 924 470 478 1,920 223 1,464 212 48 2,778 141 621 25,284 1,282 532 164 356 3,299 2,135 508 782 964 646 1,388 1,322 1,063 435 8,974 1,301 133 14,728 89 1,415 9,395 829 201 229 74 571 336 332 246 917 94

4.7% 5.8% 4.6 0.2% -7.0 54.5 -8.4 4.8 26.7 -4.3 -4.0 10.8 61.9 7.9% 8.0 11.1 12.3 0.2 7.1 12.6 15.4 -2.4 22.9 1.2 19.9 18.2 3.0% 1.3 11.8 -3.0 -12.4 3.4 3.1 31.1 20.3 2.0 28.3 -8.3 -0.5 5.1 39.1 0.6 -8.7 -9.0 7.1% 12.4 9.4 -0.8 15.4 0.4 16.2 9.5 ... 8.1 3.3 0.2 39.4

10.6% 19.2% 8.6 -1.2% -7.2 -33.3 10.0 -41.7

Northeast Connecticutb Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jerseyc New York Pennsylvania Rhode Islandb Vermontb Midwest Illinoisc Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouric Nebraska North Dakota Ohioc South Dakotac Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasa Delawareb District of Col.b,d Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahomac South Carolina Tennesseec Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaskab Arizona Californiac Coloradoc Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevada New Mexicoe Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

-7.1% 41.0 -1.8 -7.1 26.7 -3.4 -3.9 -7.5 65.6 7.9% 8.0 11.0 12.3 0.2 7.1 13.5 15.6 -2.2 15.8 1.2 19.9 16.9 4.5% 11.8 1.1 -12.6 3.5 1.9 31.1 20.3 4.9 30.9 -0.9 -0.5 8.2 39.1 3.7 -9.1 -10.2 6.1% 12.8 3.0 7.9 -0.8 41.4 0.4 16.2 9.7 ... -19.3 0.2 39.4

-15.5 72.7 -6.0%

-22.2

-50.0 21.8% -26.2 10.0 4.2 -13.3 133.3 -22.1

37.2 77.8 24.1 42.3 32.8 -20.9 -50.0 -5.6% 13.3 45.0 -12.5 109.1

50.0 ... -64.0 -47.1

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence

length is unknown. Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.

Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not comparable because New Mexico included inmates in local jails or out of State because of crowding in their custody figures prior to 1997.
e

94 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Federal prisons Population, admissions, and releases: Movement data were provided; however, when admissions are added to the January 1 population and releases are subtracted, the total does not equal the December 31, 1997, population. Other releases and admissions: Include miscellaneous and unknown admission and release types. Inmates with a year or less sentence: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates whose sentence length is unknown. Cause of death: Unknown at the time of data collection. Race, whites and Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Alabama Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include inmates returned from supervised release under Alabama Act 754 and split sentence/probation with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Unspecified in the Alabama data system, but include other conditional release violators with no new sentence. Cause of death: Can specify only executions and AIDS-related deaths. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Alaska Admissions and releases: Alaska is unable to determine if movements are longer than 30 days. Admissions, releases, jurisdiction population: Excludes 55 inmates housed in community jails solely to ease prison crowding. Alaska does not maintain

movement data for these inmates. If there were female inmates, they are reported as males. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Alaska. Other releases, unconditional and conditional: Court-ordered releases and other releases. Other race: Alaska’s “Hispanic” race category. Arizona Population, admissions and releases: Based on custody data. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Other conditional releases: Include supervised early releases, provisional releases, supervised work furloughs, earned credit releases, and releases to the home arrest program. Cause of death: Pending investigation at time of data collection. Other releases: Include early releases to detainer, persons returned to prison pending revocation hearing where no revocation occurred, and persons who were returned to supervision. Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 211 men housed in local jails solely to ease prison crowding. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Arizona’s “Other” race category. Arkansas Other admissions: Consists of 11 returns from the Department of Community Punishment, a separate agency. Also includes an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases.

Other conditional releases: Persons released under the provisions of Arkansas’ Acts 378 and 814 and Boot Camp to some form of supervision. Other releases: Releases to the Department of Community Punishment, a separate agency. Jurisdiction population, inmates with a year or less sentence: Includes 75 men and 10 women being held in the county jail for whom the sentence is unknown. Custody population, inmates with a year or less sentence: Includes 42 men and 11 women transferred from the county jail awaiting transfer to the Department of Correction for whom the sentence is unknown. Other race: Includes Arkansas’ “Cuban” race category. California Sentencing information: Reported population with sentence of more than 1 year include an undetermined number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: May include some parole violators and returns from supervised mandatory releases with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: May include some parole violators without new sentences and some supervised mandatory or parole releases returned pending a revocation hearing. Escapee returns: Include AWOL returns with or without new sentences. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some court-ordered releases. Conditional releases, supervised mandatory releases: Include some court-ordered and parole releases. Cause of death: Not specified, or drug overdose. Other releases, escapes from confinement: Include inmates that are AWOL.

Prisoners in 1997 95

Other releases: Contains the net difference between total admissions and the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. These are most likely temporary releases to courts, jail, and hospitals, who have not been returned to prison as of December 31, 1997. Also includes releases to appeal/bond. Jurisdiction population, unsentenced inmates: Include civil narcotic addict commitments and county diagnostic cases. Other race and not known Hispanic origin: Include some Asian, Pacific Islander, and Hispanic inmates admitted to California prisons prior to January 1990 (when these categories were added to the California computer system). Also includes California’s “Hispanic/Mexican” category. Colorado Sentencing information: Reported populations with sentences of more than 1 year include a small number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Transfers from other jurisdictions: Include admissions of inmates through interstate compacts. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Numbers are estimates. Other releases: Court-ordered releases not classified as conditional or unconditional. Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Connecticut Jurisdiction population: Includes community program (transitional supervision) and some interstate compact custody population data. Other admissions: Type of admission unknown. Includes adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered discharges.

Other conditional releases: Releases to home jurisdiction, community releases, and discharges from Connecticut supervision. Other releases: Type of release unknown. Include adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Connecticut’s “Hispanic” category. Delaware Parole and other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include violators with and without new sentences. Other admissions: Include inmates who were changed from jail sentences of less than 1 year to prison sentences of more than a year. Also included are adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Other releases: Include releases to State and local hospitals, inmates serving weekend sentences. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some releases to probation. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. District of Columbia Population, admissions, and releases: The January 1, 1997, counts differ from the December 31, 1996, counts. Movement data were provided; however, when admissions are added to the January 1 population and releases are subtracted, the

total does not equal the December 31, 1997, population. Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: Prisoners with partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part served under probation) are included with the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” only when the prison portion of the sentence exceeded 12 months. As a result, the population and movement counts of “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” are understated, and the counts of “Inmates with 1 year or less maximum sentence” are overstated. Sentencing information, short sentences: An undetermined number of inmates housed in neither the District of Columbia jail nor the Detention Center and having either no sentence or a minimum sentence of 1 year or less are included in the movement and population counts of inmates with more than 1 year maximum sentences. As a result, the population and movement counts of inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year are overstated, and the counts of inmates with 1 year or less maximum sentence are understated. Transfers from and to other jurisdictions: Include transfers from and to mental hospitals and other State and Federal facilities. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some inmates with partially suspended sentences and releases to probation. Other unconditional releases: Inmates released to mental health facilities. Other conditional releases: Emergency Power Act releases. Number of deaths: All deaths are reported under “males.” As a result, total male releases are slightly overcounted and female releases are slightly undercounted. Other releases: Inmates eligible for parole. Total jurisdiction population: Include male and female District code violators housed in Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities and male inmates housed in other State facilities. An undetermined number of these inmates are being housed solely to ease prison overcrowding.

96 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Unsentenced inmate populations: Jurisdiction and custody counts include unsentenced inmates held in the District of Columbia Detention Center. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in the District of Columbia. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Florida Population, admissions, and releases counts: Based on custody data. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include control release violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators without new sentences: Include conditional medical returns, conditional medical violators, provisional release violators, conditional release violators, and supervised community release violators without new sentences. Transfers from other jurisdictions: Include admissions through interstate compact agreements with and without new sentences and inmates returning from concurrent sentences served elsewhere. Other admissions: Consists of returns from court with new sentences and adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, custody population. Other unconditional releases: Include sentences vacated by the court. Other conditional releases: Include provisional releases, conditional pardons, control releases with supervision, conditional medical releases, conditional releases, reinstatements, supervised community releases, mandatory conditional releases, and releases by Florida Parole Commission order. Transfers to other jurisdictions: Include outof-State and interstate transfers (inmates who have been sentenced under Florida’s jurisdiction but serve their sentence in another State or Federal prison).

Race: Racial categories may Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Includes 980 male and 96 female inmates from Florida’s Latino category. Georgia The January 1, 1997, jurisdiction count differs from the December 31, 1996, count due to delayed data entry. Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Other admissions: Unknown. Parole violators with new sentences: May include a small number of other conditional release violators with new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other unconditional releases: Consists of an inmate who paid a fine. Other conditional releases: Consists of special and supervised conditional reprieves controlled by the Georgia Parole Board. Other deaths: Cause of death unknown. Jurisdiction population: Excludes inmates awaiting transfer from local jails. Other race: Includes inmates who identify race categories other than those specified. Hawaii Category estimates: Jurisdiction and custody counts are actual counts. Admissions, releases, race, and Hispanic origin are estimates based on information from Hawaii’s Correctional Information System (CIS). Other unconditional releases: Dismissals and suspended sentences. Other conditional releases: Include conditional releases and conditional discharges. Other releases: Include emergency releases, supervised releases, releases to own recognizance (ROR), temporary ROR,

administrative releases, releases to other individuals/agencies, and other releases. An adjustment of 195 men and 32 women also are included to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, population. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Hawaii. Other race: Includes inmates who identified more than one race category, except for individuals who are part-Hawaiian. Prisoners of part-Hawaiian ancestry are counted as “Asians/Pacific Islanders.” Hispanic origin: Hawaii’s “Puerto Rican” category. Idaho Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other conditional releases: Include inmates for whom the Department of Corrections previously had jurisdiction, which was later revoked. Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are estimates. Illinois Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Sentencing information: Inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include some inmates with a 1 year maximum sentence. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include some parole violators without new sentences. Escapees: Illinois reports the movement of escapees using the Offender Tracking System. All inmates in Community Correctional Centers and Electronic Detention Centers are now included in the counts, which in part accounts for the increase in the number of escapes and returns from escape.

Prisoners in 1997 97

Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Other releases: Contains the net difference between long-term admissions and release movements not reported in other categories (for example, transfers, writs, and medical furloughs) to balance the December 31 population. The category also includes an undetermined number of transfers to other jurisdictions. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Illinois’ “Hispanic” category. Indiana New court commitments: Include probation violators with and without new sentences. Other unconditional releases: Sentences terminated based on Parole Board decisions. Iowa Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include parolees remanded to prison prior to a formal revocation hearing. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Conditional releases, paroles: Include persons returned to parole following revocation hearings and persons released to parole by Conditional Commutation Orders. Other admissions and releases: Inmates held for safekeeping. Other conditional releases: Releases to work release programs. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Iowa’s “Hispanic” category. Kansas New court commitments: May include a small number of returns from appeal/bond.

Includes all probation violators, both with and without new sentences, who may have previously spent time in prison. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Type unknown at time of data collection. Paroles: Include post-release supervision. Other conditional releases: Conditional releases to supervision, similar to that for parole. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Kentucky Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Court-ordered returns to prison. Other releases: Include court-ordered releases not identifiable as conditional or unconditional. Other race: Includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders and inmates whose race cannot be classified in the specified categories. Louisiana Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Admissions to treatment programs from Probation and Parole Districts. Expiration of sentence: Includes good-time releases. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Other releases: Include inmates released in error. American Indians or Alaska Natives: American Indians only.

Other race: Includes Latinos, Native Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders, and all “Other” race categories. Hispanic origin: Not included in Louisiana’s data system. Maine Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include probation violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include probation violators with no new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Consists of an adjustment to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Race: Numbers by gender are estimates. Categories may include Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Maryland Category estimates: The movement and population totals are actual counts. Categories for admissions and releases are estimated by applying percentages from automated data to the totals that are made manually. The automated data system counts only inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year, while the detailed categories in the manual data include inmates with maximum sentences of 1 year or less. New court commitments: May include a small number of returns from appeal/bond. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Interstate compact admissions. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. May also include a small number of releases to appeal/bond. Other conditional releases: Inmates paroled from the Patuxent Institution to work release.

98 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Other releases: Include a small number of interstate compact releases as well as releases of new admissions that had been double counted with admissions data. Other deaths: Include 5 deaths for which the cause is unknown. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Hispanic origin: Unknown. Massachusetts Sentencing information: Sentence length is estimated for approximately 111 cases. Parole violators only, no new sentence: Include an undetermined number of parole violators with new sentences, other conditional release violators -- both with and without new sentences -- and a small number of returns from appeal/bond. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some releases to probation. Other unconditional releases: Include court-ordered releases. Releases and Jurisdiction population: Population counts may include a small, undetermined number of inmates who were remanded to court; transferred to the custody of another State-, Federal-, or locally operated system; and subsequently released. Jurisdiction population: By law, offenders in Massachusetts may be sentenced to terms of up to 2½ years in locally operated jails and correctional institutions. Such populations are excluded from the State jurisdiction count, but are included in published population counts and rates for local jails and correctional institutions. There are approximately 6,200 male inmates in the county system serving a sentence of over 1 year. Jurisdiction population, unsentenced inmates: Include inmates housed in State facilities awaiting trial and civil commitments as well as 119 men awaiting trial for the State housed in county facilities. State prison overcrowding: Other States housing Massachusetts inmates include

Connecticut, Maine, New Mexico, Ohio, and Vermont. Other race: Includes Massachusetts “Hispanic” and “Asian Indian” race categories. Michigan Admissions and releases: Unable to determine if movements are longer than 30 days. Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data plus 38 inmates housed in Federal facilities. Transfers from and to other jurisdictions: Transfers from and to mental hospitals and Federal and other State facilities. Escapes: Consist mainly of zero tolerance walkaways from community residential programs. Other admissions: Returns from county jail and from parole status. Returns from and releases to appeal/bond: Contains the net difference of all movements from and to the courts. Other deaths: Consists of 1 death caused by a car accident and 2 deaths for which the cause is unknown because of an outstanding death certificate. Other releases: Include inmates temporarily housed at a county jail and returns to parole status. Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 151 men housed in local jails solely to ease overcrowding. Population housed in jails: All inmates are reported as males. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: May include a small undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Mexican Americans and Michigan’s “Other “ race category. Hispanic origin: Mexican Americans only.

Minnesota Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release violators with no new sentences. Transfers, escapes, AWOL prisoners, and admissions/returns from appeal/bond: Categories are not considered releases and therefore these returns are not counted as admissions. Other unconditional releases: Include inmates discharged by court or executive orders. May include some commutations and overturned convictions. Other conditional releases: Consists of intensive community supervision. State prison crowding: Consists of 50 men in an in-State private correctional facility. Other race: Includes 320 Hispanic men and 10 Hispanic women because Minnesota classifies "Hispanic" as a race. Also includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, and inmates reported in Minnesota's "Other" race category. Mississippi New court commitments: Include some probation violators with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Include inmates awaiting revocation hearing and returns from appeal/bond, as well as inmates whose admission category was unavailable at the time of data collection. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other releases: Inmates returned to community supervision following a revocation hearing where no revocation occurred. Also includes releases to appeal/bond.

Prisoners in 1997 99

Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Mississippi’s “Hispanic” category. Missouri Admissions releases and population data: Includes 15 men and 3 women with a 1year maximum sentence. Total admissions: Include four inmates with a 1- year sentence. Other admissions: Include inmates returned from erroneous releases, persons whose commitment was reinstated, and parole board holdovers (offenders arrested by local authorities and returned to prison, instead of to the local jail as customary). Other conditional releases: Conditional release to custody/detainer, administrative parole, credit time releases, and parole board hold-over releases. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases and cases with reversed or remanded sentences. Other releases: Erroneous releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Montana Montana revised its December 31, 1996, jurisdiction population count. Population, movement and releases: Include a small undetermined number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Admissions and releases: Include admissions and releases to and from the Intensive Supervision Program. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other race: Montana’s “Spanish-American” category.

Nebraska Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Race and ethnicity: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Nebraska’s “Other” race category. Nevada

Ethnic origin: Includes Nevada’s “Hispanic” and “Cuban” race categories. New Hampshire Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include parole violators with a new sentence. Other conditional releases: Include parole violators who were not revoked and were re-released. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. New Jersey

Nevada revised its December 31, 1996, jurisdiction population count. Total admissions and releases: Include some inmates with a 1 year or less sentence. New court commitments: Include a very small number of returns from appeal/bond. AWOL returns and AWOL releases: Categories are not considered valid releases or returns in Nevada’s data system. Other admissions: Include inmates in boot camp, county safekeeping, and the 120-day evaluation program. Also include adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, population. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases and releases from boot camp and the 120-day evaluation program. Other releases: Consists of adjustment residuals to balance movement data with the December 31, 1997, population. Custody population, inmates with 1 year or less sentence: Include inmates in boot camp and the 120 day evaluation program. Race and ethnicity: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Nevada’s “Hispanic,” “Cuban,” and “Other” race categories.

Sentencing information: Inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include some inmates with a 1-year sentence. New court commitments: May include some transfers from other jurisdictions and returns from appeal/bond. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Prisoners returned (some with new sentences) from the Intensive Supervision Program, an experimental program operated by the Administrative Office of Courts. Other conditional releases: Prisoners released to the Intensive Supervision Program. AWOL returns and releases: Due to an incomplete new data system, New Jersey is unable to report AWOL’s/walkaways. Other deaths: Unknown at time of data collection. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: “Hispanic” inmates who are not classified as “White” or “Black.” New Mexico Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include parole violators with and without additional sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include violators with and without new sentences. Also includes

100 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

returns from community corrections programs. Cause of death: Can specify only executions. Custody population: Inmates housed in local jails or out of State because of crowding are excluded. These inmates were incorrectly included in the December 31, 1996, custody counts. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. New York Admissions, releases and population data: Excludes 903 men and 15 women housed in local jails solely to ease prison crowding because New York does not maintain movement data for these inmates. New court commitments: Include parole and other conditional release violators with new sentences. Transfers from other jurisdictions: Consists of transfers to and from the jurisdiction of the Department of Mental Hygiene for psychiatric treatment. Other admissions: Consists of inmates returned following erroneous discharge from drug treatment. Transfers to other jurisdictions: Include 515 men and 38 women transferred to the jurisdiction of the Department of Mental Hygiene for psychiatric treatment. Other releases: Consists of inmates classified as erroneous releases. Unknown race: Includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. North Carolina Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: Prisoners with partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part served under probation) are included with the “Inmates with over 1-year maximum sentence” only when the prison portion of the sentence exceeded 12 months. Virtually all inmates with a partially suspended sentence are included in the December 31, 1997, “Inmates with a

year or less maximum sentence” count. As a result, the population and movement counts of “Inmates with over 1-year maximum sentence” are understated, and the counts of “Inmates with 1-year or less maximum sentence” are overstated. Category estimates, sentencing: Population totals are actual; populations by sentence length are estimates. Parole violators with new sentences: Include some parole violators without new sentences and some conditional release violators with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Consists of an adjustment residual to balance movement data with the December 31 population. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Paroles: Include some supervised mandatory releases. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: North Carolina’s “Other” race category. Hispanic origin: Not included in North Carolina’s data system. North Dakota Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include some conditional release violators with new sentences. Other conditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Ohio Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year include some inmates with sentences of 1

year or less. As a result “Inmates with over 1-year maximum sentence” counts are overstated. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All unauthorized absences are classified as escapes. Other unconditional releases: Sentences vacated by courts. Paroles: Include an undetermined number of releases to boot camp and intensive supervision due to a reporting error. Other conditional releases: Releases to boot camp and intensive supervision. Racial and ethnic composition: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Oklahoma Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year includes a small number of inmates with sentences of 1 year. New court commitments: Include some probation violators with and without new sentences. Other unconditional releases: Legislative CAP releases (Senate Bill 445). Other conditional releases: CAP releases to probation supervision. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Includes “Other” races not specified. Unknown race: Includes Hispanic inmates. Oregon Transfers from and to other jurisdictions: Oregon cannot distinguish transfers from other admissions or release categories. Transfers may be included in any admissions or release category.

Prisoners in 1997 101

Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All unauthorized absences are classified as escapes. Other unconditional releases: unknown at time of data collection. Other conditional releases: 183 men and 14 women released to local control status and 11 men and 1 woman recorded as “unspecified other” releases. Other releases: Consists of 3 men admitted in error, and 12 men and 2 women whose type of release was unknown at time of data collection. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Pennsylvania Parole violators with new sentences: Include other conditional release violators with new sentences. Other admissions: Type of admission unknown at time of data collection. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other deaths: Unknown cause of death at time of data collection. Escapee: Excludes prisoners who absconded while residents of community-based facilities. Other race: Pennsylvania’s “Hispanic” category. Also includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Rhode Island Rhode Island revised its December 31, 1996, female jurisdiction population count. Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: Prisoners with partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part served under probation) are included with the “Inmates with over 1-year maximum sentence” only when the prison portion of the sentence exceeded 12 months. As a result, the population and movement counts of “Inmates with over 1year maximum sentence” are understated,

and the counts of “Inmates with 1 year or less maximum sentence” are overstated. Other admissions: Consists of returns from erroneous release. Other conditional releases: Court-ordered releases to drug/alcohol treatment programs. Other releases: Consists of 1 release to Immigration, 1 to Federal home confinement and 1 erroneous release. Jurisdiction and custody population, unsentenced inmates: Includes 16 men and 1 woman held on civil contempt of court for nonpayment of child support. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Rhode Island. South Carolina Other admissions and releases: Include re-sentenced inmates who are released from a Youthful Offender Act sentence and readmitted to begin serving the adult portion of their sentence. Other unconditional releases: Releases by court order or by payment of fines and releases remanded to the county jail to await retrial. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: South Carolina’s “other” race category that includes Hispanic inmates and other races. South Dakota Jurisdiction and custody population, sentencing: Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence includes some with a maximum sentence of less than 1 year. Other admissions: Consists of 24 men and 3 women with suspended sentences, 13 men from a relapse group (a program for parole violators who voluntarily recommit themselves for substance abuse treatment after a violation), and 1 man whose admission type is unknown.

Unconditional releases, Expirations of sentences: Include commutations and pardons. Ethnicity: South Dakota’s data system does not include ethnicity. Tennessee Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of 1 year are included with inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year. As a result, the population and movement counts of inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year are overstated. Parole violators with new sentences: Include some parole violators with no new sentences. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include some probation and community correction program violators with no new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Conditional releases, paroles: May include a small number of supervised mandatory releases. Paroles: May include a small number of supervised mandatory releases. Other conditional releases: Releases to community correction programs. Total jurisdiction population: Includes 1,242 men and 186 women housed in local facilities solely to ease prison crowding. Excludes 3,461 felons sentenced to serve their time in local facilities (the State pays to house these felons, but the local court maintains jurisdiction). Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Includes Hispanic inmates. Texas Jurisdiction population, sentencing information: Includes 3,512 men and 1,274 women with maximum sentences of 1 year or less who cannot be removed from the appropriate admissions and release categories.

102 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Parole violators with and without new sentences: Texas’ data system does not distinguish parole violators with new sentences from those without new sentences. Other conditional release violators with and without new sentences: Texas’ data system does not distinguish other conditional release violators with new sentences from those without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions and releases: Include “State jail” felons not counted in other admission and release categories, as well as inmates with unclear or incomplete admission or release information. Other deaths: Cause unknown. Custody population, Inmates with a year or less sentence: Consists of inmates in a substance abuse program. Other race: Includes Texas’ “Hispanic” category and all persons not specified as “white” or “black.” Utah Utah revised its December 31, 1996, male jurisdiction count. Other unconditional releases: Inmates whose sentences were terminated prior to expiration. Custody population, sentencing: Include parole violators whose parole has not officially been revoked. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Vermont Population, admissions and releases: Based on custody counts. Parole violators with and without new sentences: May include other conditional release violators with or without new sentences. AWOL: May include some returns from appeal/bond.

Other admissions: Consists of 313 male and 43 female furlough violators and adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1997, population. Other releases: Include releases to furlough. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Vermont. Excludes 700 inmates on intermediate sanctions. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Virginia Other unconditional releases: Include unconditional administrative releases, commutations, and releases by court order. Conditional releases, supervised mandatory releases and paroles: Releases to detainer and transfers to other jurisdictions. Other deaths: Cause of death not available at time of data collection. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Virginia’s “Hispanic,” “Chinese,” and “Other” race categories. Washington Total population, admissions and releases, sentencing: Include 14 men and 2 women with a year or less maximum sentence. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other unconditional releases: Vacated sentences. Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Inmates of mixed racial origin.

West Virginia Admissions, releases and jurisdiction population: Include 10 unsentenced men and 2 unsentenced women held for diagnostic purposes. Inmates held for diagnostic evaluation. Wisconsin Admissions, releases and jurisdiction population: Data for 1996 and 1997 are not comparable because of a change in reporting method. Releases and jurisdiction population: The number of releases is understated because when sentence length is unknown, Wisconsin substitutes time served for sentence length. Inmates whose time served is equal to 1 year or less (the majority of whom are releases of alternative to revocation admissions) are excluded from the release categories. Therefore, the admissions when added to the populations for January 1, minus the releases, do not equal the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population. Other admissions: Include 727 men and 85 women temporarily returned to prison without a formal revocation; 554 men and 9 women returned pending revocation hearings; 11 men and 9 woman returned from special placements on probation and parole; 11 men and 1 woman with no Wisconsin sentence; and 5 men and 1 woman erroneously admitted. Other unconditional releases: Courtordered releases. Other releases: Include 104 men and 20 women returned to the community after being held without formal revocations; 3 men released from probation and parole special placement; 5 men with no Wisconsin sentence; 19 men who were held pending revocation hearing; 1 man from an erroneous admission, and 10 men released to mental health facilities under Wisconsin’s predator law. Unsentenced inmates, jurisdiction and custody counts: Include inmates whose sentence was unknown at time of data collection. Other deaths: Cause of death unknown.

Prisoners in 1997 103

Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Wisconsin’s “Other” race category. Wyoming Wyoming revised its December 31, 1996, jurisdiction population count. New court commitments and unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: May include a small number of administrative turnovers (starts and expirations of consecutive sentences). Parole violators only, no new sentence: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Other race: Wyoming’s “Hispanic” category.

104 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

NPS-1
DSD-Crime Surveys Branch RETURN Bureau of the Census 4700 Silver Hill Rd. – Stop 8400 TO Washington, DC 20233-8400
FORM (1-16-98)

OMB No. 1121-0102: Approval Expires 01/31/2001

NPS-1

National Prisoner Statistics Summary of Sentenced Population Movement 1997

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

(Please correct any error in name, mailing address, and ZIP Code)

GENERAL INFORMATION • Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of the Census in the enclosed envelope or FAX (all pages) to 1–301–457–3929 before March 28, 1998. • If you have any questions about completing this form, call Elizabeth Griffin toll-free at 1–800–221–1829.

REPORTING THE DATA The NPS-1 is an effort to collect comparable data from all jurisdictions for December 31, 1997. Please review the instructions and definitions on pages 5 and 6 before completing this report. If you are not able to report an item using the standard definitions and reporting criteria, explain the differences in the "Notes" sections. • Enter "NA" (Not Applicable) in the space provided if your jurisdiction, by law or regulation, cannot have the type of inmates described by the item. • Enter "NR" (Not Reported) if your jurisdiction had the type of inmates described by the item, but you cannot determine the number of such inmates you had in 1997. If you cannot determine the number of inmates separately by item, report the combined count in one of the items, enter "NR" in the remaining items, and specify in the "Notes" section all of the items represented by the combined count. • Enter "0" (Zero) in the space provided if your state can have the type of inmate described by the item but did not have any during 1997. • Describe the types of inmates reported in all "Other" categories in the "Notes" sections.

BURDEN STATEMENT Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 6.5 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 Seventh Street, NW; Washington, DC 20531; and to the Public Use Reports Project, OMB number 1121-0102, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503.

DATA SUPPLIED BY
Respondent name Title

Telephone No. ( )

FAX No. ( )

E-mail address

NPS-1

YEAR

STATE Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence Item description
1996 MALE 1997 1996 FEMALE 1997

1. Jurisdiction population on January 1 2. Admissions a. New court commitments b. Parole violators with new sentences c. Other conditional release violators with new sentences d. Parole violators only, no new sentences e. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences f. Transfers from other jurisdictions g. AWOL returns, with or without new sentences h. Escapee returns, with or without new sentences i. Returns from appeal/bond j. Other admissions – Specify in "NOTES" k. TOTAL ADMISSIONS Sum of items 2a–2j 3. Total inmates handled – Sum of item 1 and 2k 4. Releases
Unconditional

a. Expirations of sentence b. Commutations c. Other unconditional releases – Specify in "NOTES"

Conditional

d. Probations e. Supervised mandatory releases f. Paroles g. Other conditional releases Specify in "NOTES"

Death

h. Executions i. Illnesses/natural causes (Exclude AIDS, report in 4j) j. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) The immediate cause of death in AIDS mortalities may be Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection k. Suicides l. Accidental injury to self m. Death caused by another person n. Other deaths – Specify in "NOTES"

Other

o. AWOLS p. Escapes from confinement q. Transfers to other jurisdictions r. Releases to appeal/bond s. Other releases Specify in "NOTES" t. TOTAL RELEASES Sum of items 4a–4s
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)

Page 2

NPS-1

YEAR

STATE
MALE FEMALE 1997 1996 1997

Item description
1996

5. Jurisdiction a. Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence – Item 3 minus item 4t population Dec. 31 b. Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence c. Unsentenced inmates – Enumerate only those in your State’s correctional jurisdiction. Otherwise, report in item 6c. d. TOTAL inmate population – Sum of items 5a, b, and c a. Inmates with over 1 year 6. Custody maximum sentence population Dec. 31 b. Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence c. Unsentenced inmates d. TOTAL inmate population Sum of items 6a, b, and c 7. State prison crowding Dec. 31 a. Number of state inmates housed in facilities operated by a county or other local authority on December 31 solely to ease prison crowding

If any entry in item 7a for 1997 is not "0" or "NA," please answer item 7b.
b. Are these inmates included in item 5d, jurisdiction total?
YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO

If "NO," explain in the "NOTES."
c. Number of your State’s inmates housed in other states or federal facilities on December 31 solely to ease prison crowding.

Specify State(s) or Federal.

  
YES NO YES NO YES NO YES NO

d. Are these inmates included in item 5d, jurisdiction total?

If "NO," explain in the "NOTES."
NOTES

FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)

Page 3

NPS-1

YEAR

STATE
MALE 1996 1997 1996 FEMALE 1997

Item description Of those enumerated in item 5d, jurisdiction, please specify race counts. 8. Racial composition a. TOTAL – Transcribe from item 5d Dec. 31 b. Race (1) White (2) Black or African American (3) American Indian or Alaska Native (4) Asian (5) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (6) Other – Specify in "NOTES" (7) Not known Item description Of those enumerated in item 5d, jurisdiction, please specify ethnic counts. 9. Ethnic composition a. TOTAL – Transcribe from item 5d Dec. 31 b. Ethnicity (1) Hispanic or Latino (2) Not Hispanic or Latino (3) Not known 10. HIV testing, a. During 1997 were any inmates tested for Jan. 1– Dec. the antibody to the Human Immuno 31, 1997 Deficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS? b. Which inmates were tested during 1997? Mark (X) all that apply.

MALE 1996 1997 1996

FEMALE 1997

1 2

Yes No – Skip to item 11 All incoming inmates All inmates currently in custody All inmates at time of release Certain inmates (Complete item 10c) High-risk groups – Specify Upon inmate request Upon clinical indication of need Upon involvement in incident Random sample Other – Specify
TOTAL MALE FEMALE

1 2 3 4

c. Who were the certain inmates tested? Mark (X) all that apply.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Item description Of those enumerated in item 6d, custody, specify number of HIV infection/AIDS cases. a. Inmates who were asymptomatic HIV 11. HIV positive infection/ AIDS cases in custody b. Inmates with lesser forms of symptomatic HIV disease on Dec. 31, 1997 c. Inmates with confirmed AIDS d. Total number of inmates who were HIV positive or confirmed AIDS cases (Sum of items 11a, b, and c) NOTES

FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)

Page 4

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
1. JURISDICTION POPULATION ON JANUARY 1 The jurisdiction population on January 1, 1997 (Item 1) should equal the number of inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence on December 31, 1996 (item 5a). Revise item 5a for 1996 only if you must. POPULATION MOVEMENT, ITEMS 2–4 In items 2–4, you are asked to summarize by category, the movements of all adults and youthful offenders adjudicated through the adult court and sentenced to a maximum of at least one year and one day and admitted to or released from the jurisdiction of your State prison system. That is, report the movement of all inmates for whom your State government had the legal authority and responsibility for enforcing their prison sentence in 1997 even though they were housed in other states, county or city jails, halfway houses, or federal facilities. Do not report the admission or release of inmates your State was merely housing for other states. Do not report the admission or release of inmates with a sentence of a year or less. Do not report the admission or release of any unsentenced inmates, such as pretrial detainees, inmates under the legal jurisdiction of the county, those being held in protective custody, and pre-sentence and diagnostic evaluators. 2. ADMISSIONS Do not report returns from short-term movements (less than 30 days) where the State has retained jurisdiction, such as from a court session, work study, or mercy furlough. a. New court commitments – Include all inmates who were admitted with all new sentences, that is, these inmates were not readmitted for any sentences. This category includes probation violators entering prison for the first time on the probated offenses. Do not include parole violators with new sentences as new court commitments. b. Parole violators with new sentences – Include all parolees returned with new sentences. c. Other conditional release violators with new sentences – Include all conditional release violators (other than parole violators) returned with new sentences, for example, returns from shock probation, supervised mandatory release, etc. d. Parole violators only, no new sentences – Include all parolees returned only for formal revocations of parole which were not accompanied by new sentences. If the parole was not formally revoked, that is, the parolee was held only temporarily pending a hearing, no admission occurred for NPS purposes. e. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences – Include all conditional release violators (other than parole violators) returned only for formal revocations of conditional release which were not accompanied by new sentences. If the conditional release was not formally revoked, that is, the conditional release violator was held only temporarily pending a hearing, no admission occurred for NPS purposes. f. Transfers from other jurisdictions – Include all inmates transferred from another jurisdiction to the jurisdiction of your State to continue sentences already in force. Do not report the admission if your State does not acquire jurisdiction. Do not report movements from prison to prison within your State. g. AWOL returns, with or without new sentences – Include all returns from AWOL. AWOL is defined as failure to return from authorized temporary absences such as work furlough, study release, mercy furlough, or other authorized temporary absence. h. Escapee returns, with or without new sentences – Include all returns from escape. Escape is defined as unlawful departure from a state correctional facility or from the custody of state correctional personnel. i. Returns from appeal/bond – Include all inmates reinstated to correctional jurisdiction from long-term jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Do not report returns from short-term movements (that is, less than 30 days) to court (that is, where the state retained jurisdiction). j. Other admissions – Include all other admissions not covered by the above categories. Please specify the nature of these admissions in the "NOTES." 3. TOTAL INMATES HANDLED This entry should equal the jurisdiction population on January 1 (Item 1) plus all admissions (Items 2a-2k). 4. RELEASES Do not report short-term movements (less than 30 days) where the State has retained jurisdiction, such as to court, to work, study or mercy furloughs. Unconditional – An unconditional release occurs only if the released inmate cannot be reimprisoned for any sentence for which he was in prison. a. Expirations of sentence – Include all inmates whose maximum court sentences minus credits have been served. b. Commutations – Include all inmates whose maximum sentences have been changed (lowered) to time served to allow immediate unconditional release. c. Other unconditional releases – Include all other unconditional releases not covered by the above categories. Please specify the nature of these releases in the "NOTES." Conditional – A conditional release occurs if the released inmate, upon violating the conditions of his release can be imprisoned again for any of the sentences for which he was in prison. d. Probations – Include all inmates who have been placed under probation supervision and conditionally released. Include all shock probation releases. e. Supervised mandatory releases – Include all inmates who must, by law, be conditionally released. This type of release may also be called mandatory conditional release. f. Paroles – Include all inmates conditionally released to parole. Enter only releases officially entitled "parole." g. Other conditional releases – Include all other conditional releases not covered by the above categories. Please specify the nature of these releases in the "NOTES." Death h. Executions – Self-explanatory. i. Illnesses/natural causes – Do not include death from AIDS in this category. Report in 4j. j. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) – the immediate cause of death in AIDS mortalities may be Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection. k. Suicides – Self-explanatory l. Accidental injury to self – Include all inmates who accidentally caused their own deaths (for example, a fall from a ladder, mishandling electrical equipment). m. Death caused by another person – Include all inmates whose death was caused accidentally or intentionally by another inmate or prison personnel. n. Other deaths – Include all other deaths not covered by the above categories. Please specify the nature of these deaths in the "NOTES." o. AWOLS – Include all failures to return from an authorized temporary absence such as work furlough, study release, mercy furlough, or other authorized temporary absence. p. Escapes from confinement – Include all unlawful departures from a state correctional facility or from the custody of state correctional personnel. q. Transfers to other jurisdictions – Include all inmates who were transferred from your State’s jurisdiction to another jurisdiction to continue sentences already in force. Do not report the release if your State does not relinquish jurisdiction. Do not report movements from prison to prison within your State.

FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)

Page 5

INSTRUCTIONS – Continued
4. RELEASES – Continued r. Releases to appeal/bond – Include all inmates released from correctional jurisdiction to long-term jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Do not report short-term movements (that is, less than 30 days) to court where the state correctional system retains jurisdiction. s. Other releases – Include all other releases not covered by the above categories. Please specify the nature of these releases in the "NOTES." 5. JURISDICTION POPULATION DECEMBER 31 Include all inmates under your State’s jurisdiction on December 31, regardless of the location of the inmates. Do not include other jurisdictions’ inmates (for example, other states’ inmates, pre-trial detainees) merely housed in your prisons. 6. CUSTODY POPULATION DECEMBER 31 Include all inmates in your State’s custody, that is, include inmates your State is housing for other states, or federal or local authorities as well as your own inmates who are physically located in your State facilities on December 31. Do not include your State inmates housed outside your State prison facilities. 7. PRISON CROWDING DECEMBER 31 a. Provide a count of all inmates that are under the jurisdiction of your State but were housed in facilities operated by county or local authorities on December 31 specifically because there was no room for them in state correctional facilities. b. The inmates counted in 7a should be included in the jurisdiction population, Item 5d. Mark Item 7b to indicate whether they were included. If you mark "No", explain in the "NOTES." c. Provide a count of all inmates under the jurisdiction of your State who were housed in another State or in a Federal prison on December 31 specifically because there was no room for them in state correctional facilities. Enter the name of each state in which the inmates were housed and the number held in each state or by the Federal system. d. The inmates counted in Item 7c should be included in the jurisdiction population, Item 5d. Mark Item 7d to indicate whether they were included. If you mark "No", explain in the "NOTES." 8. RACE (1) White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East. (2) Black or African American – A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. (3) American Indian or Alaska Native – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition. (4) Asian – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, including Southeast Asia, or the Indian Subcontinent, including Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. (5) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. (6) Other – Any other races not covered by the above categories. Please specify the other races in the "NOTES." (7) Not known – Any inmate whose race is unknown should be included here. 9. ETHNIC ORIGIN (1) Hispanic or Latino – A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. (2) Not Hispanic or Latino – A person not covered by the above category. (3) Not known – Any one whose ethnic origin is unknown should be included here. 10. HIV TESTING a. Mark "Yes" if any inmates in your custody during calendar year 1997 were tested for the antibody to the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. b. If "Yes" marked in item 10a, mark one, all or any combination of the categories in item 10b to specify the type(s) of inmates who were tested. For example, all incoming inmates and all inmates who requested it may have been tested in 1997. You would mark categories 1 and 4. If category 4, "certain inmates," is marked, complete item 10c. c. Mark as many categories as necessary to describe the particular kinds of inmates who were tested in 1997. If some of the inmates tested are not described by the listed categories, mark category 6 and write a description of these inmates. 11. HIV INFECTION/AIDS CASES in custody population HIV infection – A person is identified as infected with HIV when a sequence of tests, starting with repeated enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and including a Western blot or similar, more specific assay, are repeatedly reactive. a. Asymptomatic HIV positive – Include all inmates who have tested positive for the HIV antibody but who have no HIV-related symptoms. b. Lesser forms of symptomatic HIV disease – Include all inmates who have symptoms associated with HIV infection but are not confirmed AIDS cases. c. Confirmed AIDS cases – In the presence of laboratory evidence of HIV infection, regardless of the presence of other causes of immuno deficiency, a person diagnosed with an indicator disease, such as Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection, should be classified as a confirmed AIDS case. Include all inmates who are immune suppressed and have life threatening infections, due to AIDS indicator diseases. d. Total HIV Infection/AIDS Cases – This is the sum of 11a, 11b, and 11c.

FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)

Page 6

Parole in 1997

Tables By Thomas P. Bonczar, BJS Statistician Assisted by Lauren E. Glaze, BJS Statistical Assistant Adults on parole, 1997 6.1 6.2 Characteristics Counts, January 1 and December 31 Status of supervision Adults entering parole, by type of sentence Adults leaving parole by type of exit Gender and Hispanic origin Race Sentence length Intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and bootcamp 112

113 114

6.3 6.4

115

6.5

116 117 118 119

6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

120

6.10 States with the largest parole populations and growth Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Questionnaire 1997 Parole Data Survey

121

122

125

Parole in 1997 111

Table 6.1. Characteristics of adults on parole, 1997
Number of adults Percent of those on parole from State persons with a or Federal courts known status 690,752 688,006 553,766 48,531 46,540 33,277 5,892 420,400 189,061 209,626 15,905 5,808 409,440 182,625 169,456 53,074 114,182 2,200 5,960 4,024 47,375 677,657 601,300 76,357 638,565 344,223 285,798 3,867 4,677 581,332 119,970 461,362 573,481 23,978 549,503 100 % 100 % 80 7 7 5 1 100 % 45 50 4 1 100 % 45 41 13 28 1 1 1 12 100 % 89 11 100 % 54 45 1 1 100 % 21 79 100 % 4 96

Characteristic Total number of adults on parole Status of supervision Active supervision Inactive supervision Absconded from supervision Supervised out of State Other Adults entering parole Discretionary parole Mandatory parole Reinstatement Other Adults leaving parole Successful completions Returned to incarceration With new sentence With revocation pending Other Transferred to another State Death Other Gender of adults on parole Male Female Race of adults on parole White Black American Indian/Alaska Native Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic origin of adults on parole Hispanic Non-Hispanic Length of sentence Less than 1 year One year or more

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions. For every characteristic there were persons of unknown status or type; their numbers are in the detailed tables. Jurisdictions failed to report data for less than 1% of "status of supervision," "adults entering parole," and "adults exiting parole"; 2% of "gender of adults on parole," 7% of "race of adults on parole," 16% "Hispanic origin of adults on parole," and 17% of "length of sentence" of parolees.

112 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 6.2. Adults on parole, 1997
Percent change in parole population during 1997 1.6 % 7.0 % 1.1 3.7 % -8.0 3.5 -5.0 1.6 16.2 4.4 1.6 -7.3 2.8 0.8 % 0.9 13.0 -6.8 2.4 -1.8 2.9 -4.4 0.0 19.0 7.5 18.6 1.3 -2.9 % -4.5 7.5 --0.7 -8.3 3.6 -8.4 4.4 -3.0 3.9 -34.1 -10.7 -0.5 -2.7 -2.8 8.0 2.9 5.4 % 17.1 -10.8 4.9 25.7 3.5 18.5 4.5 2.7 14.0 6.4 13.7 -14.3 0.3 Number on parole on 12/31/97 per 100,000 adult residents 349 32 317 413 40 6 98 124 279 439 833 70 150 194 348 93 96 323 197 71 313 57 25 81 159 247 336 146 315 107 1,676 76 399 144 630 412 70 147 79 179 215 789 210 64 330 179 103 448 144 203 95 124 268 132 691 242 12 105

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
a,b

Parole population 1/1/97 679,733 59,235 620,498 154,959 1,083 57 4,836 1,066 14,545 57,137 75,013 573 649 89,090 30,064 3,580 2,200 6,004 14,609 2,377 13,087 688 100 6,331 725 9,325 241,668 4,966 5,459 591 7,120 9,243 21,146 4,621 19,082 16,246 1,326 12,358 2,159 5,036 8,934 112,594 9,918 869 134,781 642 3,785 99,578 3,294 1,733 692 771 3,216 1,426 15,800 2,920 560 364

1997 Entries 420,681 24,030 396,651 78,667 1,058 4 3,809 872 14,608 27,096 30,211 587 422 62,524 23,595 4,549 2,343 4,650 8,758 2,632 4,720 770 212 5,258 675 4,362 98,173 : 3,225 196 2,310 3,596 11,567 2,853 10,819 9,732 1,233 8,774 442 1,343 4,294 27,682 9,538 569 157,287 466 6,141 134,345 3,744 699 600 444 : 1,617 6,649 2,329 32 221 Exits 409,471 20,397 389,074 72,493 1,145 2 3,653 855 12,250 24,563 28,992 629 404 61,805 23,311 4,085 2,506 4,504 9,016 2,563 5,293 770 193 4,786 540 4,238 104,626 : 2,817 196 2,363 4,362 10,587 3,241 9,974 10,215 1,181 12,984 673 1,369 4,535 30,839 8,746 544 150,150 356 6,548 129,514 2,899 639 472 409 : 1,417 5,634 1,930 112 220

Parole population 12/31/97 690,752 63,406 627,346 160,737 996 59 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 76,232 531 667 89,823 30,348 4,044 2,051 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 119 6,803 860 9,449 234,780 4,742 5,867 591 7,067 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 5,010 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 142,006 752 3,378 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 806 3,304 1,626 16,815 3,319 480 365

Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusettsa New Hampshire New Jerseyb New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indianab,c,d Iowaa Kansasb,c Michigan Minnesota Missourie Nebraskab North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsinb South Alabamaa,f Arkansasb,e Delawaree,g District of Columbiab Florida Georgiaa Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippic,d,h North Carolinab Oklahoma South Carolina Tennesseed Texase Virginiab,e West Virginia West Alaska Arizona Californiac,f Coloradob Hawaii Idaho Montanac,d,i Nevadaa New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtone Wyoming

: Not known. -- Not calculated. a Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on December 31, 1997, does not equal the population on January 1, 1997, plus entries, minus exits. b See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Data do not include absconders. d Data do not include out-of-State cases. e All data are estimated. f Multiple agencies reporting; see Explanatory notes for more detail. g Data are for year ending March 30, 1998. h Data do not include inactive cases. i Total exits are estimated.

Parole in 1997 113

Table 6.3. Adults on parole, by status of supervision, 1997
Number of adults on parole Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshirea,b New Jerseya New York Pennsylvaniab Rhode Islandb Vermont Midwest Illinois Indianac Iowa Kansasd Michigan Minnesotab Missouria,b Nebraskab North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabamab Arkansasa Delawarea District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Marylandb Mississippie North Carolina Oklahomab South Carolina Tennesseef Texasa Virginiaa West Virginia West Alaska Arizona Californiad Colorado Hawaiib Idaho Montanac Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washingtona Wyoming Parole population 12/31/97 690,752 63,406 627,346 160,737 996 59 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 76,232 531 667 89,823 30,348 4,044 2,051 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 119 6,803 860 9,449 234,780 4,742 5,867 591 7,067 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 5,010 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 142,006 752 3,378 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 806 3,304 1,626 16,815 3,319 480 365 Other, unknown, or not reported 8,638 0 8,638 2,991 103 0 0 17 0 0 2,783 88 0 2,341 0 0 0 0 0 70 2,230 41 0 0 0 0 823 11 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 430 0 349 12 0 0 0 0 0 2,483 0 0 0 0 97 0 0 2,386 0 0 0 0 0

Active 553,766 60,004 493,762 116,988 798 29 3,771 782 13,211 41,942 55,447 383 625 75,756 28,392 4,044 1,726 4,442 11,869 1,994 8,406 508 106 5,647 632 7,990 176,577 2,749 5,272 426 4,418 5,215 20,371 4,233 17,986 10,121 1,378 5,830 1,388 3,547 6,913 75,406 10,710 614 124,441 622 3,081 101,987 2,851 1,202 820 806 : 1,357 8,432 2,939 140 204

Inactive 48,531 2,893 45,638 20,822 0 0 0 223 0 5,966 14,628 0 5 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 21,430 934 89 0 604 1,066 : 0 ... 1,624 0 367 360 105 930 15,254 0 97 3,386 ... 0 0 0 129 0 0 : 0 3,082 0 175 0

Absconded 46,540 509 46,031 9,946 95 12 169 0 3,099 5,345 1,218 0 8 4,276 ... 0 101 0 1,794 247 852 73 0 280 29 900 26,093 563 344 109 1,763 1,389 : 0 1,305 2,927 0 1,439 68 654 850 14,649 0 33 5,716 118 0 54 208 234 0 0 374 0 4,346 169 133 80

Out of State 33,277 ... 33,277 9,990 : 18 656 61 593 6,417 2,156 60 29 7,450 1,956 0 224 1,708 688 135 1,026 66 13 876 199 559 9,857 485 141 56 282 807 1,544 0 636 661 0 163 100 704 0 4,128 0 150 5,980 12 297 2,368 1,080 131 0 0 544 269 955 211 32 81

: Not known. ... Not applicable. Detailed data are estimated for supervision status. b See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Excludes absconders and out-of-State cases. d Excludes absconders. e Excludes absconders, inactive, and out-of-State cases. f Excludes out-of-State cases.
a

114 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 6.4. Adults entering parole, by type of sentence, 1997
Number of adults entering parole Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshired New Jersey New Yorkd Pennsylvania Rhode Islandd Vermont Midwest Illinoisd Indiana Iowa Kansasd Michigan Minnesotad Missourie Nebraska North Dakota Ohiod South Dakota Wisconsind South Alabama Arkansasd,e Delawaree District of Columbiad Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texase Virginiad,e West Virginia West Alaska Arizonad California Coloradod Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregond Utah Washingtone Wyoming Other, unknown, or not reported 6,089 0 6,089 661 0 0 0 17 0 644 0 0 0 1,779 1,039 0 0 226 0 153 0 0 0 293 0 68 2,608 : 97 0 185 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 2,319 0 1,041 0 297 0 183 0 0 0 0 0 340 0 0 221

Total 420,681 24,030 396,651 78,667 1,058 4 3,809 872 14,608 27,096 30,211 587 422 62,524 23,595 4,549 2,343 4,650 8,758 2,632 4,720 770 212 5,258 675 4,362 98,173 : 3,225 196 2,310 3,596 11,567 2,853 10,819 9,732 1,233 8,774 442 1,343 4,294 27,682 9,538 569 157,287 466 6,141 134,345 3,744 699 600 444 : 1,617 6,649 2,329 32 221

Discretionary 189,061 23,482 165,579 71,444 1,057 4 3,582 0 14,608 21,031 30,211 529 422 30,968 44 4,549 2,343 4,156 7,678 2 4,112 770 212 3,406 490 3,206 54,742 : 1,767 48 1,525 3,406 11,567 2,803 916 3,504 1,217 8,774 442 1,343 4,224 9,908 2,729 569 8,425 86 757 172 2,828 699 600 444 : : 478 2,329 32 :

a

Mandatory 209,626 548 209,078 6,038 0 0 0 617 0 5,421 0 ... 0 28,672 22,429 0 0 171 528 2,477 608 0 0 1,194 178 1,087 40,152 : 1,146 148 476 0 ... ... 9,876 6,228 ... : ... 0 14 17,774 4,490 0 134,216 365 4,915 120,884 733 0 0 0 : 1,617 5,702 0 0 :

b

Reinstatement 15,905 0 15,905 524 1 0 227 238 0 0 0 58 0 1,105 83 0 0 97 552 0 : ... 0 365 7 1 671 : 215 : 124 190 ... 50 27 0 9 : ... 0 56 0 0 0 13,605 15 172 13,289 0 0 0 0 : : 129 0 0 :

c

... Not applicable. : Not known. a Discretionary parole entries are persons entering because of a parole board decision. b Mandatory parole entries are persons whose releases from prison were not decided by a parole board. Includes those entering because of determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provisions, or emergency releases. c Reinstatement entries are persons returned to parole after serving time in a prison because of a parole violation. d See Explanatory notes for more detail. e Detailed data are estimated for entries.

Parole in 1997 115

Table 6.5. Adults leaving parole, by type of exit, 1997
Number of adults leaving parole Returned to prison or jail With Transferred new With to another sentence revocation Other jurisdiction 53,074 : 53,074 7,473 203 0 0 284 1,536 3,185 2,149 67 49 8,563 4,494 304 160 265 1,288 129 1,117 : 17 343 0 446 19,233 : 159 : 469 1,913 913 142 3,033 814 3 230 123 88 1,105 10,220 0 21 17,805 66 141 16,260 346 22 0 0 : : 571 399 0 0 114,182 5,705 108,477 17,244 283 2 860 0 4,773 6,837 4,335 132 22 11,112 1,651 401 200 1,734 2,668 897 851 313 34 1,184 168 1,011 20,013 : 998 : 652 1,287 2,936 1,476 1,986 729 73 2,403 59 458 1,561 3,747 1,477 171 60,108 157 1,487 53,202 1,087 363 229 123 : 527 1,835 1,048 0 50 2,200 0 2,200 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 897 0 0 27 323 0 0 24 0 0 523 0 0 1,157 : 81 : 321 0 0 0 326 369 57 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 140 0 0 33 0 0 0 94 : 0 0 0 0 13 5,960 : 5,960 1,114 0 0 0 0 0 0 932 0 182 632 204 316 103 : 0 0 9 ... 0 0 0 0 2,948 : 331 : ... 74 937 677 0 5 19 : : 0 17 0 888 0 1,266 12 1,000 0 163 0 0 23 : ... 14 0 0 54

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New Yorka Pennsylvaniaa Rhode Islanda Vermont Midwest Illinoisa Indianaa Iowaa Kansasa Michigan Minnesota Missouria,b Nebraska North Dakota Ohioa South Dakota Wisconsina South Alabama Arkansasa,b Delawarea,b District of Columbiaa Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisianaa Marylanda Mississippia North Carolinaa Oklahoma South Carolina Tennesseea Texasa,b Virginiaa,b West Virginia West Alaska Arizona Californiaa Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montanaa Nevada New Mexicoa Oregon Utaha Washingtona,b Wyoming

Total 409,471 20,397 389,074 72,493 1,145 2 3,653 855 12,250 24,563 28,992 629 404 61,805 23,311 4,085 2,506 4,504 9,016 2,563 5,293 770 193 4,786 540 4,238 104,626 : 2,817 196 2,363 4,362 10,587 3,241 9,974 10,215 1,181 12,984 673 1,369 4,535 30,839 8,746 544 150,150 356 6,548 129,514 2,899 639 472 409 : 1,417 5,634 1,930 112 220

Successful completion 182,625 13,724 168,901 44,677 655 0 2,793 562 5,934 13,909 20,263 410 151 36,938 15,696 2,608 1,387 1,600 4,959 1,530 3,170 451 142 2,399 369 2,627 49,810 : 1,153 54 847 1,070 5,696 911 4,227 5,666 913 9,565 483 780 1,532 11,760 4,807 346 37,476 121 3,914 27,533 1,282 246 243 164 : 367 3,116 338 50 102

Death 4,024 378 3,646 705 4 0 0 9 7 389 293 3 0 369 21 37 0 20 101 7 83 6 0 57 3 34 1,559 : 32 6 70 18 105 31 99 123 7 50 8 43 : 910 51 6 1,013 0 6 817 21 8 0 5 : 30 81 14 30 1

Other, unknown, or not reported 47,406 590 46,816 1,274 0 0 0 0 0 243 1,020 11 0 3,294 1,245 419 629 562 0 0 39 0 0 280 0 120 9,906 : 63 136 4 0 0 4 303 2,509 109 736 0 0 317 4,202 1,523 0 32,342 0 0 31,669 0 0 0 0 0 493 17 131 32 0

: Not known. ... Not applicable. See Explanatory notes for more detail. b Detailed data are estimated for exits.
a

116 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 6.6. Adults on parole, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1997
Parole population 12/31/97 690,752 63,406 627,346 160,737 996 59 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 76,232 531 667 89,823 30,348 4,044 2,051 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 119 6,803 860 9,449 234,780 4,742 5,867 591 7,067 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 5,010 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 142,006 752 3,378 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 806 3,304 1,626 16,815 3,319 480 365 Gender Male 601,300 53,774 547,526 140,800 921 57 4,239 758 15,434 54,529 63,751 495 616 77,428 27,672 : 1,805 5,555 13,154 2,237 11,314 88 107 6,184 753 8,559 201,168 : 4,940 548 6,572 7,902 19,706 : 18,197 14,487 1,251 7,289 1,571 4,523 7,816 96,092 9,467 807 128,130 602 3,147 94,482 3,746 1,620 733 733 3,025 1,264 15,032 2,964 457 325 Female 76,357 9,557 66,800 19,937 75 2 357 325 1,469 5,141 12,481 36 51 8,351 2,676 : 246 595 1,197 209 1,200 600 12 619 107 890 24,636 : 927 43 495 574 2,209 : 1,730 1,276 127 859 357 487 877 13,345 1,243 87 13,876 150 231 9,927 393 173 87 73 279 362 1,783 355 23 40 Number of adults on parole Hispanic origin Not NonNot reported Hispanic Hispanic reported 13,095 75 13,020 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,044 0 4,044 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,976 4,742 0 0 0 1 0 4,233 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119,970 10,969 109,001 28,827 : : 940 108 3,326 20,917 3,443 93 : 4,211 2,346 : 60 514 295 141 : 56 10 102 20 667 27,851 : 78 23 : 511 : : : : : : 116 : 25 27,026 67 5 48,112 15 1,094 41,923 1,217 : 154 : 377 803 1,850 624 23 32 461,362 51,952 409,410 130,855 : : 3,656 975 13,577 38,753 72,789 438 667 68,993 28,002 : 1,991 5,575 14,056 2,305 : 632 109 6,701 840 8,782 118,746 : 5,789 568 : 7,966 : : : : : : 1,812 : 8,668 82,411 10,643 889 90,816 737 2,284 62,486 2,922 : 666 : 2,927 623 14,965 2,684 189 333 109,420 485 108,935 1,055 996 59 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16,619 0 4,044 0 61 0 0 12,514 0 0 0 0 0 88,183 4,742 0 0 7,067 0 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 0 5,010 0 0 0 0 3,078 0 0 0 0 1,793 0 806 0 200 0 11 268 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshirea,b New Jerseya,b New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisa,b Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouria,b Nebraskaa,b North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasa,b Delawarea,b District of Columbia Florida Georgiab Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippib North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texasa,b Virginiaa,b West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexicoa,b Oregon Utah Washingtona,b Wyoming
a

b

: Not known. Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin. Detailed data are estimated for gender.

Parole in 1997 117

Table 6.7. Adults on parole, by race, 1997
Parole population 12/31/97 690,752 63,406 627,346 160,737 996 59 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 76,232 531 667 89,823 30,348 4,044 2,051 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 119 6,803 860 9,449 234,780 4,742 5,867 591 7,067 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 5,010 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 142,006 752 3,378 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 806 3,304 1,626 16,815 3,319 480 365 Number of adults on parole American Asian/ Indian/ Pacific Alaskan Native Islander 3,867 912 2,955 127 1 : 3 0 1 108 5 2 7 698 40 : 17 35 49 143 19 23 19 8 121 224 343 0 5 0 : 4 0 : 0 7 : 195 71 2 4 48 6 1 1,787 225 132 738 66 : 32 : 46 105 315 92 22 14 4,677 1,424 3,253 1,357 4 : 42 54 25 233 991 6 2 240 46 : 8 96 20 : 9 0 1 8 0 52 180 0 16 0 : 1 0 : 5 26 : 7 3 0 11 87 24 0 1,476 14 10 1,253 8 : 6 : 17 : 115 47 6 0 Other, unknown, or not reported 52,187 808 51,379 26,581 260 59 949 0 0 21,758 3,555 0 0 4,944 4 4,044 62 61 36 180 18 0 0 109 0 430 10,390 4,742 19 26 0 146 0 4,233 52 31 8 95 124 39 10 849 16 0 9,464 3 33 3,069 1,250 1,793 154 806 411 25 1,862 11 15 32

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticuta Maine Massachusettsa,b New Hampshirec New Jerseyc New Yorka Pennsylvaniaa,b Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinoisc Indiana Iowaa Kansas Michigan Minnesotaa,b Missouric Nebraskac North Dakota Ohioa South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansasa,b,c Delawarea,c District of Columbia Floridaa,b Georgiac Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippic North Carolina Oklahomaa,b South Carolina Tennessee Texasc Virginiac West Virginia West Alaska Arizona Californiaa,b Coloradoa Hawaii Idahoa Montana Nevadaa New Mexicoc Oregona Utah Washingtonb,c Wyominga
a b

White 344,223 41,541 302,682 65,853 268 : 2,507 921 6,692 8,977 45,464 373 651 36,745 7,691 : 1,668 3,797 6,299 1,376 7,448 496 93 2,716 699 4,462 102,842 0 2,910 236 212 3,458 7,410 : 5,350 3,839 400 2,773 1,123 1,512 3,728 65,412 3,761 718 97,242 432 2,680 72,252 1,954 : 615 : 1,881 1,305 12,526 2,922 370 305

Black 285,798 18,721 267,077 66,819 463 : 1,095 108 10,185 28,594 26,217 150 7 47,196 22,567 : 296 2,161 7,947 747 5,020 169 6 3,962 40 4,281 121,025 0 2,917 329 6,855 4,868 14,505 : 14,520 11,860 970 5,078 607 3,457 4,940 43,041 6,903 175 32,037 78 523 27,097 861 : 13 : 949 191 1,997 247 67 14

: Not known. "Other" includes Hispanic parolees of unknown race. See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Detailed data are estimated for race.

118 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 6.8. Adults on parole, by sentence length, 1997
Number of adults on parole Parole Length of sentence population One year More than Not 12/31/97 or less one year reported 690,752 63,406 627,346 160,737 996 59 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 76,232 531 667 89,823 30,348 4,044 2,051 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 119 6,803 860 9,449 234,780 4,742 5,867 591 7,067 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 5,010 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 142,006 752 3,378 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 806 3,304 1,626 16,815 3,319 480 365 23,978 13,215 10,763 1,598 0 0 552 0 969 ... : 37 40 82 ... : : 0 0 0 0 8 74 ... 0 : 5,123 0 1,202 : : 1,709 486 ... 1,357 157 3 209 0 : 0 0 0 0 3,960 : 135 0 : 0 ... : : ... 3,682 17 0 126 549,503 47,554 501,949 82,907 996 59 4,044 1,083 15,934 59,670 : 494 627 74,197 30,348 : : 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 680 45 6,803 860 : 211,661 0 4,665 : : 6,182 21,429 4,233 18,570 15,606 1,375 7,939 1,928 : 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 133,184 : 3,243 104,409 4,139 1,793 820 : : 1,626 13,133 3,302 480 239 117,271 2,637 114,634 76,232 0 0 0 0 0 0 76,232 0 0 15,544 0 4,044 2,051 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9,449 17,996 4,742 0 591 7,067 586 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,010 0 0 0 0 4,862 752 0 0 0 0 0 806 3,304 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri* Nebraska* North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas* Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia* Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi* North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas* Virginia* West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington* Wyoming

: Not known. ... Not applicable. *Detailed data are estimated for sentence length.

Parole in 1997 119

Table 6.9. Adults on parole under intensive supervision, being electronically monitored, or in a bootcamp, 1997
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State
a,b

Number of adults on parole Intensive Electronic supervision monitoring Bootcamp 40,156 : 40,156 12,002 20 ... 70 124 1,039 ... 10,749 ... ... 5,271 446 50 387 ... 3,835 369 ... 79 5 ... 100 : 10,402 100 46 203 ... 10 1,206 272 150 2,495 ... 1,098 73 455 1,213 1,931 1,150 : 12,481 21 : 10,641 504 84 61 31 102 198 308 514 ... 17 7,140 3,053 4,087 231 17 ... 10 17 68 69 : 50 ... 938 337 21 17 35 242 75 208 ... 3 ... ... : 2,343 40 57 9 ... ... 1,100 ... 54 71 ... 151 ... : 10 767 84 ... 575 ... 120 12 ... 4 19 31 50 55 193 83 ... 8 738 ... 738 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... : 738 ... ... ... ... ... ... : ... 738 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusettsc New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansasc Michigan Minnesotac Missouric Nebraska North Dakotad Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabamad Arkansasd,e Delawared District of Columbia Florida Georgiab Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texasd Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Coloradob Hawaii Idaho Montanac,e Nevadac New Mexicoe Oregond Utah Washington Wyoming

: Not known. ... Not applicable. Reported data include both probationers and parolees. b Intensive supervision and electronic monitoring are combined program; See Explanatory notes for more detail. c Detailed data are estimated for electronic monitoring. d Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision and electronic monitoring. e See Explanatory notes for more detail.
a

120 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 6.10. States with the largest parole populations and growth, 1997
10 States with the largest parole populations in 1997 Texas California Pennsylvania New York Illinois Georgia Louisiana New Jersey Oregon Maryland Persons supervised per 100,000 adult U.S. residents* 833 789 691 630 448 439 412 399 348 323

Number supervised 109,437 104,409 76,232 59,670 30,348 21,915 19,927 16,903 16,815 15,763

10 States with the largest percent increase, 1996-97 Colorado North Dakota South Dakota Idaho Alaska New Jersey New Mexico Utah Indiana Virginia

Percent increase 25.7% 19.0 18.6 18.5 17.1 16.2 14.0 13.7 13.0 8.0

10 States with the highest rates of supervision Pennsylvania Texas Oregon Louisiana California New York Maryland Georgia Illinois Kansas

10 States with the lowest rates of supervision Maine Washington North Dakota Connecticut Nebraska West Virginia Mississippi Rhode Island Minnesota Florida

Persons supervised per 100,000 adult U.S. residents* 6 12 25 40 57 64 70 70 71 76

Note: The District of Columbia as a wholly urban jurisdiction is excluded. For more information, see table 6.2. *Rates are computed using U.S. resident population on July 1, 1997.

Parole in 1997 121

Explanatory notes and jurisdiction Because many jurisdictions update their population counts, the January 1, 1997, numbers may differ from those previously published for December 31, 1996. Federal Data for the Federal system are from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts as provided to the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Parole includes supervised release, parole, military parole, special parole, and mandatory release. Definitional differences exist between parole reported here and in other BJS data series. The electronic monitoring count includes intensive supervision parolees (table 6.9). Alabama Alabama has two reporting agencies: one State and one local. All data reported by Alabama’s local agency were estimated. “Supervision status  absconder” includes persons incarcerated in jail who are awaiting a parole revocation hearing (table 6.3). Arizona “Other” entries includes interstate compact cases (table 6.4). Arkansas All data are estimated. Data do not include 477 persons under the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections who were being supervised following release from boot camp. “Other” entries includes transfers and parolees returned from out-of-State supervision (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes early discharges and absconders (table 6.5). “Other” race includes Asian parolees and Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

California California has two reporting agencies: Department of Corrections and the California Youth Authority (CYA). California State data do not include 19,523 absconders. California State’s “other” exits includes suspensions of parolees at large. CYA’s “other” exits includes parolees who were released with a court action pending, absent without leave at discharge, and those no longer under CYA’s jurisdiction because they reached age 25 (table 6.5). California State’s “other” race includes 2,528 Hispanic, Asian, and Pacific Islander parolees who entered prison before 1990. CYA’s “other” race includes 520 Hispanics for whom race is unknown and 21 others including an unspecified number of Asian/Pacific Islander parolees (table 6.7). Colorado Growth in the parole population may have been the result of a state law which mandates a period of parole supervision for all persons sentenced to prison for crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993. “Other” entries includes interstate compact cases in from other states (table 6.4). “Other” race includes 1,217 Hispanics of unknown race (table 6.7). Electronic monitoring is not a separate program; counts are reported with intensive supervision program (table 6.9). Connecticut “Other” race includes 260 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Delaware All data are estimated. Information is for the year ending on March 30, 1998. “Other” exits includes 48 conviction parole violation closings, 35 technical violation closings, and others (table 6.5). “Other” race includes 23 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

District of Columbia Data include parolees from local jails. “Other” entries includes grants to detainers and consecutive sentences (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes Federal Youth Corrections Act warrants and withdrawn warrants that resulted in expired sentences (table 6.5). Florida “Other” race includes an unspecified number of Hispanic parolees of unknown race, and others (table 6.7). Georgia The intensive supervision program and the electronic monitoring program cannot be separated. The intensive supervision population includes all 1,100 parolees on electronic monitoring (table 6.9). Hawaii “Other” supervision status includes parolees serving prison sentences in other jurisdictions (table 6.3). Illinois “Other” entries includes transfers from other states and others (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes transfers to Apprehension Unit (table 6.5). Indiana Data do not include 400 absconders and 295 parolees supervised out of State. “Other” exits includes an unspecified number of absconders (table 6.5). Iowa “Other” exits includes 210 absconders (table 6.5). “Other” race includes 60 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

122 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Kansas Data do not include 562 absconders. The Kansas Sentencing Guidelines Act with its determinate sentencing structure became effective July 1, 1993. Previously, Kansas had indeterminate sentencing. As a result, a number of entries and exits to parole (reported in these tables) involve offenders with “guidelines” or “new law” sentences (which have determinate periods of post-incarceration supervision). For purposes of these tables, it is not feasible to differentiate movements of “old law” versus “new law” offenders. For example, releases to post-incarceration supervision (for a determinate period under new law) are included with the regular parole releases (for an indeterminate period under old law) in “discretionary release from prison” (table 6.4). Both of these groups of releases are under the same type of post-incarceration supervision by parole officers and are subject to return to prison, as always, for violation of the conditions of release. “Other” entries includes releases from pre-revocation and administrative holding (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes 285 absconders, 94 warrant issued releases, and 183 out-of-State cases (table 6.5). Louisiana “Returned to incarceration  other” includes 319 parolees sentenced for a conviction on a charge that was pending prior to or during their last incarceration period. “Other” exits includes administrative errors (table 6.5). Maryland “Other” supervision status includes delinquents in custody (table 6.3). “Other” exits includes unsuccessful completions, expirations, and others (table 6.5). Massachusetts “Other” race includes 940 Hispanic and 9 other parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

Minnesota “Other” supervision status includes parolees held in local jails for absconding with the issuance of a warrant, or detained in another form for a new offense (table 6.3). “Other” entries includes parolees released to intensive supervision programs (table 6.4). “Other” race includes an unspecified number of Asian parolees, 141 Hispanic parolees of unknown race, and others (table 6.7). Mississippi Data do not include 757 inactive parolees, 267 parolees supervised out of State, and 2 absconders. “Other” exits includes 107 administrative errors (table 6.5). Missouri All data are estimated. “Other” supervision status includes parolees in custody (table 6.3). “Other” exits includes bond forfeitures and unknowns (table 6.5). Montana Data do not include 100 parolees supervised out of State and 26 absconders. Data do not include 31 parolees in an intensive supervision program and 31 parolees in an electronic monitoring program. “Total” exits are estimated (table 6.5).

Nevada “Other” race includes 411 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). New Hampshire “Other” supervision status includes 17 administrative home confinement parolees (table 6.3). “Other” entries includes 17 administrative home confinement parolees (table 6.4). New Jersey Data do not include an additional 27,002 individuals who completed the time portion of their sentences but not their financial obligations who were transferred to the Business Office of the Department of Corrections in 1997. New Mexico “Other” exits includes unsuccessful completions, special actions, and absconders (table 6.5). The intensive supervision count includes parolees in the Community Corrections Program, a therapeutic program with high needs caseloads (table 6.9). New York “Other” entries includes 644 direct sentences to parole after successful completion of drug treatment program (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes 221 board actions and 22 court orders (table 6.5). “Other” race includes 20,917 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). North Carolina

Nebraska January 1, 1997, population is inconsistent with the population previously reported for December 31, 1996; adjustments were made upon implementation of a new computer program. “Other” supervision status includes detainees (table 6.3). The large decrease in population is due to post-release individuals who are not supervised by the community due to “Truth-in-sentencing” legislation. “Other” exits includes unsuccessful completions, expirations, and others (table 6.5).

Parole in 1997 123

Ohio “Other” entries includes out-of-State entries (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes parole violators at large (absconders) and parolee violators in custody (table 6.5). “Other” race includes 102 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Oklahoma “Other” supervision status includes 12 parolees awaiting transfer to incarceration (table 6.3). “Other” race includes Hispanic parolees of unknown race and others (table 6.7). Oregon “Other” entries includes 280 transitional leave parolees (table 6.4). “Other” race includes 1,850 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Pennsylvania

“Returned to incarceration  other” includes completion of parole while held on detention warrants. “Other” exits includes one absconder from Home Confinement Parole and 10 other absconders (table 6.5). Tennessee Data do not include 656 parolees supervised out of State. “Other” exits includes interstate compact cases (table 6.5). Texas All data are estimated. “Other” exits includes administrative closures (table 6.5). Utah “Other” exits includes 104 parolees whose sentence expired, 22 unsuccessful completions, and 5 parolees whose sentence was terminated (table 6.5). Virginia All data are estimated.

Wisconsin Change in respondent between 1996 and 1997 resulted in definitional differences from previously published data. Included in the 1997 data survey (including counts for 1996) are persons under parole supervision following incarceration in a mental health institution. Other unknown definitional differences may exist. “Other” entries includes conditional release and mental health cases (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes 65 court orders, 36 early discharges, 16 interstate compact cases, and transferred interstate compact cases (table 6.5). Wyoming “Other” race includes 32 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

“Other” supervision status includes detained parolees (table 6.3). “Other” exits includes absconders, transfers and unknown exits (table 6.5). “Other” race includes 3,443 Hispanic parolees of unknown race and 112 others (table 6.7). Rhode Island “Supervised out of State” includes 8 persons serving out-of-State sentences. “Other” supervision status includes 49 persons supervised by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 9 persons serving a U.S. sentence, 2 persons in a Federal detention facility, one person in the Federal Witness Program, and 27 inmates held in the Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institution on detention warrants issued by the parole board (table 6.3). “Reinstatement of parole” includes persons placed on “re-parole” after revocation because either (a) there were no new sentences or (b) all new sentences were 6 months or less to serve (table 6.4).

Effective January 1, 1995, parole was abolished for new court commitments whose date of crime was after January 1, 1995. “Other” entries includes restored to supervision cases (table 6.4). “Other” exits includes out-of-State cases and others (table 6.5). Washington All data are estimated. “Other” exits includes parolees whose term expired (table 6.5). “Other” race includes two parolees of mixed race (table 6.7).

124 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997  

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Capital punishment in 1997

Tables By Tracy L. Snell, BJS Statistician

Prisoners removed from death row, 1997 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 164

7.16 Status of prisoners 7.17 Means of removal 7.18 Time between sentencing and removal 7.19 Age 7.20 Level of education completed 7.21 Marital status at time Prisoners under sentence of death, of imprisonment 1997 7.22 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.2 Movement of all prisoners 131 7.23 Felony history 7.3 Movement of female prisoners 132 7.4 Movement of Hispanic Current status prisoners 133 7.5 Time between sentencing 7.24 Status of death penalty and yearend 134 by jurisdiction, 1997 7.6 Age 135 7.7 Level of education completed 136 Prisoners executed under civil 7.8 Marital status at time authority in the United States, of imprisonment 137 1930-96 7.9 Legal status at time of capital offense 138 7.25 Year, region, and jurisdiction 7.10 Felony history 139 7.26 Race and offense 7.1 Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1997 130 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997 7.11 Age 7.12 Level of education completed 7.13 Marital status at time of imprisonment 7.14 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.15 Felony history Explanatory notes

167

168 169 170

Questionnaires 144 147 Status of Death Penalty Statutes, 1996 No Statute in Force 171 148 Statute in Force 173 Report of Inmates under Sentence of Death 175 149 150

Capital punishment in 1997 129

Table 7.1. Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death Sentence of death removed in 1997 Present Received By means yearend from court other than 1997 in 1997 Executed executiona 3,335 256 74 89

Characteristic U.S. total Gender Male Female Race White Black Otherb Hispanic origin Hispanic Non-Hispanic Not known Education 8th grade or less 9th to 11th grade 12th grade Any college Not reported Felony history Prior conviction, total Homicide Other offenses Offense not reported No prior conviction Not reported Age Under 20 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-54 years 55 years or older Median age
a

3,291 44

254 2

74 0

84 5

1,876 1,406 53

146 106 4

45 27 2

58 31 0

283 2,794 258

26 191 39

5 69 0

2 81 6

403 1,065 1,077 286 504

28 72 95 16 45

8 23 32 5 6

14 24 23 7 21

2,011 279 1,634 98 1,068 256

151 29 116 6 87 18

54 9 42 3 17 3

55 10 42 3 27 7

14 275 497 578 727 1,091 153 37

9 66 55 33 36 50 7 29

0 1 4 14 21 29 5 39

0 4 9 19 16 27 14 38

Includes deceased from causes other than execution, commutation of sentence, sentence vacated, and conviction vacated. b ”Other” race present at yearend includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race. “Other” race admitted includes 4 American Indians. One American Indian and 1 Asian inmate were executed in 1997.

130 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.2. Movement of all prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death Under death sentence 12/31/96 Total White Black Other 3,242 1,833 1,358 12 4 8 3,230 1,829 1,350 223 4 11 208 482 161 46 93 11 170 1 81 1 5 75 236 61 31 50 8 85 1 135 3 6 126 244 100 15 43 2 84 0 747 62 17 6 139 44 7 40 15 31 81 42 38 28 172 25 224 14 171 2 0 0 34 0 0 2 1 51 0 51 7 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 22 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 11 0 2 4 0 20 6 11 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Received from court in 1997 Total White Black Otherb 256 3 253 13 0 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 0 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 0 1 0 4 0 3 1 3 146 2 144 6 0 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 0 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 0 1 0 3 0 3 0 1 106 1 105 7 0 0 7 9 3 0 2 0 4 0 75 8 4 1 4 9 0 10 0 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 0 11 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
b

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota

Total 74 0 74 0 0 0 0 10 2 1 6 1 0 0 60 3 4 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Executed in 1997 White Black Otherb 45 0 45 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 36 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 23 5 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 27 0 27 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 0 22 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 13 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Death sentence removed in 1997a Total White Black 89 0 89 4 0 0 4 18 6 2 9 0 1 0 52 5 1 0 21 0 0 3 1 0 7 7 3 2 1 1 15 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 58 0 58 2 0 0 2 13 4 2 7 0 0 0 34 4 0 0 11 0 0 1 1 0 6 6 2 2 1 0 9 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 31 0 31 2 0 0 2 5 2 0 2 0 1 0 18 1 1 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 6 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Under death sentence 12/31/97 Total White Black Otherb 3,335 1,876 1,406 15 6 9 3,320 1,870 1,397 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 85 1 8 76 236 60 30 46 9 89 2 140 3 6 131 243 99 14 42 1 87 0 782 68 19 7 132 53 7 48 14 34 94 45 38 30 171 22 232 10 180 2 0 0 35 0 0 2 3 53 0 53 7 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 22 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 10 0 2 3 0 22 7 11 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

1,793 1,024 South Alabama 152 89 Arkansas 38 21 Delaware 11 5 c Florida 374 234 Georgia 102 58 Kentucky 29 22 Louisiana 62 22 Maryland 19 4 Mississippi 57 26 North Carolina 161 77 Oklahoma 134 81 South Carolina 68 30 Tennessee 93 63 Texasd 444 268 Virginia 49 24 West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington 732 121 455 5 18 7 83 4 19 9 11 488 101 273 3 18 6 48 4 18 7 10

1,838 1,034 159 90 38 19 15 8 370 237 115 61 30 23 70 22 17 3 64 30 176 78 137 82 68 30 98 66 438 264 43 21 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 515 103 295 2 19 6 51 4 19 7 9

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. a Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, order of a new trial, and death.

Four American Indians were received from court; 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas were executed; 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race were under sentence of death at yearend. c Race has been changed from white to American Indian for 1 inmate. d Race has been changed from black to white for 1 inmate.

Capital punishment in 1997 131

Table 7.3. Movement of female prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Female prisoners under sentence of death Received from Death sentence removed in 1997b court in 1997a Total White Black Total White Black 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
a

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri South Alabama Florida Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Idaho Nevada

Under death sentence 12/31/96 Total White Black 47 0 47 4 0 4 6 4 2 26 4 6 1 3 4 2 6 11 1 8 1 1 32 0 32 1 0 1 3 1 2 20 3 4 1 3 3 2 4 8 1 6 1 0 15 0 15 3 0 3 3 3 0 6 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 2 0 1

Under death sentence 12/31/97 Total White Black 44 0 44 5 1 4 3 2 1 25 3 6 1 3 3 2 7 11 1 8 1 1 30 0 30 2 1 1 1 0 1 19 2 4 1 3 2 2 5 8 1 6 1 0 14 0 14 3 0 3 2 2 0 6 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 2 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 0 5 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no women under sentence of death in 1997: Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Indiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

All women received from court with a death sentence in 1997 had been convicted of murder. Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, and order of a new trial. No women were executed in 1997.
b

132 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.4. Movement of Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Under death sentence 12/31/96 264 0 264 13 13 15 8 2 5 137 2 40 1 1 1 3 6 1 80 2 99 18 68 1 8 1 1 2 Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death Received Death senUnder death from court Executed tence removed sentence in 1997 in 1997 in 1997* 12/31/97 26 0 26 0 0 1 1 0 0 13 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 0 12 0 11 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 283 0 283 13 13 14 7 2 5 145 1 41 1 1 1 3 7 1 88 1 111 18 79 1 8 1 2 2

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Ohio South Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah

Note: Hispanic prisoners may be of any race. States that do not appear had no Hispanic prisoners under a death sentence in 1997. *Dispositions of death sentences other

than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, and order of a new trial.

Capital punishment in 1997 133

Table 7.5. Time between sentencing and yearend for prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death 24-35 36-47 48-71 months months months 288 2 286 23 1 2 20 40 11 3 9 0 17 0 167 15 4 0 31 6 0 10 1 4 23 12 9 3 43 6 56 4 36 1 0 0 10 2 2 0 1 263 0 263 23 0 1 22 30 8 2 6 1 13 0 165 20 6 0 26 6 3 5 0 6 20 9 7 4 43 10 45 9 22 0 1 0 9 0 2 0 2 462 5 457 29 1 0 28 60 19 5 12 0 22 2 262 16 8 9 43 12 4 12 1 11 44 9 9 7 67 10 106 20 71 0 2 2 4 0 4 1 2

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Less than 12 months 242 3 239 13 0 3 10 26 6 1 10 1 8 0 145 14 3 4 17 12 1 12 0 7 18 10 4 7 32 4 55 8 36 0 1 0 4 0 2 1 3

12-23 months 298 4 294 17 0 3 14 44 14 3 8 2 17 0 168 17 5 0 23 6 2 9 7 9 24 16 8 5 36 1 65 5 40 1 1 2 10 1 2 1 2

More than 71 months 1,782 1 1,781 127 2 5 120 281 101 30 43 7 100 0 931 77 12 2 230 73 20 22 8 27 47 81 31 72 217 12 442 74 281 2 14 3 50 1 8 7 2

Median number of months 79 24 79 76 * 30 80 89 97 119 68 134 82 * 73 67 48 56 91 97 138 43 62 57 48 84 57 125 70 48 86 87 89 * 117 69 84 * 65 106 35

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. *Medians were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases.

134 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.6. Age of prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington All ages 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 Under 20 years 14 0 14 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Prisoners under sentence of death 20 to 25 to 30 to 35 to 24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years 275 3 272 6 0 0 6 32 7 0 5 1 19 0 197 18 5 4 26 8 1 14 1 9 14 10 5 6 69 7 37 6 20 1 1 0 6 1 2 0 0 497 4 493 40 2 2 36 55 19 5 9 1 21 0 299 35 5 3 41 21 2 6 4 17 31 25 14 6 76 13 99 11 58 0 1 1 17 1 4 1 5 578 4 574 46 0 3 43 103 35 13 19 0 36 0 310 20 7 4 68 13 3 17 3 10 34 22 17 12 72 8 115 23 68 1 0 3 17 0 1 2 0 727 1 726 56 2 2 52 103 32 10 20 1 40 0 386 31 8 3 81 27 5 14 4 13 40 34 15 23 84 4 181 32 116 0 5 0 16 1 5 5 1 40 to 54 years 1,091 3 1,088 74 0 5 69 164 61 15 27 6 53 2 558 45 10 1 137 40 19 16 5 11 46 35 17 47 122 7 292 39 196 2 12 3 25 1 7 1 6 55 or older 153 0 153 10 0 2 8 22 4 1 7 2 8 0 77 9 2 0 16 6 0 1 0 3 10 11 0 4 13 2 44 9 28 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 135

Table 7.7. Level of education completed by prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Total number 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 7th grade or less 199 0 199 19 0 2 17 14 3 3 1 1 6 0 133 9 2 0 24 6 2 7 0 6 13 9 3 8 37 7 33 14 13 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 Prisoners under sentence of death 9th to 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 204 1 203 11 0 1 10 23 6 4 4 1 8 0 148 18 2 1 28 12 9 6 0 5 23 4 2 3 28 7 21 6 12 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1,065 3 1,062 61 1 3 57 176 62 19 35 2 58 0 599 45 15 4 105 38 5 24 3 26 47 69 12 21 171 14 226 33 154 0 3 2 22 2 3 3 4 1,077 1 1,076 72 3 1 68 146 47 18 26 3 50 2 556 51 9 0 110 41 8 25 3 6 78 39 10 29 134 13 302 43 192 4 8 4 35 1 6 5 4 Any college 286 1 285 16 0 1 15 48 17 0 7 4 20 0 117 9 4 0 24 13 4 3 2 4 15 10 0 5 22 2 104 20 55 0 5 0 20 1 2 0 1 Not reported 504 9 495 53 0 6 47 74 24 0 15 0 35 0 285 27 6 10 79 5 2 5 9 17 0 6 41 32 46 0 83 4 60 0 1 1 5 0 8 1 3

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

136 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.8. Marital status at time of imprisonment of prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death Divorced or Married separated Widowed 744 2 742 42 1 1 40 111 32 9 16 5 49 0 421 28 8 3 75 35 8 9 2 10 28 52 19 26 115 3 168 23 120 0 4 0 14 1 2 2 2 647 2 645 29 0 0 29 91 26 6 17 3 38 1 336 28 6 0 82 19 13 5 3 7 58 29 3 9 64 10 189 44 102 2 6 2 23 1 3 4 2 79 0 79 9 0 1 8 7 1 2 3 0 1 0 49 2 2 0 8 7 1 2 0 0 7 3 1 7 8 1 14 3 6 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 Never married 1,561 4 1,557 142 3 6 133 226 81 27 48 3 66 1 873 73 14 12 185 51 7 36 3 29 83 45 45 34 227 29 316 39 216 2 8 5 36 2 1 4 3 Not reported 304 7 297 10 0 6 4 46 19 0 4 0 23 0 159 28 8 0 20 3 1 18 9 18 0 8 0 22 24 0 82 11 42 0 0 0 12 0 13 0 4

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 137

Table 7.9. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 1,721 10 1,711 62 4 7 51 312 89 29 60 9 123 2 972 82 20 7 208 51 22 40 4 49 114 74 38 66 181 16 365 70 204 2 15 0 56 3 8 1 6 225 1 224 37 0 0 37 18 6 6 2 0 4 0 119 9 2 1 31 11 1 8 1 4 9 8 1 3 25 5 50 9 24 0 3 1 9 1 2 1 0 1,023 3 1,020 73 0 3 70 117 57 8 14 2 36 0 551 46 12 7 88 46 7 14 4 10 51 41 27 15 161 22 279 29 202 2 1 5 20 0 8 8 4 301 1 300 20 0 0 20 9 0 4 1 0 4 0 192 19 1 5 37 27 2 1 1 2 24 15 9 3 35 11 79 7 59 1 0 1 8 0 1 0 2 578 1 577 48 0 3 45 78 48 2 5 0 23 0 289 19 8 0 32 13 4 10 2 3 22 19 15 9 123 10 162 12 127 1 1 0 9 0 6 6 0 38 0 38 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 22 5 0 1 10 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 14 4 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 76 1 75 0 0 0 0 26 8 1 7 2 8 0 33 3 2 1 6 1 0 0 1 5 4 4 1 2 3 0 16 2 6 0 0 4 2 0 0 2 0 30 0 30 4 0 0 4 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 15 0 1 0 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 8 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Legal status not reported 366 1 365 60 0 4 56 34 7 1 12 0 14 0 196 22 4 0 43 7 0 8 8 1 2 14 2 14 71 0 75 12 56 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 2

138

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.9. Continued
Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 997 5 992 29 1 5 23 156 37 18 31 7 61 2 553 45 14 4 128 24 18 14 0 23 51 43 13 46 120 10 254 59 133 1 15 0 30 3 8 0 5 135 0 135 11 0 0 11 9 2 4 0 0 3 0 73 7 1 0 21 8 1 1 0 3 5 6 0 2 15 3 42 9 19 0 3 1 6 1 2 1 0 544 1 543 21 0 1 20 55 18 7 7 2 21 0 293 26 1 4 57 26 4 5 1 4 21 23 15 8 90 8 174 25 114 1 1 4 14 0 7 6 2 166 1 165 3 0 0 3 7 0 3 1 0 3 0 109 12 0 2 23 15 2 0 1 0 12 10 6 0 23 3 46 5 32 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 1 296 0 296 16 0 1 15 34 15 2 3 0 14 0 147 10 1 0 24 7 2 3 0 3 6 9 9 5 64 4 99 10 73 1 1 0 5 0 5 4 0 27 0 27 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 2 0 1 7 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 4 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 38 0 38 0 0 0 0 12 3 1 3 2 3 0 14 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 3 0 12 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 2 0 17 0 17 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Legal status not reported 200 0 200 24 0 2 22 16 3 1 8 0 4 0 115 12 3 0 31 3 0 2 2 0 1 10 2 10 39 0 45 10 29 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 2

Capital punishment in 1997 139

Table 7.9. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada Utah Washington Other prisonersb U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Florida Georgia North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Montana Nevada Oregon Utah Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 696 5 691 29 3 2 24 154 52 11 29 1 61 408 36 6 3 79 27 4 26 4 26 62 26 25 19 59 6 100 7 65 1 25 1 1 86 1 85 25 0 0 25 9 4 2 2 0 1 44 2 1 1 10 2 0 7 1 1 4 1 1 1 10 2 7 0 4 0 3 0 0 463 2 461 51 0 2 49 62 39 1 7 0 15 251 20 11 3 31 20 3 9 3 6 27 15 12 7 70 14 97 2 85 1 6 1 2 132 0 132 17 0 0 17 2 0 1 0 0 1 82 7 1 3 14 12 0 1 0 2 11 5 3 3 12 8 31 0 27 1 2 0 1 273 1 272 31 0 2 29 44 33 0 2 0 9 138 9 7 0 8 6 2 7 2 0 14 9 6 4 58 6 59 2 52 0 4 1 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 36 1 35 0 0 0 0 14 5 0 4 0 5 18 1 2 0 5 1 0 0 1 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 12 0 12 3 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 Legal status not reported 161 1 160 35 0 2 33 18 4 0 4 0 10 79 10 1 0 12 4 0 6 6 1 1 3 0 3 32 0 28 1 26 0 1 0 0

28 4 4 2 1 1 11 1 1 0 1 5 1 2 11 4 6 0 1 0 0

4 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

16 1 1 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 8 2 3 1 0 1 1

3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0

9 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 0 2 0 0 1 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. a "Other" includes mandatory conditional release, bail, temporary leave, work release or furlough, halfway house, house arrest, and jail. b "Other prisoners" includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.

140

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.10. Felony history of prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 279 2 277 21 0 2 19 41 17 3 8 3 10 0 142 14 3 0 35 7 3 4 1 2 18 15 2 5 31 2 73 5 52 0 0 4 7 0 0 3 2 1,634 5 1,629 96 0 7 89 210 77 20 33 3 75 2 915 77 23 8 202 69 11 27 7 29 88 62 30 43 211 28 408 49 265 4 11 1 48 1 14 6 9 98 1 97 12 1 0 11 13 2 0 5 0 6 0 59 4 1 0 21 3 1 0 0 0 1 7 0 5 16 0 13 4 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 1,068 7 1,061 60 2 3 55 182 56 21 31 5 69 0 590 44 11 7 90 33 15 36 1 28 68 46 33 32 133 13 229 49 136 0 7 0 30 3 4 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Total with prior felonies 2,011 8 2,003 129 1 9 119 264 96 23 46 6 91 2 1,116 95 27 8 258 79 15 31 8 31 107 84 32 53 258 30 494 58 326 4 11 5 55 1 14 9 11

Felony history not reported 256 0 256 43 1 2 40 35 7 0 11 0 17 0 132 20 0 0 22 3 0 3 8 5 1 7 3 13 47 0 46 13 24 0 1 2 2 0 2 1 1

Capital punishment in 1997 141

Table 7.10. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 144 1 143 7 0 1 6 13 4 1 2 2 4 0 74 10 2 0 20 4 3 2 0 0 11 6 1 1 14 0 49 5 32 0 0 3 6 0 0 2 1 885 2 883 31 0 3 28 102 28 17 17 3 35 2 493 42 9 5 123 36 8 6 1 13 37 34 16 29 124 10 257 39 152 2 11 1 26 1 13 5 7 53 0 53 2 0 0 2 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 39 3 0 0 13 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 4 11 0 9 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 648 3 645 27 1 3 23 102 25 12 22 4 39 0 346 24 8 3 63 19 11 13 0 13 30 30 13 25 83 11 170 44 93 0 7 0 19 3 4 0 0

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 1,876 6 1,870 85 1 8 76 236 60 30 46 9 89 2 1,034 90 19 8 237 61 23 22 3 30 78 82 30 66 264 21 515 103 295 2 19 6 51 4 19 7 9

Total with prior felonies 1,082 3 1,079 40 0 4 36 118 33 18 20 5 40 2 606 55 11 5 156 41 12 8 1 13 48 46 17 34 149 10 315 48 189 2 11 4 32 1 13 7 8

Felony not reported 146 0 146 18 0 1 17 16 2 0 4 0 10 0 82 11 0 0 18 1 0 1 2 4 0 6 0 7 32 0 30 11 13 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1

142

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.10. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 128 1 127 14 0 1 13 28 13 2 6 1 6 65 4 1 0 15 3 0 2 1 2 6 7 1 4 17 2 20 0 18 0 1 0 1 731 3 728 62 0 4 58 108 49 3 16 0 40 414 35 14 3 79 32 3 21 6 16 48 25 14 14 86 18 144 7 110 2 22 1 2 43 1 42 10 1 0 9 10 1 0 4 0 5 19 1 1 0 8 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 398 4 394 30 1 0 29 78 31 9 9 0 29 235 19 3 4 26 14 4 23 1 15 38 11 20 7 48 2 51 3 38 0 10 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada Utah Washington Other prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Florida Georgia North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Montana Nevada Oregon Utah

Total 1,406 9 1,397 140 3 6 131 243 99 14 42 1 87 782 68 19 7 132 53 7 48 14 34 94 45 38 30 171 22 232 10 180 2 35 2 3

Total with prior felonies 902 5 897 86 1 5 80 146 63 5 26 1 51 498 40 16 3 102 37 3 23 7 18 55 33 15 18 108 20 167 7 131 2 23 1 3

Felony not reported 106 0 106 24 1 1 22 19 5 0 7 0 7 49 9 0 0 4 2 0 2 6 1 1 1 3 5 15 0 14 0 11 0 2 1 0

53 7 7 2 1 1 22 1 1 1 4 10 2 3 22 7 11 1 1 1 1

27 3 3 0 0 0 12 0 0 1 4 5 1 1 12 3 6 1 0 1 1

7 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 4 0 2 1 0 0 1

18 3 3 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 3 3 0 1 7 3 3 0 0 1 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

22 3 3 2 1 1 9 1 1 0 0 5 0 2 8 2 5 0 1 0 0

4 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. *"Other prisoners" includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.

Capital punishment in 1997 143

Table 7.11. Age of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years 58 1 57 3 0 3 4 2 0 1 0 1 0 36 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 6 2 2 0 9 1 14 1 8 0 1 2 0 2 35 1 34 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 4 2 0 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 0 9 2 6 0 1 0 0 0 34 0 34 2 2 0 7 1 0 3 0 3 0 15 2 0 0 4 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 10 3 5 0 1 0 1 0 48 0 48 3 1 2 5 0 0 2 0 2 1 27 2 2 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 6 0 13 1 8 1 1 1 0 1

Region and State All prisonersa U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

All ages 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Under 20 years 13 0 13 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

20 to 24 years 62 1 61 3 0 3 5 1 0 1 1 2 0 43 5 1 2 3 4 0 3 3 7 3 0 2 10 0 10 1 9 0 0 0 0 0

55 years or older 6 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Median age in years 29 * 29 30 * 28 33 27 * 36 * 35 * 28 26 28 * 33 28 * 28 23 27 31 31 41 26 * 32 34 30 * * * * *

144

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.11. Continued
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years years 29 1 28 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 21 1 0 1 3 2 0 1 2 3 1 0 1 6 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 26 1 25 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 15 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 5 1 9 1 5 0 1 2 0 23 0 23 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 0 7 2 4 0 1 0 0 23 0 23 2 2 0 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 9 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 7 3 4 0 0 0 0 38 0 38 2 1 1 4 0 0 2 0 1 1 19 2 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 3 5 0 13 1 8 1 1 1 1

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

All ages 146 2 144 6 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 1 3 3 1

Under 20 years 3 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

55 years or older 4 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Median age in years 33 * 33 37 * * 35 * * 36 * * * 31 38 * * 33 * * * * 26 40 * 45 27 * 35 35 34 * * * *

Capital punishment in 1997 145

Table 7.11. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington All ages 106 1 105 7 7 9 3 2 4 75 8 4 1 4 9 10 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 11 1 2 Under 20 years 10 0 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 9 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 20 to 24 years 32 0 32 3 3 2 1 0 1 22 4 1 1 0 2 2 1 4 2 0 1 4 0 5 5 0 0 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years 32 0 32 3 3 3 2 0 1 21 1 2 0 2 3 2 1 4 1 1 0 4 0 5 3 0 2 12 1 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 9 0 9 0 0 2 0 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 10 0 10 1 1 1 0 0 1 8 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 55 years or older 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Median age in years 26 * 26 27 27 27 * * * 25 21 * * * 28 28 * 27 * * * 25 * 26 25 * *

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Median were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases. a Includes American Indians. Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was between 20 and 24 years old. Georgia and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was between 35 and 39 years old. North Carolina sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was aged 55 years or older.

146

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.12. Level of education completed by prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 7th grade 9th to Any college or less 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 12 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 5 1 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 72 0 72 5 1 4 6 1 0 3 0 2 0 48 6 1 0 4 4 1 2 1 7 4 0 4 13 1 13 1 10 0 0 0 0 2 95 0 95 5 1 4 15 4 1 6 1 2 1 53 3 1 0 4 4 1 9 0 12 5 0 1 12 1 22 5 16 0 0 1 0 0 16 0 16 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 9 1 2 1 4 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total number 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Not reported 45 3 42 3 1 2 4 1 0 0 0 3 0 24 0 2 4 8 0 0 0 5 0 0 4 1 0 0 11 0 8 0 0 1 1 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 147

Table 7.13. Marital status at time of imprisonment for prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death Divorced or Never Married separated Widowed married 55 0 55 0 0 0 8 0 1 2 1 4 0 32 5 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 3 5 1 2 9 0 15 5 7 1 0 1 0 1 46 0 46 1 0 1 7 1 0 4 0 1 1 27 1 1 0 4 2 1 1 0 7 1 0 0 7 2 11 3 4 0 3 0 1 0 10 0 10 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 1 118 10 2 8 9 5 0 3 0 1 0 80 6 3 4 8 7 1 10 2 11 4 4 3 15 2 19 0 17 0 1 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Not reported 26 2 24 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 10 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 8 0 0 1 0 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming.

148

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.14. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison 145 2 143 5 2 3 19 3 1 7 1 6 1 98 7 3 3 9 8 2 8 6 15 7 2 5 22 1 21 0 14 0 3 3 0 1 19 0 19 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 14 2 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 67 1 66 4 1 3 6 2 0 2 0 2 0 39 6 1 1 3 3 0 2 1 6 1 3 1 8 3 17 0 13 0 1 0 1 2 19 0 19 2 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 14 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 38 0 38 2 1 1 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 19 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 3 0 6 1 14 0 12 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 7 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Legal status not reported 25 0 25 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 17 8 9 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 149

Table 7.14. Continued

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Legal status Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison not reported 84 2 82 3 2 1 13 2 1 6 1 2 1 52 4 1 2 6 2 2 1 4 6 4 1 4 14 1 14 0 9 0 2 3 0 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 39 0 39 2 1 1 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 18 2 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 5 1 14 0 12 0 1 0 1 7 0 7 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 26 0 26 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 12 0 11 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 17 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 11 7 4 0 0 0 0

150

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.14. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Legal status Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison not reported 61 0 61 2 2 6 1 1 4 46 3 2 1 3 6 7 2 9 3 1 1 8 0 7 5 1 1 12 0 12 2 2 2 1 1 0 8 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 26 1 25 2 2 1 1 0 0 20 4 1 0 0 2 1 1 4 0 1 1 3 2 2 1 0 1 12 0 12 2 2 0 0 0 0 9 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 10 0 10 0 0 1 1 0 0 8 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 7 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Includes American Indians. Georgia sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was charged with another crime at the time of the capital offense. North Carolina and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was on parole at the time of the capital offense. Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian whose legal status at the time of the capital offense was not known.

Capital punishment in 1997 151

Table 7.15. Felony history of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Total with prior felonies 151 2 149 11 3 8 15 2 1 6 0 5 1 97 9 3 1 13 9 1 6 1 11 6 2 3 29 3 26 1 16 1 3 1 1 3

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenses homicide offenses unreported 29 2 27 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 15 1 0 0 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 4 0 8 0 5 0 1 0 1 1 116 0 116 9 2 7 13 2 1 5 0 4 1 78 8 3 1 9 7 0 5 1 8 5 2 3 23 3 16 1 9 1 2 1 0 2 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0

With no prior felonies 87 1 86 1 0 1 11 4 0 3 1 3 0 54 6 2 3 3 3 1 6 6 11 4 3 3 2 1 20 7 10 0 1 2 0 0

Felony history not reported 18 0 18 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0

152

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.15. Continued

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

Total 146 2 144 6 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 1 3 3 1

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offenses prior felonies homicide offenses unreported 82 1 81 6 3 3 11 1 1 5 0 3 1 47 3 0 1 10 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 18 1 17 1 11 1 2 1 1 18 1 17 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 6 0 4 0 1 0 1 61 0 61 5 2 3 9 1 1 4 0 2 1 37 3 0 1 7 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 14 1 10 1 6 1 1 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

With no prior felonies 53 1 52 0 0 0 7 2 0 3 1 1 0 27 4 1 2 2 0 1 1 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 18 6 9 0 1 2 0

Felony history not reported 11 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 153

Table 7.15. Continued

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington

Total 106 1 105 7 7 9 3 2 4 75 8 4 1 4 9 10 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 11 1 2

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offenses prior felonies homicide offenses unreported 66 1 65 5 5 4 1 1 2 48 6 3 0 3 6 5 0 7 3 1 1 11 2 8 5 1 2 9 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 54 0 54 4 4 4 1 1 2 40 5 3 0 2 4 4 0 6 3 1 1 9 2 6 3 1 2 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

With no prior felonies 33 0 33 1 1 4 2 0 2 27 2 1 1 1 3 5 3 7 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Felony history not reported 7 0 7 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Includes American Indians, Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had no prior felony convictions. North Carolina and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had previously been convicted of homicide. Georgia sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had been convicted of a prior felony that was not homicide.

154

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.16. Status of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Awaiting Died new trial Total White Black Total White Black 87 0 0 11 2 1 7 1 0 66 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 38 9 10 4 3 1 2 0 56 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 41 3 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 24 5 9 4 2 1 2 0 29 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 23 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 13 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 23 0 0 8 2 0 6 0 0 15 3 0 6 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 6 1 0 5 0 0 12 2 0 4 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State U.S. totalsa Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Floridab Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Serving life sentences Total White Black 43 4 4 6 2 2 1 0 1 26 1 1 13 0 3 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 7 5 2 0 0 0 22 2 2 4 2 2 0 0 0 14 1 0 6 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 21 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 12 0 1 7 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 4 1 0 0 0

Awaiting new sentence Total White Black 9 0 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other Black 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a The totals include 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian inmate in Texas who were executed. b One black male whose sentence and conviction were overturned was found not guilty upon retrial.

Capital punishment in 1997 155

Table 7.17. Means of removal for all prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Death by other Sentence than executionb commutedc Total White Black Total White Black 13 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 6 2 3 0 1 0 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total Total White Black 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2 103 2 2 18 4 2 12 0 0 70 6 3 11 1 2 1 6 6 3 2 24 5 13 5 3 1 2 2 58 2 2 10 4 1 3 1 1 40 2 2 11 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 13 5 6 4 2 0 0 0

Executed Total White Black 74 0 0 10 2 1 6 1 0 60 3 4 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 37 9 4 2 0 1 1 0 45 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 36 2 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 23 5 4 2 0 1 1 0 27 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 22 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 13 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

a

Sentence Conviction vacatedd vacatedd Total White Black Total White Black 38 4 4 5 2 2 1 0 0 25 1 1 13 0 3 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 23 2 2 4 1 2 1 0 0 14 1 0 7 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 2 15 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 6 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 35 0 0 12 4 0 7 0 1 18 3 0 8 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 8 3 0 5 0 0 13 2 0 4 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 4 1 0 2 0 1 5 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a One American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas were executed. b Six white inmates died of natural causes (California, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Tennessee); 4 white inmates committed suicide (Alabama, Arizona, California, and Texas); and 1 white inmate in Arizona was shot during an escape attempt. Two black inmates died from natural causes (California and South Carolina). c Commutation changed sentences from death to life in prison or a term of years. d Further legal proceedings may have followed the vacating of sentences and of convictions and may have resulted in new sentences of death.

156

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.18. Time between sentencing and removal for prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Less than 12 months 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Prisoners removed from death row 12-23 24-35 36-47 months months months 7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 48-71 months 15 2 2 3 0 0 3 0 0 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 More than 71 months 114 2 2 20 5 3 10 1 1 79 7 5 6 1 3 1 2 3 4 2 37 8 13 5 4 1 1 2

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 157

Table 7.19. Age of prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row 25 to 30 to 35 to 29 years 34 years 39 years 13 0 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 8 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 33 1 1 3 0 1 1 0 1 27 0 1 7 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 12 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 37 1 1 4 0 1 3 0 0 28 1 1 4 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 13 3 4 3 0 0 0 1

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

All ages 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

20 to 24 years 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

40 to 54 years 56 2 2 12 5 1 6 0 0 35 5 3 2 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 11 2 7 2 4 1 0 0

55 years or older 19 0 0 5 0 0 4 1 0 10 2 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 2 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

158

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.20. Level of education completed by prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row 9th to 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 13 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 47 2 2 8 5 0 3 0 0 33 0 2 5 1 2 0 3 2 0 0 15 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 55 2 2 9 0 2 6 1 0 39 4 3 4 0 2 1 3 4 0 1 12 5 5 3 1 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total number 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

7th grade or less 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Any college 12 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 1 0 0 0

Not reported 27 0 0 7 2 0 4 0 1 14 2 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 4 0 6 1 1 0 2 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 159

Table 7.21. Marital status at time of imprisonment for prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Divorced or Never separated Widowed married 30 1 1 6 2 0 2 1 1 21 4 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 10 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 9 1 1 3 0 0 3 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 65 1 1 12 4 3 5 0 0 48 0 3 12 0 2 1 4 1 4 0 15 6 4 3 1 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Married 50 1 1 6 2 0 4 0 0 37 3 0 6 0 2 1 2 5 1 1 13 3 6 3 2 1 0 0

Not reported 9 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 1 0 1 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

160

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.22. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime Legal status tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other not reported 93 0 0 23 7 3 11 1 1 61 6 0 15 0 2 2 3 8 2 0 19 4 9 6 0 1 1 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 50 4 4 4 1 0 3 0 0 33 1 3 1 1 0 0 4 0 3 2 13 5 9 3 5 0 0 1 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 32 2 2 3 1 0 2 0 0 21 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 2 9 3 6 1 4 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 13 1 1 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 161

Table 7.22. Continued
Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other 56 0 0 14 3 2 9 36 5 0 6 0 0 1 3 6 0 0 12 3 6 3 0 1 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 31 2 2 3 1 0 2 20 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 3 2 8 1 6 2 3 0 0 1 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 21 1 1 2 1 0 1 14 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 2 5 1 4 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Legal status not reported 12 0 0 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

162

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.22. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Texas Virginia West Arizona California Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime Legal status tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other not reported 35 0 0 9 4 1 2 1 1 23 1 0 9 2 1 0 1 2 6 1 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 19 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 13 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 4 3 1 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 11 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. *Includes 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas who were not charged with or sentenced for another crime at the time of the capital offense.

Capital punishment in 1997 163

Table 7.23. Felony history of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 19 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 15 3 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 84 3 3 12 4 2 6 0 0 56 0 4 10 1 2 1 3 2 4 1 24 4 13 5 3 1 2 2 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 44 0 0 13 3 1 8 0 1 29 3 0 5 0 2 1 1 4 1 0 9 3 2 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Total with prior felonies 109 4 4 14 4 2 7 1 0 75 3 5 13 1 2 1 6 4 4 2 27 7 16 6 5 1 2 2

Felony history not reported 10 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 8 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

164

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.23. Continued
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 49 2 2 7 2 1 4 31 0 2 5 1 1 0 2 1 3 1 15 0 9 2 2 1 2 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 33 0 0 10 2 1 7 21 3 0 3 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 6 3 2 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 103 2 2 18 4 2 12 70 6 3 11 1 2 1 6 6 3 2 24 5 13 5 3 1 2 2

Total with prior felonies 65 2 2 8 2 1 5 44 1 3 6 1 1 0 5 3 3 2 17 2 11 3 3 1 2 2

Felony history not reported 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 165

Table 7.23. Continued
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 35 1 1 5 2 1 2 0 0 25 0 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 9 4 4 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 9 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Texas Virginia West Arizona California

Total 58 2 2 10 4 1 3 1 1 40 2 2 11 2 1 1 1 2 13 5 6 4 2

Total with prior felonies 44 2 2 6 2 1 2 1 0 31 2 2 7 1 1 1 1 1 10 5 5 3 2

Felony history not reported 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. *Includes 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas who had no prior felonies.

166

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.24. Status of death penalty, by jurisdiction, 1997
Jurisdictions with death penalty law With no With execuexecutions, 1997 tions, 1997 California Connecticut Delaware Federal Georgia Idaho Kansas Mississippi Montana Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Pennsylvania South Dakota Tennessee Utah Washington Wyoming Alabama Arkansas Arizona Colorado Florida Illinois Indiana Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Missouri Nebraska Oklahoma Oregon South Carolina Texas Virginia Jurisdictions that changed a death penalty law in 1997 Montana Nevada Oregon Pennsylvania Tennessee Virginia Jurisdictions without death penalty law Alaska Dist. of Columbia Hawaii Iowa Maine Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota North Dakota Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin

Number of executions 3 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 2 37 9

Capital punishment in 1997 167

Table 7.25. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by year, region, and jurisdiction, 1930-97
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Total 4,291 33 4,258 610 21 0 27 1 74 329 154 0 4 450 100 46 18 15 0 0 91 7 0 172 1 0 2,658 151 134 20 40 209 388 104 157 70 158 271 69 175 93 441 138 40 540 0 46 296 48 0 4 7 35 8 21 18 49 8 1997 74 0 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 60 3 4 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1996 45 0 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 29 1 1 3 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 0 3 8 0 7 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1995 56 0 56 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 11 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 41 2 2 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 19 5 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 19901994 137 0 137 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 2 1 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 112 3 9 4 0 12 4 0 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 52 16 0 11 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 19851989 88 0 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 81 6 0 0 0 11 11 0 12 0 3 1 0 2 0 29 6 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 19801984 29 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 1 0 0 0 9 3 0 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19751979 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 19701974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19651969 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 19601964 181 1 180 17 1 0 0 0 3 10 3 0 0 16 2 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 7 0 0 102 4 9 0 0 12 14 1 1 1 10 1 5 8 1 29 6 0 45 0 4 29 5 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 19551959 304 3 301 51 5 0 0 0 9 25 12 0 0 16 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 12 0 0 183 6 7 0 1 27 34 8 13 4 21 5 3 10 7 25 8 4 51 0 6 35 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 2 0 19501954 413 6 407 56 0 0 0 0 8 27 19 0 2 42 8 2 1 5 0 0 5 1 0 20 0 0 244 14 11 0 3 22 51 8 14 2 15 14 4 16 1 49 15 5 65 0 2 39 1 0 2 0 9 2 4 2 4 0 19451949 639 6 633 74 5 0 3 0 8 36 21 0 1 64 5 5 4 2 0 0 9 2 0 36 1 0 419 21 18 2 13 27 72 15 23 19 26 62 7 29 18 36 22 9 76 0 3 45 7 0 0 0 5 2 6 1 7 0 19401944 645 7 638 110 5 0 6 0 6 78 15 0 0 42 13 2 3 3 0 0 6 0 0 15 0 0 413 29 20 2 3 38 58 19 24 26 34 50 6 32 19 38 13 2 73 0 6 35 6 0 0 1 5 0 6 3 9 2 19351939 891 9 882 145 3 0 11 1 16 73 41 0 0 113 27 20 7 0 0 0 20 0 0 39 0 0 524 41 33 6 5 29 73 34 19 10 22 80 9 30 31 72 20 10 100 0 10 57 9 0 0 4 3 0 1 2 13 1 19301934 776 1 775 155 2 0 7 0 24 80 41 0 1 105 34 11 1 0 0 0 16 0 0 43 0 0 419 19 20 2 15 15 64 18 39 6 26 51 25 37 16 48 8 10 96 0 7 51 16 0 0 1 5 2 1 0 10 3

168

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.26. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by race and offense, 1930-97
All races Total offenses Murder Rape 4,291 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 3,766 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 455 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 White Other offenses* 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total offenses 2,016 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 Murder 1,929 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 Rape 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other offenses* 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total offenses 2,228 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Black Murder 1,792 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Other races Other Total Rape offenses* offenses Murder Rape 405 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Year All years 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977

No executions from 1968 to 1976 1965-67 1960-64 1955-59 1950-54 1945-49 1940-44 1935-39 1930-34 10 181 304 413 639 645 891 776 10 145 253 348 528 536 797 717 0 28 44 58 103 97 73 52 0 8 7 7 8 12 21 7 8 90 135 201 214 276 456 371 8 79 128 188 203 255 436 367 0 6 4 9 7 12 7 3 0 5 3 4 4 9 13 1 2 91 167 209 419 362 421 395 2 66 123 157 319 276 347 340 0 22 40 49 96 83 66 49 0 3 4 3 4 3 8 6 0 0 2 3 6 7 14 10 0 0 2 3 6 5 14 10 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

*Includes executions for armed robbery (25), kidnaping (20), burglary (11), sabotage (6), aggravated assault (6), and espionage (2).

Capital punishment in 1997 169

Explanatory notes
The statistics reported for capital punishment may differ from data collected by other organizations. The differences occur for a variety of reasons:

Some figures shown for yearend 1996 are revised from those reported in Correctional Populations in the United States, 1996. 

The data for 12/31/96 also include 8
inmates who were listed erroneously as being removed from death row: Federal Bureau of Prisons (1), Georgia (6), and Mississippi (1). 

The revised figures include 22 inmates
who either were reported late to the NPS program or were not in the custody of State correctional authorities at yearend 1996: Alabama (1) California (1) Florida (1) Indiana (1) Nevada (2) Oklahoma (2) Pennsylvania (6) Tennessee (2) Texas (6) 

Inmates under sentence of death are
originally added to the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) counts when they enter correctional facilities rather than when judges pronounce sentence. 

Race has been changed from that previously reported for 2 inmates: in Florida (from white to American Indian) and Texas (from black to white). 

One inmate in Mississippi was reported
as a female in previous reporting years. 

Following the year when prisoners are
first counted, their admissions or releases as a result of court order are attributed to the year for the sentence or court order. For example, a prisoner sentenced in November 1995 entering prison custody in January 1996 would be counted as an admission in the 1996 report; the 1996 report would count him or her as being under sentence of death at yearend 1995. Similarly, a prisoner whose sentence is overturned in 1994 but who remains in the count until 1996 when the court's decision is reported would be subtracted from the 1994 and 1995 reports. 

Seven inmates had sentences to death
removed in 1996 but were not reported: Arkansas (2) Louisiana (1) Mississippi (1) Oklahoma (1) Oregon (1) Pennsylvania (1) 

NPS counts of persons under sentence of
death are always for the last day of a calendar year and will differ from more recent counts.

170

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997 

       

    

 
          

    
         

      

  
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