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Advanced Geotechnical Enginneering

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3 Phase system

Soil composition Volume Weight

Va AIR Wa = 0

VV

Vw WATER Ww

=

Vs SOLIDS Ws

V = VS+VW+Va W = WS + WW

Partially Saturated Soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Volumetric ratios

Volumetric ratios commonly used in soil

mechanics are:

-Void ratio e

-Porosity n

-Degree of Saturation Sr

-Air content ac

-Air void ratio or Percentage air voids na

Void ratio e is defined as the ratio of volume

of voids to the volume of solids

e = Vv/Vs

Volume of voids Vv refers to that portion of

the volume of the soil not occupied by solid

grains

Since the relationship between Volume of air Va

and Volume of water Vw usually changes with

ground water conditions as well as imposed loads,

it is convenient to designate all the volume not

occupied by solid grains as void space Volume of

voids Vv

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

e = 0 absence of voids (solid material)

e > 1 Vv >> VS in the soil mass

Soil type void ratio e

Uniform sand, loose 0.85

Mixed-grain sand, dense 0.43

Soft glacial clay 1.20

Soft highly organic clay 3.00

Soft Bentonite 5.20

In nature, even though the individual

void spaces are larger in coarse-grained soils,

the void ratios of fine-grained soils are

generally higher than those of coarse-grained

soils.

The ratio of volume of voids Vv to total

volume V is defined as Porosity n.

n = Vv/V

But V = Vv + Vs = (1+Vv/VS) VS = (1+e) VS

n = e/(1+e)

The porosity provides a measure of the permeability of a soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Porosity n of soil cannot exceed 100 %

f ( Shape of grains, uniformity of grain

size, and the conditions of sedimentation.

n = 25 50 % (natural sands)

n = 30 60 % (soft natural clays)

Out of void ratio e and Porosity n, void ratio is

used frequently in soil engineering because:

e = Vv/Vs n = Vv/V

similar changes in VV and while VS remains the

same.

Water content

expressed as a percentage.

- where WW = Weight of water

WS = Weight of solids (dry)

coarse-grained soils. [No upper limit to w]

Degree of saturation Sr

since all the voids will be completely filled

with water:

Hence the relationship for Sr the degree of

saturation is given as:

Sr = [(VV - Va)W] / VV W = VW /VV

Sr is the ratio of the volume of water to the

volume of void space (Generally

expressed as a Percentage)

0 < Sr < 100

- For completely dry soil Sr = 0;

- For fully saturated soil Sr = 1 or (100 %)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Soil can be partially saturated [ 0 < Sr < 100]

Sr 100

Degree of Saturation of Sand in various states

Condition of Sand Sr [%]

Dry 0

Humid 1-25

Damp 26-50

Moist 51-75

Wet 76-99

Saturated 100

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Degree of saturation Sr

saturated except in the layer of soil

subjected to seasonal variation of

temperature and moisture.

Air content ac = Va/VV

= [Va + VW VW] /VV

= [VV-VW]/VV

= 1- Sr

ac = 1 for dry soil

Air void ratio or Percentage air voids na

= Va/V By writing as Va Vv/(V Vv)

= n ac Using n = Vv/V

and ac = Va/Vv

= n (1- Sr)

Unit weight = (W/V) is one of the most

important physical properties of the soil.

regard to the state of soil.

= f (unit weight of solid constituents, n, and Sr)

pressure ?

Bulk unit weight b (for a partially saturated soil)

= (WW + WS)/ (VW + VS + Va)

= (WW + WS)/ (VW + VS)

Dry unit weight d

For a dry soil d = (WS)/ (Va + VS) Vw = 0

d = Ws/V

= (W WW)/V

= [W/V wWS/V]

= bulk w d

d = b/(1+w)

Typical values of Unit Weight for Soils

Gravel 20 - 22 15 - 17

Sand 18 - 20 13 - 16

Silt 18 - 20 14 - 18

Clay 16 - 22 14 - 21

Specific Gravity

Specific Gravity is the ratio of the unit

weight of a substance to the unit weight of

water w at 4C. In soil mechanics, specific

gravity generally refers to the specific

gravity of solid particles Gs, and is defined

as the unit weight of solid particles to the

unit weight of water.

Gs = S / W Unit weight of solid

= WS/VSW constituents S = WS/VS

The value of the specific gravity can be

determined from laboratory tests.

W2 W3

W1 W4

W2 = W1 + dry soil

W3 = W2+ water (without any entrapped air)

W4 = W1 + water

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Specific Gravity

Gs = Weight of soil solids / Weight of water

volume equivalent to

that of water

= (W2 W1) / [(W4-W1) (W3-W2) ]

Gs = 2.65 for sands Mineral Gs

Kaolinite 2.62-2.66

Gs = 2.2 2.4 for Pond ash

Illite 2.60 2.86

Gs = 4.4 5.2 for Iron ore Montmorillonite 2.75-2.78

For a partially saturated soil:

Gm (sat.) = Mass Specific gravity (saturated state)

Submerged (Buoyant unit weight) '

Treating whole soil mass as one unit

= [ (WS + WW) - VW] /V

= (WS + WW)/V - W

= sat - W

VW WW

= sat - W VS WS

Phase relations

Two approaches:

I. Specific Volume approach (VS = 1)

II. Unit Volume approach (V = 1)

volume.

Specific Volume = 1 + e = V/VS (which is nothing

but Total volume per unit Volume of solids)

For dry soil 2 phase system

VV = Air

Va e Wa = 0

V W

VS 1 Solids WS = GSVSW

Soil is dry:

From the definition of void ratio e = VV/VS

VV = e

VS = 1

Gs = S / W = WS/VSW

WS = GSW

d = WS/V = GSW/(1+e) d = GSW/ (1 + e)

Basic relationships

VV =

e Water WW = eW

Vw

V W

VS 1 Solids WS = GSW

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Soil is fully saturated:

From the definition of water content

W = WW/WS

= eW / GSW

e = W GS For fully saturated case

sat = W/V = (GSW + eW)/(1+e)

Basic relationships

Va AIR Wa = 0

VV = e

Vw = wGS WATER Ww = wGSW

1 SOLIDS Ws = GSW

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

From the definition of degree of

saturation Sr = VW/VV

= wGS/e

e = wGS/Sr

For Sr = 1, e = wGS

d = WS/V

= GSW/(1+wGS/Sr)

Relationship between d, Gs, w and na

V = VS + VW + Va Using VS = WS/GSW

& by writing Ww = w Ws

1 na = VS/V + VW/V

= d/W (w + 1/GS)

d = (1-na) GSW / (1 + wGS)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Unit Volume approach (V = 1)

wGS(1-n) AIR Wa = 0

n

WATER wGS(1-n)W

V= 1

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

For Partially Sat. soil 3 phase system

n = Vv/V

With V = 1 n = Vv

e = VV/Vs = n / 1 n

d = Ws/V = (1-n)Gs w

Percentage air voids na = Va/V

= (VV-Vw)V = [n-wGs(1-n)]

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

For a completely Saturated soil

sat = Gs(1-n)w + nw

w = nw/[Gs(1-n)w

= e/Gs

n WATER nW

e = wGs

(for Sr = 1)

For a dry soil

d = Ws/V =

= (1-n)Gsw

n AIR 0

V =1

Some additional phase properties and relations

Porosity can be defined with respect to each of

the phase of a soil

Soil particle porosity ns = Vs/V (expressed in %)

Water porosity nw = Vw/V (also referred as

volumetric water

Air porosity na = Va/V content w)

The water and air porosities represent their volumetric

percentages in the soil; The soil particle porosity can be

visualized as the percentage of total volume comprised of soil

particles.

ns + n = ns + na + nw = 100%

Some additional phase properties and relations

Volumetric water content w = Vw/V

n = Vv/V; n = e/1+e

The relationship between the gravimetric water

contents, w and w can be established by substituting

the basic weight-volume relationship:

For partially saturated soils:

Example problem 1

moisture content of 9%. The specific gravity of the soil

solids is 2.7. Using the phase relations calculate:

(iv) n, (v) Vw, and (vi) Sr.

Solution to example problem 1

Given: V = 0.9 m3, W = 17 kN, w = 9%, and Gs = 2.7

Using d = /(1+w) = 18.89/(1+0.09)

= 17.33 kN/m3

Ws = dV = 17.33 x 0.9 = 15.59 kN

Ww = W Ws = 17 15.59 = 1.41 kN

Using Gs = s/w = (Ws/Vs)/w

Vs = Ws/(Gs w) = 15.6 /(2.7 x 9.81) = 0.5889 m3

V = Vv+Vs Vv = 0.9 0.5889 = 0.311 m3

Void ratio e = Vv/Vs = 0.311/0.5889 = 0.528

Porosity n = Vv/V = 0.311/0.9 = 0.346

(expressed as n = 34.6%)

Volume of water Vw = Ww/w = 1.4/9.81 = 0.143 m3

Degree of saturation Sr = Vw/Vv = 0.143/0.311 = 0.459

(expressed as Sr = 45.9%)

Soil composition Volume (m3) Weight (kN)

VV = 0.311

Va =

0.168

AIR Wa = 0

Vw = Ww =

0.143

WATER 1.41

=

Vs = 0.589

SOLIDS Ws =

15.59

V = VS+VW+Va = 0.9 m3 W = WS + WW = 17 kN

Partially Saturated Soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Example problem 2

A soil has an in-situ in-place void ratio eo = 1.87;

Natural moisture content wN = 60% and Gs = 2.75.

Find bulk and Degree of saturation Sr?

m3 kN

Va = 0.22 AIR Wa = 0

VV = e =

1.87 Vw = wGS

WATER Ww = (0.6)*2.75*9.81

= 0.6*2.75

1 SOLIDS Ws = 2.75*9.81

(W = Ws + Ww =

(V = 1+1.65+0.22)

43.16 kN)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

Solution for example problem 2

bulk = W/V = 43.17/2.87 = 15.04 kN/m3

Other relations

d = Ws/V = (W-Ww)/V = (43.16-16.19)/2.87 = 9.39 kN/m3

(also using ac = 1-Sr = 1-0.882 = 11.8%)

(also using na =nac = (Vv/V)*ac = (1.87/2.87)*0.1176 = 0.0766)

Particle sizes, shapes and

arrangement

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