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02

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


3 Phase system
Soil composition Volume Weight

Va AIR Wa = 0
VV
Vw WATER Ww
=
Vs SOLIDS Ws

V = VS+VW+Va W = WS + WW
Partially Saturated Soil
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Volumetric ratios
Volumetric ratios commonly used in soil
mechanics are:
-Void ratio e
-Porosity n
-Degree of Saturation Sr
-Air content ac
-Air void ratio or Percentage air voids na

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Void ratio e is defined as the ratio of volume
of voids to the volume of solids
e = Vv/Vs
Volume of voids Vv refers to that portion of
the volume of the soil not occupied by solid
grains
Since the relationship between Volume of air Va
and Volume of water Vw usually changes with
ground water conditions as well as imposed loads,
it is convenient to designate all the volume not
occupied by solid grains as void space Volume of
voids Vv
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
e = 0 absence of voids (solid material)
e > 1 Vv >> VS in the soil mass
Soil type void ratio e
Uniform sand, loose 0.85
Mixed-grain sand, dense 0.43
Soft glacial clay 1.20
Soft highly organic clay 3.00
Soft Bentonite 5.20

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


In nature, even though the individual
void spaces are larger in coarse-grained soils,
the void ratios of fine-grained soils are
generally higher than those of coarse-grained
soils.
The ratio of volume of voids Vv to total
volume V is defined as Porosity n.
n = Vv/V
But V = Vv + Vs = (1+Vv/VS) VS = (1+e) VS
n = e/(1+e)
The porosity provides a measure of the permeability of a soil
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Porosity n of soil cannot exceed 100 %

0 < n < 100

Porosity n of a natural deposit =


f ( Shape of grains, uniformity of grain
size, and the conditions of sedimentation.
n = 25 50 % (natural sands)
n = 30 60 % (soft natural clays)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Out of void ratio e and Porosity n, void ratio is
used frequently in soil engineering because:

e = Vv/Vs n = Vv/V

Any change in V is a direct consequence of a


similar changes in VV and while VS remains the
same.

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Water content

The water content w is given as WW/WS,


expressed as a percentage.
- where WW = Weight of water
WS = Weight of solids (dry)

Natural water content of fine-grained soils >


coarse-grained soils. [No upper limit to w]

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Degree of saturation Sr

For a fully saturated soil-water system,


since all the voids will be completely filled
with water:

VVW = WW where W = unit weight of water

For partial saturation: (VV - Va)W = WW

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Hence the relationship for Sr the degree of
saturation is given as:
Sr = [(VV - Va)W] / VV W = VW /VV
Sr is the ratio of the volume of water to the
volume of void space (Generally
expressed as a Percentage)
0 < Sr < 100
- For completely dry soil Sr = 0;
- For fully saturated soil Sr = 1 or (100 %)
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Soil can be partially saturated [ 0 < Sr < 100]

Sr 100

Thus, at a Sr of 100 % all the voids are filled with water.

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Degree of Saturation of Sand in various states
Condition of Sand Sr [%]

Dry 0
Humid 1-25
Damp 26-50
Moist 51-75
Wet 76-99
Saturated 100

- Valid only for sands


Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Degree of saturation Sr

Fine or silty sands are moist, wet or saturated.

Clays are always completely or nearly


saturated except in the layer of soil
subjected to seasonal variation of
temperature and moisture.

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Air content ac = Va/VV
= [Va + VW VW] /VV
= [VV-VW]/VV
= 1- Sr

ac = 0 for saturated soil


ac = 1 for dry soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Air void ratio or Percentage air voids na
= Va/V By writing as Va Vv/(V Vv)

= n ac Using n = Vv/V
and ac = Va/Vv
= n (1- Sr)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Unit weight = (W/V) is one of the most
important physical properties of the soil.

-The unit weight must be expressed with due


regard to the state of soil.
= f (unit weight of solid constituents, n, and Sr)

Earth Vertical stress ?


pressure ?

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Bulk unit weight b (for a partially saturated soil)

= Total weight of soil mass / Total Volume


= (WW + WS)/ (VW + VS + Va)

For a saturated soil b = sat Va = 0


= (WW + WS)/ (VW + VS)

Where sat = Saturated unit weight of the soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Dry unit weight d
For a dry soil d = (WS)/ (Va + VS) Vw = 0

d = Ws/V
= (W WW)/V
= [W/V wWS/V]
= bulk w d

d = b/(1+w)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Typical values of Unit Weight for Soils

Soil type sat (kN/m3) d (kN/m3)

Gravel 20 - 22 15 - 17

Sand 18 - 20 13 - 16

Silt 18 - 20 14 - 18

Clay 16 - 22 14 - 21

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity is the ratio of the unit
weight of a substance to the unit weight of
water w at 4C. In soil mechanics, specific
gravity generally refers to the specific
gravity of solid particles Gs, and is defined
as the unit weight of solid particles to the
unit weight of water.
Gs = S / W Unit weight of solid
= WS/VSW constituents S = WS/VS

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


The value of the specific gravity can be
determined from laboratory tests.

W2 W3
W1 W4

Where W1 = Wt. of empty sp. gravity bottle


W2 = W1 + dry soil
W3 = W2+ water (without any entrapped air)
W4 = W1 + water
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Specific Gravity
Gs = Weight of soil solids / Weight of water
volume equivalent to
that of water
= (W2 W1) / [(W4-W1) (W3-W2) ]

For most of soils Gs ranges from 2.5 2.9


Gs = 2.65 for sands Mineral Gs
Kaolinite 2.62-2.66
Gs = 2.2 2.4 for Pond ash
Illite 2.60 2.86
Gs = 4.4 5.2 for Iron ore Montmorillonite 2.75-2.78

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


For a partially saturated soil:

Mass Specific Gravity Gm = b / w

Gm (dry) = d / w for dry soil

Gm (saturated) = sat / w for saturated soil

Gm (dry) = Mass Specific gravity (dry state)


Gm (sat.) = Mass Specific gravity (saturated state)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Submerged (Buoyant unit weight) '

= Weight of soil inside the water / Total volume


Treating whole soil mass as one unit
= [ (WS + WW) - VW] /V
= (WS + WW)/V - W
= sat - W
VW WW
= sat - W VS WS

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Phase relations
Two approaches:
I. Specific Volume approach (VS = 1)
II. Unit Volume approach (V = 1)

Using specific volume approach, VS is put as unit


volume.
Specific Volume = 1 + e = V/VS (which is nothing
but Total volume per unit Volume of solids)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


For dry soil 2 phase system

VV = Air
Va e Wa = 0

V W
VS 1 Solids WS = GSVSW

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Soil is dry:
From the definition of void ratio e = VV/VS
VV = e
VS = 1
Gs = S / W = WS/VSW
WS = GSW
d = WS/V = GSW/(1+e) d = GSW/ (1 + e)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Basic relationships

VV =
e Water WW = eW
Vw

V W
VS 1 Solids WS = GSW

For Saturated soil 2 phase system


Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Soil is fully saturated:
From the definition of water content
W = WW/WS
= eW / GSW
e = W GS For fully saturated case
sat = W/V = (GSW + eW)/(1+e)

sat = (GS + e)W/(1 + e)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Basic relationships

Va AIR Wa = 0
VV = e
Vw = wGS WATER Ww = wGSW

1 SOLIDS Ws = GSW

For Partially Sat. soil 3 phase system


Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
From the definition of degree of
saturation Sr = VW/VV
= wGS/e
e = wGS/Sr
For Sr = 1, e = wGS
d = WS/V
= GSW/(1+wGS/Sr)

-Valid for a partially saturated soil

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Relationship between d, Gs, w and na

V = VS + VW + Va Using VS = WS/GSW

1 = VS/V + VW/V + na VW = WW/W


& by writing Ww = w Ws
1 na = VS/V + VW/V
= d/W (w + 1/GS)
d = (1-na) GSW / (1 + wGS)

When soil becomes completely saturated na = 0


Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Unit Volume approach (V = 1)

wGS(1-n) AIR Wa = 0
n
WATER wGS(1-n)W
V= 1

1-n SOLIDS GS(1-n)W

For Partially Sat. soil 3 phase system


Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
For Partially Sat. soil 3 phase system
n = Vv/V
With V = 1 n = Vv
e = VV/Vs = n / 1 n

d = Ws/V = (1-n)Gs w

bulk = W/V = (1-n)Gs w + wGs (1-n)w


Percentage air voids na = Va/V
= (VV-Vw)V = [n-wGs(1-n)]
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
For a completely Saturated soil
sat = Gs(1-n)w + nw
w = nw/[Gs(1-n)w

= e/Gs
n WATER nW
e = wGs
(for Sr = 1)

1-n SOLIDS GS(1-n)W

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


For a dry soil
d = Ws/V =
= (1-n)Gsw

n AIR 0
V =1

1-n SOLIDS GS(1-n)W

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Some additional phase properties and relations
Porosity can be defined with respect to each of
the phase of a soil
Soil particle porosity ns = Vs/V (expressed in %)
Water porosity nw = Vw/V (also referred as
volumetric water
Air porosity na = Va/V content w)
The water and air porosities represent their volumetric
percentages in the soil; The soil particle porosity can be
visualized as the percentage of total volume comprised of soil
particles.
ns + n = ns + na + nw = 100%

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Some additional phase properties and relations
Volumetric water content w = Vw/V

w = SrVV/V = nSr = eSr/1+e Using Sr = Vw/Vv ;


n = Vv/V; n = e/1+e
The relationship between the gravimetric water
contents, w and w can be established by substituting
the basic weight-volume relationship:
For partially saturated soils:

w = wGsSr / (Sr+wGs ) Using e = wGs / Sr

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Example problem 1

A 0.9 m3 soil specimen weighs 17 kN and has a


moisture content of 9%. The specific gravity of the soil
solids is 2.7. Using the phase relations calculate:

(i) , (ii) d, (iii) e,


(iv) n, (v) Vw, and (vi) Sr.

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Solution to example problem 1
Given: V = 0.9 m3, W = 17 kN, w = 9%, and Gs = 2.7

From the definition of unit weight, = W/V

= 17/0.9 = 18.89 kN/m3


Using d = /(1+w) = 18.89/(1+0.09)
= 17.33 kN/m3
Ws = dV = 17.33 x 0.9 = 15.59 kN

Ww = W Ws = 17 15.59 = 1.41 kN

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Using Gs = s/w = (Ws/Vs)/w
Vs = Ws/(Gs w) = 15.6 /(2.7 x 9.81) = 0.5889 m3
V = Vv+Vs Vv = 0.9 0.5889 = 0.311 m3
Void ratio e = Vv/Vs = 0.311/0.5889 = 0.528
Porosity n = Vv/V = 0.311/0.9 = 0.346
(expressed as n = 34.6%)
Volume of water Vw = Ww/w = 1.4/9.81 = 0.143 m3
Degree of saturation Sr = Vw/Vv = 0.143/0.311 = 0.459

(expressed as Sr = 45.9%)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Soil composition Volume (m3) Weight (kN)

VV = 0.311
Va =
0.168
AIR Wa = 0

Vw = Ww =
0.143
WATER 1.41
=

Vs = 0.589
SOLIDS Ws =
15.59

V = VS+VW+Va = 0.9 m3 W = WS + WW = 17 kN
Partially Saturated Soil
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Example problem 2
A soil has an in-situ in-place void ratio eo = 1.87;
Natural moisture content wN = 60% and Gs = 2.75.
Find bulk and Degree of saturation Sr?
m3 kN
Va = 0.22 AIR Wa = 0
VV = e =
1.87 Vw = wGS
WATER Ww = (0.6)*2.75*9.81
= 0.6*2.75

1 SOLIDS Ws = 2.75*9.81
(W = Ws + Ww =
(V = 1+1.65+0.22)
43.16 kN)
Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Solution for example problem 2
bulk = W/V = 43.17/2.87 = 15.04 kN/m3

Sr = Vw/Vv = 1.65/1.87 = 0.882 (88.2 %)

Other relations
d = Ws/V = (W-Ww)/V = (43.16-16.19)/2.87 = 9.39 kN/m3

Air content ac = Va/Vv = 0.22/1.87 = 0.1176 (11.76%)


(also using ac = 1-Sr = 1-0.882 = 11.8%)

Percentage air voids (or Air voids) na = Va/V = 0.22/2.87 = 0.077


(also using na =nac = (Vv/V)*ac = (1.87/2.87)*0.1176 = 0.0766)

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay


Particle sizes, shapes and
arrangement

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay