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# Fakulti Kejuruteraan

## Petroleum dan Kejuruteraan

Tenaga Diperbaharui

Question 3 ( 25 marks)

CO CO1 CO3
Marks 5 20

## a. An inventor reports having a refrigeration compressor that receives saturated R-134a

vapor at -12oC and delivers the vapor at 1.6 MPa and 60 oC. The compression process
is adiabatic. Categorize the process whether it is reversible, irreversible or impossible.
marks)

At the inlet, si = sg at 12oC = 0.93911 kJ/kg.K (Table A-11) {1 mark}
At the exit, se = 0.9163 kJ/kg.K (Table A-13) {1 mark}
Since se < si, the process violates the 2nd Law and thus would be impossible. {2
mark}

1
b. A nozzle should produce a flow of air with 200 m/s at 27 oC and 100 kPa. It is
estimated that the nozzle has an isentropic efficiency of 92%. Assuming the inlet
kinetic energy is negligible, design the nozzle inlet pressure (in kPa) and inlet
temperature (in oC).
(10 marks)
1st Law equation for nozzle;

Ve2 Vi 2

Q W m he hi g z e zi
2

Ve2
hi he C p Ti Te {2 mark}
2

( 200m / s ) 2
1.005 Ti 300
2(1000) {2 mark}
Ti 320 K 47 o C

V22a
N 2 0.92
V2 s
{2 mark}
2 V22a (200) 2
V2 s 43478m / s
2 2

0.92 0.92

V22s 43478 2 2
hi h2 s C p (Ti T2 s ) m /s
2 2
43478 1 1
(Ti T2 s ) 21.6
2 1.005 1000 {2 mark}
T2 s Ti 21.6 320 21.6 298.4 K

k 1. 4
Ti k 1
320 1.4 1
Pi Pe 100 127.7 kPa {2 mark}
T2 s 298.4

2
c. A heat pump with a coefficient of performance of 3 transfer heat from a cold region at
-20oC to a hot region at 25oC.
i) Calculate the entropy change of the regions when 2 kJ of heat is transferred
from the cold region. Is the second law of thermodynamic satisfied?
(5 marks)
QH QH
COPHP
Win QH QL
{1 mark}
COPHP QL
QH
COPHP 1

When COPHP = 3,
3 2
QH 3
3 1
{1 mark}
Q Q 3 2
sys S H S L H L 0.0022
TH TL 298 253

{2 mark}
(Process satisfy 2nd Law) {1 mark}

ii) Will this heat pump satisfy the second law if its coefficient of performance is
7?
When COPHP = 7,
72
QH 2.333
7 1
QH QL 2.333 2
{1 mark}
sys S H S L 0.000075
TH TL 298 253

{2 mark}
(Process does not satisfy 2nd Law, therefore impossible) {2 mark}