Correctional Populations

in the United States, 1997
Bureau of Justice Statistics
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
1,602,000
132,900
871,500
816,600
male
female
white
black
5.7 million adults in the United States were under
correctional supervision in 1997
1,176,900
558,000
3,266,800
690,800
in prison
in jail
on probation
on parole
1.7 million in local jail or prison
3.9 million on probation or parole
3,195,300
762,300
2,557,500
1,333,300
male
female
white
black

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20531
Janet Reno
Attorney General
Daniel Marcus
Acting Associate Attorney General
Mary Lou Leary
Acting Assistant Attorney General
Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D.
Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics
Office of Justice Programs
World Wide Web Homepage:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov
Bureau of Justice Statistics
World Wide Web Homepage:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
For information contact:
BJS Clearinghouse
1-800-732-3277
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Correctional Populations
in the United States, 1997
November 2000, NCJ 177613
Tables
By Thomas P. Bonczar, BJS
Statistician
Assisted by Lauren E. Glaze,
BJS Statistician
Adults on probation, 1997
3.1 Characteristics 28
3.2 Counts, January 1
and December 31 29
3.3 Status of probation 30
3.4 Status of supervision 31
3.5 Adults entering probation,
by type of sentence 32
3.6 Adults leaving probation,
by type of exit 33
3.7 Gender and Hispanic origin 34
3.8 Race 35
3.9 Type of offense 36
3.10 Intensive supervision,
electronic monitoring, and
bootcamp 37
3.11 States with the largest probation
populations and growth 38

Explanatory notes by
jurisdiction 39
Questionnaire 1997 Probation
Data Survey 43
Probation in 1997
Probation in 1997 27
28 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. See the detailed tables, the
questionnaire, and the Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions.
For every characteristic there were persons of unknown status or type; their numbers
are in the detailed tables. Jurisdictions failed to report data for 44% of “status of probation,”
6% of “status of supervision,” 44% of “adults entering probation,” 29% of “adults leaving
probation,” 22% of “gender of adults on probation,” 30% of “race of adults on probation,”
42% of “Hispanic origin of adults on probation,” and 16% of “type of offense of adults on
probation.”
--Less than 0.5%.

3 95,693 Other infractions
14 382,970 Driving while intoxicated
29 790,358 Misdemeanor
54 1,483,754 Felony
% 100 2,752,775 Type of offense of adults on probation
84 1,595,586 Non-Hispanic
16 305,326 Hispanic
% 100 1,900,912 Hispanic origin of adults on probation
-- 10,745 Asian/Pacific Islander
1 21,257 American Indian/Alaska Native
34 777,974 Black
64 1,448,241 White
% 100 2,258,217 Race of adults on probation
21 536,977 Female
79 2,023,069 Male
% 100 2,560,046 Gender of adults on probation
7 77,158 Other
1 6,911 Death
12 136,952 Other unsuccessful
14 157,217 With the same sentence
5 60,238 With new sentence
19 217,455 Returned to incarceration
62 722,747 Successful completions
% 100 1,161,223 Adults leaving probation
6 60,336 Probation of other types
17 161,013 Probation with incarceration
77 741,931 Probation without incarceration
% 100 963,280 Adults entering probation
2 50,286 Other
2 59,573 Supervised out of State
10 299,920 Absconded from supervision
8 241,177 Inactive supervision
79 2,411,938 Active supervision
% 100 3,062,894 Status of supervision
7 123,349 Other
9 163,759 Split sentence (incarceration with probation)
55 1,000,805 Direct imposition of probation
6 116,146 Imposition of sentence suspended
23 427,631 Execution of sentence suspended

% 100 1,831,690 Status of probation
% 100 3,266,837 Total number of adults on probation
known status Federal courts Characteristic
persons with a from State or
Percent of those on probation
Number of adults
Table 3.1. Characteristics of adults on probation, 1997

Probation in 1997 29
k
Total exits are estimated.
j
Total entries are estimated.
I
Data are for year beginning September 1, 1996, and ending August 31, 1997.
h
Data do not include inactive cases.
g
Data are for year beginning July 1, 1996, and ending June 30, 1997.
f
All data are estimated.
e
Multiple agencies reporting; see Explanatory notes for more detail.
d
Data do not include out-of-State cases.
c
Data do not include absconders.
b
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
a
Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on December 31, 1997, does not equal the population
on January 1, 1997, plus entries, minus exits.
: Not known.
993 0.7 3,456 2,256 2,280 3,432 Wyoming
3,177 5.0 132,014 38,016 44,511 125,780 Washington
a,b,e
690 1.7 9,461 3,952 4,107 9,306 Utah
1,808 4.0 43,980 14,522 16,210 42,292 Oregon
723 -0.1 8,895 7,478 7,470 8,903 New Mexico
e
884 11.7 10,902 : : 9,760 Nevada
a
720 4.6 4,678 1,052 1,257 4,473 Montana
b,k
741 8.7 6,367 1,796 2,308 5,855 Idaho
j
1,742 9.8 15,401 6,147 7,521 14,027 Hawaii
1,580 6.5 45,447 16,051 20,153 42,688 Colorado
a,b,e
1,306 6.3 304,531 146,877 164,882 286,526 California
1,368 10.4 44,813 25,398 29,604 40,607 Arizona
e,f
1,040 9.5 4,378 1,659 2,038 3,999 Alaska
1,473 % 6.1 634,323 265,204 302,341 597,648 West
438 8.5 6,149 : : 5,669 West Virginia
a,f
589 1.3 30,002 22,588 22,970 29,620 Virginia
f
3,095 -0.1 429,093 193,364 193,128 429,329 Texas
b,i
946 3.4 38,251 19,056 20,305 37,002 Tennessee
b,e
1,512 0.0 42,404 15,059 15,046 42,417 South Carolina
1,178 2.3 28,733 13,131 13,812 28,090 Oklahoma
a,b,e
1,899 2.9 105,416 56,394 59,327 102,483 North Carolina
556 6.0 10,997 3,926 3,547 10,376 Mississippi
a,b,c,d
1,950 5.8 74,612 35,104 39,163 70,553 Maryland
1,122 0.2 35,453 11,737 11,815 35,375 Louisiana
410 3.5 12,093 5,683 6,087 11,689 Kentucky
h
2,699 3.5 148,420 60,489 65,452 143,457 Georgia
e
2,146 1.2 239,932 196,902 196,263 237,117 Florida
a,b,e
2,560 10.9 10,797 8,818 9,875 9,740 District of Columbia
3,225 8.1 17,872 : : 16,528 Delaware
a,b,f
1,419 4.8 26,392 7,315 8,529 25,178 Arkansas
1,100 -5.7 35,723 1,669 2,153 37,865 Alabama
a,b,e
1,850 % 1.6 1,292,339 651,235 667,472 1,272,488 South
1,422 5.0 54,367 22,085 24,695 51,757 Wisconsin
641 -2.3 3,467 4,764 4,768 3,548 South Dakota
a,g
1,416 1.6 118,212 61,957 64,512 116,321 Ohio
a,b,e
559 2.2 2,657 1,440 1,498 2,599 North Dakota
1,198 1.1 14,525 14,534 14,696 14,363 Nebraska
1,159 9.3 46,301 16,785 20,718 42,368 Missouri
e,f
2,641 0.6 90,707 55,509 55,258 90,202 Minnesota
a
2,122 4.5 154,236 117,525 124,731 147,598 Michigan
a,b,e
850 3.0 16,205 19,029 19,502 15,732 Kansas
b,c,d
791 9.4 16,834 13,980 15,428 15,386 Iowa
b
2,222 3.8 97,045 78,263 81,799 93,509 Indiana
1,370 3.4 119,481 59,318 63,296 115,503 Illinois
b
1,588 % 3.5 734,037 465,189 490,901 708,886 Midwest
1,833 9.0 8,128 5,317 5,986 7,459 Vermont
2,607 -3.9 19,648 9,271 8,473 20,446 Rhode Island
1,229 1.8 112,493 45,405 47,366 110,532 Pennsylvania
1,369 6.6 185,881 36,159 47,634 174,406 New York
2,153 3.7 130,565 54,967 59,651 125,881 New Jersey
b
556 10.5 4,876 3,123 3,585 4,414 New Hampshire
995 3.5 46,430 37,449 39,021 44,858 Massachusetts
909 10.7 8,584 : : 7,753 Maine
a
2,260 0.0 55,989 38,264 38,275 55,978 Connecticut
1,470 % 3.8 572,594 229,955 249,991 551,727 Northeast
1,632 3.3 3,233,293 1,611,583 1,710,705 3,130,749 State
17 % -2.1 33,544 15,559 14,726 34,247 Federal
a,b
1,649 % 3.2 3,266,837 1,627,142 1,725,431 3,164,996 U.S. total
residents during 1997 12/31/97 Exits Entries 1/1/97 jurisdiction
100,000 adult population population 1997 population Region and
12/31/97 per in probation Probation Probation
probation on change
Number on Percent
Table 3.2. Adults on probation, 1997
30 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
d
Detailed data are estimated for status of probation.
c
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
Persons not fully adjudicated.
a
Sentence to incarceration imposed, then suspended.
: Not known.
...Not applicable.

0 290 1,305 401 1,460 3,456 Wyoming
119,027 2,590 3,575 2,380 4,442 132,014 Washington
0 0 9,461 0 0 9,461 Utah
1,070 25,876 9,454 3,790 3,790 43,980 Oregon
c
8,895 : : : : 8,895 New Mexico
10,902 : : : : 10,902 Nevada
4,678 : : : : 4,678 Montana
6,367 : : : : 6,367 Idaho
308 : 15,093 : : 15,401 Hawaii
41,384 301 2,142 296 1,324 45,447 Colorado
139,649 : 164,882 : : 304,531 California
0 841 110 0 43,862 44,813 Arizona
d
4,378 : : : : 4,378 Alaska
336,658 29,898 206,022 6,867 54,878 634,323 West
6,149 : : : : 6,149 West Virginia
d
30,002 : : : : 30,002 Virginia
d
429,093 : : : : 429,093 Texas
29,579 2,408 894 1,361 4,009 38,251 Tennessee
d
0 6,337 36,067 : : 42,404 South Carolina
1,125 2,626 350 11,316 13,316 28,733 Oklahoma
c
0 8,906 0 0 96,510 105,416 North Carolina
10,997 : : : : 10,997 Mississippi
0 7,547 ... 8,875 58,190 74,612 Maryland
0 448 35,005 0 0 35,453 Louisiana
10 0 12,083 0 0 12,093 Kentucky
0 13,491 133,659 0 1,270 148,420 Georgia
22,995 10,929 196,045 9,154 809 239,932 Florida
10,797 : : : : 10,797 District of Columbia
17,872 : : : : 17,872 Delaware
d
0 430 25,962 : : 26,392 Arkansas
c
35,723 : : : : 35,723 Alabama
594,342 53,122 440,065 30,706 174,104 1,292,339 South
213 0 0 35,760 18,394 54,367 Wisconsin
c
3,467 : : : : 3,467 South Dakota
64,461 5,965 12,269 3,426 32,091 118,212 Ohio
0 : 0 624 2,033 2,657 North Dakota
0 2,178 12,347 0 0 14,525 Nebraska
5,030 74 0 22,516 18,681 46,301 Missouri
c,d
90,707 : : : : 90,707 Minnesota
86,658 12,375 47,489 3,458 4,256 154,236 Michigan
0 : : : 16,205 16,205 Kansas
c
16,834 : ... : : 16,834 Iowa
16,372 19,578 0 0 61,095 97,045 Indiana
c
119,481 : : : : 119,481 Illinois
403,223 40,170 72,105 65,784 152,755 734,037 Midwest
0 1,832 0 1,052 5,244 8,128 Vermont
19,648 : : : : 19,648 Rhode Island
0 0 112,492 1 0 112,493 Pennsylvania
18,979 30,918 135,984 0 0 185,881 New York
130,565 : : : : 130,565 New Jersey
0 0 1,219 488 3,169 4,876 New Hampshire
d
46,430 : : : : 46,430 Massachusetts
8,584 : : : : 8,584 Maine
0 7,260 0 11,248 37,481 55,989 Connecticut
224,206 40,010 249,695 12,789 45,894 572,594 Northeast
1,558,429 163,200 967,887 116,146 427,631 3,233,293 State
67 559 32,918 0 0 33,544 Federal
c
1,558,496 163,759 1,000,805 116,146 427,631 3,266,837 U.S. total
not reported with probation) probation suspended
b
suspended
a
12/31/97 jurisdiction
unknown, or (incarceration position of of sentence of sentence population Region and
Other, Split sentence Direct im- Imposition Execution Probation
Table 3.3. Adults on probation, by status of probation, 1997
Probation in 1997 31
c
Detailed data are estimated for status of supervision.
b
Excludes absconders and out-of-State cases.
a
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
: Not known.
... Not applicable.
0 371 311 0 2,774 3,456 Wyoming
5,707 802 23,292 20,759 81,454 132,014 Washington
0 290 936 0 8,235 9,461 Utah
0 494 14,411 1,339 27,736 43,980 Oregon
0 869 0 0 8,026 8,895 New Mexico
6,809 2,223 1,870 : : 10,902 Nevada
0 0 0 0 4,678 4,678 Montana
0 800 0 0 5,567 6,367 Idaho
15,401 : : : : 15,401 Hawaii
6,430 1,436 105 12,337 25,139 45,447 Colorado
0 : : : 304,531 304,531 California
3,152 1,612 6,866 408 32,775 44,813 Arizona
a,c
0 435 523 0 3,420 4,378 Alaska
37,499 9,332 48,314 34,843 504,335 634,323 West
6,149 0 0 0 0 6,149 West Virginia
c
0 2,910 69 24 26,999 30,002 Virginia
c
35,674 10,261 74,226 16,005 292,927 429,093 Texas
a
4,200 0 6,265 4,041 23,745 38,251 Tennessee
0 1,943 8,317 978 31,166 42,404 South Carolina
0 650 4,531 1,141 22,411 28,733 Oklahoma
a
758 4,398 13,233 3,783 83,244 105,416 North Carolina
0 0 0 0 10,997 10,997 Mississippi
a,b
911 2,095 6,290 26,805 38,511 74,612 Maryland
a
0 718 1,808 0 32,927 35,453 Louisiana
0 : : : 12,093 12,093 Kentucky
a
0 0 4,221 68 144,131 148,420 Georgia
3,484 5,909 61,377 14,589 154,573 239,932 Florida
0 995 1,950 : 7,852 10,797 District of Columbia
0 1,255 3,928 ... 12,689 17,872 Delaware
c
932 1,275 4,008 2,931 17,246 26,392 Arkansas
5,000 1,362 7,145 4,436 17,780 35,723 Alabama
a
57,108 33,771 197,368 74,801 929,291 1,292,339 South
0 2,194 6,881 0 45,292 54,367 Wisconsin
0 170 : 0 3,297 3,467 South Dakota
1,374 1,954 7,377 21,501 86,006 118,212 Ohio
0 333 0 0 2,324 2,657 North Dakota
0 359 1,096 0 13,070 14,525 Nebraska
12 3,480 143 489 42,177 46,301 Missouri
c
90,707 : : : : 90,707 Minnesota
18,242 35 15,290 9,614 111,055 154,236 Michigan
0 0 0 0 16,205 16,205 Kansas
b
0 301 678 0 15,855 16,834 Iowa
a
2,277 0 0 0 94,768 97,045 Indiana
0 0 0 37,513 81,968 119,481 Illinois
112,612 8,826 31,465 69,117 512,017 734,037 Midwest
0 381 779 230 6,738 8,128 Vermont
0 966 878 6,154 11,650 19,648 Rhode Island
287 181 153 35,155 76,717 112,493 Pennsylvania
0 2,210 : ... 183,671 185,881 New York
0 3,361 19,671 18,876 88,657 130,565 New Jersey
293 379 221 1,026 2,957 4,876 New Hampshire
a
46,430 : : : : 46,430 Massachusetts
0 166 888 0 7,530 8,584 Maine
0 0 0 0 55,989 55,989 Connecticut
47,010 7,644 22,590 61,441 433,909 572,594 Northeast
254,229 59,573 299,737 240,202 2,379,552 3,233,293 State
0 ... 183 975 32,386 33,544 Federal
254,229 59,573 299,920 241,177 2,411,938 3,266,837 U.S. total
not reported Out of State Absconded Inactive Active 12/31/97 jurisdiction
unknown, or each status of supervision population Region and
Other, Number on probation in Probation
Table 3.4. Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 1997
32 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
b
Detailed data are estimated for entries.
a
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
: Not known.
... Not applicable.
2,280 : : 2,280 Wyoming
15,911 17,342 11,258 44,511 Washington
36 2,360 1,711 4,107 Utah
a
0 9,775 6,435 16,210 Oregon
7,470 : : 7,470 New Mexico
a
0 : : : Nevada
1,257 : : 1,257 Montana
0 0 2,308 2,308 Idaho
a
7,521 : : 7,521 Hawaii
16,178 229 3,746 20,153 Colorado
164,882 : : 164,882 California
0 14,781 14,823 29,604 Arizona
b
0 1,389 649 2,038 Alaska
215,535 45,876 40,930 302,341 West
0 : : : West Virginia
b
11,715 0 11,255 22,970 Virginia
a,b
193,128 : : 193,128 Texas
0 3,609 16,696 20,305 Tennessee
0 1,127 13,919 15,046 South Carolina
2,873 3,196 7,743 13,812 Oklahoma
0 4,267 55,060 59,327 North Carolina
0 1,463 2,084 3,547 Mississippi
0 32,686 6,477 39,163 Maryland
43 448 11,324 11,815 Louisiana
a
0 ... 6,087 6,087 Kentucky
0 5,719 59,733 65,452 Georgia
26,043 11,462 158,758 196,263 Florida
9,875 : : 9,875 District of Columbia
0 : : : Delaware
b
0 383 8,146 8,529 Arkansas
2,153 : : 2,153 Alabama
245,830 64,360 357,282 667,472 South
0 0 24,695 24,695 Wisconsin
4,768 : : 4,768 South Dakota
28,766 4,996 30,750 64,512 Ohio
a
0 0 1,498 1,498 North Dakota
0 3,674 11,022 14,696 Nebraska
0 1,510 19,208 20,718 Missouri
b
55,258 : : 55,258 Minnesota
69,361 14,184 41,186 124,731 Michigan
1,455 5,556 12,491 19,502 Kansas
a
15,428 : : 15,428 Iowa
0 12,034 69,765 81,799 Indiana
63,296 : : 63,296 Illinois
238,332 41,954 210,615 490,901 Midwest
0 1,053 4,933 5,986 Vermont
8,473 : : 8,473 Rhode Island
261 0 47,105 47,366 Pennsylvania
5,925 7,676 34,033 47,634 New York
a
27,220 0 32,431 59,651 New Jersey
a

3,585 : : 3,585 New Hampshire
39,021 : : 39,021 Massachusetts
0 : : : Maine
38,275 : : 38,275 Connecticut
122,760 8,729 118,502 249,991 Northeast
822,457 160,919 727,329 1,710,705 State
30 94 14,602 14,726 Federal
a
822,487 161,013 741,931 1,725,431 U.S. total
not reported incarceration incarceration Total jurisdiction
unknown, or with without Region and
Other, Probation Probation
Number of adults entering probation
Table 3.5. Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 1997
Probation in 1997 33
c
Detailed data are estimated for type of exit.
b
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
a
Other unsuccessful exits include violations of probation, probation revocations,
warrants issued, and some absconders.

: Not known
0 14 416 518 0 1,308 2,256 Wyoming
b
16,943 216 3,532 484 630 16,211 38,016 Washington
18 35 1,215 354 243 2,087 3,952 Utah
b
3 156 271 3,158 502 10,432 14,522 Oregon
b
0 44 2,744 864 0 3,826 7,478 New Mexico
b
0 : 0 : : : : Nevada
0 23 0 262 48 719 1,052 Montana
b
0 : 0 411 : 1,385 1,796 Idaho
6,147 : 0 : : : 6,147 Hawaii
595 1 0 1,408 912 13,135 16,051 Colorado
146,877 : 0 : : : 146,877 California
2,897 49 10,938 3,378 0 8,136 25,398 Arizona
b,c
0 2 0 571 340 746 1,659 Alaska
173,480 540 19,116 11,408 2,675 57,985 265,204 West
0 : 0 : : : : West Virginia
c
0 156 14,237 0 0 8,195 22,588 Virginia
b,c
30,376 1,519 0 44,972 : 116,497 193,364 Texas
b
1,684 105 3,412 2,309 968 10,578 19,056 Tennessee
b,c
0 208 0 3,648 731 10,472 15,059 South Carolina
0 104 1,072 819 1,168 9,968 13,131 Oklahoma
755 462 0 17,992 1,075 36,110 56,394 North Carolina
381 23 0 1,437 9 2,076 3,926 Mississippi
6,143 338 3,801 4,923 3,308 16,591 35,104 Maryland
1,542 206 0 2,730 436 6,823 11,737 Louisiana
b
165 54 0 2,032 124 3,308 5,683 Kentucky
b
8,403 338 6,725 2,853 2,263 39,907 60,489 Georgia
28,551 450 46,155 28,686 13,555 79,505 196,902 Florida
178 30 3,936 : : 4,674 8,818 District of Columbia
c
0 : 0 : : : : Delaware
c
2,182 79 0 682 755 3,617 7,315 Arkansas
b
0 0 0 290 0 1,379 1,669 Alabama
80,360 4,072 79,338 113,373 24,392 349,700 651,235 South
1,884 130 42 4,751 952 14,326 22,085 Wisconsin
b
0 : 169 : : 4,595 4,764 South Dakota
7,441 254 5,865 4,356 1,152 42,889 61,957 Ohio
b
0 6 0 253 226 955 1,440 North Dakota
0 0 0 0 1,338 13,196 14,534 Nebraska
40 206 2,795 2,544 1,261 9,939 16,785 Missouri
b,c
55,509 : 0 : : : 55,509 Minnesota
60,683 298 3,876 5,819 3,648 43,201 117,525 Michigan
1,505 9 7,414 1,923 185 7,993 19,029 Kansas
b
4,348 0 0 1,139 978 7,515 13,980 Iowa
b
0 0 11,793 0 11,551 54,919 78,263 Indiana
b
59,318 : 0 : : : 59,318 Illinois
190,728 903 31,954 20,785 21,291 199,528 465,189 Midwest
0 15 0 1,127 788 3,387 5,317 Vermont
0 : 0 : 622 8,649 9,271 Rhode Island
2,708 288 0 3,845 2,376 36,188 45,405 Pennsylvania
b
2,359 534 0 6,679 4,307 22,280 36,159 New York
b
17,262 375 6,544 : 1,595 29,191 54,967 New Jersey
b
137 15 0 0 389 2,582 3,123 New Hampshire
37,449 : 0 : : : 37,449 Massachusetts
0 : 0 : : : : Maine
38,264 : 0 : : : 38,264 Connecticut
98,179 1,227 6,544 11,651 10,077 102,277 229,955 Northeast
542,747 6,742 136,952 157,217 58,435 709,490 1,611,583 State
330 169 0 : 1,803 13,257 15,559 Federal
b
543,077 6,911 136,952 157,217 60,238 722,747 1,627,142 U.S. total
not reported Death unsuccessful
a
sentence sentence completion Total jurisdiction
unknown, or Other current new Successful Region and
Other, Under With
Incarcerated
Number of adults leaving probation


Table 3.6. Adults leaving probation, by type of exit, 1997
34 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
b
Detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin.
a
Detailed data are estimated for gender.
: Not known.
0 3,164 292 0 871 2,585 3,456 Wyoming
60,296 57,925 13,793 25,612 21,359 85,043 132,014 Washington
426 8,060 975 0 2,033 7,428 9,461 Utah
0 40,725 3,255 0 8,465 35,515 43,980 Oregon
920 3,600 4,375 3 1,682 7,210 8,895 New Mexico
0 9,340 1,562 0 2,615 8,287 10,902 Nevada
4,678 : : 0 1,497 3,181 4,678 Montana
0 5,677 690 0 1,485 4,882 6,367 Idaho
15,401 : : 0 3,388 12,013 15,401 Hawaii
a
11,221 28,025 6,201 8,904 8,292 28,251 45,447 Colorado
304,531 : : 304,531 : : 304,531 California
0 32,791 12,022 0 7,804 37,009 44,813 Arizona
a,b
0 4,282 96 0 830 3,548 4,378 Alaska
397,473 193,589 43,261 339,050 60,321 234,952 634,323 West
6,149 : : 6,149 0 0 6,149 West Virginia
a,b
0 29,618 384 0 6,828 23,174 30,002 Virginia
a,b
7,701 275,717 145,675 7,701 96,583 324,809 429,093 Texas
a,b
4,478 33,372 401 1 8,190 30,060 38,251 Tennessee
42,404 : : 0 6,683 35,721 42,404 South Carolina
1,407 26,219 1,107 1,407 6,782 20,544 28,733 Oklahoma
105,416 : : 0 22,293 83,123 105,416 North Carolina
10,997 : : 0 2,144 8,853 10,997 Mississippi
74,612 : : 0 13,329 61,283 74,612 Maryland
35,453 : : 0 7,941 27,512 35,453 Louisiana
12,093 : : 12,093 : : 12,093 Kentucky
139,554 8,856 10 0 30,445 117,975 148,420 Georgia
33,926 187,963 18,043 33,263 44,484 162,185 239,932 Florida
0 9,825 972 0 1,619 9,178 10,797 District of Columbia
a,b
0 17,169 703 0 3,664 14,208 17,872 Delaware
a,b
0 26,022 370 0 6,772 19,620 26,392 Arkansas
35,723 : : 33,572 460 1,691 35,723 Alabama
509,913 614,761 167,665 94,186 258,217 939,936 1,292,339 South
0 51,167 3,200 0 12,614 41,753 54,367 Wisconsin
3,467 : : 3,467 : : 3,467 South Dakota
54,913 61,946 1,353 29,441 23,060 65,711 118,212 Ohio
0 2,571 86 0 614 2,043 2,657 North Dakota
0 12,836 1,689 0 3,193 11,332 14,525 Nebraska
45,540 761 : 0 9,852 36,449 46,301 Missouri
a,b
0 86,927 3,780 0 19,259 71,448 90,707 Minnesota
98,725 51,443 4,068 77,455 18,651 58,130 154,236 Michigan
16,205 : : 0 2,917 13,288 16,205 Kansas
0 16,187 647 0 3,687 13,147 16,834 Iowa
97,045 : : 97,045 : : 97,045 Indiana
0 107,772 11,709 0 24,733 94,748 119,481 Illinois
a,b
315,895 391,610 26,532 207,408 118,580 408,049 734,037 Midwest
0 8,128 : 0 1,525 6,603 8,128 Vermont
19,648 : : 19,648 : : 19,648 Rhode Island
0 106,937 5,556 0 23,710 88,783 112,493 Pennsylvania
67,697 84,950 33,234 0 30,460 155,421 185,881 New York
0 115,112 15,453 0 23,371 107,194 130,565 New Jersey
a,b
0 3,901 975 0 1,219 3,657 4,876 New Hampshire
a,b
46,430 : : 46,430 : : 46,430 Massachusetts
8,584 : : 0 1,038 7,546 8,584 Maine
0 47,712 8,277 0 9,070 46,919 55,989 Connecticut
a,b
142,359 366,740 63,495 66,078 90,393 416,123 572,594 Northeast
1,365,640 1,566,700 300,953 706,722 527,511 1,999,060 3,233,293 State
285 28,886 4,373 69 9,466 24,009 33,544 Federal
1,365,925 1,595,586 305,326 706,791 536,977 2,023,069 3,266,837 U.S. total
reported Hispanic Hispanic reported Female Male 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Not Non- Not population Region and
Hispanic origin Gender Probation
Number of adults on probation
Table 3.7. Adults on probation, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1997
Probation in 1997 35
c
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
b
“Other” includes Hispanic probationers of unknown race.
a
Detailed data are estimated for race.
: Not known.
307 9 70 97 2,973 3,456 Wyoming
b
38,333 1,936 2,507 12,479 76,759 132,014 Washington
b
426 198 288 313 8,236 9,461 Utah
3,506 341 631 2,405 37,097 43,980 Oregon
b
972 : 650 573 6,700 8,895 New Mexico
1,736 118 98 2,020 6,930 10,902 Nevada
4,678 : : : : 4,678 Montana
690 35 194 91 5,357 6,367 Idaho
a,b
15,401 : : : : 15,401 Hawaii
13,690 : : 3,735 28,022 45,447 Colorado
304,531 : : : : 304,531 California
0 182 2,496 3,827 38,308 44,813 Arizona
a
14 98 1,293 562 2,411 4,378 Alaska
384,284 2,917 8,227 26,102 212,793 634,323 West
6,149 : : : : 6,149 West Virginia
a
42 177 15 15,271 14,497 30,002 Virginia
a
157,253 : : 79,685 192,155 429,093 Texas
a,b
323 293 63 16,064 21,508 38,251 Tennessee
b
298 9 22 23,195 18,880 42,404 South Carolina
2,585 90 1,995 6,053 18,010 28,733 Oklahoma
b
3,073 219 2,049 51,458 48,617 105,416 North Carolina
308 : : 6,433 4,256 10,997 Mississippi
284 335 63 43,172 30,758 74,612 Maryland
177 3 13 20,560 14,700 35,453 Louisiana
b
12,093 : : : : 12,093 Kentucky
0 0 0 79,128 69,292 148,420 Georgia
c
37,757 578 147 66,732 134,718 239,932 Florida
972 108 0 9,501 216 10,797 District of Columbia
a,b
727 30 15 8,041 9,059 17,872 Delaware
a,b
370 36 53 9,295 16,638 26,392 Arkansas
b
33,599 : : 911 1,213 35,723 Alabama
256,010 1,878 4,435 435,499 594,517 1,292,339 South
4,605 460 1,580 12,970 34,752 54,367 Wisconsin
3,467 : : : : 3,467 South Dakota
31,329 59 27 32,364 54,433 118,212 Ohio
b
0 16 267 68 2,306 2,657 North Dakota
1,031 75 368 2,119 10,932 14,525 Nebraska
b
18 73 68 13,816 32,326 46,301 Missouri
a
5,543 994 3,032 10,950 70,188 90,707 Minnesota
c
91,092 521 1,362 14,673 46,588 154,236 Michigan
b
324 : : 4,052 11,829 16,205 Kansas
c
783 116 164 1,754 14,017 16,834 Iowa
b
97,045 : : : : 97,045 Indiana
0 942 245 45,401 72,893 119,481 Illinois
a
235,237 3,256 7,113 138,167 350,264 734,037 Midwest
0 29 48 124 7,927 8,128 Vermont
19,648 : : : : 19,648 Rhode Island
5,583 9 1 33,853 73,047 112,493 Pennsylvania
b
28,673 515 477 64,134 92,082 185,881 New York
15,453 295 201 56,665 57,951 130,565 New Jersey
a,b
0 488 0 975 3,413 4,876 New Hampshire
a
46,430 : : : : 46,430 Massachusetts
8,584 : : : : 8,584 Maine
8,280 157 113 13,986 33,453 55,989 Connecticut
a,b
132,651 1,493 840 169,737 267,873 572,594 Northeast
1,008,182 9,544 20,615 769,505 1,425,447 3,233,293 State
438 1,201 642 8,469 22,794 33,544 Federal
1,008,620 10,745 21,257 777,974 1,448,241 3,266,837 U.S. total
not reported Islander Alaska Native Black White 12/31/97 jurisdiction
unknown, or Pacific Indian/ population Region and
Other, Asian/ American Probation
Number of adults on probation
Table 3.8. Adults on probation, by race, 1997

36 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
b
Detailed data are estimated for type of offense.
a
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
: Not known.
0 0 297 841 2,318 3,456 Wyoming
20,197 376 14,355 20,709 76,377 132,014 Washington
40 0 348 2,582 6,491 9,461 Utah
757 0 6,078 10,085 27,060 43,980 Oregon
15 0 1,656 1,075 6,149 8,895 New Mexico
10,902 0 : : : 10,902 Nevada
4,678 0 : : : 4,678 Montana
0 0 756 0 5,611 6,367 Idaho
0 0 : 6,697 8,704 15,401 Hawaii
724 13,713 2,358 5,565 23,087 45,447 Colorado
304,531 0 : : : 304,531 California
0 0 5,351 1,918 37,544 44,813 Arizona
b
0 0 150 50 4,178 4,378 Alaska
341,844 14,089 31,349 49,522 197,519 634,323 West
6,149 : : : : 6,149 West Virginia
b
1,167 1,806 75 1,821 25,133 30,002 Virginia
a,b
0 0 94,181 91,727 243,185 429,093 Texas
b
0 0 2,408 7,517 28,326 38,251 Tennessee
12,727 0 6,292 5,860 17,525 42,404 South Carolina
0 0 3,133 1,140 24,460 28,733 Oklahoma
a
0 466 20,984 49,440 34,526 105,416 North Carolina
0 0 0 0 10,997 10,997 Mississippi
0 0 521 54,014 20,077 74,612 Maryland
0 0 217 2,009 33,227 35,453 Louisiana
0 0 : 1,846 10,247 12,093 Kentucky
1,302 0 870 42,694 103,554 148,420 Georgia
a
8,519 4,458 13,109 42,206 171,640 239,932 Florida
0 729 577 5,950 3,541 10,797 District of Columbia
a
17,872 0 : : : 17,872 Delaware
b
153 0 24 1,104 25,111 26,392 Arkansas
33,572 : : 2,151 : 35,723 Alabama
81,461 7,459 142,391 309,479 751,549 1,292,339 South
249 0 66 31,401 22,651 54,367 Wisconsin
0 0 : 1,020 2,447 3,467 South Dakota
a
1,804 2 16,688 48,377 51,341 118,212 Ohio
0 0 94 410 2,153 2,657 North Dakota
0 0 6,010 5,251 3,264 14,525 Nebraska
0 654 107 6,065 39,475 46,301 Missouri
a,b
0 0 32,630 21,176 36,901 90,707 Minnesota
77,236 3,582 32,277 39,474 1,667 154,236 Michigan
0 216 1,986 7,979 6,024 16,205 Kansas
a
0 0 0 9,410 7,424 16,834 Iowa
a
0 0 0 63,115 33,930 97,045 Indiana
a
0 40,160 11,619 18,995 48,707 119,481 Illinois
a
79,289 44,614 101,477 252,673 255,984 734,037 Midwest
0 0 1,424 4,912 1,792 8,128 Vermont
0 0 : 6,092 13,556 19,648 Rhode Island
0 56 45,202 42,124 25,111 112,493 Pennsylvania
2,884 0 29,949 67,288 85,760 185,881 New York
0 0 9,342 24,425 96,798 130,565 New Jersey
0 0 975 975 2,926 4,876 New Hampshire
b
0 27,663 18,767 : : 46,430 Massachusetts
8,584 0 : : : 8,584 Maine
0 0 : 25,853 30,136 55,989 Connecticut
a
11,468 27,719 105,659 171,669 256,079 572,594 Northeast
514,062 93,881 380,876 783,343 1,461,131 3,233,293 State
0 1,812 2,094 7,015 22,623 33,544 Federal
a
514,062 95,693 382,970 790,358 1,483,754 3,266,837 U.S. total
not reported Other intoxicated Misdemeanor Felony 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unknown or Driving while population Region and
Number of adults on probation Probation
Table 3.9. Adults on probation, by type of offense, 1997

Probation in 1997 37
e
Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision.
d
See Explanatory notes for more detail.
c
Detailed data are estimated for electronic monitoring.
b
Intensive supervision probationers could not be separated from electronic
monitoring probationers and were, therefore, reported together.
a
Reported data include both probationers and parolees.
...Not applicable.
: Not known.
99 20 49 Wyoming
... 77 814 Washington
... 23 241 Utah
... 315 502 Oregon
c,e
... 23 414 New Mexico
d
... 250 374 Nevada
c,e
... 100 25 Montana
d
... 57 126 Idaho
... 10 81 Hawaii
... : 3,778 Colorado
... : : California
... 200 3,174 Arizona
c,e
... ... 51 Alaska
99 1,075 9,629 West
... ... ... West Virginia
55 32 765 Virginia
e
595 1,127 2,991 Texas
... 596 1,775 Tennessee
d
... : 2,384 South Carolina
... : 343 Oklahoma
283 887 9,536 North Carolina
... ... ... Mississippi
... ... 1,416 Maryland
... ... ... Louisiana
... ... 294 Kentucky
410 ... 5,355 Georgia
... 1,338 25,919 Florida
d
199 : 78 District of Columbia
b
19 531 4,265 Delaware
c,e
... 0 0 Arkansas
... 75 920 Alabama
1,561 4,586 56,041 South
: : : Wisconsin
... ... 50 South Dakota
... 2,664 9,030 Ohio
... 10 20 North Dakota
c,e
... 220 652 Nebraska
... 197 943 Missouri
c,e
... ... ... Minnesota
379 2,972 1,944 Michigan
89 46 ... Kansas
... 18 757 Iowa
... : : Indiana
... : 1,270 Illinois
d
468 6,127 14,666 Midwest
... ... ... Vermont
... ... 224 Rhode Island
... : 13,564 Pennsylvania
... ... 6,945 New York
... ... 1,373 New Jersey
d
... 4 37 New Hampshire
... : : Massachusetts
... ... ... Maine
... 250 1,549 Connecticut
c
0 254 23,692 Northeast
2,128 12,042 104,028 State
... 3,053 : Federal
a,b
2,128 15,095 104,028 U.S. total
Bootcamp monitoring supervision jurisdiction
Electronic Intensive Region and
Table 3.10. Adults on probation under intensive supervision,
being electronically monitored, or in a bootcamp, 1997

38 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
Note: The District of Columbia as a wholly urban jurisdiction is excluded.
For more information, see table 3.2.
*Rates are computed using the U.S. adult resident population on July 1, 1997.
723 New Mexico 2,146 Florida 8.7 Idaho 118,212 Ohio
720 Montana 2,153 New Jersey 9.0 Vermont 119,481 Illinois
690 Utah 2,222 Indiana 9.3 Missouri 130,565 New Jersey
641 South Dakota 2,260 Connecticut 9.4 Iowa 132,014 Washington
589 Virginia 2,607 Rhode Island 9.5 Alaska 148,420 Georgia
559 North Dakota 2,641 Minnesota 9.8 Hawaii 154,236 Michigan
556 New Hampshire 2,699 Georgia 10.4 Arizona 185,881 New York
556 Mississippi 3,095 Texas 10.5 New Hampshire 239,932 Florida
438 West Virginia 3,177 Washington 10.7 Maine 304,531 California
410 Kentucky 3,225 Delaware 11.7% Nevada 429,093 Texas
Persons supervised
per 100,000 adult
U.S. residents*
10 States with
the lowest rates
of supervision,
1996-97
Persons
supervised
per 100,000 adult
U.S. residents*
10 States with the
highest rates
of supervision
Percent
increase
10 States with the
largest percent
increase, 1996-97
Number
supervised
10 States with
the largest
probation
populations
Table 3.11. States with the largest probation populations and growth, 1997
Explanatory notes by jurisdiction
Because many States update their
population counts, the January 1, 1997,
numbers may differ from those previously
published for December 31, 1996.
Federal
Data for the Federal system are from the
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts as
provided to the BJS Federal Justice
Statistics Program. Definitional differences
exist between probation data reported here
and in other BJS data series.
Data do not include 344 corporations on
probation on December 31, 1997. Between
January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997,
130 corporations entered probation
supervision and 101 corporations exited
probation supervision.
“Other” probation status includes
probationers with concurrent or consecutive
sentences to state/local incarceration,
direct probation from court following
revocation in the same case, and cases
reopened statistically (table 3.3).
“Other” entries include cases reopened
statistically (table 3.5).
“Other” exits include administrative case
closings (table 3.6).
“Other” offense type includes petty offenses
(table 3.9).
Alabama
Alabama has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 2 local.
Both local jurisdictions in Alabama
estimated all of the data they reported.
“Absconder” supervision status includes
those that are located in jail for Alabama’s
State agency (table 3.4).
Arizona
Arizona has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 1 local. All data are estimated.
“Other” supervision status includes inactive
probationers serving a prison commitment
and probationers deported to Mexico
(table 3.4).
“Other” exits include 2,893 transfers to
various locations (table 3.6).
Arkansas
“Split sentence” refers to probationers
incarcerated in a substance abuse
treatment program as a condition of
probation (table 3.3).
“Other” exits include early discharges,
administrative closures, and discharged
absconders (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 370 Hispanics
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Colorado
Colorado has 9 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 8 local. All data were estimated by the
State and one local agency.
Two local agencies estimated one or more
characteristics of the population on
December 31, 1997.
Connecticut
“Other” race includes 8,277 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
“Misdemeanor” includes an unspecified
number of “driving while intoxicated or
under the influence of alcohol” cases
(table 3.9).
Delaware
All data are estimated.
Quality control has removed more than
2,000 duplicate records from the database
since January 1, 1997, making it
difficult to compare these data with those
from previous years.
Data do not include 259 persons on pre-trial
supervision on December 31, 1997.
“Other” race includes 731 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
District of Columbia
“Other” race includes 972 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
“Other” offense type includes domestic
violence intervention program cases and
civil protection orders (table 3.9).
Intensive supervision and electronic
monitoring are a combined program
(table 3.10).
Florida
Florida has 14 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 13 local. Totals for Florida are
inconsistent with those reported for
previous years. One office with 15,085
probationers on December 31, 1996, has
been eliminated because of duplicate
counting. Also, a local probation authority
reported data for offices in two counties that
were previously not reported. Data for the
same local agency do not include 2,393
‘non-DUI absconders’ (records held open 5
years) and ‘2,930 DUI absconders’ (records
held open indefinitely) in files up to 21 years
old (table 3.2).
Approximately 8% of the local agencies in
Florida estimated all of the data they
reported. In addition, approximately 54% of
the local agencies in Florida estimated one
or more characteristics of the total
population on December 31, 1997.
One locality did not include 200
probationers involved in an electronic
monitoring program with the total
population, December 31, 1997
(table 3.10).
Probation in 1997 39
Georgia
Georgia has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 1 local.
“Black” race includes “nonwhite” (table 3.8).
“Felony” and “misdemeanor” includes an
unspecified number of “driving while
intoxicated or under the influence of
alcohol” cases that could not be separately
reported by the State agency (table 3.9).
Idaho
“Total” entries are estimated (table 3.5).
“Other” race includes 690 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Illinois
Total population on December 31, 1997,
does not include 1,270 probationers in a
intensive supervision program and 4,825
probationers in a specialized driving under
the influence of alcohol program.
“Other” offense types includes 37,513
administrative cases and 2,647 traffic cases
(table 3.9).
Indiana
“Other” probation status includes
absconders, “shock” probation cases,
inter/intra State cases, supervision in lieu of
prosecution cases, and others (table 3.3).
“Other unsuccessful” exits include an
unknown number of transfers and others
(table 3.6).
“Misdemeanor” includes an unknown
number of “driving while intoxicated or
under the influence of alcohol” cases
(table 3.9).
Iowa
“Active” and “inactive” probationers could
not be separated. Active counts include an
unspecified number of inactive probationers
(table 3.4).
“Other” exits include terminations and
transfers out of State/district (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 647 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Data do not include approximately 1,500
misdemeanor cases from two districts
whose records for inactive misdemeanor
cases are maintained on paper only
(table 3.9).
Kansas
Data do not include 7,029 absconders, 692
probationers supervised out of State, and
315 persons under diversion supervision
(table 3.3).
“Other” entries include transfers from other
jurisdictions (table 3.5).
“Other” exits include 301 interstate compact
cases transferred out and 1,204 transfers to
other jurisdictions (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes American Indian and
Asian probationers (table 3.8).
“Other” offense type includes driving with a
suspended driver’s license and other traffic
offenses (table 3.9).
Kentucky
Data do not include an unspecified number
of persons on inactive probation (table 3.4).
“Other” exits include court orders (table
3.6).
Louisiana
“Other” entries include reinstatements
(table 3.5).
“Other” exits include pardons,
administrative errors, transfers,
unsuccessful completions, revocations
(non-DOC), and overturned convictions
(table 3.6).
“Other” race includes Hispanic probationers
of unknown race and others (table 3.8).
Maryland
“Other” supervision status includes 911
“delinquent in custody,” probationers.
(table 3.4).
Michigan
Michigan has 114 reporting agencies: 1
State and 113 local.
Michigan’s State agency, which represents
31% of all Michigan’s probationers, did not
report any detailed data. The data that the
State agency provided are from January 1,
1997, to September 30, 1997.
Two local agencies in Michigan did not
provide data. For these agencies, the
December 31, 1996, population count was
used as an estimate of the January 1, 1997,
and December 31, 1997, counts.
Approximately 38% of Michigan’s local
agencies estimated all of their data. In
addition, approximately 22% of Michigan’s
local agencies estimated one or more
characteristics of the total population on
December 31, 1997.
“Other” race includes 151 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Minnesota
“Other” race includes Asian probationers,
others, and unknowns (table 3.8).
Mississippi
Data do not include 7,053 probationers
who have outstanding warrants, or whose
discharges are being withheld; 964
probationers supervised out -of -State;
and 46 absconders (table 3.4).
Missouri
Missouri has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 1 local.
The State agency estimated all data.
“Execution of sentence to incarceration
suspended” includes 4,319 shock
incarceration cases. “Imposition of
sentence suspended” includes 87 shock
incarceration cases. “Other” probation
status includes diversion cases (table 3.3).
40 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
“Other” exits include probationers relieved
of supervision, absconders, and cases
returned to the court. (table 3.6).
“Felony” and “misdemeanor” includes 3,914
“driving while intoxicated or under the
influence of alcohol” cases (table 3.9).
Montana
“Total” exits are estimated (table 3.6).
Total population on December 31, 1997,
does not include 25 probationers in an
intensive supervision program (table 3.10).
Nebraska
“Other” race includes 1,031 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
New Hampshire
“Other” supervision status includes
probationers on bail supervision (table 3.4).
New Jersey
Total population on December 31, 1997,
does not include 1,373 probationers in an
intensive supervision program.
“Other” entries include 12,651 pretrial
intervention and conditional discharge
cases, 8,558 community service cases, and
6,011 supervised collections (table 3.5).
“Other” exits include 7,803 community
service cases and 9,459 unknown cases.
“Other unsuccessful” exits include 3,331
probation violation cases and 3,213
absconders (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 15,453 Hispanics
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
New Mexico
New Mexico has 2 reporting agencies: 1
State and 1 local.
The local agency estimated “total” entries
and exits (table 3.5 and table 3.6).
Total population on December 31, 1997,
does not include 33 probationers in an
intensive supervision program (table 3.10).
New York
“Other” entries include local conditional
releases from incarceration and others
(table 3.5).
“Other” exits include records that were
removed in a maintenance purge and
others (table 3.6).
Ohio
Ohio has 52 reporting agencies: 1 State
and 51 local.
Ohio’s State agency estimated sex, race,
and Hispanic origin characteristics of the
total population on December 31, 1997.
Approximately 8% of Ohio’s local agencies
estimated all of their data. Additionally,
approximately 18% of Ohio’s local agencies
estimated one or more characteristics of
the total population on December 31, 1997.
Ohio’s State agency reported 1,614 “other”
entries as county transfers that were
restored (table 3.5) and 682 “other” exits as
county and interstate transfers (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 470 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Oklahoma
Oklahoma has 3 reporting agencies: 1
State and 2 local.
“Other” probation status includes 68
probationers who have not been sentenced
(table 3.3).
“Other” race includes 1,107 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
One of Oklahoma’s local agencies reported
that data do not include an unknown
number of absconders. The same agency
reported “misdemeanor” includes an
unspecified number of “driving while
intoxicated or under the influence of
alcohol” cases (table 3.9).
Oregon
“Other” probation supervision includes 551
diversion cases and 519 conditional
releases (table 3.3).
“Other” exits include 2 administrative errors
and 1 transfer (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 3,255 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Pennsylvania
“Other” exits include commuted sentences,
transfers, and absconders at the county
level (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 5,556 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
South Dakota
The data provided are from July 1, 1996, to
June 30, 1997.
“Misdemeanor” includes “driving while
intoxicated or under the influence of
alcohol” cases (table 3.9).
Tennessee
Tennessee has 3 reporting agencies: 1
State and 2 local.
“Other” exits include 899 internal transfers,
574 interstate compact cases, 206 court
orders, and an unspecified number of
appeals (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 317 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Total population on December 31, 1997,
excludes 40 probationers in an electronic
monitoring at one local agency (table 3.10).
Probation in 1997 41
Texas
Data are for year beginning September 1,
1996, and ending August 31, 1997. Data
do not include 614 persons on civil
probation.
“Active” includes interstate transfers to
Texas (table 3.4).
“Other” exits include 18,535 administrative
closures and 11,841 pretrial terminations
(table 3.6).
Of the 44,972 parolees discharged to
incarceration, the number incarcerated with
a new sentence or under a current
sentence is unknown.
“Other” race includes 79,685 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Utah
“Other” entries include reinstatements
(table 3.5).
“Other” exits include 18 probationers
released on court orders (table 3.6).
Virginia
All data are estimated.
“Other” entries include post release,
restored, transferred, and other cases
(table 3.5).
“Other unsuccessful” exits include
“incarcerated with new sentence,” transfers,
out-of-State terminations, and other cases
(table 3.6).
“Other” offense status includes 1,806
special penalties (table 3.9).
Washington
Washington has 24 reporting agencies:
1 State and 23 local.
Washington’s State agency, which
represents 60% of all Washington’s
probationers, estimated all the data
reported.
Approximately 22% of the local agencies in
Washington estimated all the data they
reported. Additionally, approximately 35%
of the local agencies in Washington
estimated one or more characteristics of
the total population on December 31, 1997.
“Other” race includes 327 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
Wisconsin
“Other” probation status includes 213
“deferred” cases in which there was no
conviction (table 3.3).
“Other” exits include 927 early release
cases, 757 court orders, and 200 closed
cases (table 3.6)
Wyoming
“Other unsuccessful” exits include an
unknown number of bench warrants and
interstate transfers (table 3.6).
“Other” race includes 292 Hispanic
probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).
42 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
OMB No. 1121-0064: Approval Expires 03/01/99 CJ-8
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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

1997 Probation Data
Survey
FORM CJ-8
(03-01-99)
Bureau of Justice Statistics
810 Seventh Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Attn: Corrections Unit
RETURN
TO
GENERAL INFORMATION
If you have any questions, call the Bureau of Justice Statistics at (202) 616-3615.
Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of Justice Statistics before February 27, 1998,
or FAX (all pages) to (202) 307-1463.
Who is incIuded in this survey?
INCLUDE all adult probationers, regardless of conviction status, who have been placed under the supervision of a
probation agency as part of a court order between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997.
INCLUDE adult probationers sent to another jurisdiction through an interstate compact.
INCLUDE adult probationers legally your responsibility, but supervised outside your jurisdiction.
INCLUDE persons on active and inactive supervision.
INCLUDE absconders who have not been discharged from probation.
Who is excIuded from this survey?
EXCLUDE juveniles (persons under the jurisdiction of a juvenile court or agency).
EXCLUDE interstate compact cases supervised by your jurisdiction for another jurisdiction.
EXCLUDE adult probationers supervised by your jurisdiction but legally the responsibility of another jurisdiction.
Burden statement
We estimate that it will take about 90 minutes per jurisdiction to collect this information. This includes time for
reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing
and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this
collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics,
810 Seventh Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531; and to the Office of Management and Budget, OMB Number
1121-0064, Washington, DC 20503.
INSTRUCTIONS
If the answer to a question is "not available" or "unknown," write DK in the space provided.
If the answer to a question is "not applicable," write NA in the space provided.
If the answer to a question is "none" or "zero," write 0 in the space provided.
When an exact numeric answer is not available, provide an estimate and mark in the box beside each figure.
For example .
PIease correct any errors in the maiIing address.
Please continue on page 2
1,000
ITEMS AND DEFINITIONS
1. Include adult probationers who have been placed under
the supervision of a probation agency as part of a court
order  regardless of whether convicted.
2. Individuals entering probation more than once during the
year should be counted as multiple entries.
A. Probation without incarceration is a sentence to
probation with no jail or prison term.
B. Probation with incarceration is a sentence to
probation with a term of incarceration in jail or prison
(e.g., those individuals who entered probation from a
correctional facility.)
3. Individuals exiting probation more than once during the
year should be counted as multiple exits.
A. Successful completions are probationers who
completed their sentence and were discharged or
who were discharged early.
B. 1. All probationers and returned absconders
removed from probation supervision because of
incarceration with a new sentence.
2. All probationers and returned absconders whose
probation was revoked and who were
incarcerated under their current sentence.
D. Specify type of discharge (e.g., discharges to
another jurisdiction under custody, detainer or
warrant; discharged absconders not returned to
supervision or prison; and other discharges).
4. The count of adult probationers at yearend 1997. This
figure should equal the population on January 1, plus
the total entering probation in 1997, minus the total
released from probation in 1997.

1. On January 1, 1997, what was your agency's aduIt
probation popuIation?
Population on January 1, 1997
2. Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997,
how many aduIts entered probation by 
A. Probation without incarceration
B. Probation with incarceration
C. Other  Specify
D. Total (Should equal the sum
of items 2A through 2C)
3. Between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 1997,
how many aduIt probationers were reIeased from
supervision for the foIIowing reason 
A. Successful completion
B. Incarcerated
1. With new sentence
2. Under current sentence
C. Death
D. Other  Specify
E. Total (Should equal the sum
of items 3A through 3D)
On December 31, 1997, what was your agency's aduIt
probation popuIation?
(This figure should equal item 1 plus item 2D
minus item 3E.)
Population on December 31, 1997
FORM CJ-8 (03-01-99) PAGE 2
Fge 2
FORM CJ-8 (03-01-99) PAGE 3
9. Of your probation popuIation on December 31, 1997,
how many had entered probation supervision
through 
A. Suspended execution of
sentence to incarceration
(Sentence imposed then suspended)
B. Suspended imposition of
sentence
(e.g., Probation before verdict)
C. Direct sentence to probation
D. SpIit sentence
(Incarceration combined with
probation)
E. Other  Specify
F. TotaI (Sum of items 9A through
9E should equal item 4.)
10. On December 31, 1997, what was the supervision
status of the probationers in your jurisdiction?
Exclude interstate compact cases you supervise
for another State.
A. Active
(Those required to regularly
contact a probation authority
in person, by mail, or by
telephone)
B. Inactive
(Those excluded from regular
reporting but still on probation)
C. Absconder
(Those still on probation but
have failed to report and
cannot be located)
D. Supervised out of State
(Active and inactive probationers
under your jurisdiction who are super-
vised by authorities of another State)
E. Other  Specify
F. TotaI (Sum of items 10A
through 10E should equal
item 4.)
5. On December 31, 1997, how many aduIt probationers
in your jurisdiction were 
A. MaIe
B. FemaIe
C. TotaI (Sum of items 5A and 5B
should equal item 4.)
6. On December 31, 1997, how many aduIt probationers
in your jurisdiction were 
A. White
(Include whites of Hispanic origin.)
B. BIack
(Include blacks of Hispanic origin.)
C. American Indian or
AIaska Native
D. Asian or Pacific IsIander
E. Other  Specify
F. TotaI (Sum of items 6A through
6E should equal item 4.)
7. On December 31, 1997, how many aduIt probationers
in your jurisdiction were 
A. Of Hispanic origin
(i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban,
or other Spanish culture or origin)
B. Not of Hispanic origin
C. TotaI (Sum of items 7A and 7B
should equal item 4.)
8. On December 31, 1997, how many aduIt probationers,
regardIess of conviction status, had an offense
type of 
A. FeIony
B. Misdemeanor
(Offenses other than DWI/DUI)
C. Driving whiIe intoxicated or
under the infIuence of aIcohoI
D. Other  Specify
E. TotaI (Sum of items 8A through
8D should equal item 4.)
14. Does your probation agency supervise aduIt
probationers other than those reported
in this survey?
1 Yes  Explain
2 No
15. Does the information reported in this survey represent the
caIendar year ending on December 31, 1997?
1 Yes
2 No  Specify when your reporting year ends
11. Does your probation agency have an intensive
supervision program (ISP)?
In contrast to routine probation, an ISP emphasizes stringent
conditions, close monitoring, and expanded services.
1 Yes 
A. How many probationers were
in this program on
December 31, 1997?
B. Are these probationers included
in item 4? Yes No
2 No program.
12. Does your probation agency operate a program invoIving
eIectronic monitoring of probationers?
Include programs that monitor probationer location by using
attached transmitters or by other electronic means.
1 Yes 
A. How many probationers were
in this program on
December 31, 1997?
B. Are these probationers included
in item 4? Yes No
2 No program.
13. Does your agency have any probationers enroIIed in a
program that approximates a bootcamp?
A bootcamp incorporates a highly regimented activity
schedule, drill and ceremony, physical challenge and fitness,
discipline, emphasis on personal appearance, and a chain of
command.
1 Yes 
A. How many probationers were
in this program on
December 31, 1997?
B. Are these probationers included
in item 4? Yes No
2 No program.
Year Month
PHONE (area code, number, ext.)
TITLE
NAME
DATA SUPPLIED BY
FORM CJ-8 (03-01-99) PAGE 4
Notes and comments  Please specify the item number
Fge 2
Renaissance: Need by Wed Nov. 26, 3 p.m.
PIease mount aII 4 pages of CJ-7 and CJ-8
questionnaires on boards with 8 1/2 x 11 crop marks,
do rubyIith overIay for page 1 of each (see copy of
page 1 with tone and sampIe of 95 questionnaires).
Mark rubyIith overIays as foIIows:
CJ-7, ParoIe, Pantone 100 U YeIIow
CJ-89, Probation, Pantone 277 U Light bIue
Absconding, from parole 6.3
-from probation 3.4
Abuse before entering jail 4.19
Accidents in prison, cause of death,
by gender 5.17
Admissions, to death row 7.2-7.4, 7.11-7.15
-to military facilities 8.9-8.11
-to Federal prison 5.10a-5.12a, 5.16;
1990-97 1.18-1.21, 1.26-1.27
-to prison, by type of admission
5.10a; men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-to State prison, 1990-97 1.17-1.27; by
offense, 1.22-1.27; by gender
1.18-1.19; by race 1.20-1.21
Age, jail inmates 4.1
-prisoners under sentence of death
7.6, 7.11, 7.19
AÌDS, among deaths in prison 5.17
Alaska Natives (see "race")
Alcohol use, jail inmates 4.16-4.17, 4.23
American Ìndians (see "race")
Average daily population, jails 2.2, 2.8
Capacity, jails 2.7
-military confinement facilities 8.1
Capital punishment 1.29; 7.1-7.26
-age of prisoners 7.6, 7.11, 7.19
-criminal history of prisoners, by race
7.10, 7.15, 7.23
-education level completed of prisoners
7.7, 7.12, 7.20
-Hispanic prisoners on death row, 7.4
-legal status at time of capital offense,
by race 7.9, 7.14, 7.22
-marital status of prisoners 7.8, 7.13, 7.21
-prisoners received from court
7.11-7.15
-prisoners removed from death row
7.16-7.23
-prisoners under sentence of death
at yearend 7.1-7.10
-time served on death row 7.5, 7.18
-women on death row, by race 7.3
Commutations of sentences 5.13;
men 5.14; women 5.15
-military 8.13
Completion, parole 6.5
-probation 3.6
Conditional releases, prison 5.13
-from military confinement 8.13
Correctional supervision, total under 1.1
-adults under 1.2-1.4
Criminal history
-jail inmates 4.11-4.12
-prisoners on death row 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Crowding, jails 2.7-2.8
-percent of prison inmates in jail 5.5
Custody populations, prisons 5.18-5.20
-female prisoners 5.20
-male prisoners 5.19
Death penalty statutes, by jurisdiction 7.24
Deaths,
-offenders on parole 6.5
-offenders on probation 3.6
-prisoners on death row 7.16-7.17
-prisons 5.10b, men 5.11b,
women 5.12b
-prisons, by cause and gender 5.17
Driving while intoxicated, probation 3.9
Drug use, jail inmates 4.14-4.16
EducationaI background, prisoners
under sentence of death 7.7, 7.12,
7.20
Electronic monitoring, parolees 6.9
-probationers 3.10
Entries, parole 6.2, 6.4
-probation 3.2, 3.5
Escapes, prisoners leaving prison 5.10b,
men 5.11b, women 5.12b
-prisoners returned to prison 5.10a,
men 5.11a, women 5.12a
Ethnicity (see "Hispanic origin")
Executions, number 7.2, 7.17, 7.25-7.26
-States' totals, 1930-97 7.25-7.26
Exits, parole 6.2, 6.5
-probation 3.2, 3.6
Expiration of sentences 5.13, men 5.14,
women 5.15
FederaI prisons 5.1-5.4, 5.6-5.20, 1990-97
1.5-1.12, 1.15-1.16, 1.18-1.21, 1.26-1.28
Felonies, probated sentences 3.9
Felony history, prisoners on death row,
by race 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Gender, admissions to prison 5.11a, 5.12a
-by detention status in jail 2.3
-jail inmates 2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-offenders on parole 6.6
-offenders on probation 3.7
-prisoners, by State and race 5.7-5.8
-prisoners, by State and sentence
length 5.1; men 5.2; women 5.3
-prisoners in custody 1.6-1.7, 5.19-5.20
-releases from prison 5.11b, 5.12b
-sentenced prisoners 1.8-1.12
-total number of men and women under
correctional supervision, 1.2-1.4
HeaIth care of jail inmates 4.21, mental
health 4.22
Hispanic origin, adults on parole 6.6
-adults on probation 3.7
-jail inmates 2.3, 4.3, 4.7, 4.9, 4.18-4.23
-military prisoners 8.5
-prisoners 1.12; 1990 and 1995-97 1.10
-prisoners, by State and gender 5.9
-prisoners under sentence of death 7.4

IIIness, cause of death, by gender 5.17
Ìncarceration rates, adults 1990-97 1.7
-sentenced prisoners 1.9
-by gender, race, Hispanic origin and age
(1990 and 1997) 1.11
-State prisons 5.4
Ìncarcerations from probation 3.6, 5.16
-from parole revocation 1.24, 5.16, 6.5
Ìntensive supervision, jail inmates 2.1
-parolees 6.9
-probationers 3.10
JaiIs and jail inmates 2.1-2.8; 1990-97 1.1
-alcohol use 4.17-4.18, 4.24
-average daily population, 1990-97 2.2
-age of inmates 2.2, 4.1; by offense 4.5
-capacity 2.7-2.8
-criminal history 4.7-4.8
-criminal justice status at arrest 4.8-4.9
-drug use 4.14-4.16
-health care 4.21
-mental health treatment 4.22
-prior physical or sexual abuse 4.13
-race/Hispanic origin of inmates 2.3; by
offense 4.6
-gender of inmates 1.2, 2.3, 4.1, 4.6
-with probation 3.5
Jurisdiction populations, prisons 5.1
-female prisoners 5.3
-male prisoners 5.2
Juvenile offenders in jail 2.2, 4.1
LegaI status at time of capital offense,
by race, 7.9, 7.14, 7.22
-at time of arrest of jail inmate 4.8-4.9
-of military prisoners 8.1
MaritaI status, prisoners under sentence
of death, by race 7.8, 7.13, 7.21
Men, deaths in prison, by cause 5.17
-in jail 2.1, 2.3
-in prison, by race and State 5.7
-military prisoners 8.5
-number under correctional
supervision 1.2, 1.4, 1990-97 1.6-1.12
-on death row 7.1
Index
Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997 187
-on parole 6.6
-on probation 3.7
-prison admissions, by type and State
5.11a, 5.16
-prison releases, by type and State
5.11b, 5.14
-prisoners, by sentence length
1996-97 5.2, 5.19
-violators of parole 5.16
Misdemeanors, probated sentence 3.9
Military corrections 8.1-8.13
-admissions 8.9-8.11
-capacity 8.1
-offenses 8.6-8.7
-pretrial 8.12
-prisoners 8.1-8.13
-releases 8.13
Native Americans (see "race")
Offense types, for adults on
probation 3.9
-for Federal prison inmates 1990 and
1995-97, 1.15-1.16, 1.26; 1990-97, 1.27
-for jail inmates 4.3-4.6, 4.10-4.12,
4.15-4.16
-for military prisoners 8.6-8.7
-for State prison inmates 1990-97
1.13-1.14, 1.22-1.25
-drug use 4.15-4.16
Officers, in military prison 8.5-8.13
Overcrowding (see "crowding")
Pacific Ìslanders (see "race")
Parole 6.1-6.10
-by gender 6.6
-by Hispanic origin 6.6
-by status of supervision 6.3
-changes in population size,
1996-97 6.2
-completions 6.5
-discretionary 6.4
-electronic monitoring 6.9
-entries 6.2, 6.4
-intensive supervision 6.9
-mandatory 6.4
-men released from prison 5.14
-military corrections 8.13
-rates per 100,000 residents 6.2
-revocations, by offense 1.24-1.25;
military 8.13
-releases, by State 5.10b, 5.11b,
5.12b, 6.2, 6.5
-sentence length 6.8
-violation of, admissions to prison
5.10a, 5.16; men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-women released from prison 5.15
Pretrial detentions, in jails 4.1-4.2, 4.12
-military 8.12
Prior felony convictions, prisoners
on death row, by race 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Prisoners 1.1-1.2,1.5-1.14, 5.1-5.20
-admissions, by type 5.10a; men 5.11a;
women 5.12a, 1.15-1.16
-men, by sentence length, 1996-97
5.2, 5.19
-releases, by type 5.10b, men 5.11b,
women 5.12b
-women, by sentence length 1996-97
5.3, 5.20
Probation 1.1-1.2, 3.1-3.11
-by gender 3.7
-by Hispanic origin 3.7
-by race 3.8
-changes in population size, 1996-97 3.2
-completions 3.6
-electronic monitoring 3.10
-entries 3.2, 3.5
-exits 3.2, 3.6
-intensive supervision 3.10
-men released from prison 5.14
-offense types 3.9
-prison releases 5.13
-rates per 100,000 residents 3.2
-status 3.3
-status of supervision 3.4
-women released from prison 5.15
Race, jail inmates 1.2, 2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-parole 1.2, 6.7
-prisoners 1.2, 5.6, men 1.7, 5.7
women 1.7, 5.8
-prisoners under sentence of death
7.9-7.10, 7.14-7.15, 7.23, 7.26
-probation 1.2, 3.8
Rates of incarceration 1.7, 1.9,
1.11-1.12, 5.4
-by Hispanic origin 1.11
-by gender and race 1.7
Releases, from military confinement
facilities 8.13
-from parole 6.2, 6.5
-from prison, by type 5.10b, 5.13;
men 5.11b, 5.14; women 5.12b, 5.15
-from probation 3.2, 3.6
Revocation, parole 6.5, 1990-97 1.24
Sentence length, parole 6.8
-military prisoners 8.8
-prisoners in custody 5.18-5.20, under
jurisdiction 5.1-5.3
Sentences, suspended 3.3
Substance abuse treatment 4.17-4.22
Suicide, prison 5.17
-military confinement facilities 8.13
Supervision, parole 6.3, 6.9
-probation 3.4, 3.10
Suspended sentences 3.3
Time served, prisoners on death row,
by race 7.5, 7.17
Transfers, admissions to prison 5.10a;
men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-military 8.11
-parolees to another jurisdiction 6.5
-releases from prison 5.10b; men
5.11b; women 5.12b
Trends, 1990-97, 1.1, 1.3-1.11, 1.13-1.27
-admissions to prison 1.17-1.23
-by gender 1.3, 1.6-1.12, 1.18-1.19
-by race 1.3, 1.6-1.12, 1.20-1.21
-correctional supervision 1.1, 1.3-1.4
-deaths of prisoners 5.17
-Federal sentences to prison 1.26-1.27
-Hispanic prisoners 1.10
-incarceration 1.5-1.10
-incarceration rates 1.7, 1.9-1.12
-parole revocation 1.24-1.25
-prisoners under sentence of death 7.1

Veteran status, jail inmates 4.1
Whites (see "race")
Women, deaths in prison, by cause 5.17
-in jail 2.2-2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-number under correctional supervision
1.2; 1990-97 1.3-1.4
-on death row 7.1, 7.3
-on parole 6.6
-on probation 3.7
-prisoners, by sentence length,
1995-97 5.3, 5.20
-prisoners, by race and State 5.8
-prisoners, by type of admission 5.12a
-prisoners, by type of release 5.12b, 5.15
-violators of parole 5.16
188 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997