U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
5.7 million adults in the United States were under correctional supervision in 1997 1,176,900 558,000 3,266,800 690,800 in jail on probation on parole in prison

1.7 million in local jail or prison 1,602,000 132,900 871,500 816,600 female white black male

3.9 million on probation or parole 3,195,300 762,300 2,557,500 1,333,300 black female white male

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 Janet Reno Attorney General Daniel Marcus Acting Associate Attorney General Mary Lou Leary Acting Assistant Attorney General

Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Office of Justice Programs World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

Bureau of Justice Statistics World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

For information contact: BJS Clearinghouse 1-800-732-3277

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

November 2000, NCJ 177613

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Tables By Caroline Wolf Harlow, Ph.D. Tracy L. Snell BJS Statisticians Christopher J. Mumola BJS Policy Analyst 4.15 Drug use, by type of drug, 1991 and 1997

61

4.16 Levels of prior drug and alcohol abuse, by selected characteristics of State and Federal prisoners, 1997 62 4.17 Substance abuse treatment history of State prisoners, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997 63 4.18 Substance abuse treatment history of Federal prisoners, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997 63

State and Federal prison inmates 4.1 Selected characteristics, 1997 and 1991
4.2 4.3 Selected characteristics, by gender, 1997 and 1991 Current offense, 1991 and 1997 

48 49 50

4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

Current offense, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 Current offense, by age, 1997

51 52

State and Federal prisoners’ participation since admission  4.19 Types of drug treatment, by prior drug use, 1991 and 1997 64
4.20 Drug treatment or abuse programs, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997

Current offense, by gender and by race/Hispanic origin, 1997 53 Current offense, by gender and age, 1997 Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for State prison inmates, 1997 Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for Federal prison inmates, 1997 54

64

4.21 Drug treatment, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997 65 55 4.22 Drug abuse programs, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997 4.23 Type of alcohol treatment, by prior alcohol use, 1997 Appendix tables 4.A1. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, State prison inmates, by gender, 1997 67 4.A2. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997 68 Methodology 69

4.9

56 57 58 59

65 66

4.10 Criminal history, 1997 and 1991 4.11 Criminal history, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 4.12 Criminal history, by age, 1997 4.13 Physical or sexual abuse before admission to prison, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997 4.14 Alcohol or drug use at time of offense, by type of offense, 1997

60

61

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 47

Table 4.1. Selected characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State inmates Federal inmates 1997 1991 1997 1991 93.7% 6.3 94.6% 5.4 92.8% 7.2 92.2% 7.8

Characteristic Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other* Age 17 or younger 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 or older Median age Marital status Married Widowed Separated Divorced Never married Educational attainment 8th grade or less Some high school GED High school graduate Some college College graduate or more Median education Military service Veterans Non-veterans U.S. citizenship Citizen Other countries Mexico Central or South America Other Number of prison inmates

33.3% 46.5 17.0 3.2

35.4% 45.6 16.6 2.4

29.9% 37.8 27.3 5.0

38.4% 29.9 28.0 3.8

0.5% 19.3 38.1 29.4 9.8 2.2 0.7 32 yrs

0.6% 21.3 45.7 22.7 6.5 2.4 0.7 30 yrs

0% 8.9 36.6 30.6 16.3 6.2 1.4 36 yrs

0% 9.3 36.0 32.9 15.0 5.7 1.1 36 yrs

16.6% 1.9 5.8 18.6 57.1

18.2% 1.9 6.2 18.5 55.3

30.4% 1.7 5.8 20.5 41.6

37.9% 1.8 6.7 21.0 32.6

14.2% 28.9 25.1 18.5 10.7 2.7 12 yrs

14.3% 26.9 24.6 19.4 12.2 2.7 12 yrs

12.0% 17.4 19.8 24.3 17.5 9.1 12 yrs

11.0% 12.3 22.6 22.4 21.3 10.4 12 yrs

12.5% 87.5

16.3% 83.7

14.5% 85.5

19.9% 80.1

95.0% 5.0 2.9 1.6 0.5 1,059,607

95.6% 4.4 2.1 0.6 1.7 704,203

81.7% 18.3 9.0 7.7 1.5 89,072

81.6% 18.4 4.1 6.3 8.0 54,006

Note: In 1997 State inmate data were missing for marital status on 0.2% of the inmates; for education, 0.4%; for military service, 0.1%; and for citizenship, 0.1%. In 1997 Federal inmate data were missing for marital status on 0.2% of the inmates; for education, 0.4%; for military service, 0.1%; and for citizenship, 0.2%. State inmate data for 1991 and Federal inmate data for both 1991 and 1997 include sentenced inmates only. * Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

48 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.2. Selected characteristics of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates 1997 Characteristic Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other* Age 17 or younger 18-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65 or older Marital status Married Widowed Separated Divorced Never married Educational attainment 8th grade or less Some high school GED High school graduate Any college Military service Veterans Non-veterans Number of prison inmates State inmates Male Female 33.3% 46.4 17.1 3.2 33.2% 47.7 15.4 3.7 Federal inmates Male Female 29.9% 38.1 27.0 5.0 29.1% 34.5 32.2 4.2 State inmates Male Female 35.4% 45.5 16.8 2.3 36.2% 46.0 14.2 3.6 1991 Federal inmates Male Female 39.2% 29.2 27.8 3.8 29.0% 38.6 29.5 2.9

0.6% 19.8 18.8 19.0 17.3 11.8 6.2 3.6 1.5 0.7 0.7

0.6% 10.9 17.8 25.7 22.4 11.8 6.5 2.5 1.2 0.4 0.3

0% 8.9 18.5 18.2 15.7 14.8 9.8 6.3 4.6 1.7 1.4

0% 8.6 15.6 19.8 16.5 15.5 12.5 5.7 3.1 1.6 1.1

0.7% 21.6 24.1 21.3 14.0 8.6 4.4 2.2 1.5 1.0 0.8

0.1% 16.3 26.1 24.2 16.6 8.9 4.0 2.1 0.9 0.4 0.4

0% 9.1 16.2 19.5 17.5 15.5 9.4 5.9 3.8 2.0 1.1

0% 11.3 19.5 20.7 19.4 11.9 8.4 3.8 3.2 1.1 0.7

16.6% 1.6 18.5 5.6 57.8

17.3% 5.8 19.9 9.8 47.1

30.4% 1.4 20.4 5.5 42.2

29.5% 6.0 21.1 10.0 33.5

18.1% 1.6 18.4 5.9 55.9

17.3% 5.9 19.1 12.5 45.1

38.7% 1.4 20.9 6.3 32.6

28.8% 5.7 22.5 10.6 32.3

14.0% 25.4 29.0 18.5 13.2

13.2% 28.3 22.4 19.3 16.8

11.7% 14.6 24.3 22.9 26.5

11.1% 13.8 26.3 20.0 28.9

14.4% 26.7 24.7 19.5 14.7

12.1% 29.5 20.2 20.2 18.0

11.0% 12.0 22.6 22.6 31.8

12.0% 15.3 19.6 23.0 30.1

13.3% 86.7 993,364

1.6% 98.4 66,242

15.5% 84.5 82,646

2.2% 97.8 6,426

17.2% 82.8 672,847

1.9% 98.1 38,796

21.7% 78.3 49,784

1.4% 98.6 4,222

*Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and other racial groups.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 49

Table 4.3. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State inmates Federal inmates 1997 1991 1997 1991 47.2% 11.7 1.6 1.2 2.6 6.0 14.1 9.4 0.8 22.0% 10.7 4.2 1.8 0.5 2.7 1.6 0.5 20.7% 8.8 11.3 0.6 9.9% 2.4 3.1 4.3 0.2% 1,046,705 46.6% 10.6 1.8 1.2 3.5 5.9 14.8 8.2 0.6 24.8% 12.4 4.9 2.2 0.7 2.8 1.4 0.4 21.3% 7.6 13.3 0.5 6.9% 1.8 1.6 3.4 0.4% 704,181 14.8% 1.5 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.6 10.0 1.3 0.6 6.8% 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.3 4.9 0.5 0.1 62.6% 11.5 45.5 5.6 14.8% 6.8 0.8 7.2 1.1% 88,018 17.3% 1.9 0.3 1.0 0.3 0.4 11.2 1.5 0.6 10.2% 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.3 6.9 0.8 0.1 57.9% 13.6 42.9 1.4 12.4% 5.7 0.8 5.9 2.2% 53,689

Current offense Violent offenses Murdera Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violentb Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraudc Stolen property Other propertyd Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weaponse Violation of probation/parolef Other public-orderg Otherh Number of prison inmates

Note: Current offense data were available for 98.8% of State prison inmates and 98.8% of Federal prison inmates. Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. Data for Federal prison inmates include sentenced only. a Includes murder and nonnegligent manslaughter. b Includes blackmail, extortion, hit-and-run driving with bodily injury, child abuse, and criminal endangerment. c Includes Federal offenses of embezzlement, fraud, forgery, and counterfeiting. d Includes destruction of property, vandalism, hit-and-run driving without bodily injury, trespassing, and possession of burglary tools. e Includes Federal firearm and explosives violations. f Includes escape, AWOL, flight to avoid prosecution. g Includes obstruction of justice, traffic, driving while intoxicated, driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol, drunkenness, vagrancy, disorderly conduct, unlawful assembly, morals, commercialized vice, rioting, abandonment, nonsupport, immigration violations, invasion of privacy, liquor law violations, tax evasion, bribery, and Federal regulatory and common criminal enterprise offenses, tax law violations, racketeering, and extortion. h Includes juvenile offenses and unspecified offenses.

50 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.4. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates Male 48.5% 11.9 1.5 1.2 2.7 6.3 14.6 9.5 0.7 21.7% 11.1 3.9 1.9 0.5 2.2 1.6 0.5 19.7% 8.4 10.8 0.5 9.8% 2.5 3.0 4.3 0.2% 980,971 Percent of State prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 28.2% 8.5 2.6 0.6 0.4 0.9 7.2 6.8 1.3 26.6% 5.0 8.6 1.1 0.4 10.1 1.1 0.2 34.4% 14.6 18.5 1.3 10.5% 1.0 4.8 4.7 0.3% 65,735 47.0% 11.2 1.7 1.5 3.5 10.6 8.8 8.7 1.1 28.3% 13.6 4.8 2.1 0.8 4.2 2.1 0.7 11.8% 5.6 5.7 0.5 12.8% 2.0 3.3 7.5 0.1% 346,733 48.3% 12.5 1.4 0.9 2.3 3.1 18.5 9.0 0.6 19.1% 9.4 4.1 1.4 0.4 2.1 1.3 0.4 25.0% 10.3 13.9 0.7 7.4% 2.7 2.8 2.0 0.3% 488,210 43.5% 10.7 1.8 1.2 1.2 4.4 12.9 10.8 0.6 18.4% 8.9 3.4 2.5 0.2 1.5 1.5 0.4 27.4% 11.4 15.6 0.4 10.3% 2.6 3.3 4.5 0.3% 178,657 Other 54.2% 10.4 2.5 1.2 4.4 7.7 13.4 13.4 1.2 18.2% 8.7 4.4 1.3 0.5 1.6 1.5 0.3 13.8% 6.1 7.4 0.3 13.2% 3.7 4.2 5.3 0.6% 33,106 Male 15.4% 1.5 0.0 0.6 0.3 0.6 10.5 1.3 0.6 6.4% 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 4.4 0.5 0.1 61.9% 11.6 44.5 5.8 15.4% 7.3 0.8 7.3 1.0% 81,623 Percent of Federal prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 6.7% 0.8 0.3 0.3 0 0.1 3.4 1.0 0.8 12.2% 0.1 0.6 0 0.1 10.4 0.8 0.2 71.7% 10.1 58.1 3.5 7.8% 1.3 0.5 5.9 1.7% 6,396 18.6% 1.2 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.3 13.7 1.0 1.2 13.0% 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 10.0 0.7 0.2 49.4% 6.1 39.7 3.6 18.0% 8.8 8.6 0.6 1.0% 26,345 15.3% 1.3 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 11.7 1.3 0.3 4.3% 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 2.7 0.5 0.1 67.2% 10.5 50.3 6.4 12.2% 8.1 3.3 0.8 1.0% 33,264 6.8% 0.9 0 0.4 0.1 0 4.5 0.8 0.2 2.6% 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.5 0.3 0 74.0% 19.5 47.8 6.8 15.5% 3.0 11.7 0.9 1.0% 24,153 Other 32.8% 7.1 0.5 0.5 2.0 9.5 4.5 6.4 2.3 11.4% 0 0.7 0.3 0.7 8.9 0.3 0.4 42.7% 6.8 30.7 5.1 10.8% 6.8 3.2 0.8 2.3% 4,256

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 51

Table 4.5. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by age, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates 24 or younger 53.1% 11.1 1.8 0.9 1.0 2.5 21.2 13.5 1.1 20.8% 11.2 2.9 2.9 0.4 1.7 1.2 0.6 17.9% 7.8 9.8 0.3 7.9% 3.6 2.7 1.6 0.3% 207,639 25-34 42.8% 9.6 1.6 0.9 2.0 4.9 14.0 9.1 0.7 24.4% 12.0 4.5 2.0 0.5 3.0 2.0 0.4 22.2% 9.5 12.1 0.6 10.3% 2.7 3.5 4.2 0.3% 399,543 35-44 45.3% 11.5 1.2 1.5 3.5 7.3 12.2 7.6 0.5 22.6% 10.8 4.7 1.4 0.5 3.0 1.6 0.5 21.2% 9.1 11.6 0.5 10.7% 2.0 3.3 5.4 0.2% 307,874 45-54 54.1% 17.9 2.2 1.5 4.7 9.5 9.1 8.3 0.9 16.1% 6.2 4.3 0.9 0.7 2.5 1.2 0.2 19.9% 8.3 10.6 1.0 10.0% 1.2 2.4 6.4 0.0% 101,348 55 or older 61.4% 23.8 2.4 1.4 3.7 18.2 4.2 6.3 1.5 12.6% 3.5 3.6 0 1.2 3.3 0.4 0.7 16.3% 6.7 9.4 0.3 9.3% 0.8 1.1 7.4 0.3% 30,301 24 or younger 17.8% 1.9 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 12.2 1.7 1.0 3.8% 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.9 1.5 0.2 0.0 62.6% 10.7 49.5 2.4 14.7% 8.6 0.0 6.1 1.1% 7,831 Percent of Federal prison inmates 25-34 13.3% 1.6 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 9.1 1.1 0.3 5.4% 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 3.1 0.6 0.2 65.1% 12.1 47.8 5.2 15.1% 7.1 0.9 7.1 1.1% 32,207 35-44 15.0% 0.9 0 0.7 0.1 0.5 10.6 1.5 0.6 6.6% 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 5.0 0.6 0.1 62.8% 12.1 43.8 6.8 14.4% 6.7 0.8 6.9 1.1% 26,921 45-54 15.9% 1.9 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.8 10.2 1.5 0.6 10.2% 0.1 0.5 0.6 0.3 8.4 0.3 0.1 57.2% 8.2 42.8 6.3 15.7% 6.8 1.1 7.8 1.0% 14,377 55 or younger 15.0% 1.5 0 0.9 0.5 1.3 8.3 0.6 1.9 10.0% 0.2 0.2 0 0 9.2 0.4 0 60.8% 14.1 42.1 4.6 13.1% 4.1 0.3 8.7 1.1% 6,682

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

52 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.6. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates Male Female Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic 49.6% 44.7% 29.6% 28.5% 23.4% 12.8 11.0 10.8 7.4 6.0 1.3 1.8 3.3 2.6 0.9 0.9 1.2 0.4 0.5 0.9 2.4 1.2 0.9 0.1 0.4 3.3 4.6 1.7 0.2 0.9 19.1 13.2 5.6 8.5 7.3 9.1 11.1 4.8 8.1 6.8 0.5 0.7 1.9 1.1 0.4 18.7% 9.7 3.7 1.5 0.4 1.7 1.3 0.4 24.0% 10.0 13.4 0.6 7.4 2.8 2.6 2.0 0.3% 457,010 18.3% 9.2 3.2 2.6 0.2 1.3 1.5 0.5 26.4% 11.2 14.8 0.4 10.2 2.7 3.1 4.4 0.3% 168,477 34.1% 6.2 8.0 1.6 0.6 15.9 1.5 0.2 23.3% 11.4 10.4 1.5 12.7 1.1 4.6 7.0 0.3% 21,932 23.9% 4.6 9.6 0.7 0.5 7.5 0.8 0.2 39.3% 15.9 22.0 1.5 8.0 0.8 4.5 2.7 0.3% 31,200 20.2% 4.1 8.0 1.1 0 5.7 1.1 0.2 44.0% 16.3 27.5 0.2 12.4 1.1 6.2 5.1 0% 10,180 Percent of Federal prison inmates Male Female Black Hispanic White Black Hispanic 15.9% 7.3% 10.9% 6.5% 2.1% 1.4 1.0 1.0 1.2 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.5 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.4 0 0.2 0.1 0 0 0 0.1 0 0.2 0 0 12.3 4.7 5.8 3.1 1.7 1.3 0.9 1.3 1.0 0 0.3 0.2 2.2 0.4 0.2 3.9% 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 2.3 0.5 0.1 66.7% 10.6 49.6 6.6 12.4 8.5 0.9 3.1 1.1% 31,058 2.6% 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 1.4 0.3 0 72.7% 19.6 46.1 7.0 16.5 3.3 0.9 12.4 0.9% 22,100 23.1% 0.2 1.3 0 0.2 19.9 1.2 0.3 54.1% 2.2 49.7 2.1 9.4 1.1 0.6 7.6 2.5% 1,866 10.1% 0 0.2 0 0 8.4 1.2 0.3 73.5% 9.6 60.6 3.4 9.1 2.6 0.3 6.2 0.8% 2,206 3.0% 0 0.4 0 0.3 2.1 0.3 0 88.3% 17.7 65.8 4.8 5.0 0.4 0.6 4.1 1.6% 2,052

Current offense Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of prison inmates

White 48.2% 11.3 1.6 1.5 3.7 11.2 9.0 8.9 1.0 27.9% 14.1 4.6 2.2 0.8 3.4 2.1 0.7 11.0% 5.2 5.3 0.5 12.8 2.0 3.2 7.5 0.1% 324,801

White 19.2% 1.2 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.3 14.3 1.0 1.1 12.2% 0.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 9.2 0.7 0.2 49.1% 6.4 39.0 3.7 18.7 9.4 0.6 8.7 0.9% 24,479

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 53

Table 4.7. Current offense of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and by age, 1997
Percent of inmates Male Current offense Percent of State prison inmates Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of State prison inmates Percent of Federal prison inmates Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Kidnaping Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larcenty/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offense Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other Number of Federal prison inmates 18.3% 2.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 12.6 1.8 0.9 3.7% 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.0 1.3 0.2 0 61.5% 10.5 48.6 2.3 15.4% 9.2 0 6.2 1.1% 7,277 13.7% 1.6 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.5 9.5 1.1 0.3 5.1% 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.2 2.7 0.6 0.2 64.5% 12.3 46.9 5.4 15.6% 7.6 0.9 7.1 1.1% 29,954 15.9% 0.9 0 0.8 0.1 0.6 11.3 1.6 0.6 6.0% 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.1 4.5 0.5 0.1 61.9% 12.2 42.7 7.1 15.1% 7.2 0.8 7.1 1.0% 24,868 16.4% 1.9 0 0.7 0.3 1.1 10.2 1.2 1.1 9.7% 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.2 8.1 0.3 0.1 57.8% 10.1 41.8 5.9 15.3% 6.3 0.9 8.2 0.8% 19,524 11.1% 0 1.7 0.8 0 0 6.9 0 1.8 4.9% 0 0 0 0 4.2 0 0.7 76.7% 12.6 60.4 3.7 6.2% 0.7 0.7 4.9 1.1% 553 8.3% 1.2 0.2 0 0 0 4.3 1.7 1.0 9.5% 0 0.5 0 0 7.9 0.9 0.2 73.0% 8.8 60.9 3.3 8.3% 1.3 0.8 6.1 0.9% 2,253 4.7% 0.8 0 0 0 0.2 2.4 0.5 0.9 13.7% 0.2 0.8 0 0.3 11.1 1.1 0.3 73.3% 11.5 57.8 3.9 6.4% 1.5 0.4 4.6 1.9% 2,053 5.4% 0.7 0.4 0.8 0 0 2.1 1.1 0.3 16.7% 0 0.5 0 0.3 15.3 0.6 0 65.6% 9.1 53.3 3.3 9.4% 1.4 0.4 7.6 2.9% 1,536 53.8% 11.1 1.8 0.9 1.1 2.6 21.6 13.7 1.1 20.5% 11.3 2.8 3.0 0.4 1.2 1.2 0.6 17.4% 7.7 9.4 0.3 7.9% 3.7 2.7 1.5 0.3% 200,008 44.0% 9.9 1.5 0.9 2.1 5.2 14.5 9.2 0.7 24.2% 12.6 4.2 2.0 0.5 2.4 2.0 0.5 21.3% 9.0 11.6 0.6 10.3% 2.8 3.3 4.1 0.3% 370,994 46.9% 11.8 1.2 1.6 3.8 7.8 12.6 7.8 0.4 22.3% 11.2 4.3 1.5 0.5 2.5 1.7 0.6 20.0% 8.6 11.0 0.4 10.6% 2.0 3.1 5.5 0.2% 285,454 57.0% 19.4 2.0 1.5 4.7 12.1 8.3 7.8 1.0 14.8% 5.8 3.8 0.7 0.8 2.3 1.0 0.4 18.4% 7.6 10.0 0.8 9.8% 1.2 1.9 6.7 0.1% 124,515 35.2% 9.9 1.9 1.3 0 0.6 10.5 8.8 2.2 28.3% 8.9 4.8 1.4 0.2 12.2 0.4 0.3 29.1% 10.3 18.8 0 7.4% 1.4 2.0 4.1 0% 7,631 27.4% 6.9 2.5 0.5 0.4 0.9 7.8 7.5 0.9 26.8% 4.8 8.4 1.7 0.3 10.1 1.5 0.1 34.4% 15.6 17.6 1.1 11.1% 1.0 5.4 4.7 0.3% 28,549 24.9% 7.8 2.2 0.2 0.6 1.0 6.8 5.0 1.4 26.6% 4.8 9.6 0.7 0.6 9.7 0.9 0.3 37.5% 15.4 20.2 2.0 10.7% 1.0 5.1 4.6 0.2% 22,420 34.6% 15.9 5.0 1.0 0.3 1.2 2.5 7.5 1.1 23.9% 2.6 10.3 0 0.6 8.9 1.5 0 30.5% 12.8 16.8 0.9 10.5% 0.3 4.7 5.5 0.6% 7,135 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45 or older 24 or younger Female 25-34 35-44 45 or older

Note: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

54 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.8. Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for State prison inmates, 1997
Maximum sentence Number Median Mean 1,013,708 120 mo 160.4 mo 484,463 121,510 16,438 26,508 60,956 145,548 94,200 19,303 222,294 108,746 42119 18,187 27,160 16,189 9,893 208,900 89,152 114,145 5,602 95,514 24,465 28,572 42,476 2,538 180 mo 744 180 300 180 144 108 148 72 mo 108 54 60 60 60 66 60 mo 48 84 84 48 mo 54 42 48 96 mo 226.1 mo 376.5 199.9 314.0 207.3 206.2 146.7 196.9 119.0 mo 146.1 85.2 87.9 104.1 89.9 117.0 109.7 mo 90.5 124.4 115.2 81.9 mo 81.8 75.7 86.1 104.3 mo Time from sentence  To date of interview To date of expected release Median Mean Median Mean 33 mo 50.2 mo 58 mo 90.5 mo 51 mo 89 52 77 43 46 32 39 27 mo 32 21 23 19 22 28 21 mo 17 23 22 18 mo 22 19 14 35 mo 70.1 mo 107.4 57.3 92.0 55.1 61.2 44.7 60.3 37.0 mo 42.4 30.0 35.4 27.1 34.4 40.2 28.8 mo 25.1 31.6 31.5 28.1 mo 31.1 28.5 26.2 47.3 mo 97 mo 195 89 149 87 81 63 77 44 mo 54 32 39 32 38 43 37 mo 30 42 33 30 mo 38 28 26 62 mo 132.8 221.7 102.0 174.7 117.4 109.7 88.6 121.3 64.4 75.1 49.9 60.7 46.4 60.6 71.3 49.5 43.6 54.3 45.6 48.0 51.7 48.3 45.6 79.9 mo

Current offense Total Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Rape Sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny Motor vehicle theft Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Violation of probation/parole Other public-order Other offenses

mo

mo

mo

mo

Note: Because data on sentence length and time served are restricted to persons serving sentences at the time of the survey, they overstate sentences of those entering prison. Persons with shorter sentences leave prison more quickly, resulting in a longer average sentence among persons in the inmate sample. Time served to date of interview and to date of expected release include any jail time applied to their sentence.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 55

Table 4.9. Sentence length, time served to interview, and total time to be served, by current offense for Federal prison inmates, 1997
Sentence length Number Median 86,631 96 mo 12,798 1,326 678 8,685 1,114 994 5,838 265 400 4,231 943 54,314 9,764 39,628 4,922 12,771 5,981 6,791 910 125 mo 396 135 120 96 108 36 mo 72 24 33 36 114 mo 90 111 135 69 mo 95 53 97 mo Time from sentence  To date of interview To date of expected release Median Mean Median Mean 38 mo 48.5 mo 84 mo 105.6 mo 55 mo 101 60 54 56 38 18 mo 50 19 15 32 40 mo 44 37 50 28 mo 38 22 33 mo 72.4 mo 122.2 67.9 67.0 61.8 68.8 27.3 mo 60.2 39.6 21.2 39.5 47.7 mo 48.0 46.5 56.4 38.0 mo 44.1 32.7 41.5 mo 107 mo 243 125 103 102 79 32 mo 88 37 28 45 91 mo 84 90 121 60 mo 84 45 91 mo 137.4 mo 250.3 116.1 127.5 128.8 133.9 47.8 mo 116.1 55.0 38.3 68.9 109.0 mo 97.8 108.0 141.8 86.4 mo 113.0 62.5 104.6 mo

Current offense Total Violent offenses Homicide Sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny Fraud Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Other public-order Other offenses

Mean 126.5 mo 165.3 mo 251.8 192.3 157.9 157.8 152.8 59.0 mo 86.0 53.9 53.7 77.8 129.4 mo 109.7 131.3 155.5 107.2 mo 137.7 79.7 142.9 mo

Note: Because data on sentence length and time served are restricted to persons serving sentences at the time of the survey, they overstate sentences of those entering prison. Persons with shorter sentences leave prison more quickly, resulting in a longer average sentence among persons in the inmate sample. Time served to date of interview and to date of expected release include any jail time applied to their sentence.

56 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.10. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, 1997 and 1991
Percent of prison inmates State Federal 1997 1991 1997 1991 100% 100% 100.0% 100.0% 24.1% 15.2 8.9 46.8% 16.6 18.2 12.0 29.1% 0.6 28.4 19.3% 12.7 6.5 48.8% 17.3 18.8 12.7 31.9% 1.2 30.7 39.1% 4.7 34.3 23.2% 7.2 4.2 11.8 37.8% 0.4 37.4 43.3% 4.6 38.7 22.6% 7.4 6.1 9.1 34.1% 2.3 31.8

Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates

24.5% 16.7 16.2 24.7 12.0 6.0

20.2% 19.3 16.2 25.8 12.5 6.0

39.4% 17.2 14.1 18.9 7.6 2.7

43.9% 19.4 13.0 15.8 5.6 2.3

52.7% 22.2 24.4 0.7 1,054,587

53.5% 23.0 22.4 1.1 693,373

72.8% 13.4 13.5 0.3 88,535

75.8% 11.7 11.7 0.9 53,164

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted of only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 57

Table 4.11. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, by gender and race/Hispanic origin, 1997
Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates Male 100% 23.4% 15.2 8.2 48.4% 17.3 18.9 12.2 28.2% 0.6 27.6 Percent of State prison inmates Female White Black Hispanic 100% 100% 100% 100% 34.9% 15.3 19.6 23.2% 5.7 8.9 8.6 41.8% 1.2 40.7 23.8% 16.3 7.5 44.7% 14.2 19.6 10.9 31.5% 0.9 30.6 22.0% 13.8 8.2 50.2% 19.5 17.7 13.0 27.7% 0.4 27.3 29.9% 16.2 13.7 41.0% 13.0 16.7 11.3 29.1% 0.8 28.3 Other 100% 26.4% 17.8 8.6 50.2% 18.7 20.6 10.9 23.4% 0.9 22.4 Percent of Federal prison inmates Male Female White Black Hispanic 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 36.9% 4.8 32.1 24.5% 7.7 4.4 12.4 38.7% 0.4 38.3 67.2% 4.5 62.7 6.5% 1.3 1.9 3.4 26.3% 0.6 25.7 37.8% 6.1 31.7 25.5% 9.0 5.3 11.2 36.7% 0.5 36.2 28.2% 3.9 24.3 29.1% 8.6 4.1 16.4 42.1% 0.4 42.3 52.5% 2.0 50.0 11.7% 3.0 2.3 6.4 35.8% 0.3 35.4 Other 100% 54.3% 18.0 36.3 28.1% 9.4 9.2 9.5 17.6% 0 17.6

23.7% 16.6 16.3 25.0 12.3 6.1

35.6% 17.2 15.5 19.1 7.7 4.9

24.2% 15.4 13.4 23.7 15.1 8.1

22.3% 17.7 18.2 27.1 10.5 4.1

30.3% 16.4 16.8 20.6 9.0 6.3

26.7% 16.6 13.1 20.7 12.6 10

37.2% 17.5 14.7 19.8 8.0 2.8

67.4% 13.6 7.4 7.9 2.5 1.2

38.3% 16.4 13.0 17.8 10.4 4.1

28.4% 18.7 16.7 25.8 8.2 2.2

53.1% 16.7 12.8 11.7 4.3 1.5

55.1% 13.4 8.7 12.6 5.7 4.6

53.1% 21.4 24.8 0.7 988,572

46.8% 34.1 18.3 0.8 66,015

55.6% 23.2 20.1 1.1 350,764

50.5% 21.9 27.1 0.5 487,787

52.3% 21.0 26.3 0.4 178,487

58.3% 21.5 19.0 1.2 33,522

71.9% 13.6 14.3 0.2 82,125

84.8% 10.6 3.9 0.7 6,409

75.1% 9.6 14.8 0.5 26,448

68.2% 16.8 14.9 0.1 33,438

74.6% 13.7 11.3 0.4 24,272

84.0% 8.4 7.3 0.4 4,377

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted for only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

58 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.12. Criminal history of State and Federal prison inmates, by age, 1997
Percent of State prison inmates 24 or 45 or younger 25-34 35-44 older 100% 100% 100% 100% 30.6% 20 10.6 45.2% 16.3 19.8 9.1 24.2% 0.8 23.5 21.2% 12.4 8.8 46.1% 15.2 18.5 12.4 32.7% 0.6 32.1 21.5% 13.3 8.2 48.3% 16.9 17.7 13.7 30.2% 0.6 29.6 28.8% 20.4 8.4 48.1% 20.6 16.3 11.2 23.0% 0.7 22.4 Percent of Federal prison inmates 24 or 45 or younger 25-34 35-44 older 100% 100% 100% 100% 30.9% 8.4 28.5 26.9% 5.7 7.7 35.4 36.2% 0.8 35.4 37.6% 4.3 33.2 22.5% 5.9 4.7 11.9 39.9% 0.4 39.6 39.0% 3.6 35.5 22.6% 8.4 3.5 10.6 38.4% 0.2 38.1 42.1% 5.5 36.6 23.6% 8.2 3.1 12.4 34.2% 0.4 33.8

Criminal history Total No previous sentence Current violent offense Current other offense Violent recidivistsa Current and prior violent Current violent only Prior violent only Nonviolent recidivistsb Prior minor public-order offenses onlyc Other prior offenses Number of prior sentences to probation or incarceration 0 1 2 3-5 6-10 11 or more Criminal justice status at time of current arrest None Probation Parole Escape Number of inmates

30.8% 18.1 17.9 21.9 7.5 3.7

21.5% 16.9 16.4 26.3 12.9 6.0

21.9% 15.7 16.2 25.2 13.8 7.2

29.5% 16.1 13.0 22.8 11.9 6.7

37.4% 19.3 12.6 22.9 6.0 1.8

37.9% 18.7 14.5 18.5 7.4 3.1

39.4% 17.0 13.7 19.9 7.6 2.5

42.6% 14.5 14.8 16.8 8.7 2.7

53.1% 34.4 11.8 0.7 208,892

47.5% 23.0 28.8 0.8 402,356

53.9% 17.1 28.2 0.8 310,417

65.3% 12.5 21.9 0.3 132,922

69.2% 21.3 9.3 0.1 7,845

70.5% 17.9 11.3 0.3 32,473

72.7% 10.8 16.2 0.3 27,067

77.7% 6.9 15.2 0.3 21,149

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. a Violent recidivists were convicted in the past, and at least the current or a previous conviction was for a violent offense. b Nonviolent recidivists were convicted for only nonviolent offenses in the past, and their current conviction was for nonviolent offenses. c Includes drunkenness, vagrancy, loitering, disorderly conduct, minor traffic offenses, commercialized vice, invasion of privacy, contributing to the delinquency of a minor, liquor law violations, and juvenile-status offenses.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 59

Table 4.13. Physical or sexual abuse before admission to prison, by gender and race/Hispanic origin of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Characteristic of prior abuse State prison inmates Ever abused Physically only Sexually only Both Age of victim at time of abuse 17 or younger only 18 or older only Both Age of abuser Adult Juvenile only Rape before admission Completed Attempted Number of State inmates Federal prison inmates Ever abused Physically only Sexually only Both Age of victim at time of abuse 17 or younger only 18 or older only Both Age of abuser Adult Juvenile only Rape before admission Completed Attempted Number of Federal inmates 9.5% 5.8 1.6 2.1 7.2% 5.0 1.1 1.1 11.8% 8.3 1.3 2.3 4.9% 3.2 1.0 0.7 3.7% 2.5 1.0 0.1 39.9% 17.2 7.6 15.1 54.2% 22.5 8.4 23.3 35.7% 17.5 7.4 10.9 32.5% 12.5 7.3 12.7 18.7% 10.8 3.3 4.6 16.1% 10.3 2.8 3.0 24.0% 14.7 3.7 5.6 11.7% 7.4 2.6 1.7 11.9% 8.8 1.5 1.6 57.2% 18.3 10.8 28.0 71.2% 20.6 9.5 41.1 48.9% 16.7 13.3 18.9 52.3% 17.1 6.9 28.4 Total Total Male inmates White Black Hispanic Total Female inmates White Black Hispanic

11.8% 2.9 3.9

11.8% 1.7 2.5

18.8% 1.5 3.7

8.0% 1.9 1.8

8.1% 1.7 2.1

12.0% 20.3 24.7

14.4% 21.4 35.2

10.6% 20.6 17.4

11.0% 17.5 23.8

17.6% 0.9 6.0% 4.9 1.0 1,049,745

15.0% 0.9 4.0% 3.1 0.8 984,320

22.4% 1.3 6.4% 5.1 1.2

10.8% 0.7 2.8% 2.1 0.6

11.3% 0.5 2.4% 1.9 0.4 167,969

55.8% 1.0 37.3% 32.8 4.3 65,425

68.9% 1.9 48.9% 43.9 4.7 21,811

47.6% 0.8 30.9% 26.7 3.9 31,069

52.3% 0 33.8% 29.1 4.8 10,102

328,536 456,37

4.8% 2.4 2.3

4.5% 1.3 1.3

7.7% 2.0 2.1

2.7% 1.2 1.0

2.7% 0.8 0.3

8.9% 16.8 14.2

8.5% 22.4 23.3

9.4% 15.3 11.0

8.7% 14.1 9.7

9.2% 0.2 2.9% 2.3 0.5 87,953

6.9% 0.2 1.4% 1.0 0.3 81,607

11.6% 0.2 2.5% 1.6 0.7

4.8% 0.1 1.2% 1.1 0.0

3.4% 0.3 0.6% 0.2 0.1 22,005

39.0% 0.3 21.4% 17.9 3.2 6,347

54.1% 0.2 28.0% 24.5 3.5 1,866

33.8 0.6 17.8% 15.9 0.8 2,187

31.8% 0.2 20.0% 14.9 5.1 2,022

24,241 31,221

60 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.14. Alcohol or drug use at time of offense of State and Federal inmates, by type of offense, 1997
Estimated number of inmatesa State Federal 1,046,705 494,349 122,435 16,592 89,328 148,001 97,897 20,096 230,177 111,884 43,936 19,279 28,102 26,976 216,254 92,373 117,926 5,955 103,344 25,642 77,702 88,018 13,021 1,288 53 713 8,770 1,151 1,046 5,964 294 414 216 4,283 757 55,069 10,094 40,053 4,922 13,026 6,025 7,001 Percent of inmates who reported being under the influence at the time of the offense Alcohol Drugs Alcohol or drugs State Federal State Federal State Federal 37.2 % 41.7 % 44.6 52.0 40.0 37.4 45.1 39.6 34.5 % 37.2 33.7 32.2 25.2 36.0 27.4 % 29.6 25.5 29.9 43.2 % 28.3 48.1 20.4 % 24.5 % 38.7 ... 32.3 18.0 46.0 32.2 15.6 % ... ... ... 10.4 22.8 19.8 % 21.3 19.4 19.7 20.6 % 23.0 18.5 32.6 % 29.0 % 26.8 17.4 21.5 39.9 24.2 29.0 36.6 % 38.4 38.4 39.0 30.5 30.6 41.9 % 42.6 41.0 47.1 23.1 % 22.4 23.3 22.4 % 24.5 % 29.4 ... 7.9 27.8 13.8 15.9 10.8 % ... ... ... 6.5 16.4 25.0 % 25.1 25.9 17.1 15.6 % 24.4 8.1 52.5 % 51.9 % 52.4 56.0 45.2 55.6 51.8 48.2 53.2 % 55.7 54.2 51.2 42.8 53.2 52.4 % 53.9 50.9 59.2 56.2 % 41.8 60.9 34.0 % 39.8 % 52.4 ... 32.3 37.6 50.5 37.2 22.6 % ... ... ... 14.5 34.6 34.6 % 36.0 35.0 29.0 30.2 % 37.1 24.1

Type of offense Total Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Sexual assaultb Robbery Assault Other violent Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Fraud Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other drug Public-order offenses Weapons Other public-order
a

...Too few cases to permit calculation. Based on cases with valid offense data. b Includes rape and other sexual assault.

Table 4.15. Drug use of State and Federal inmates, by type of drug, 1991 and 1997
Percent of inmates who reported  Using drugs in the Ever using drugs regularlya month before 1997 1991 1997 1991 Using drugs at the time of the offense 1997 1991

Type of drug State inmates Any drugb Marijuana/hashish Cocaine/crack Heroin/opiates Depressantsc Stimulantsd Hallucinogense Inhalants Federal inmates Any drugb Marijuana/hashish Cocaine/crack Heroin/opiates Depressantsc Stimulantsd Hallucinogense Inhalants

Ever using drugs 1997 1991

83.0 % 77.0 49.2 24.5 23.7 28.3 28.7 14.4

79.4 % 73.8 49.4 25.2 24.0 29.7 26.9 --

69.6 % 58.3 33.6 15.0 11.3 16.3 11.3 5.4

62.2 % 51.9 31.9 15.3 10.8 16.6 11.5 --

56.5 % 39.2 25.0 9.2 5.1 9.0 4.0 1.0

49.9 % 32.2 25.2 9.6 3.8 7.4 3.7 --

32.6 % 15.1 14.8 5.6 1.8 4.2 1.8 --

31.0% 11.4 14.5 5.8 1.0 2.9 1.6 --

72.9 % 65.2 44.8 16.1 16.5 20.9 19.0 7.7

60.1 % 52.8 37.3 14.1 13.1 16.8 14.8 --

57.3 % 46.6 28.2 8.9 8.0 12.9 6.4 2.6

42.1 % 32.2 20.6 9.3 5.3 8.3 4.8 --

44.8 % 30.4 20.0 5.4 3.2 7.6 1.7 0.5

31.8 % 19.2 15.4 5.5 1.4 3.9 1.2 --

22.4 % 10.8 9.3 3.0 1.0 4.1 0.8 --

16.8% 5.9 7.7 3.7 0.3 1.8 0.5 --

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have used more than one type of drug. --Not reported. Used drugs at least once a week for at least a month. b Other unspecified drugs are included in the totals. c Includes barbiturates, tranquilizers, and Quaalude. d Includes amphetamine and methamphetamine. e Includes LSD and PCP.
a

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 61

Table 4.16. Levels of prior drug and alcohol abuse, by selected characteristics of State and Federal inmates, 1997
Percent of inmates reporting the use of drugs In the month At the Ever in prior to time of the past offense offense 83.0 % 56.5 % 32.6 % Percent of inmates reporting prior alcohol abuse Ever had Under the Had three or a “binge influence of more positive drinking” alcohol at the CAGE b experience time of offense responsec 41.0 % 37.2 % 24.4 %

Characteristic All State inmates Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other Age 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older All Federal inmates Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin White non-Hispanic Black non-Hispanic Hispanic Other Age 24 or younger 25-34 35-44 45-54 55 or older
a b

Estimated number of prisonersa 1,059,607

993,365 66,242

82.9 % 84.0

56.1 % 62.4

32.1 % 40.4

41.8 % 29.9

37.7 % 29.1

24.5 % 23.4

352,864 492,676 179,998 34,069

83.6 % 83.7 80.7 79.0

55.2 % 58.3 55.0 52.7

33.9 % 31.9 33.0 27.8

53.5 % 31.9 39.9 49.6

42.7 % 33.0 36.7 41.7

33.5 % 18.6 22.0 27.7

209,343 404,034 311,999 103,470 30,761 89,072

84.1 % 86.4 86.3 70.5 39.0 72.9 %

63.2 % 60.0 56.5 40.4 18.4 44.8 %

33.3 % 35.0 34.5 22.7 9.7 22.4 %

40.2 % 42.3 42.3 37.4 29.3 30.3 %

30.7 % 37.7 41.3 37.7 30.2 20.4 %

15.8 % 24.8 28.6 28.5 22.5 16.2 %

82,646 6,426

73.7 % 62.8

45.4 % 36.7

22.7 % 19.3

31.2 % 18.8

20.9 % 15.1

16.6 % 11.6

26,616 33,697 24,349 4,411

77.2 % 77.5 63.5 64.2

49.4 % 47.2 37.5 38.5

28.6 % 22.2 16.9 18.1

38.3 % 25.0 28.2 34.9

22.1 % 21.1 16.8 26.0

19.3 % 12.5 17.8 17.6

7,933 32,634 27,259 14,501 6,746

80.4 % 76.0 77.2 67.6 43.6

57.2 % 48.5 46.8 35.2 24.3

28.1 % 23.0 24.7 18.8 11.8

31.8 % 32.1 30.8 29.1 20.8

18.4 % 22.5 20.5 20.2 13.4

12.0 % 15.3 17.2 19.7 14.5

Based on probability of selection in the sample and adjusted to June 30, 1997, custody counts. Binge drinking is defined as having consumed as much as a fifth of liquor in a single day, equivalent to 20 drinks, 3 bottles of wine, or as many as 3 six-packs of beer. c The CAGE questionnaire is a diagnostic instrument for detecting a person's history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In clinical tests, the presence of 3 or more positive responses was predictive of a history of alcohol abuse. See Explanatory notes.

62 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.17. Substance abuse treatment history of State inmates, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997
Gender Male Female 56.2 % 33.7 43.1 60.7 % 47.1 42.9 Percent of State inmates Race/Hispanic origin White* Black* Hispanic Other Violent 63.9 % 42.8 50.2 54.0 % 30.5 40.8 48.4 % 28.6 34.9 57.1 % 37.2 44.2 50.3 % 27.0 39.4 Current offense Property Drug 62.4 % 41.9 47.6 61.7 % 39.6 44.5

Type of treatment Ever any treatment or programs Ever any treatment Ever other alcohol/drug programs Participated while under correctional supervision Any treatment In prison/jail On probation/parole Other alcohol/drug programs In prison/jail On probation/parole Participated since admission Any treatment Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol/drug programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Number of inmates

Total 56.4 % 34.5 43.1

Public-order 63.9 % 44.7 49.0

47.8 % 26.2 % 19.7 15.0 37.5 % 33.3 17.2 32.5 % 12.0 % 6.9 5.1 0.8 0.2 27.5 % 22.7 12.6 1,047,933

47.6 % 25.6 19.3 14.4 37.5 % 33.3 16.9 32.3 % 11.7 % 6.7 5.0 0.8 0.2 27.5 % 22.6 12.7 982,597

50.6 % 34.8 25.0 23.1 37.6 % 32.7 21.3 34.7 % 16.3 % 10.2 6.5 1.0 1.0 28.3 % 24.8 11.8 65,336

53.8 % 32.0 23.7 19.3 43.5 % 38.2 22.4 36.5 % 14.0 % 8.4 6.0 0.8 0.2 31.3 % 26.1 14.7 349,780

45.9 % 23.3 17.7 12.8 35.8 % 32.5 14.4 31.6 % 11.0 % 6.3 4.7 0.5 0.1 27.1 % 22.3 12.5 486,269

40.9 % 22.4 16.9 12.7 30.2 % 25.3 14.7 26.7 % 10.6 % 5.3 4.4 1.4 0.6 20.8 % 17.2 9.2 178,139

48.2 % 26.6 21.0 15.0 38.8 % 36.1 15.7 33.8 % 12.2 % 7.4 5.4 1.0 0.0 29.4 % 23.9 12.5 33,745

42.0 % 19.4 15.6 8.9 33.9 % 31.2 10.7 30.8 % 9.9 % 5.4 4.4 0.6 0.1 26.6 % 22.0 12.2 488,390

53.9 % 32.5 23.4 21.1 42.0 % 36.7 23.3 34.2 % 13.5 % 8.3 5.7 1.1 0.4 29.1 % 23.9 13.2 228,368

52.1 % 31.0 22.8 18.3 39.0 % 33.7 20.5 34.8 % 14.5 % 8.8 5.4 1.2 0.4 28.6 % 23.3 13.5 214,476

55.6 % 35.7 25.5 24.3 43.7 % 36.8 28.5 33.6 % 14.3 % 7.7 7.1 0.5 0.3 27.9 % 24.2 12.7 101,925

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have participated in more than one type of treatment program. *Includes non-Hispanic inmates only.

Table 4.18. Substance abuse treatment history of Federal inmates, by gender, race/Hispanic origin, and offense type, 1997
Gender Male Female 46.9 % 24.6 35.9 40.4 % 24.7 30.0 Percent of Federal inmates Race/Hispanic origin White* Black* Hispanic Other 53.7 % 32.0 42.8 48.4 % 23.6 36.7 36.4 % 17.6 26.4 43.0 % 26.7 31.8 Current offense Property Drug Public-order 33.2 % 19.6 25.7 47.1 % 23.8 35.6 45.0 % 23.3 35.0

Type of treatment Ever any treatment or programs Ever any treatment Ever other alcohol/drug programs Participated while under correctional supervision Any treatment In prison/jail On probation/parole Other alcohol/drug programs In prison/jail On probation/parole Participated since admission Any treatment Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol/drug programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Number of inmates

Total 46.4 % 24.6 35.4

Violent 51.1 % 31.1 40.5

39.2 % 18.9 % 15.0 8.4 30.9 % 27.4 10.1 28.2 % 10.4 % 7.3 3.8 0.2 0.2 23.1 % 11.2 16.8 87,839

39.6 % 18.9 15.0 8.4 31.3 % 27.6 10.4 28.3 % 10.3 % 7.2 3.7 0.1 0.2 23.2 % 11.0 16.9 81,501

33.5 % 18.3 15.0 8.1 26.3 % 24.6 6.6 26.7 % 11.3 % 7.5 4.6 1.0 0.0 22.0 % 12.9 15.1 6,338

45.8 % 24.2 17.8 12.1 37.4 % 33.6 14.6 34.2 % 13.2 % 9.5 4.9 0.1 0.0 28.4 % 13.6 21.7 26,020

41.6 % 19.1 15.8 8.3 31.9 % 27.7 9.8 28.5 % 10.7 % 6.6 4.4 0.3 0.3 23.4 % 11.4 16.8 33,327

29.5 % 13.0 11.0 4.4 23.0 % 20.5 5.6 21.2 % 7.4 % 6.0 2.0 0.2 0.3 16.8 % 7.5 12.0 24,081

34.4 % 18.0 15.0 9.1 28.4 % 26.9 10.2 27.9 % 8.4 % 6.4 2.4 0.0 0.4 24.1 % 14.8 13.0 4,411

42.2 % 22.5 17.7 13.5 35.1 % 32.2 12.7 31.6 % 12.6 % 7.5 7.1 0.4 0.5 27.0 % 15.1 18.9 12,835

27.7 % 14.9 10.6 7.7 21.9 % 17.7 11.9 17.4 % 7.9 % 5.3 3.5 0.0 0.0 13.3 % 8.0 8.8 5,890

40.3 % 18.7 15.1 7.4 31.2 % 27.5 9.5 29.3 % 10.4 % 7.6 3.3 0.1 0.1 23.9 % 10.9 17.6 54,346

37.5 % 17.8 14.2 7.8 30.4 % 26.8 10.4 24.9 % 9.0 % 6.4 2.7 0.5 0.4 20.6 % 10.4 15.1 12,792

Note: Detail adds to more than total because inmates may have participated in more than one type of treatment. *Includes non-Hispanic inmates only.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 63

Table 4.19. Types of drug treatment received by State and Federal inmates since admission, by prior drug use, 1991 and 1997
Percent of inmates who participated since admission State Federal 1991 1997 1991 1997 29.6 % 24.5 % 7.3 20.5 ... ... 15.5 % 13.3 4.7 24.4 % 9.7 % 5.7 4.1 0.6 0.2 20.3 % 16.1 10.2 19.4 % 24.5 % 15.7 % 4.6 13.4 ... ... 9.2 % 6.4 3.3 0.2 0.2 Number of inmates who participated since admission State Federal 1991 1997 1991 1997 204,400 169,700 50,500 142,100 ... ... 107,200 91,900 32,700 255,600 101,200 59,400 42,600 6,400 2,200 212,900 168,700 107,300 10,300 8,300 2,500 7,100 ... ... 5,300 4,200 2,000 21,500 8,100 5,700 2,900 100 200 17,500 7,800 13,300

Type of drug treatment or program since admission Any drug treatment/program Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other drug abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program

10.1 % 20.0 % 7.8 8.9 3.8 15.2

Note: Inmates may have participated in more than one type of drug treatment or programs since admission. Data on treatment participation was missing for 1.8% of Federal and 1.8% of State inmates in 1991, and for 1.4% of Federal and 1.1% of State inmates in 1997. Data have been rounded to the nearest 100. ...Data on these specific types of programs are not available for 1991.

Table 4.20. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug treatment or abuse programs since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Estimated number of inmates 990,624 229,308 158,011 603,305 Percent of inmates participating in drug treatment or abuse programs since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and Any drugs than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 35.0 % 38.6 37.5 33.2 548,546 85,928 12,042 9,714 64,172 40.0 % 55.1 46.0 36.8 35,352 39.7 % 43.0 40.3 38.2 350,440 45.5 % 60.9 49.5 42.4 21,585 32.5 % 36.3 35.5 30.8 373,884 36.6 % 54.5 44.7 32.4 24,163 43.5 % 47.0 45.5 41.5 231,776 47.5 % 59.0 53.7 45.2 14,420 40.0 % 48.1 38.2 36.8 86,706 45.1 % 63.3 51.7 41.2 4,217 32.1 % 34.3 24.8 32.9 81,400 51.0 % 74.0 41.9 47.5 5,641

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Number of inmates Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Number of inmates

Note: Treatment for drug abuse includes time in a residential facility, professional counseling, detoxification, and use of a maintenance drug. Drug abuse programs include self-help groups, peer counseling, and education/awareness programs. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamines and methamphetamines.

64 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.21. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug treatment since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Percent of inmates reporting drug treatment since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 18.4 % 23.1 20.0 16.3 18.9 % 30.7 23.6 15.7 12.6 % 17.6 15.6 10.4 13.3 % 26.2 21.2 9.7 20.7 % 26.1 22.2 18.4 19.7 % 30.9 26.9 16.6 21.0 % 28.5 20.9 18.1 24.3 % 37.5 32.9 20.7 14.6 % 16.9 13.1 13.9 19.1 % 27.3 11.7 17.6

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year

Any 14.9 % 19.7 17.5 12.7 15.8 % 26.3 21.4 13.2

Note: Treatment for drug abuse includes time in a residential facility, professional counseling, detoxification, and use of a maintenance drug. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamine and methamphetamine.

Table 4.22. State and Federal inmates’ participation in drug abuse programs since admission, by time to expected release and type of drug used regularly in the month before the offense, 1997
Percent of inmates participating in drug abuse programs since admission Type of drug used regularly in the month before the offensea Drugs other Cocaine Heroin and Any drugs than marijuanab Marijuana or crack other opiates Stimulantsc 28.9 % 30.6 30.4 28.0 32.8 % 46.7 35.4 30.3 32.4 % 33.9 32.0 31.9 36.8 % 52.6 35.8 34.4 27.2 % 29.4 29.6 26.2 31.1 % 45.8 36.0 28.1 35.2 % 36.5 35.8 34.5 37.6 % 49.0 37.2 36.5 30.2 % 36.9 26.7 28.0 34.3 % 60.1 35.2 29.3 27.2 % 28.1 22.7 28.1 43.5 % 65.1 33.8 40.1

Time to expected release date State inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year Federal inmates Less than 6 months 6-12 months Greater than 1 year

Note: Drug abuse programs include self-help groups, peer counseling, and education/awareness programs. a Regular use is defined as once a week for at least a month. b Includes depressants, hallucinogens, and stimulants, as well as cocaine-based and opiate-based drugs. c Includes amphetamines and methamphetamines.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 65

Table 4.23. Types of alcohol treatment received by State and Federal inmates since admission, by prior alcohol use, 1997
Percent of inmates Prisoners’ prior reported alcohol abuse Ever had a Ever gotten into Under the in“binge drinking” physical fights fluence of alcohol a experience because of drinking at time of offense

Type of alcohol treatment or program since admission State inmates Any alcohol treatment/programs Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Estimated number of State inmates Federal inmates Any alcohol treatment/programs Any treatment since admission Residential facility or unit Counseling by a professional Detoxification unit Maintenance drug Other alcohol abuse programs Self-help group/peer counseling Education program Estimated number of Federal inmates
a

Total

Had three or more positive CAGE responsesb

24.0 % 8.4 % 5.0 3.5 0.6 0.1 20.6 % 16.9 9.7 1,047,701

36.1 % 13.9 % 8.4 5.9 1.0 0.2 30.9 % 26.3 14.3 429,222

36.6 % 14.4 % 8.5 6.6 1.1 0.2 31.7 % 26.7 15.1 401,262

38.8 % 14.4 % 8.7 6.3 1.0 0.1 33.7 % 28.8 15.6 387,137

43.6 % 17.9 % 11.0 7.9 1.6 0.1 37.7 % 32.6 17.5 255,746

20.3 % 7.0 % 5.0 2.5 0.1 0.1 16.8 % 7.9 12.0 87,790

36.1 % 13.8 % 10.4 4.7 0.3 0.2 29.8 % 16.8 19.9 26,517

36.4 % 14.6 % 11.0 4.8 0.4 0.2 30.1 % 17.6 20.1 19,937

36.0 % 13.8 % 9.6 4.9 0.4 0.1 30.5 % 17.8 19.3 17,829

41.0 % 17.5 % 12.8 6.7 0.5 0.7 33.9 % 19.8 22.3 14,241

Binge drinking is defined as having consumed as much as a fifth of liquor in a single day, equivalent to 20 drinks, 3 bottles of wine, or as many as 3 six-packs of beer. b The CAGE questionnaire is a diagnostic instrument for detecting a person’s history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In clinical tests, the presence of 3 or more positive responses was predictive of a history of alcohol abuse. See Explanatory notes.

66 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 4.A1. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, State prison inmates, by gender, 1997
Base of the estimate and gender 1,000 All inmates Male Female 5,000 All inmates Male Female 10,000 All inmates Male Female 20,000 All inmates Male Female 30,000 All inmates Male Female 50,000 All inmates Male Female 66,200 All inmates Male Female* 100,000 All inmates Male 200,000 All inmates Male 400,000 All inmates Male 600,000 All inmates Male 800,000 All inmates Male 993,400 All inmates Male* 0.61 0.62 0.31 0.49 0.51 0.35 0.36 0.25 0.25 0.20 0.21 0.17 0.18 0.16 0.16 1.30 1.34 0.67 1.06 1.09 0.75 0.77 0.53 0.54 0.43 0.44 0.37 0.38 0.34 0.34 1.73 1.78 0.90 1.41 1.45 1.00 1.02 0.71 0.72 0.58 0.59 0.50 0.51 0.45 0.46 1.99 2.04 1.03 1.62 1.66 1.14 1.17 0.81 0.83 0.66 0.68 0.57 0.59 0.51 0.53 2.12 2.18 1.1 1.73 1.77 1.22 1.25 0.86 0.89 0.71 0.72 0.61 0.63 0.55 0.56 2.17 2.23 1.12 1.76 1.81 1.25 1.28 0.88 0.91 0.72 0.74 0.62 0.64 0.56 0.57 0.70 0.72 0.36 1.50 1.54 0.78 2.00 2.05 1.03 2.29 2.35 1.18 2.44 2.51 1.27 2.49 2.56 1.29 0.90 0.93 0.47 1.93 1.98 1.00 2.58 2.64 1.34 2.95 3.03 1.53 3.15 3.24 1.64 3.22 3.31 1.67 1.10 1.13 0.57 2.37 2.43 1.23 3.15 3.24 1.64 3.61 3.71 1.87 3.86 3.97 2.00 3.94 4.05 2.04 1.56 1.60 0.81 3.35 3.44 1.73 4.46 4.58 2.31 5.11 5.25 2.65 5.46 5.61 2.83 5.58 5.73 2.89 2.21 2.27 1.14 4.73 4.86 2.45 6.31 6.48 3.27 7.23 7.42 3.75 7.73 7.93 4.01 7.89 8.10 4.09 4.94 5.07 2.56 10.58 10.86 5.48 14.11 14.48 7.31 16.16 16.59 8.38 17.28 17.74 8.96 17.64 18.11 9.14 Estimated percentages 80 or 20 70 or 30 60 or 40

98 or 2

90 or 10

50

1,060,000 All inmates* 0.15 0.33 0.43 0.50 0.53 0.54 Note: The reliability of an estimated percentage depends on the size and its base. Each standard error when multiplied by 1.96 provides a 95-percent confidence interval around an estimated percentage. To calculate the difference between two estimated percentages, take the square root of the sum of each squared standard error for the percentages being compared. *The total number of male, female, and all State prisoners in 1997.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 67

Table 4.A2. Standard errors of the estimated percentages, Federal prison inmates, by gender, 1997
Base of the estimate and gender 50 All inmates Male Female 400 All inmates Male Female 2,000 All inmates Male Female 5,000 All inmates Male Female 6,400 All inmates Male Female 10,000 All inmates Male 20,000 All inmates Male 40,000 All inmates Male 50,000 All inmates Male 75,000 All inmates Male 82,600 All inmates Male 89,000 All inmates* 0.29 0.63 0.83 0.96 1.02 1.04 Note: The reliability of an estimated percentage depends on the size and its base. Each standard error when multiplied by 1.96 provides a 95-percent confidence interval around an estimated percentage. To calculate the difference between two estimated percentages, take the square root of the sum of each squared standard error for the percentages being compared. *The total number of male, female, and all Federal prisoners in 1997. 0.30 0.31 0.65 0.67 0.87 0.89 0.99 1.02 1.06 1.09 1.08 1.12 0.32 0.33 0.68 0.7 0.91 0.94 1.04 1.07 1.11 1.15 1.14 1.17 0.39 0.4 0.84 0.86 1.11 1.15 1.28 1.31 1.36 1.4 1.39 1.43 0.44 0.45 0.93 0.96 1.25 1.28 1.43 1.47 1.53 1.57 1.56 1.60 0.62 0.63 1.32 1.36 1.76 1.81 2.02 2.08 2.16 2.22 2.20 2.27 0.87 0.9 1.87 1.92 2.49 2.56 2.85 2.94 3.05 3.14 3.11 3.21 1.29 1.09 1.12 0.57 2.34 2.4 1.22 3.11 3.21 1.63 3.57 3.67 1.86 3.81 3.93 1.99 3.89 4.01 2.03 1.23 1.27 0.64 2.64 2.72 1.38 3.52 3.63 1.84 4.04 4.15 2.11 4.31 4.44 2.26 4.40 4.53 2.30 1.95 2.01 1.02 4.18 4.3 2.18 5.57 5.73 2.91 6.38 6.57 3.34 6.82 7.02 3.57 6.96 7.17 3.64 4.36 4.49 2.28 9.34 9.62 4.88 12.45 12.82 6.51 14.27 14.69 7.46 15.25 15.7 7.97 15.57 16.03 8.14 12.33 12.69 6.44 26.42 27.20 13.81 35.23 36.26 18.41 40.36 41.55 21.09 43.14 44.41 22.55 44.03 45.33 23.02 Estimated percentages 80 or 20 70 or 30 60 or 40

98 or 2

90 or 10

50

68 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Methodology The U.S. Census Bureau conducted the 1997 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) for the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) and the 1997 Survey of Inmates in Federal Correctional Facilities (SIFCF) for BJS and the Bureau of Prisons. From June through October, 1997, inmates were interviewed about their current offense and sentences, criminal histories, family and personal backgrounds, gun possession and use, prior drug and alcohol use and treatment, educational programs, and other services provided while in prison. Similar surveys of State prison inmates were conducted in 1974, 1979, 1986, and 1991. Federal inmates were surveyed for the first time in 1991.

with probabilities proportionate to the size of each prison. For the sample of Federal prisons, one male prison and two female prisons were selected with certainty. The remaining 112 male facilities were classified into 5 strata defined by security level (high, medium, low, minimum, and administrative). The 20 remaining female facilities were stratified into 2 strata by security level (minimum and not minimum). Within security level, facilities were ordered by size of population and then selected with probability proportionate to size. For the State survey 280 prisons were selected, 220 male facilities and 60 female facilities. Of the 280 facilities 3 refused to allow interviewing and 2 closed before the survey could be conducted. Overall, 32 male facilities and 8 female facilities were selected for the Federal survey, and all participated.

writing that participation was voluntary and that all information provided would be held in confidence. Participants were assured that the survey was solely for statistical purposes and that no individual who participated could be identified through use of survey results.

Estimates of prisoner counts
Based on the completed interviews, estimates for the entire population were developed using weighting factors derived from the original probability of selection in the sample. These factors were adjusted for variable rates of nonresponse across strata and inmates’ characteristics and offenses. The sample for the State survey was adjusted to midyear custody counts for June 30, 1997, from data obtained in the National Prisoner Statistics series (NPS-1A). The sample from the Federal facilities was weighted to the total known sentenced custody population at midyear 1997. Excluded from the estimate of Federal inmates were unsentenced inmates and those prisoners under Federal jurisdiction but housed in State and private contract facilities. Those prisoners who were under State jurisdiction, yet held in local jails or private facilities, were excluded from the estimated number of State prisoners. As a result, the estimated prisoner counts do not match those in other BJS data series. The estimated prisoner counts vary according to the particular data items analyzed. Estimates are based on the number of prisoners who provided information on selected items.

Sample design
The samples for the SISCF and SIFCF were taken from a universe of 1,409 State prisons and 127 Federal prisons enumerated in the 1995 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities or opened between completion of the census and June 30, 1996. The sample design for both surveys was a stratified two-stage selection; first, selecting prisons, and second, selecting inmates in those prisons.

In the second stage, inmates were selected for interviewing. For State facilities interviewers selected the sample systematically using a random start and a total number of interviews based on the gender of the inmates and the size of the facility. For Federal facilities, a sample of inmates was selected for each facility from the In the first stage correctional facilities Bureau of Prisons central list, using a were separated into two sampling random start and predetermined frames: one for prisons with male sampling interval. All selected drug inmates and one for prisons with female offenders were then subsampled so inmates. Prisons holding both genders that only a third were eligible for interwere included on both lists. view. As a result, approximately 1 in every 75 men and 1 in 17 women were In the sampling of State facilities, the 13 selected for the State survey, and 1 in largest male prisons and 17 largest every 13 men and 1 in every 3 women female prisons were selected with were selected for the Federal survey. certainty. The remaining 1,265 male A total of 14,285 interviews were facilities and 261 female facilities were completed for the State survey and stratified into 14 strata defined by 4,041 for the Federal survey, for overall census region (Northeast except New response rates of 92.5% in the State York, New York, Midwest, South except survey and 90.2% in the Federal Texas, Texas, West except California, survey. and California). Within each stratum facilities were ordered by facility type The interviews, about an hour in length, (confinement and community-based), used computer-assisted personal intersecurity level (maximum, medium, viewing (CAPI). With CAPI, computers minimum, and none), and size of provide questions for the interviewer, population. A systematic sample of including follow-up questions tailored to prisons was then selected within strata preceding answers. Before the interview, inmates were told verbally and in

Accuracy of the estimates
The accuracy of the estimates presented in this report depends on two types of error: sampling and nonsampling. Sampling error is the variation that may occur by chance because a sample rather than a complete enumeration of the population was conducted. Nonsampling error can be attributed to many sources, such as nonresponses, differences in the interpretation of questions among inmates, recall difficulties, and processing errors.

Surveys of State and Federal inmates, 1997 69

In any survey the full extent of the nonsampling error is never known. The sampling error, as measured by an estimated standard error, varies by the size of the estimate and the size of the base population. Estimates of the standard errors have been calculated for the 1997 surveys. (See appendix tables 2 and 3.) For example, the 95-percent confidence interval around the percentage of State inmates who ever used drugs is approximately 83.0% plus or minus 1.96 times 0.4% (or 82.2.% to 83.8%). These standard errors may also be used to test the significance of the difference between two sample statistics by pooling the standard errors of the two sample estimates. For example, the standard error of the difference between black and white State prison inmates for the percent reporting a binge drinking experience would be 1.2% (or the square root of

the sum of the squared standard errors for each group). The 95-percent confidence interval around the difference would be 1.96 times 1.2% (or 2.4%). Since the difference of 21.6% (53.5% minus 31.9%) is greater than 2.4%, the difference would be considered statistically significant. The same procedure can be used to test the significance of the difference between estimates from the two surveys. For example, the standard error of the difference between Federal and State prison inmates for the percent reporting prior drug use would be 1.1%. The 95-percent confidence interval around the difference would be 1.96 times 1.1% (or 2.1%). Since the difference of 10.1% (83.0% minus 72.9%) is greater than 2.1%, the difference would be considered statistically significant.

All comparisons discussed in this report were statistically significant at the 95-percent confidence level. To test the significance of comparisons not mentioned in this report, use percentages in text or tables and numbers of inmates. These standard errors should be used only for tests on all inmates. Comparisons of male and female inmates require different standard errors.

70 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997  

 
                   ! "      #  #   $   %  " 
& %   #  " " 
"     %&  &!  "  ' %     " &    ""  " &    #  &  "%  "              
  ()'   *+, - . ./      
 "  (- . ./ ,  " "" #  
"     #  0  "&  "
    
      %  "   ,       " "%  1  !            ""    #   "     ,        ,  !  
"             %    ,  !  #  !  !  0     &   &!    #  0   
 
0        #  0  ,      "   0      "    ! %  " 0!" " #       0 #  "%      "%          " )       
   
   ! 
   %   !  "       ),! 2   )     
  *         "  "% 3   
   % 3  
" 
  "  3   , %   !  "      %   !  " 3- .1./ 32   "   " "
 ' 4 %   " "
32 
" 
  "
32        !        
"%%     "     
#  " " 
"# $        $   !   %  "    
"    "   "   #      

      '    #   '      &  "&!     
   "%       "       #  "    !     , "       "    "" 1 


    "     #  "    #     "&%   %   '                
     (  %               1 -% /   '   (   

   , "   

( ,  , "     
   %   "  " #&%         # "  ,  %  " "    " " &     " " #    #     #        
    "       ""   2     51 " &   
     ""  
 !  6           " 6,    " "           ""      #     #            #   " 7      " "   '    #        , " %    
"   !  

 
       #  



    '   
     '            
 "   ,  
7        7 #  #   #  #   #     #
#   # "   #  #      #     - . ./ !""     $   %       
"
&%   "      
%  "    
  #
#  '  %      ""  "      
8 #  #  8, !- .!./ # "( - . ./ 9   

%    

 1

  ,
  :   

"    
   
   
  
" 
  ,  , 
  
         #     %%%%%  
"   ,   "  "& #      '  %   "
" 
     
#  ,  

% 
&  &!  "  !      9      " "  # " 9 ,   !  %  " 9    "      "%    %&  & !  "   
       
 "        %   !  "  !      
  "% 9   "        1    #   :  
 "   
   %    "   2 "
  ,  , %                       %%%%%   "     ,   !      $  
 ""   #     "
   " 
  !   #           %   "  "
  " # ;        "   1       ;       #    
" 
   %  &    &!  "    "
; ,  
%   " %  
#  

# #    #  "%     '      '       "" '       #  ' ,   

   % '      &' ,   !     <  %&   &!  "  #      
     %&   &!  " < %        "     "       
" #        
" "%  "    ,          $      " 
"  1  %      %        "    , "  "           (    )- . ./ =      " " "   #       ,  "&%       !    

             "%    '  #     "        "   ,    

##