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A direction vector S of any straight line ( ) is a non-zero vector having the same direction (parallel or confounded) as ( ) .

A straight line ( ) admits an infinite number of non-zero direction vectors collinear with S .

1) x axis : (x-intercept) Substitute y 0.

To determine the intersection of a straight line with:

2) y axis : (y -intercept)Substitute x 0.

To determine an equation of a straight line it is sufficient to have one of the following combinations:

Given information Formula used and steps to follow

Any two points Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.

A( x A ; y A ) and B( xB ; yB ) Now, points A, B & M are collinear,

Then a( AM ) a( AB )

y y A yB y A

A point A( x A ; y A ) and a slant (leading Thus,

x x A xB x A

coefficient or director coefficient)

y yA

m OR y yA m x xA

x xA

1. Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.

2. Form the vector: AM ( x x A , y y A )

Any point A( x A ; y A ) and a director

3. Since S & AM are collinear then:

vector S ( x ', y ')

X Y

In cartesian: AM AM In parametric: AM t S

XS YS

1. Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.

Any point A( x A ; y A ) and a normal 2. Form the vector: AM ( x x A , y y A )

vector N (a; b) 3. Since N & AM are perpendicular (orthogonal) then:

N . AM 0 OR a x xA b y y A 0

Different types of equation of a straight line and their properties

Form Equation Director vector Normal vector Slant Find a point on the st. line

u

Cartesian ux vy w 0 S (v; u ) N (u; v)

v

Take any value for x then find y

x at x A b Take any value for the parameter

Parametric S ( a; b ) N (b; a)

y bt y A a to find x and y

x cst r. S (0;1) j N (1;0) i No slope Any point of the form (r ; y )

Special y cst n. S (1;0) i N (0;1) j Zero slope Any point of the form ( x; n)

To modify an equation of a straight line from:

To change from cartesian to parametric parametric to cartesian

st

1 - Step: Replace one of the variables by

Just eliminate the parameter " t" by any way possible:

any parameter " t".

Procedure nd

2 - Step: Find the other variable in terms of

- Elimination. - Substitution.

- Comparison.

this parameter.

(d ) : 2 x y 5 0

1 - step: Let x t.

st

x t 4

2nd - step: Replace x t in equation of (d ) (d ) :

2t y 5 0 y t 5

By elimination:

Example Hence, y 2t 5.

x t 4

Thus, the parametric form of straight line is, (d ) :

x t ( y t 5)(1) add

(d ) : To get: (d ) : x y 9

y 2t 5

Relative positions of two straight lines in different forms

Form Equations If Then, the straight lines

u v

(d1 )&(d 2 ) are intersecting.

u' v'

(d1 ) : ux vy w 0.

u v w

u ' v ' w'

OR S k S

1 2

(d1 )&(d 2 ) are parallel.

u v w

(d1 )&(d 2 ) are confounded.

u ' v ' w'

m m' ( R1 )&( R2 ) are intersecting.

( R1 ) : y mx b.

Reduced ( R2 ) : y m ' x b '.

m m ' and b b '. ( R1 )&( R2 ) are parallel.

m m ' and b b '. ( R1 )&( R2 ) are confounded.

a b

. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are intersecting.

x at x A a' b'

( P1 ) :

y bt y A a b x A xB

Parametric x a ' t xB

a ' b ' y A yB

. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are parallel.

( P2 ) :

y b ' t yB a b x A xB

. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are confounded.

a ' b ' y A yB

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