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Al-Mahdi High School (Al-Hadath) Mathematics 10th-Grade

Name: . . . . . . . . . " Lines in a Plane" S.S-5


A direction vector S of any straight line ( ) is a non-zero vector having the same direction (parallel or confounded) as ( ) .
A straight line ( ) admits an infinite number of non-zero direction vectors collinear with S .
1) x axis : (x-intercept) Substitute y 0.
To determine the intersection of a straight line with:
2) y axis : (y -intercept)Substitute x 0.
To determine an equation of a straight line it is sufficient to have one of the following combinations:
Given information Formula used and steps to follow
Any two points Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.
A( x A ; y A ) and B( xB ; yB ) Now, points A, B & M are collinear,
Then a( AM ) a( AB )
y y A yB y A
A point A( x A ; y A ) and a slant (leading Thus,
x x A xB x A
coefficient or director coefficient)
y yA
m OR y yA m x xA
x xA
1. Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.
2. Form the vector: AM ( x x A , y y A )
Any point A( x A ; y A ) and a director
3. Since S & AM are collinear then:
vector S ( x ', y ')
X Y
In cartesian: AM AM In parametric: AM t S
XS YS
1. Take any point M ( x, y ) on the given straight line.
Any point A( x A ; y A ) and a normal 2. Form the vector: AM ( x x A , y y A )
vector N (a; b) 3. Since N & AM are perpendicular (orthogonal) then:
N . AM 0 OR a x xA b y y A 0

10th Grade. Mathematics S.S.5. Lines in a Plane Page 1 of 3


Different types of equation of a straight line and their properties
Form Equation Director vector Normal vector Slant Find a point on the st. line
u
Cartesian ux vy w 0 S (v; u ) N (u; v)
v
Take any value for x then find y

Reduced y mx b S (1; m) N (m; 1) m Take any value for x then find y


x at x A b Take any value for the parameter
Parametric S ( a; b ) N (b; a)
y bt y A a to find x and y
x cst r. S (0;1) j N (1;0) i No slope Any point of the form (r ; y )
Special y cst n. S (1;0) i N (0;1) j Zero slope Any point of the form ( x; n)

How to interchange between forms of a straight line?


To modify an equation of a straight line from:
To change from cartesian to parametric parametric to cartesian
st
1 - Step: Replace one of the variables by
Just eliminate the parameter " t" by any way possible:
any parameter " t".
Procedure nd
2 - Step: Find the other variable in terms of
- Elimination. - Substitution.
- Comparison.
this parameter.
(d ) : 2 x y 5 0
1 - step: Let x t.
st
x t 4
2nd - step: Replace x t in equation of (d ) (d ) :
2t y 5 0 y t 5
By elimination:
Example Hence, y 2t 5.
x t 4
Thus, the parametric form of straight line is, (d ) :
x t ( y t 5)(1) add
(d ) : To get: (d ) : x y 9
y 2t 5

10th Grade. Mathematics S.S.5. Lines in a Plane Page 2 of 3


Relative positions of two straight lines in different forms
Form Equations If Then, the straight lines
u v
(d1 )&(d 2 ) are intersecting.
u' v'
(d1 ) : ux vy w 0.

Cartesian (d 2 ) : u ' x v ' y w ' 0.


u v w

u ' v ' w'
OR S k S
1 2
(d1 )&(d 2 ) are parallel.

u v w
(d1 )&(d 2 ) are confounded.
u ' v ' w'
m m' ( R1 )&( R2 ) are intersecting.
( R1 ) : y mx b.
Reduced ( R2 ) : y m ' x b '.
m m ' and b b '. ( R1 )&( R2 ) are parallel.
m m ' and b b '. ( R1 )&( R2 ) are confounded.
a b
. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are intersecting.
x at x A a' b'
( P1 ) :
y bt y A a b x A xB
Parametric x a ' t xB

a ' b ' y A yB
. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are parallel.
( P2 ) :
y b ' t yB a b x A xB
. ( P1 )&( P2 ) are confounded.
a ' b ' y A yB

10th Grade. Mathematics S.S.5. Lines in a Plane Page 3 of 3