Correctional Populations

in the United States, 1997
Bureau of Justice Statistics
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
1,602,000
132,900
871,500
816,600
male
female
white
black
5.7 million adults in the United States were under
correctional supervision in 1997
1,176,900
558,000
3,266,800
690,800
in prison
in jail
on probation
on parole
1.7 million in local jail or prison
3.9 million on probation or parole
3,195,300
762,300
2,557,500
1,333,300
male
female
white
black

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
810 Seventh Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20531
Janet Reno
Attorney General
Daniel Marcus
Acting Associate Attorney General
Mary Lou Leary
Acting Assistant Attorney General
Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D.
Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics
Office of Justice Programs
World Wide Web Homepage:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov
Bureau of Justice Statistics
World Wide Web Homepage:
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
For information contact:
BJS Clearinghouse
1-800-732-3277
U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Correctional Populations
in the United States, 1997
November 2000, NCJ 177613
Tables
By Paula M. Ditton, BJS Statistician
Prisoners under State or Federal
jurisdiction, by sentence length,
1996 and 1997
5.1 All prisoners 72
5.2 Male prisoners 73
5.3 Female prisoners 74
5.4 Incarceration rates for prisoners
under State or Federal
jurisdiction or in State or
Federal custody, by sentence
length, 1997 75
5.5 Prisoners housed in jails
because of crowded State
facilities, by gender,
1996 and 1997 76
Prisoners under State or Federal
jurisdiction, 1997
5.6 All prisoners, by race 77
5.7 Male prisoners, by race 78
5.8 Female prisoners, by race 79
5.9 All prisoners, by gender and
Hispanic origin 80
Sentenced prisoners admitted to
or released from State or Federal
jurisdiction, by type of admission
or release, 1997
5.10a All prisoners admitted 81
5.10b All prisoners released 82
5.11a Male prisoners admitted 83
5.11b Male prisoners released 84
5.12a Female prisoners admitted 85
5.12b Female prisoners released 86
Sentenced prisoners released
conditionally or unconditionally
from State or Federal jurisdiction,
by type of release, 1997
5.13 All prisoners 87
5.14 Male prisoners 88
5.15 Female prisoners 89
Sentenced prisoners admitted to
State or Federal jurisdiction for
violation of parole or other
conditional release
5.16 All prisoners, by gender
and status of sentence 90
Sentenced prisoners under State
or Federal jurisdiction
5.17 Deaths, by gender and cause
of death 91
Prisoners in custody of State or
Federal correctional authorities,
by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
5.18 All prisoners 92
5.19 Male prisoners 93
5.20 Female prisoners 94
Explanatory notes
by jurisdiction 95
Questionnaire Summary of Sentenced
Population Movement: National
Prisoner Statistics, 1997 105

Prisoners in 1997
Prisoners in 1997 71

72 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include
some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
1996 and 1997 data are not comparable; see Explanatory notes.
f
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some
unsentenced inmates.
g
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.
h
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less
may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown.
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
0 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 1,478 1,549 4.9 1,478 1,549 Wyoming
... ... / / / / 5.5 12,527 13,214 5.5 12,527 13,214 Washington
d
... ... 26 21 -19.2 26 21 7.6 3,976 4,280 7.5 4,002 4,301 Utah
... ... 1,345 410 -69.5 1,345 410 3.7 7,316 7,589 -7.6 8,661 7,999 Oregon
0 0 218 238 9.2 218 238 -1.2 4,506 4,450 -0.8 4,724 4,688 New Mexico
0 0 / / 0 0 8.4 8,325 9,024 8.4 8,325 9,024 Nevada
d
... ... / / / / 12.9 2,230 2,517 12.9 2,230 2,517 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.1 3,832 3,911 2.1 3,832 3,911 Idaho
938 1,330 119 200 44.7 1,057 1,530 16.7 2,954 3,448 24.1 4,011 4,978 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / 8.2 12,438 13,461 8.2 12,438 13,461 Colorado
c
3,184 3,051 / / -4.2 3,184 3,051 6.9 142,865 152,739 6.7 146,049 155,790 California
c
0 0 970 1,131 16.6 970 1,131 3.9 21,523 22,353 4.4 22,493 23,484 Arizona
d
953 1,066 428 528 15.4 1,381 1,594 10.1 2,335 2,571 12.1 3,716 4,165 Alaska
b
5,075 5,447 3,106 2,528 % -2.5 8,181 7,975 % 6.5 226,305 241,106 % 6.2 234,486 249,081 West

24 / ... ... -17.2 24 / 15.5 2,725 3,148 14.5 2,749 3,148 West Virginia
f
... ... 593 861 45.2 593 861 1.7 27,062 27,524 2.6 27,655 28,385 Virginia
... ... / / / / 6.0 132,383 140,351 6.0 132,383 140,351 Texas
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 6.6 15,626 16,659 6.6 15,626 16,659 Tennessee
d
4 0 684 909 32.1 688 909 2.6 19,758 20,264 3.6 20,446 21,173 South Carolina
... ... / / / / 4.8 19,593 20,542 4.8 19,593 20,542 Oklahoma
c
... ... 2,896 4,045 39.7 2,896 4,045 -0.7 27,751 27,567 3.1 30,647 31,612 North Carolina
g,h
... ... 716 620 -13.4 716 620 4.1 13,143 13,676 3.2 13,859 14,296 Mississippi
... ... 1,070 1,144 6.9 1,070 1,144 0.5 20,980 21,088 0.8 22,050 22,232 Maryland
g
... ... ... ... ... ... 9.3 26,779 29,265 9.3 26,779 29,265 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 13.1 12,910 14,600 13.1 12,910 14,600 Kentucky
... ... 811 718 -11.5 811 718 4.3 34,328 35,787 3.9 35,139 36,505 Georgia
d
... ... 17 52 205.9 17 52 1.3 63,746 64,574 1.4 63,763 64,626 Florida
d
417 / 291 / -6.6 708 / 7.9 8,668 9,353 -0.2 9,376 9,353 District of Col.
b,c,f
899 990 1,092 1,181 9.0 1,991 2,171 4.6 3,119 3,264 6.4 5,110 5,435 Delaware
b
... ... 415 85 -79.5 415 85 10.5 8,992 9,936 6.5 9,407 10,021 Arkansas
a
0 0 652 610 -6.4 652 610 2.7 21,108 21,680 2.4 21,760 22,290 Alabama
1,344 990 9,237 10,225 % 6.0 10,581 11,215 % 4.5 458,671 479,278 % 4.5 469,252 490,493 South
623 611 28 27 -2.0 651 638 ... 12,340 15,639 ... 12,991 16,277 Wisconsin
a,e
... ... / / / / 8.7 2,063 2,242 8.7 2,063 2,242 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 4.0 46,174 48,016 4.0 46,174 48,016 Ohio
d
... ... 72 82 13.9 72 82 10.0 650 715 10.4 722 797 North Dakota
... ... 64 73 14.1 64 73 3.3 3,223 3,329 3.5 3,287 3,402 Nebraska
... 0 / / / 0 9.1 22,003 23,998 9.1 22,003 23,998 Missouri
d
... 20 ... ... ... 20 2.9 5,158 5,306 3.3 5,158 5,326 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.7 42,349 44,771 5.7 42,349 44,771 Michigan
d
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.0 7,756 7,911 2.0 7,756 7,911 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 9.4 6,342 6,938 9.4 6,342 6,938 Iowa
d
10 8 159 165 2.4 169 173 5.6 16,791 17,730 5.6 16,960 17,903 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 5.0 38,852 40,788 5.0 38,852 40,788 Illinois
c,d
633 639 323 347 % 3.1 956 986 % 6.7 203,701 217,383 % 6.7 204,657 218,369 Midwest
182 170 136 272 39.0 318 442 3.4 801 828 13.5 1,119 1,270 Vermont
b,d
566 632 674 639 2.5 1,240 1,271 3.4 2,031 2,100 3.1 3,271 3,371 Rhode Island
b
2 1 0 6 250.0 2 7 1.2 34,535 34,957 1.2 34,537 34,964 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.9 69,709 69,108 -0.9 69,709 69,108 New York
... ... / / / / 3.2 27,490 28,361 3.2 27,490 28,361 New Jersey
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 4.9 2,062 2,164 4.9 2,062 2,164 New Hampshire
700 803 216 297 20.1 916 1,100 -0.3 10,880 10,847 1.3 11,796 11,947 Massachusetts
... ... 75 78 4.0 75 78 14.1 1,351 1,542 13.6 1,426 1,620 Maine
3,139 3,109 2,061 2,212 2.3 5,200 5,321 4.8 11,371 11,920 4.0 16,571 17,241 Connecticut
b

4,589 4,715 3,162 3,504 % 6.0 7,751 8,219 % 1.0 160,230 161,827 % 1.2 167,981 170,046 Northeast
11,641 11,791 15,828 16,604 3.4 27,469 28,395 4.8 1,048,907 1,099,594 4.8 1,076,376 1,127,989 State
12,507 13,310 4,222 4,676 % 7.5 16,729 17,986 % 6.9 88,815 94,987 % 7.0 105,544 112,973 Federal
a
24,148 25,101 20,050 21,280 % 4.9 44,198 46,381 % 5.0 1,137,722 1,194,581 % 5.0 1,181,920 1,240,962 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length
Table 5.1 Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997

Prisoners in 1997 73
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some
inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
1996 and 1997 data are not comparable; see Explanatory notes.
f
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year include some unsentenced
inmates.
g
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.
h
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less
may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown.
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
0 0 0 0 0 0 3.5 1,365 1,413 3.5 1,365 1,413 Wyoming
... ... / / / / 5.9 11,607 12,290 5.9 11,607 12,290 Washington
d
... ... 25 18 -28.0 25 18 8.1 3,766 4,070 7.8 3,791 4,088 Utah
... ... 1,136 359 -68.4 1,136 359 3.4 6,954 7,190 -6.7 8,090 7,549 Oregon
0 0 179 185 3.4 179 185 -0.9 4,167 4,129 -0.7 4,346 4,314 New Mexico
0 0 / / 0 0 8.0 7,713 8,329 8.0 7,713 8,329 Nevada
d
... ... / / / / 11.4 2,109 2,350 11.4 2,109 2,350 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.4 3,561 3,648 2.4 3,561 3,648 Idaho
870 1,201 105 179 41.5 975 1,380 16.2 2,651 3,080 23.0 3,626 4,460 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / 7.9 11,593 12,512 7.9 11,593 12,512 Colorado
c
2,495 2,448 / / -1.9 2,495 2,448 6.7 133,447 142,428 6.6 135,942 144,876 California
c
0 0 870 986 13.3 870 986 4.1 20,108 20,938 4.5 20,978 21,924 Arizona
d
864 963 386 483 15.7 1,250 1,446 10.0 2,196 2,415 12.0 3,446 3,861 Alaska
b
4,229 4,612 2,701 2,210 % -1.6 6,930 6,822 % 6.4 211,237 224,792 % 6.2 218,167 231,614 West

20 / ... ... -23.1 20 / 14.8 2,580 2,962 13.9 2,600 2,962 West Virginia
f
... ... 510 739 44.9 510 739 1.9 25,458 25,936 2.7 25,968 26,675 Virginia
... ... / / / / 6.2 122,450 130,051 6.2 122,450 130,051 Texas
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 6.2 14,938 15,861 6.2 14,938 15,861 Tennessee
d
4 0 585 771 30.9 589 771 2.4 18,655 19,100 3.3 19,244 19,871 South Carolina
... ... / / / / 4.7 17,653 18,489 4.7 17,653 18,489 Oklahoma
c
... ... 2,512 3,561 41.8 2,512 3,561 -0.3 26,267 26,191 3.4 28,779 29,752 North Carolina
g,h
... ... 630 542 -14.0 630 542 3.7 12,338 12,792 2.8 12,968 13,334 Mississippi
... ... 984 1,026 4.3 984 1,026 0.4 20,011 20,098 0.6 20,995 21,124 Maryland
g
... ... ... ... ... ... 8.6 25,218 27,397 8.6 25,218 27,397 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 12.1 12,090 13,548 12.1 12,090 13,548 Kentucky
... ... 707 637 -9.9 707 637 4.3 32,193 33,586 4.0 32,900 34,223 Georgia
d
... ... 14 45 221.4 14 45 1.2 60,447 61,162 1.2 60,461 61,207 Florida
d
351 / 259 / -6.4 610 / 7.7 8,305 8,946 0.3 8,915 8,946 District of Col.
b,c,f
810 894 966 1,053 9.6 1,776 1,947 5.1 2,955 3,105 6.8 4,731 5,052 Delaware
b
... ... 405 75 -81.5 405 75 10.4 8,454 9,335 6.2 8,859 9,410 Arkansas
a
0 0 587 562 -4.3 587 562 2.8 19,816 20,368 2.6 20,403 20,930 Alabama
1,185 894 8,159 9,011 % 6.0 9,344 9,905 % 4.4 429,828 448,927 % 4.5 439,172 458,832 South
610 538 24 25 ... 634 563 ... 11,712 14,727 ... 12,346 15,290 Wisconsin
a,e
... ... / / / / 7.9 1,922 2,073 7.9 1,922 2,073 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 4.2 43,369 45,174 4.2 43,369 45,174 Ohio
d
... ... 66 75 13.6 66 75 8.0 611 660 8.6 677 735 North Dakota
... ... 53 62 17.0 53 62 3.6 3,009 3,118 3.9 3,062 3,180 Nebraska
... 0 / / / 0 8.6 20,539 22,305 8.6 20,539 22,305 Missouri
d
... 18 ... ... ... 18 2.6 4,924 5,050 2.9 4,924 5,068 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.7 40,429 42,715 5.7 40,429 42,715 Michigan
d
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.1 7,280 7,435 2.1 7,280 7,435 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 9.2 5,872 6,410 9.2 5,872 6,410 Iowa
d
5 6 150 153 2.6 155 159 5.5 15,797 16,673 5.5 15,952 16,832 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 4.8 36,603 38,358 4.8 36,603 38,358 Illinois
c,d
615 562 293 315 % -3.4 908 877 % 6.6 192,067 204,698 % 6.5 192,975 205,575 Midwest
175 159 132 264 37.8 307 423 1.8 780 794 12.0 1,087 1,217 Vermont
b,d
529 567 556 566 4.4 1,085 1,133 3.5 1,957 2,025 3.8 3,042 3,158 Rhode Island
b
2 1 0 5 200.0 2 6 1.4 33,058 33,534 1.5 33,060 33,540 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.7 65,981 65,539 -0.7 65,981 65,539 New York
... ... / / / / 2.9 26,209 26,957 2.9 26,209 26,957 New Jersey
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.0 1,957 2,055 5.0 1,957 2,055 New Hampshire
570 694 57 114 28.9 627 808 -0.1 10,419 10,406 1.5 11,046 11,214 Massachusetts
... ... 70 74 5.7 70 74 13.5 1,308 1,484 13.1 1,378 1,558 Maine
2,872 2,837 1,705 1,875 2.9 4,577 4,712 4.8 10,614 11,128 4.3 15,191 15,840 Connecticut
b
4,148 4,258 2,520 2,898 % 7.3 6,668 7,156 % 1.1 152,283 153,922 % 1.3 158,951 161,078 Northeast
10,177 10,326 13,673 14,434 3.8 23,850 24,760 4.8 985,415 1,032,339 4.7 1,009,265 1,057,099 State
11,509 12,255 3,627 3,964 % 7.2 15,136 16,219 % 6.9 82,708 88,448 % 7.0 97,844 104,667 Federal
a
21,686 22,581 17,300 18,398 % 5.1 38,986 40,979 % 4.9 1,068,123 1,120,787 % 4.9 1,107,109 1,161,766 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length
Table 5.2. Male prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997

74 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include
some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some
inmates for whom sentence length is unknown.
0 0 0 0 0 0 20.4 113 136 20.4 113 136 Wyoming
... ... / / / / 0.4 920 924 0.4 920 924 Washington
d
... ... 1 3 200.0 1 3 30.4 210 210 0.9 211 213 Utah
... ... 209 51 -75.6 209 51 10.2 362 399 -21.2 571 450 Oregon
0 0 39 53 35.9 39 53 -5.3 339 321 -1.1 378 374 New Mexico
0 0 / / 0 0 13.6 612 695 13.6 612 695 Nevada
d
... ... / / / / 38.0 121 167 38.0 121 167 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... -3.0 271 263 -3.0 271 263 Idaho
68 129 14 21 82.9 82 150 21.5 303 368 34.5 385 518 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / 12.3 845 949 12.3 845 949 Colorado
c
689 603 / / -12.5 689 603 9.5 9,418 10,311 8.0 10,107 10,914 California
c

0 0 100 145 45.0 100 145 6.6 1,415 1,415 3.0 1,515 1,560 Arizona
d
89 103 42 45 13.0 131 148 12.2 139 156 12.6 270 304 Alaska
b
846 835 405 318 % -7.8 1,251 1,153 % 8.3 15,068 16,314 % 7.0 16,319 17,467 West

4 / ... ... 33.3 4 / 28.3 145 186 24.8 149 186 West Virginia
f
... ... 83 122 47.0 83 122 -1.0 1,604 1,588 1.4 1,687 1,710 Virginia
... ... / / / / 3.7 9,933 10,300 3.7 9,933 10,300 Texas
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 16.0 688 798 16.0 688 798 Tennessee
d
0 0 99 138 39.4 99 138 5.5 1,103 1,164 8.3 1,202 1,302 South Carolina
... ... / / / / 5.8 1,940 2,053 5.8 1,940 2,053 Oklahoma
c
... ... 384 484 26.0 384 484 -7.3 1,484 1,376 -0.4 1,868 1,860 North Carolina
g,h
... ... 86 78 -9.3 86 78 9.8 805 884 8.0 891 962 Mississippi
... ... 86 118 37.2 86 118 2.2 969 990 5.0 1,055 1,108 Maryland
g
... ... ... ... ... ... 19.7 1,561 1,868 19.7 1,561 1,868 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 28.3 820 1,052 28.3 820 1,052 Kentucky
... ... 104 81 -22.1 104 81 3.1 2,135 2,201 1.9 2,239 2,282 Georgia
d
... ... 3 7 133.3 3 7 3.4 3,299 3,412 3.5 3,302 3,419 Florida
d
66 / 32 / -7.5 98 / 12.1 363 407 -11.7 461 407 District of Col.
b,c,f
89 96 126 128 4.2 215 224 -3.0 164 159 1.1 379 383 Delaware
b
... ... 10 10 233.3 10 10 11.7 538 601 11.5 548 611 Arkansas
a
0 0 65 48 -26.2 65 48 1.5 1,292 1,312 0.2 1,357 1,360 Alabama
159 96 1,078 1,214 % 5.9 1,237 1,310 % 5.2 28,843 30,351 % 5.3 30,080 31,661 South
13 73 4 2 -54.1 17 75 ... 628 912 ... 645 987 Wisconsin
a,e
... ... / / / / 19.9 141 169 19.9 141 169 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 1.3 2,805 2,842 1.3 2,805 2,842 Ohio
d
... ... 6 7 16.7 6 7 41.0 39 55 37.8 45 62 North Dakota
... ... 11 11 -15.4 11 11 -1.4 214 211 -1.3 225 222 Nebraska
... 0 / / / 0 15.6 1,464 1,693 15.6 1,464 1,693 Missouri
d
... 2 ... ... ... 2 9.4 234 256 10.3 234 258 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 7.1 1,920 2,056 7.1 1,920 2,056 Michigan
d
... ... ... ... ... ... 6.0 476 476 6.0 476 476 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 12.3 470 528 12.3 470 528 Iowa
d
5 2 9 12 75.0 14 14 6.3 994 1,057 6.3 1,008 1,071 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 8.0 2,249 2,430 8.0 2,249 2,430 Illinois
c,d
18 77 30 32 % 127.1 48 109 % 9.0 11,634 12,685 % 9.5 11,682 12,794 Midwest
7 11 4 8 72.7 11 19 61.9 21 34 65.6 32 53 Vermont
b,d
37 65 118 73 -11 155 138 1.4 74 75 -7.0 229 213 Rhode Island
b
0 0 0 1 0 1 -3.7 1,477 1,423 -3.6 1,477 1,424 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 0 0 0 -4.3 3,728 3,569 -4.3 3,728 3,569 New York
... ... / / / / 9.6 1,281 1,404 9.6 1,281 1,404 New Jersey
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 3.8 105 109 3.8 105 109 New Hampshire
130 109 159 183 1.0 289 292 -4.3 461 441 -2.3 750 733 Massachusetts
... ... 5 4 -20.0 5 4 34.9 43 58 29.2 48 62 Maine
267 272 356 337 -2.2 623 609 4.6 757 792 1.5 1,380 1,401 Connecticut
b
441 457 642 606 % -1.8 1,083 1,063 % -0.5 7,947 7,905 % -0.7 9,030 8,968 Northeast
1,464 1,465 2,155 2,170 0.4 3,619 3,635 5.9 63,492 67,255 5.6 67,111 70,890 State
998 1,055 595 712 % 10.9 1,593 1,767 % 7.1 6,107 6,539 % 7.9 7,700 8,306 Federal
a
2,462 2,520 2,750 2,882 % 3.6 5,212 5,402 % 6.0 69,599 73,794 % 5.9 74,811 79,196 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length


Table 5.3. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Prisoners in 1997 75
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons
are combined in one system.
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include
some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions
and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State
variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may
include some inmates for whom sentence length
is unknown.
0 0 295 323 295 323 Wyoming
1 / 233 234 234 234 Washington
d
4 1 230 206 234 207 Utah
21 13 217 232 238 245 Oregon
15 14 194 256 209 270 New Mexico
5 0 498 526 503 526 Nevada
d
/ / 212 286 212 286 Montana
c
... ... 271 320 271 320 Idaho
125 129 218 290 343 419 Hawaii
b
/ / 269 342 269 342 Colorado
c
9 9 469 470 478 480 California
c
25 25 484 484 509 509 Arizona
d
210 260 313 420 524 681 Alaska
b
14 13 390 403 403 416 West

1 / 131 174 132 174 West Virginia
f
5 13 359 407 364 419 Virginia
24 / 691 715 715 715 Texas
c
... ... 280 309 280 309 Tennessee
d
24 24 521 536 545 560 South Carolina
/ / 447 617 447 617 Oklahoma
c
53 54 361 368 414 422 North Carolina
g,h
12 23 365 499 377 522 Mississippi
22 22 406 413 428 435 Maryland
g
... ... 424 672 424 672 Louisiana
... ... 277 372 277 372 Kentucky
9 9 473 473 483 483 Georgia
d
0 0 437 437 437 437 Florida
d
103 / 1,242 1,785 1,345 1,785 District of Col.
b,c,f
295 295 443 443 738 738 Delaware
b
2 3 353 392 355 396 Arkansas
a
14 14 493 500 507 514 Alabama
16 12 464 506 480 517 South
5 12 259 302 264 314 Wisconsin
a,e
/ / 303 304 303 304 South Dakota
c
/ / 427 429 427 429 Ohio
d
13 13 116 112 129 125 North Dakota
6 4 196 200 202 205 Nebraska
0 0 442 443 443 443 Missouri
d
0 0 113 113 113 113 Minnesota
... ... 457 457 457 457 Michigan
d
... ... 304 304 304 304 Kansas
... ... 243 243 243 243 Iowa
d
3 3 278 301 281 304 Indiana
0 0 342 342 342 342 Illinois
c,d
1 2 341 347 342 349 Midwest
75 75 140 140 215 215 Vermont
b,d
124 129 211 213 335 342 Rhode Island
b
0 0 291 291 291 291 Pennsylvania
2 0 381 381 382 381 New York
/ / 316 351 316 351 New Jersey
c
2 ... 176 184 178 184 New Hampshire
16 18 162 177 178 195 Massachusetts
5 6 124 124 129 130 Maine
146 163 329 364 475 527 Connecticut
b
15 16 304 313 319 329 Northeast
12 11 388 409 400 419 State
5 7 33 35 38 42 Federal
a
17 17 420 444 438 461 U.S. total
State custody State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction jurisdiction
In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or Region and
Year or less/unsentenced More than a year Total

Number of prisoners per 100,000 resident population



or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1997
Table 5.4. Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction
76 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
however, the percentage of jurisdiction population was calculated
for all persons serving sentences to incarceration whether in State
prison or in jail.
/Not reported.
*Michigan is unable to distinguish the gender of prison inmates
housed in jails; therefore, all inmates are reported under males.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
Unlisted jurisdictions either had combined jail-prison systems or
did not report prisoners held in local jails. Alaska, Arizona,
Michigan, and New York did not include inmates housed in local
jails because of crowding in their jurisdiction count;
1.9 0 0 16 29 16 29 Wyoming
8.1 63 67 245 282 308 349 Utah
0.1 26 0 65 9 91 9 Oregon
11.9 0 0 307 557 307 557 New Mexico
8.5 5 20 80 193 85 213 Montana
0.8 0 0 0 31 0 31 Idaho
14.0 16 127 1,147 1,759 1,163 1,886 Colorado
0.9 0 0 124 211 124 211 Arizona
1.3 0 / 0 55 0 55 Alaska
% 1.3 110 214 1,984 3,126 2,094 3,340 West

24.6 11 67 275 708 286 775 West Virginia
13.2 343 488 2,163 3,265 2,506 3,753 Virginia
8.6 247 186 1,711 1,242 1,958 1,428 Tennessee
1.9 23 29 390 371 413 400 South Carolina
3.9 58 109 227 693 285 802 Oklahoma
0.9 0 0 516 280 516 280 North Carolina
27.6 116 69 3,126 3,882 3,242 3,951 Mississippi
36.9 774 927 8,373 9,868 9,147 10,795 Louisiana
7.8 57 68 721 1,076 778 1,144 Kentucky
13.7 0 0 1,201 1,376 1,201 1,376 Arkansas
8.8 76 92 1,092 1,873 1,168 1,965 Alabama
% 5.4 1,705 2,035 19,795 24,634 21,500 26,669 South
1.8 12 18 326 276 338 294 Wisconsin
9.9 5 6 86 73 91 79 North Dakota
0.2 0 0 0 55 0 55 Missouri
0.9 0 0 208 50 208 50 Minnesota
0.3 / / 330 151 330 151 Michigan*
7.4 70 30 1,124 1,293 1,194 1,323 Indiana
% 0.9 87 54 2,074 1,898 2,161 1,952 Midwest
0.1 0 25 0 0 0 25 Pennsylvania
1.3 0 15 0 903 0 918 New York
10.1 266 118 4,101 2,746 4,367 2,864 New Jersey
3.0 0 0 65 66 65 66 New Hampshire
4.1 0 18 554 466 554 484 Massachusetts
% 2.5 266 176 4,720 4,181 4,986 4,357 Northeast
% 2.9 2,168 2,479 28,573 33,839 30,741 36,318 U.S. total
12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
all prisoners Female Male Total Region and
as a percent of Number of prisoners housed in jails
Prisoners in jails

by gender, 1996 and 1997
Table 5.5. Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded State facilities,

Prisoners in 1997 77
c
Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known."
d
The numbers in racial categories were estimated.
e
Massachusetts' American Indian prisoners are reported combined
under "Not known."
f
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
g
Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not known."
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory
Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
/Not reported.
a
See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State reporting
of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders.
b
Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
in one system.
182 0 5 90 82 1,190 1,549 Wyoming
c
129 / 320 427 2,962 9,376 13,214 Washington
30 / 99 135 328 3,709 4,301 Utah
868 / 101 181 1,010 5,839 7,999 Oregon
0 / 13 238 545 3,892 4,688 New Mexico
1,296 / 113 159 2,407 5,049 9,024 Nevada
c,d
48 0 0 376 35 2,058 2,517 Montana
c
501 / 18 162 65 3,165 3,911 Idaho
d
879 2,041 754 38 232 1,034 4,978 Hawaii
b,d
232 / 79 268 3,320 9,562 13,461 Colorado
d
57,914 80 1,311 1,197 48,331 46,957 155,790 California
c
231 / 60 984 3,523 18,686 23,484 Arizona
f
142 / 77 1,451 600 1,895 4,165 Alaska
b,c
62,452 2,121 2,950 5,706 63,440 112,412 249,081 West

0 0 1 2 502 2,643 3,148 West Virginia
102 / 87 5 18,970 9,221 28,385 Virginia
c,g
37,771 / / / 63,883 38,697 140,351 Texas
c
75 / 16 17 8,437 8,114 16,659 Tennessee
c
108 / 3 18 14,762 6,282 21,173 South Carolina
c
806 / 33 1,418 7,097 11,188 20,542 Oklahoma
c
441 / 43 666 20,418 10,044 31,612 North Carolina
45 / 14 14 10,663 3,560 14,296 Mississippi
c
27 / 8 3 17,196 4,998 22,232 Maryland
46 / 0 7 22,360 6,852 29,265 Louisiana
c
25 / 7 6 5,586 8,976 14,600 Kentucky
34 / 39 57 24,392 11,983 36,505 Georgia
f
1,359 / 3 48 35,771 27,445 64,626 Florida
c,f
166 / 0 0 9,096 91 9,353 Dist. of Col.
b
5 / 6 1 3,481 1,942 5,435 Delaware
b
7 0 15 8 5,543 4,448 10,021 Arkansas
77 / 1 3 14,594 7,615 22,290 Alabama
41,094 0 276 2,273 282,751 164,099 490,493 South
127 / 71 381 7,788 7,910 16,277 Wisconsin
0 / / 438 99 1,705 2,242 South Dakota
136 / 48 48 25,938 21,846 48,016 Ohio
d
0 / 7 159 20 611 797 North Dakota
4 / 18 135 1,008 2,237 3,402 Nebraska
d
2 / 30 81 10,968 12,917 23,998 Missouri
420 / / 383 1,964 2,559 5,326 Minnesota
c
1,073 / 57 223 24,936 18,482 44,771 Michigan
c,f
60 / 66 149 3,028 4,608 7,911 Kansas
286 / 46 110 1,696 4,800 6,938 Iowa
c,f
0 0 19 45 7,707 10,132 17,903 Indiana
4,151 / 64 56 26,522 9,995 40,788 Illinois
c,f
6,259 0 426 2,208 111,674 97,802 218,369 Midwest
28 / 5 8 36 1,193 1,270 Vermont
b,f
0 0 34 5 1,175 2,157 3,371 Rhode Island
b
3,312 / 102 71 19,847 11,632 34,964 Pennsylvania
c
1,370 / 391 204 37,488 29,655 69,108 New York
2,393 / 75 5 18,572 7,316 28,361 New Jersey
c
3 0 21 1 120 2,019 2,164 New Hampshire
2,756 0 118 35 3,448 5,590 11,947 Massachusetts
c,e
79 / 0 14 58 1,469 1,620 Maine
d
4,471 0 55 26 8,059 4,630 17,241 Connecticut
b,c
14,412 0 801 369 88,803 65,661 170,046 Northeast
124,217 2,121 4,453 10,556 546,668 439,974 1,127,989 State
0 / 1,831 1,817 43,786 65,539 112,973 Federal
124,217 2,121 6,284 12,373 590,454 505,513 1,240,962 U.S. total
Islander
a
Asian Alaska Native Black White 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Pacific American Indian/ population Region and
or other Prisoner
Not
known
Native Hawaiian
Number of prisoners
Table 5.6. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997
78 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
c
Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under “Not known.”
d
The numbers in racial categories were estimated.
e
Massachusetts’ American Indian prisoners are reported under “Not
known.”
f
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
g
Virginia’s Chinese prisoners are reported under “Not known.”
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
/Not reported.
a
See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State reporting
of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders.
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
169 / 5 88 74 1,077 1,413 Wyoming
c
103 / 306 382 2,742 8,757 12,290 Washington
27 / 93 131 318 3,519 4,088 Utah
861 / 98 155 940 5,495 7,549 Oregon
0 / 13 218 488 3,595 4,314 New Mexico
1,250 / 110 141 2,208 4,620 8,329 Nevada
c,d
47 0 0 335 33 1,935 2,350 Montana
c
494 / 18 150 59 2,927 3,648 Idaho
d
808 1,812 710 32 208 890 4,460 Hawaii
b,d
178 / 77 249 3,030 8,978 12,512 Colorado
d
54,913 77 1,280 1,058 44,682 42,866 144,876 California
c
222 / 57 900 3,255 17,490 21,924 Arizona
f
135 / 75 1,370 538 1,743 3,861 Alaska
b,c
59,207 1,889 2,842 5,209 58,575 103,892 231,614 West

0 0 1 2 472 2,487 2,962 West Virginia
100 / 85 4 17,859 8,627 26,675 Virginia
c,g
36,154 / / / 58,393 35,504 130,051 Texas
c
70 / 16 15 8,121 7,639 15,861 Tennessee
c
100 / 3 17 13,893 5,858 19,871 South Carolina
c
770 / 30 1,277 6,310 10,102 18,489 Oklahoma
c
422 / 40 626 19,346 9,318 29,752 North Carolina
42 / 13 13 9,946 3,320 13,334 Mississippi
c
27 / 7 2 16,423 4,665 21,124 Maryland
43 / 0 7 21,085 6,262 27,397 Louisiana
c
25 / 7 6 5,176 8,334 13,548 Kentucky
34 / 37 53 22,996 11,103 34,223 Georgia
f
1,239 / 3 39 33,958 25,968 61,207 Florida
c,f
166 / 0 0 8,704 76 8,946 District of Col.
b
4 / 5 0 3,237 1,806 5,052 Delaware
b
7 0 14 7 5,222 4,160 9,410 Arkansas
72 / 1 3 13,784 7,070 20,930 Alabama
39,275 0 262 2,071 264,925 152,299 458,832 South

117 / 68 355 7,292 7,458 15,290 Wisconsin
0 / / 381 93 1,599 2,073 South Dakota
136 / 47 48 24,344 20,599 45,174 Ohio
d
0 / 6 143 19 567 735 North Dakota
3 / 16 124 932 2,105 3,180 Nebraska
d
2 / 26 71 10,225 11,981 22,305 Missouri
409 / / 366 1,858 2,435 5,068 Minnesota
c
1,040 / 55 212 23,763 17,645 42,715 Michigan
c,f
59 / 66 141 2,830 4,339 7,435 Kansas
277 / 45 91 1,569 4,428 6,410 Iowa
c,f
0 0 19 42 7,262 9,509 16,832 Indiana
4,003 / 59 43 24,841 9,412 38,358 Illinois
c,f
6,046 0 407 2,017 105,028 92,077 205,575 Midwest
23 / 5 8 35 1,146 1,217 Vermont
b,f
0 0 32 5 1,119 2,002 3,158 Rhode Island
b
3,201 / 101 67 19,108 11,063 33,540 Pennsylvania
c
1,286 / 386 199 35,394 28,274 65,539 New York
2,345 / 73 5 17,653 6,881 26,957 New Jersey
c
1 0 21 0 117 1,916 2,055 New Hampshire
2,589 0 114 34 3,290 5,187 11,214 Massachusetts
c,e
77 / 0 13 56 1,412 1,558 Maine
d
4,169 / 52 25 7,456 4,138 15,840 Connecticut
,b,c
13,691 0 784 356 84,228 62,019 161,078 Northeast
118,219 1,889 4,295 9,653 512,756 410,287 1,057,099 State
0 / 1,680 1,714 40,614 60,659 104,667 Federal
118,219 1,889 5,975 11,367 553,370 470,946 1,161,766 U.S. total
known Islander
a
Asian Alaska Native Black White 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Not Pacific American Indian/ population Region and
or other Prisoner
Native Hawaiian
Number of prisoners
Table 5.7. Male prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997


Prisoners in 1997 79
prisons are combined in one system.
c
Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known."
d
The numbers in racial categories were estimated.
e
Massachusetts' American Indian prisoners are reported under "Not known."
f
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
g
Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not known."
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions
and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations
from definitions.
/Not reported.
a
See the Explanatory notes for details on State-by-State
reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders.
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and
13 / 0 2 8 113 136 Wyoming
c
26 / 14 45 220 619 924 Washington
3 / 6 4 10 190 213 Utah
7 / 3 26 70 344 450 Oregon
0 / 0 20 57 297 374 New Mexico
46 / 3 18 199 429 695 Nevada
c,d
1 0 0 41 2 123 167 Montana
c
7 / 0 12 6 238 263 Idaho
d
71 229 44 6 24 144 518 Hawaii
b,d
54 / 2 19 290 584 949 Colorado
d
3,001 3 31 139 3,649 4,091 10,914 California
c
9 / 3 84 268 1,196 1,560 Arizona
f
7 / 2 81 62 152 304 Alaska
b,c
3,245 232 108 497 4,865 8,520 17,467 West

0 0 0 0 30 156 186 West Virginia
2 / 2 1 1,111 594 1,710 Virginia
c,g
1,617 / / / 5,490 3,193 10,300 Texas
c
5 / 0 2 316 475 798 Tennessee
c
8 / 0 1 869 424 1,302 South Carolina
c
36 / 3 141 787 1,086 2,053 Oklahoma
c
19 / 3 40 1,072 726 1,860 North Carolina
3 / 1 1 717 240 962 Mississippi
c
0 / 1 1 773 333 1,108 Maryland
3 / 0 0 1,275 590 1,868 Louisiana
c
0 / 0 0 410 642 1,052 Kentucky
0 / 2 4 1,396 880 2,282 Georgia
f
120 / 0 9 1,813 1,477 3,419 Florida
c,f
0 / 0 0 392 15 407 District of Col.
b
1 / 1 1 244 136 383 Delaware
b
0 0 1 1 321 288 611 Arkansas
5 / 0 0 810 545 1,360 Alabama
1,819 0 14 202 17,826 11,800 31,661 South
10 / 3 26 496 452 987 Wisconsin
0 / / 57 6 106 169 South Dakota
0 / 1 0 1,594 1,247 2,842 Ohio
d
0 / 1 16 1 44 62 North Dakota
1 / 2 11 76 132 222 Nebraska
d
0 / 4 10 743 936 1,693 Missouri
11 / / 17 106 124 258 Minnesota
c
33 / 2 11 1,173 837 2,056 Michigan
c,f
1 / 0 8 198 269 476 Kansas
9 / 1 19 127 372 528 Iowa
c,f
0 0 0 3 445 623 1,071 Indiana
148 / 5 13 1,681 583 2,430 Illinois
c,f
213 0 19 191 6,646 5,725 12,794 Midwest
5 / 0 0 1 47 53 Vermont
b,f
0 0 2 0 56 155 213 Rhode Island
b
111 / 1 4 739 569 1,424 Pennsylvania
c
84 / 5 5 2,094 1,381 3,569 New York
48 / 2 0 919 435 1,404 New Jersey
c
2 0 0 1 3 103 109 New Hampshire
167 0 4 1 158 403 733 Massachusetts
c,e
2 / 0 1 2 57 62 Maine
d
302 / 3 1 603 492 1,401 Connecticut
b,c
721 0 17 13 4,575 3,642 8,968 Northeast
5,998 232 158 903 33,912 29,687 70,890 State
0 / 151 103 3,172 4,880 8,306 Federal
5,998 232 309 1,006 37,084 34,567 79,196 U.S. total
known Islander
a
Asian Alaska Native Black White 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Not Pacific American Indian/ population Region and
or other Prisoner
Native Hawaiian
Number of prisoners
Table 5.8. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1997


80 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
b
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
c
Michigan reported only Mexican-Americans as Hispanic prisoners
and reported other Hispanic inmates as non-Hispanic.
d
Data for Hispanic prisoners are estimated.
e
State does not distinguish ethnicity of prisoners.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
0 123 13 136 0 1,244 169 1,413 0 1,367 182 1,549 Wyoming
37 804 83 924 133 10,382 1,775 12,290 170 11,186 1,858 13,214 Washington
3 174 36 213 27 3,261 800 4,088 30 3,435 836 4,301 Utah
0 443 7 450 1 6,688 860 7,549 1 7,131 867 7,999 Oregon
0 199 175 374 0 1,849 2,465 4,314 0 2,048 2,640 4,688 New Mexico
0 651 44 695 3 7,102 1,224 8,329 3 7,753 1,268 9,024 Nevada
d
0 166 1 167 0 2,303 47 2,350 0 2,469 48 2,517 Montana
71 155 37 263 611 2,561 476 3,648 682 2,716 513 3,911 Idaho
d
8 493 17 518 107 4,132 221 4,460 115 4,625 238 4,978 Hawaii
a,d
54 714 181 949 178 8,784 3,550 12,512 232 9,498 3,731 13,461 Colorado
d
416 7,913 2,585 10,914 3,918 89,963 50,995 144,876 4,334 97,876 53,580 155,790 California
0 1,193 367 1,560 0 14,559 7,365 21,924 0 15,752 7,732 23,484 Arizona
b
0 297 7 304 4 3,726 131 3,861 4 4,023 138 4,165 Alaska
a
589 13,325 3,553 17,467 4,982 156,554 70,078 231,614 5,571 169,879 73,631 249,081 West
0 186 0 186 0 2,959 3 2,962 0 3,145 3 3,148 West Virginia
1,708 0 2 1,710 26,586 0 89 26,675 28,294 0 91 28,385 Virginia
0 8,730 1,570 10,300 0 94,484 35,567 130,051 0 103,214 37,137 140,351 Texas
0 793 5 798 0 15,791 70 15,861 0 16,584 75 16,659 Tennessee
320 979 3 1,302 55 19,700 116 19,871 375 20,679 119 21,173 South Carolina
0 2,017 36 2,053 0 17,763 726 18,489 0 19,780 762 20,542 Oklahoma
1,860 / / 1,860 29,752 / / 29,752 31,612 / / 31,612 North Carolina
e
0 961 1 962 2 13,279 53 13,334 2 14,240 54 14,296 Mississippi
1,108 / / 1,108 21,124 / / 21,124 22,232 / / 22,232 Maryland
e
1,868 / / 1,868 27,397 / / 27,397 29,265 / / 29,265 Louisiana
e
0 1,050 2 1,052 0 13,486 62 13,548 0 14,536 64 14,600 Kentucky
2,272 0 10 2,282 33,933 0 290 34,223 36,205 0 300 36,505 Georgia
b
15 3,216 188 3,419 51 55,802 5,354 61,207 66 59,018 5,542 64,626 Florida
b
0 407 0 407 166 8,776 4 8,946 166 9,183 4 9,353 District of Col.
a
6 364 13 383 86 4,767 199 5,052 92 5,131 212 5,435 Delaware
a
0 608 3 611 0 9,339 71 9,410 0 9,947 74 10,021 Arkansas
0 1,360 0 1,360 0 20,929 1 20,930 0 22,289 1 22,290 Alabama
9,157 20,671 1,833 31,661 139,152 277,075 42,605 458,832 148,309 297,746 44,438 490,493 South
14 927 46 987 222 14,140 928 15,290 236 15,067 974 16,277 Wisconsin
169 / / 169 2,073 / / 2,073 2,242 / / 2,242 South Dakota
e
0 2,794 48 2,842 136 44,222 816 45,174 136 47,016 864 48,016 Ohio
d
0 59 3 62 0 698 37 735 0 757 40 797 North Dakota
0 209 13 222 0 2,996 184 3,180 0 3,205 197 3,402 Nebraska
d
5 1,670 18 1,693 24 22,003 278 22,305 29 23,673 296 23,998 Missouri
0 248 10 258 0 4,748 320 5,068 0 4,996 330 5,326 Minnesota
0 2,028 28 2,056 2 41,788 925 42,715 2 43,816 953 44,771 Michigan
b,c
1 457 18 476 59 6,869 507 7,435 60 7,326 525 7,911 Kansas
1 519 8 528 2 6,133 275 6,410 3 6,652 283 6,938 Iowa
b
0 1,052 19 1,071 0 16,438 394 16,832 0 17,490 413 17,903 Indiana
0 2,282 148 2,430 2 34,355 4,001 38,358 2 36,637 4,149 40,788 Illinois
b
190 12,245 359 12,794 2,520 194,390 8,665 205,575 2,710 206,635 9,024 218,369 Midwest
5 48 0 53 18 1,177 22 1,217 23 1,225 22 1,270 Vermont
a,b
0 194 19 213 0 2,673 485 3,158 0 2,867 504 3,371 Rhode Island
a
4 1,313 107 1,424 17 30,339 3,184 33,540 21 31,652 3,291 34,964 Pennsylvania
26 2,429 1,114 3,569 218 44,014 21,307 65,539 244 46,443 22,421 69,108 New York
0 1,219 185 1,404 0 22,113 4,844 26,957 0 23,332 5,029 28,361 New Jersey
15 88 6 109 554 1,409 92 2,055 569 1,497 98 2,164 New Hampshire
2 564 167 733 195 8,552 2,467 11,214 197 9,116 2,634 11,947 Massachusetts
2 60 0 62 72 1,486 0 1,558 74 1,546 0 1,620 Maine
0 1,099 302 1,401 0 11,671 4,169 15,840 0 12,770 4,471 17,241 Connecticut
a
54 7,014 1,900 8,968 1,074 123,434 36,570 161,078 1,128 130,448 38,470 170,046 Northeast
9,990 53,255 7,645 70,890 147,728 751,453 157,918 1,057,099 157,718 804,708 165,563 1,127,989 State
0 6,105 2,201 8,306 0 73,758 30,909 104,667 0 79,863 33,110 112,973 Federal
9,990 59,360 9,846 79,196 147,728 825,211 188,827 1,161,766 157,718 884,571 198,673 1,240,962 U.S. total
known Hispanic Hispanic Total known Hispanic Hispanic Total known Hispanic Hispanic 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Not Non- Not Non- Not Non- population Region and
Prisoner
Female Male Total
Number of prisoners
Table 5.9. Prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1997

Prisoners in 1997 81
f
Some or all data for the admission
categories are estimated.
g
Other admissions may include returns from
appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.
h
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
i
Nevada's escapee returns may be included
in any other admission category.
j
Oregon's transfers may be included in any
other admission category.
c
New court commitments may include a small
number of other admissions. See Explanatory
notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction
counts.
e
Vermont's Escape and AWOL data may include
an undetermined number of returns from
appeal/bond.
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Counts include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Data by sentence length may be slightly
incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
0 1 0 9 203 480 693 1,478 Wyoming
c
0 0 16 156 785 5,804 6,761 12,527 Washington
b
0 0 2 4 1,444 1,385 2,835 3,976 Utah
0 / 30 62 1,075 2,097 3,264 7,316 Oregon
j
0 48 0 9 1,137 1,839 3,033 4,506 New Mexico
510 / / / 728 3,295 4,533 8,325 Nevada
b,c,i
0 4 / 35 338 826 1,203 2,230 Montana
b
0 / 0 10 529 1,787 2,326 3,831 Idaho
0 0 0 25 1,079 1,735 2,839 2,954 Hawaii
a,f
0 6 6 340 1,613 4,368 6,333 12,438 Colorado
b,h
0 285 / 276 85,196 46,766 132,523 142,865 California
b
0 40 0 10 2,232 6,940 9,222 21,523 Arizona
d
0 1 3 38 782 1,861 2,685 2,335 Alaska
a
510 385 57 974 97,141 79,183 178,250 226,304 West
0 8 6 4 186 873 1,077 2,725 West Virginia
b
0 / / / 1,477 9,451 10,928 27,062 Virginia
8,920 / 0 0 10,089 25,408 44,417 132,383 Texas
b
0 40 / 71 4,200 5,001 9,312 15,626 Tennessee
b
131 / 7 37 2,218 5,817 8,210 19,758 South Carolina
0 0 0 211 182 7,211 7,604 19,593 Oklahoma
b,c
182 0 0 144 2,912 9,078 12,316 27,751 North Carolina
b
55 0 / 72 353 5,204 5,684 13,143 Mississippi
c,g
31 31 / 95 2,985 7,263 10,405 20,980 Maryland
c,f
230 22 480 95 8,471 6,411 15,709 26,779 Louisiana
34 0 ... 111 2,085 6,004 8,234 12,910 Kentucky
1 22 5 82 3,552 11,717 15,379 34,415 Georgia
d
653 99 13 202 3,141 21,580 25,688 63,746 Florida
d
24 623 0 816 2,134 3,429 7,026 9,349 District of Col.
a,b
250 1 0 41 407 1,063 1,762 3,119 Delaware
a
760 13 20 9 1,663 3,262 5,727 8,992 Arkansas
b
57 37 78 265 1,370 7,796 9,603 21,108 Alabama
11,328 896 609 2,255 47,425 136,568 199,081 459,439 South
1,412 0 ... / 1,589 4,470 7,471 14,195 Wisconsin
41 1 0 1 168 950 1,161 2,064 South Dakota
b
0 14 19 4 3,964 16,150 20,151 46,174 Ohio
b
0 0 0 7 109 475 591 650 North Dakota
0 0 / 15 310 1,322 1,647 3,223 Nebraska
1,062 0 11 908 3,262 8,241 13,484 22,003 Missouri
0 / / / 1,057 2,540 3,597 5,158 Minnesota
639 15 67 1,053 3,956 8,230 13,960 42,349 Michigan
d
66 / / 6 1,323 2,778 4,173 7,756 Kansas
c
56 90 52 622 751 2,870 4,441 6,342 Iowa
d
0 30 / 18 837 8,989 9,874 16,791 Indiana
c
1 / 14 1,028 6,145 19,495 26,683 38,852 Illinois
b,d
3,277 150 163 3,662 23,471 76,510 107,233 205,557 Midwest
497 5 / 100 245 210 1,057 801 Vermont
a,d,e
2 5 2 8 264 703 984 2,031 Rhode Island
a,b
158 128 19 97 3,207 5,975 9,584 34,534 Pennsylvania
29 563 70 1,568 6,834 20,804 29,868 69,709 New York
c
0 / / 1 6,064 10,147 16,212 27,490 New Jersey
b,c
0 0 / 15 347 677 1,039 2,071 New Hampshire
0 384 / 14 805 2,232 3,435 10,880 Massachusetts
84 32 0 0 104 630 850 1,351 Maine
381 1 5 115 752 886 2,140 11,371 Connecticut
a
1,151 1,118 96 1,918 18,622 42,264 65,169 160,238 Northeast
16,266 2,549 925 8,809 186,659 334,525 549,733 1,051,538 State
240 538 / / 3,106 30,560 34,444 88,815 Federal
16,506 3,087 925 8,809 189,765 365,085 584,177 1,140,353 U.S. total
admissions jurisdictions or bond returned violators returned commitments Total 1/1/97 jurisdiction
Other from other from appeal and AWOL’s conditional release New court population Region and
Transfers Returns Escapees Parole or other Prisoner
Number of sentenced prisoners admitted during 1996
Table 5.10a. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1997

82 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
c
Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect.
See Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
Some or all data for release categories are estimated.
f
Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory
notes.
g
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
h
Nevada’s escapees may be included in any other release category.
i
Oregon’s transfers may be included in any other release category.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
b
Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or
appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.
1,549 0 2 30 3 0 256 331 622 Wyoming
13,214 0 23 0 26 158 1,850 4,017 6,074 Washington
c
4,280 0 3 0 23 3 192 2,310 2,531 Utah
7,589 17 19 / 30 54 8 2,863 2,991 Oregon
i
4,450 0 7 33 1 9 1,139 1,900 3,089 New Mexico
9,024 27 25 / 0 / 1,939 1,843 3,834 Nevada
c,h
2,517 0 4 4 2 36 205 665 916 Montana
c
3,911 0 10 0 0 10 280 1,946 2,246 Idaho
3,448 323 8 5 143 37 140 1,689 2,345 Hawaii
a,e
13,461 127 34 0 3 343 1,021 3,782 5,310 Colorado
c,g
152,739 5,017 268 33 / 407 1,874 115,050 122,649 California
c,f
22,353 436 61 3 2 3 864 7,023 8,392 Arizona
d
2,571 0 4 15 2 41 622 1,765 2,449 Alaska
a
241,106 5,947 468 123 235 1,101 10,390 145,184 163,448 West
3,148 0 9 0 2 4 249 390 654 West Virginia
c
27,524 0 92 / / 2 3,954 6,418 10,466 Virginia
140,351 6,970 341 / / 0 1,896 27,242 36,449 Texas
c
16,659 0 70 129 / 78 1,734 6,268 8,279 Tennessee
c
20,264 177 55 0 15 39 3,092 4,326 7,704 South Carolina
20,542 0 68 0 0 180 2,769 3,638 6,655 Oklahoma
c
27,567 0 56 0 0 135 3,908 8,401 12,500 North Carolina
c
13,676 504 47 0 / 66 2,160 2,374 5,151 Mississippi
f
21,088 31 54 7 / 88 998 9,119 10,297 Maryland
b,e
29,265 6 80 35 / 97 565 12,440 13,223 Louisiana
14,600 77 28 4 / 109 3,079 3,247 6,544 Kentucky
35,787 1 114 661 / 69 3,297 9,865 14,007 Georgia
d
64,574 393 242 157 28 186 14,836 9,018 24,860 Florida
d
9,353 8 25 648 1 483 2,550 3,667 7,382 District of Col.
a,b,c
3,264 289 12 33 0 0 783 500 1,617 Delaware
a,b
9,936 33 31 55 30 9 645 3,980 4,783 Arkansas
c
21,680 4 91 83 84 266 3,185 5,318 9,031 Alabama
479,278 8,493 1,415 1,812 160 1,811 49,700 116,211 179,602 South
15,639 162 22 0 ... / 119 4,838 5,141 Wisconsin
c
2,242 0 6 0 1 3 363 610 983 South Dakota
c
48,016 0 117 16 34 8 11,145 6,989 18,309 Ohio
c
715 0 1 0 0 7 164 354 526 North Dakota
3,329 0 10 0 / 25 743 763 1,541 Nebraska
23,998 6 48 10 17 941 947 9,520 11,489 Missouri
5,306 0 6 / / / 453 2,990 3,449 Minnesota
44,771 307 99 15 0 1,307 1,052 8,758 11,538 Michigan
d
7,911 0 24 / 8 11 283 3,692 4,018 Kansas
6,938 49 9 1 61 6 686 3,033 3,845 Iowa
d
17,730 0 45 0 / 12 554 8,324 8,935 Indiana
40,788 63 101 / 19 1,060 1,031 22,473 24,747 Illinois
c,d
217,383 587 488 42 140 3,380 17,540 72,344 94,521 Midwest
828 0 1 3 0 0 90 936 1,030 Vermont
a,d
2,100 3 6 12 11 8 12 863 915 Rhode Island
a,c
34,957 0 109 70 25 79 1,683 7,195 9,161 Pennsylvania
69,108 26 221 634 105 1,605 1,616 26,262 30,469 New York
28,361 0 101 0 75 1 3,645 11,519 15,341 New Jersey
c
2,164 0 5 0 0 15 197 729 946 New Hampshire
10,847 0 24 371 0 17 2,062 994 3,468 Massachusetts
b
1,542 0 1 0 0 5 441 212 659 Maine
11,920 1 33 60 1 88 226 1,182 1,591 Connecticut
a
161,827 30 501 1,150 217 1,818 9,972 49,892 63,580 Northeast
1,099,594 15,057 2,872 3,127 752 8,110 87,602 383,631 501,151 State
94,987 2,541 238 179 / / 22,294 2,445 27,697 Federal
1,194,581 17,598 3,110 3,306 752 8,110 109,896 386,076 528,848 U.S. total
12/31/96 releases Deaths jurisdictions or bond and AWOL’s releases releases Total jurisdiction
population Other to other appeal Escapees Unconditional Conditional Region and
Prisoner Transfers Out on
Number of sentenced prisoners released during 1997
Table 5.10b. Sentenced prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Prisoners in 1997 83
appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.
h
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
i
Nevada's escapee returns may be included in
any other admission category.
j
Oregon's transfers may be included in any
other admission category.
c
New court commitments may include a small
number of other admissions. See Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
Vermont's escape and AWOL data may include
an undetermined number of returns from
appeal/bond.
f
Some or all data for the admission categories
are estimated.
g
Other admissions may include returns from
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Data by sentence length may be slightly
incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
0 1 0 9 201 390 601 1,365 Wyoming
c
0 0 14 137 665 5,174 5,990 11,607 Washington
b
0 0 2 4 1,327 1,240 2,573 3,766 Utah
0 / 30 58 1,000 1,909 2,997 6,954 Oregon
j
0 47 0 9 1,056 1,587 2,699 4,167 New Mexico
473 / / / 683 2,913 4,069 7,713 Nevada
b,c,i
0 4 / 35 335 707 1,081 2,109 Montana
b
0 / 0 10 476 1,540 2,026 3,555 Idaho
0 0 0 23 944 1,478 2,445 2,651 Hawaii
a,f
0 5 6 281 1,487 3,931 5,710 11,593 Colorado
b,h
0 266 / 256 77,834 41,563 119,919 133,447 California
b
0 39 0 5 1,988 6,376 8,408 20,108 Arizona
d
0 1 3 26 705 1,611 2,346 2,196 Alaska
a
473 363 55 853 88,701 70,419 160,864 211,231 West
0 6 6 4 170 801 987 2,580 West Virginia
b
0 / / / 1,321 8,471 9,792 25,458 Virginia
7,330 / 0 0 9,230 22,401 38,961 122,450 Texas
b
0 34 / 68 3,851 4,493 8,446 14,938 Tennessee
b
128 / 6 36 2,082 5,269 7,521 18,655 South Carolina
0 0 0 177 150 6,164 6,491 17,653 Oklahoma
b,c
163 0 0 140 2,651 8,284 11,238 26,267 North Carolina
b
53 0 / 65 325 4,664 5,107 12,338 Mississippi
c,g
31 31 / 87 2,813 6,541 9,503 20,011 Maryland
c,f
212 22 416 95 7,590 5,830 14,165 25,218 Louisiana
30 0 ... 102 1,890 5,297 7,319 12,090 Kentucky
1 22 5 74 3,332 10,506 13,940 32,240 Georgia
d
617 97 11 188 2,965 19,789 23,667 60,447 Florida
d
24 600 0 746 1,988 3,097 6,455 8,919 District of Col.
a,b
240 1 0 36 369 951 1,597 2,955 Delaware
a
708 11 18 9 1,535 2,955 5,236 8,454 Arkansas
b
55 33 71 236 1,251 7,004 8,650 19,816 Alabama
9,592 857 533 2,063 43,513 122,517 179,075 430,489 South
1,308 0 ... / 1,503 4,066 6,877 13,366 Wisconsin
38 1 0 1 151 831 1,022 1,922 South Dakota
b
0 14 13 4 3,763 14,154 17,948 43,369 Ohio
b
0 0 0 7 101 427 535 611 North Dakota
0 0 / 12 267 1,191 1,470 3,009 Nebraska
958 0 11 820 2,953 7,252 11,994 20,539 Miissouri
0 / / / 990 2,308 3,298 4,924 Minnesota
593 15 30 934 3,717 7,603 12,892 40,429 Michigan
d
58 / / 6 1,220 2,433 3,717 7,280 Kansas
c
50 81 45 522 653 2,538 3,889 5,872 Iowa
d
0 27 / 14 779 8,163 8,983 15,797 Indiana
c
0 / 14 897 5,796 17,495 24,202 36,603 Illinois
b,d
3,005 138 113 3,217 21,893 68,461 96,827 193,721 Midwest
454 5 / 98 234 200 991 780 Vermont
a,d,e
2 5 1 6 244 671 929 1,957 Rhode Island
a,b
138 122 17 95 3,083 5,547 9,002 33,058 Pennsylvania
28 522 64 1,416 6,480 19,129 27,639 65,981 New York
c
0 / / 1 5,533 9,262 14,796 26,209 New Jersey
b,c
0 0 / 15 330 620 965 1,965 New Hampshire
0 380 / 14 750 1,994 3,138 10,419 Massachusetts
73 31 0 0 100 606 810 1,308 Maine
317 1 5 105 657 813 1,898 10,614 Connecticut
a
1,012 1,066 87 1,750 17,411 38,842 60,168 152,291 Northeast
14,082 2,424 788 7,883 171,518 300,239 496,934 987,732 State
229 416 / / 2,851 27,694 31,190 82,708 Federal
14,311 2,840 788 7,883 174,369 327,933 528,124 1,070,440 U.S. total
admissions jurisdictions or bond returned violators returned commitments Total 1/1/97 jurisdiction
Other from other from appeal and AWOL’s conditional release New court prisoners Region and
Transfers Returns Escapees Parole or other of male
Number of sentenced male prisoners admitted during 1997 Number

Table 5.11a. Sentenced male prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1997
84 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
g
Other releases may include some releases
to appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.
h
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
i
Nevada's escapees may be included in
any other release category.
j
Oregon's transfers may be included in any
other release category.
releases to probation or appeal/bond.
See Explanatory notes.
c
Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly
incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by
gender; therefore, all deaths are reported under males.
f
Some or all data for release categories are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Unconditional releases may include some
1,413 0 2 30 3 0 231 287 553 Wyoming
12,290 0 22 0 24 141 1,664 3,456 5,307 Washington
c
4,070 0 3 0 21 3 179 2,063 2,269 Utah
7,190 15 19 / 30 52 7 2,638 2,761 Oregon
j
4,129 0 7 33 1 9 998 1,689 2,737 New Mexico
8,329 27 23 / 0 / 1,769 1,634 3,453 Nevada
c,i
2,350 0 4 4 2 36 194 600 840 Montana
c
3,648 0 9 0 0 10 258 1,656 1,933 Idaho
3,080 278 8 2 112 35 120 1,461 2,016 Hawaii
a,f
12,512 113 34 0 3 286 937 3,418 4,791 Colorado
c,h
142,428 4,628 252 31 / 375 1,731 103,921 110,938 California
c,g
20,938 393 60 3 1 0 811 6,310 7,578 Arizona
d
2,415 0 3 11 2 29 523 1,559 2,127 Alaska
a
224,792 5,454 446 114 199 976 9,422 130,692 147,303 West
2,962 0 9 0 2 4 221 369 605 West Virginia
c
25,936 0 90 / / 2 3,459 5,763 9,314 Virginia
130,051 5,483 322 / / 0 1,776 23,779 31,360 Texas
c
15,861 0 67 119 / 75 1,630 5,632 7,523 Tennessee
c
19,100 171 53 0 11 35 2,787 4,019 7,076 South Carolina
18,489 0 65 0 0 159 2,412 3,019 5,655 Oklahoma
c
26,191 0 50 0 0 129 3,593 7,542 11,314 North Carolina
c
12,792 429 45 0 / 60 1,982 2,137 4,653 Mississippi
g
20,098 28 54 7 / 79 900 8,348 9,416 Maryland
b,f
27,397 6 79 33 / 97 515 11,256 11,986 Louisiana
13,548 68 27 4 / 97 2,813 2,852 5,861 Kentucky
33,586 1 109 607 / 64 3,080 8,733 12,594 Georgia
d
61,162 338 231 147 26 180 13,514 8,516 22,952 Florida
d
8,946 8 25 612 1 452 2,281 3,447 6,826 District of Col.
a,b,c,e
3,105 257 11 33 0 0 692 454 1,447 Delaware
a,b
9,335 21 30 55 26 9 616 3,598 4,355 Arkansa
c
20,368 4 88 71 69 229 2,886 4,751 8,098 Alabama
448,927 6,814 1,355 1,688 135 1,671 45,157 104,215 161,035 South
14,727 142 22 0 ... / 109 4,420 4,693 Wisconsin
c
2,073 0 6 0 1 3 323 538 871 South Dakota
c
45,174 0 114 16 28 8 9,793 6,184 16,143 Ohio
c
660 0 1 0 0 7 154 324 486 North Dakota
3,118 0 10 0 / 22 685 644 1,361 Nebraska
22,305 5 46 10 16 848 890 8,413 10,228 Missouri
5,050 0 6 / / / 422 2,744 3,172 Minnesota
42,715 246 95 15 0 1,193 1,003 8,054 10,606 Michigan
d
7,435 0 24 / 4 11 255 3,268 3,562 Kansas
6,410 43 9 0 54 5 633 2,607 3,351 Iowa
d
16,673 0 44 0 / 12 496 7,555 8,107 Indiana
38,358 63 96 / 17 924 988 20,359 22,447 Illinois
c,d
204,698 499 473 41 120 3,033 15,751 65,110 85,027 Midwest
794 0 1 3 0 0 80 893 977 Vermont
a,d
2,025 3 6 11 11 6 12 812 861 Rhode Island
a,c
33,534 0 104 65 22 76 1,609 6,650 8,526 Pennsylvania
65,539 18 211 579 98 1,481 1,523 24,171 28,081 New York
26,957 0 95 0 71 1 3,379 10,502 14,048 New Jersey
c
2,055 0 5 0 0 15 186 669 875 New Hampshire
10,406 0 24 357 0 17 1,879 874 3,151 Massachusetts
b
1,484 0 1 0 0 5 424 204 634 Maine
11,128 1 30 56 1 80 211 1,005 1,384 Connecticut
a
153,922 22 477 1,071 203 1,681 9,303 45,780 58,537 Northeast
1,032,339 12,789 2,751 2,914 657 7,361 79,633 345,797 451,902 State
88,448 2,198 229 179 / / 20,173 2,361 25,140 Federal
1,120,787 14,987 2,980 3,093 657 7,361 99,806 348,158 477,042 U.S. total
12/31/96 releases Deaths jurisdictions or bond and AWOL’s releases releases Total jurisdiction
prisoners Other to other appeal Escapees Unconditional Conditional Region and
of male Transfers Out on
Number Number of sentenced male prisoners released during 1997
Table 5.11b. Sentenced male prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Prisoners in 1997 85
appeal/bond. See Explanatory notes.
h
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
i
Nevada’s escapee returns may be included in any
other admission category.
j
Oregon’s transfers may be included in any other
admission category.
c
New court commitments may include a small number
of other admissions. See Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
Vermont’s escape and AWOL data may include an
undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond.
f
Some or all data for the admission categories are
estimated.
g
Other admissions may include returns from
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Counts include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Data by sentence length may be slightly
incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
0 0 0 0 2 90 92 113 Wyoming
c
0 0 2 19 120 630 771 920 Washington
b
0 0 0 0 117 145 262 210 Utah
0 / 0 4 75 188 267 362 Oregon
j
0 1 0 0 81 252 334 339 New Mexico
37 / / / 45 382 464 612 Nevada
b,c,i
0 0 / 0 3 119 122 121 Montana
b
0 / 0 0 53 247 300 276 Idaho
0 0 0 2 135 257 394 303 Hawaii
a,f
0 1 0 59 126 437 623 845 Colorado
b,h
0 19 / 20 7,362 5,203 12,604 9,418 California
b
0 1 0 5 244 564 814 1,415 Arizona
d
0 0 0 12 77 250 339 139 Alaska
a
37 22 2 121 8,440 8,764 17,386 15,073 West
0 2 0 0 16 72 90 145 West Virginia
b
0 / / / 156 980 1,136 1,604 Virginia
1,590 / 0 0 859 3,007 5,456 9,933 Texas
b
0 6 / 3 349 508 866 688 Tennessee
b
3 / 1 1 136 548 689 1,103 South Carolina
0 0 0 34 32 1,047 1,113 1,940 Oklahoma
b,c
19 0 0 4 261 794 1,078 1,484 North Carolina
b
2 0 / 7 28 540 577 805 Mississippi
c,g
0 0 / 8 172 722 902 969 Maryland
c,f
18 0 64 0 881 581 1,544 1,561 Louisiana
4 0 ... 9 195 707 915 820 Kentucky
0 0 0 8 220 1,211 1,439 2,175 Georgia
d
36 2 2 14 176 1,791 2,021 3,299 Florida
d
0 23 0 70 146 332 571 430 District of Col.
a,b
10 0 0 5 38 112 165 164 Delaware
a
52 2 2 0 128 307 491 538 Arkansas
b
2 4 7 29 119 792 953 1,292 Alabama
1,736 39 76 192 3,912 14,051 20,006 28,950 South
104 0 ... / 86 404 594 829 Wisconsin
3 0 0 0 17 119 139 142 South Dakota
b
0 0 6 0 201 1,996 2,203 2,805 Ohio
b
0 0 0 0 8 48 56 39 North Dakota
0 0 / 3 43 131 177 214 Nebraska
104 0 0 88 309 989 1,490 1,464 Missouri
0 / / / 67 232 299 234 Minnesota
46 0 37 119 239 627 1,068 1,920 Michigan
d
8 / / 0 103 345 456 476 Kansas
c
6 9 7 100 98 332 552 470 Iowa
d
0 3 / 4 58 826 891 994 Indiana
c
1 / 0 131 349 2,000 2,481 2,249 Illinois
b,d
272 12 50 445 1,578 8,049 10,406 11,836 Midwest
43 0 / 2 11 10 66 21 Vermont
a,d,e
0 0 1 2 20 32 55 74 Rhode Island
a,b
20 6 2 2 124 428 582 1,476 Pennsylvania
1 41 6 152 354 1,675 2,229 3,728 New York
c
0 / / 0 531 885 1,416 1,281 New Jersey
b,c
0 0 / 0 17 57 74 106 New Hampshire
0 4 / 0 55 238 297 461 Massachusetts
11 1 0 0 4 24 40 43 Maine
64 0 0 10 95 73 242 757 Connecticut
a
139 52 9 168 1,211 3,422 5,001 7,947 Northeast
2,184 125 137 926 15,141 34,286 52,799 63,806 State
11 122 / / 255 2,866 3,254 6,107 Federal
2,195 247 137 926 15,396 37,152 56,053 69,913 U.S. total
releases jurisdictions or bond returned violators returned commitments Total 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Other from other from appeal and AWOL’s conditional release New court prisoners Region and
Transfers Returns Escapees Parole or other of female
Number of sentenced female prisoners admitted during 1997 Number
Table 5.12a. Sentenced female prisoners admitted from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997


86 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
g
Other releases may include some
releases to appeal/bond. See
Explanatory notes.
h
Escape and AWOL data are estimated.
i
Nevada's escapees may be included in
any other release category.
j
Oregon's transfers may be included in
any other release category.
Explanatory notes.
c
Data for inmates by sentence length may be
slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
The District of Columbia was unable to
report deaths by gender; therefore, all deaths
are reported under males.
f
Some or all data for release categories are estimated.
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Unconditional releases may include some
releases to probation or appeal/bond. See
136 0 0 0 0 0 25 44 69 Wyoming
924 0 1 0 2 17 186 561 767 Washington
c
210 0 0 0 2 0 13 247 262 Utah
399 2 0 / 0 2 1 225 230 Oregon
j
321 0 0 0 0 0 141 211 352 New Mexico
695 0 2 / 0 / 170 209 381 Nevada
c,i
167 0 0 0 0 0 11 65 76 Montana
c
263 0 1 0 0 0 22 290 313 Idaho
368 45 0 3 31 2 20 228 329 Hawaii
a,f
949 14 0 0 0 57 84 364 519 Colorado
c,h
10,311 389 16 2 / 32 143 11,129 11,711 California
c,g
1,415 43 1 0 1 3 53 713 814 Arizona
d
156 0 1 4 0 12 99 206 322 Alaska
a
16,314 493 22 9 36 125 968 14,492 16,145 West
186 0 0 0 0 0 28 21 49 West Virginia
c
1,588 0 2 / / 0 495 655 1,152 Virginia
10,300 1,487 19 / / 0 120 3,463 5,089 Texas
c
798 0 3 10 / 3 104 636 756 Tennessee
c
1,164 6 2 0 4 4 305 307 628 South Carolina
2,053 0 3 0 0 21 357 619 1,000 Oklahoma
c
1,376 0 6 0 0 6 315 859 1,186 North Carolina
c
884 75 2 0 / 6 178 237 498 Mississippi
g
990 3 0 0 / 9 98 771 881 Maryland
b,f
1,868 0 1 2 / 0 50 1,184 1,237 Louisiana
1,052 9 1 0 / 12 266 395 683 Kentucky
2,201 0 5 54 / 5 217 1,132 1,413 Georgia
d
3,412 55 11 10 2 6 1,322 502 1,908 Florida
d
407 0 / 36 0 31 269 220 556 District of Col.
a,b,c,e
159 32 1 0 0 0 91 46 170 Delaware
a,b
601 12 1 0 4 0 29 382 428 Arkansas
c
1,312 0 3 12 15 37 299 567 933 Alabama
30,351 1,679 60 124 25 140 4,543 11,996 18,567 South
912 20 0 0 ... / 10 418 448 Wisconsin
c
169 0 0 0 0 0 40 72 112 South Dakota
c
2,842 0 3 0 6 0 1,352 805 2,166 Ohio
c
55 0 0 0 0 0 10 30 40 North Dakota
211 0 0 0 / 3 58 119 180 Nebraska
1,693 1 2 0 1 93 57 1,107 1,261 Missouri
256 0 0 / / / 31 246 277 Minnesota
2,056 61 4 0 0 114 49 704 932 Michigan
d
476 0 0 / 4 0 28 424 456 Kansas
528 6 0 1 7 1 53 426 494 Iowa
d
1,057 0 1 0 / 0 58 769 828 Indiana
2,430 0 5 / 2 136 43 2,114 2,300 Illinois
c,d
12,685 88 15 1 20 347 1,789 7,234 9,494 Midwest
34 0 0 0 0 0 10 43 53 Vermont
a,d
75 0 0 1 0 2 0 51 54 Rhode Island
a,c
1,423 0 5 5 3 3 74 545 635 Pennsylvania
3,569 8 10 55 7 124 93 2,091 2,388 New York
1,404 0 6 0 4 0 266 1,017 1,293 New Jersey
c
109 0 0 0 0 0 11 60 71 New Hampshire
441 0 0 14 0 0 183 120 317 Massachusetts
b
58 0 0 0 0 0 17 8 25 Maine
792 0 3 4 0 8 15 177 207 Connecticut
a
7,905 8 24 79 14 137 669 4,112 5,043 Northeast
67,255 2,268 121 213 95 749 7,969 37,834 49,249 State
6,539 343 9 0 / / 2,121 84 2,557 Federal
73,794 2,611 130 213 95 749 10,090 37,918 51,806 U.S. total
12/31/97 releases Deaths jurisdictions or bond and AWOL’s releases releases Total jurisdiction
prisoners Other to other appeal Escapees Unconditional Conditional Region and
of female Transfers Out on
Number Number of sentenced female prisoners released during 1997

Table 5.12b. Sentenced female prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Prisoners in 1997 87
h
Some or all data for release categories
are estimated.
i
Paroles may include supervised
mandatory
releases. See Explanatory notes.
j
Supervised mandatory release includes
some releases to parole.
k
Nevada's escapees may be included in
any other release category.
l
Oregon's transfers may be included in
any other release category.
releases to probation or appeal/bond. See
Explanatory notes.
d
Data for inmates by sentence length may be
slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
e
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction
counts.
f
Other unconditional releases may include
some commutations. See Explanatory notes.
g
Expiration of sentence may include commutation
and pardon. See Explanatory notes.
Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Expirations of sentence may include releases
to probation. See Explanatory notes.
c
Unconditional releases may include some
0 0 256 256 0 0 124 207 331 Wyoming
14 0 1,836 1,850 0 3,957 ... 60 4,017 Washington
d
135 0 57 192 0 0 0 2,310 2,310 Utah
8 0 0 8 209 ... ... 2,654 2,863 Oregon
l
0 0 1,139 1,139 0 ... ... 1,900 1,900 New Mexico
544 0 1,395 1,939 0 ... ... 1,843 1,843 Nevada
d,k
0 0 205 205 13 0 214 438 665 Montana
d
0 0 280 280 142 ... 1,060 744 1,946 Idaho
6 0 134 140 10 0 940 739 1,689 Hawaii
a,h
0 0 1,021 1,021 0 733 221 2,828 3,782 Colorado
d
/ / 1,874 1,874 ... 115,050 ... / 115,050 California
a,d,j
101 2 761 864 5,905 79 42 997 7,023 Arizona
e
58 2 562 622 293 299 1,116 57 1,765 Alaska
a
866 4 9,520 10,390 6,572 120,118 3,717 14,777 145,184 West
0 0 249 249 0 ... 17 373 390 West Virginia
d
324 / 3,630 3,954 0 3,353 ... 3,065 6,418 Virginia
f
... ... 1,896 1,896 0 17,141 303 9,798 27,242 Texas
d
0 0 1,734 1,734 1,031 / 1,804 3,433 6,268 Tennessee
d,i
119 0 2,973 3,092 0 0 1,348 2,978 4,326 South Carolina
849 0 1,920 2,769 271 0 2,925 442 3,638 Oklahoma
d
35 0 3,873 3,908 0 / 0 8,401 8,401 North Carolina
d,i
363 0 1,797 2,160 0 ... 1,152 1,222 2,374 Mississippi
460 0 538 998 26 5,048 ... 4,045 9,119 Maryland
c,h
97 0 468 565 0 11,034 460 946 12,440 Louisiana
/ 0 3,079 3,079 / ... 976 2,271 3,247 Kentucky
1 34 3,262 3,297 1,312 ... 51 8,502 9,865 Georgia
e
321 53 14,462 14,836 4,703 ... 4,181 134 9,018 Florida
e
110 0 2,440 2,550 750 63 / 2,854 3,667 District of Col.
a,b,c,d
524 0 259 783 0 469 / 31 500 Delaware
a,b,c
2 0 643 645 302 ... ... 3,678 3,980 Arkansas
d
90 0 3,095 3,185 0 ... 2,762 2,556 5,318 Alabama
3,295 87 46,318 49,700 8,395 37,108 15,979 54,729 116,211 South
27 0 92 119 0 1,247 ... 3,591 4,838 Wisconsin
d
... 0 363 363 ... 70 21 519 610 South Dakota
d,g
16 0 11,129 11,145 92 1,293 2,166 3,438 6,989 Ohio
d
0 0 164 164 9 ... 158 187 354 North Dakota
0 0 743 743 0 ... ... 763 763 Nebraska
44 0 903 947 1,520 0 3,418 4,582 9,520 Missouri
14 / 439 453 403 2,585 ... 2 2,990 Minnesota
f
0 0 1,052 1,052 0 ... ... 8,758 8,758 Michigan
e
0 0 283 283 145 ... 43 3,504 3,692 Kansas
114 0 572 686 908 ... 599 1,526 3,033 Iowa
e
554 0 0 554 0 4,207 4,117 0 8,324 Indiana
23 2 1,006 1,031 0 22,429 ... 44 22,473 Illinois
d,e
792 2 16,746 17,540 3,077 31,831 10,522 26,914 72,344 Midwest
0 0 90 90 609 ... 42 285 936 Vermont
a,e
0 3 9 12 6 ... 408 449 863 Rhode Island
a,d
131 0 1,552 1,683 0 ... ... 7,195 7,195 Pennsylvania
0 0 1,616 1,616 0 5,298 0 20,964 26,262 New York
0 0 3,645 3,645 537 ... ... 10,982 11,519 New Jersey
d
21 0 176 197 16 / 80 633 729 New Hampshire
80 1 1,981 2,062 0 / / 994 994 Massachusetts
b,c
0 0 441 441 0 0 210 2 212 Maine
7 0 219 226 1,012 ... ... 170 1,182 Connecticut
a
239 4 9,729 9,972 2,180 5,298 740 41,674 49,892 Northeast
5,192 97 82,313 87,602 20,224 194,355 30,958 138,094 383,631 State
/ 246 22,048 22,294 / 924 71 1,450 2,445 Federal
5,192 343 104,361 109,896 20,224 195,279 31,029 139,544 386,076 U.S. total
Other Commutation of sentence Total Other release Probation Parole Total jurisdiction
Expiration mandatory Region and
Supervised
Unconditional release Conditional release
by type of release, 1997
Table 5.13. Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction,
88 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
c
Unconditional releases may include some
to probation. See Explanatory notes.
b
Expirations of sentence may include releases
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
/Not reported.
...Not applicable.
State-by-State variations from definitions.
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
h
Some or all data for release categories are
estimated.
i
Paroles may include supervised mandatory
releases. See Explanatory notes.
j
Supervised mandatory release includes
some releases to parole.
k
Nevada's escapees may be included in
any other release category.
l
Oregon's transfers may be included in any
other release category.
releases to probation or appeal/bond. See
Explanatory notes.
d
Data for inmates by sentence length may be
slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
e
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction
counts.
f
Other unconditional releases may include
some commutations. See Explanatory Notes.
g
Expirations of sentence may include
commutations and pardons. See Explanatory notes.
Note: See the questionnaire for category
0 0 231 231 0 0 112 175 287 Wyoming
13 0 1,651 1,664 0 3,398 ... 58 3,456 Washington
d
122 0 57 179 0 0 0 2,063 2,063 Utah
7 0 0 7 194 ... ... 2,444 2,638 Oregon
l
0 0 998 998 0 ... ... 1,689 1,689 New Mexico
520 0 1,249 1,769 0 ... ... 1,634 1,634 Nevada
d,k
0 0 194 194 13 0 202 385 600 Montana
d
0 0 258 258 126 ... 850 680 1,656 Idaho
6 0 114 120 6 0 797 658 1,461 Hawaii
a,h
0 0 937 937 0 687 194 2,537 3,418 Colorado
d
/ / 1,731 1,731 ... 103,921 ... / 103,921 California
d,j
94 2 715 811 5,301 77 39 893 6,310 Arizona
e
48 2 473 523 261 282 969 47 1,559 Alaska
a
810 4 8,608 9,422 5,901 108,365 3,163 13,263 130,692 West
0 0 221 221 0 ... 16 353 369 West Virginia
d
273 / 3,186 3,459 0 3,085 ... 2,678 5,763 Virginia
f
... ... 1,776 1,776 0 15,423 264 8,092 23,779 Texas
d
0 0 1,630 1,630 861 / 1,617 3,154 5,632 Tennessee
d,i
102 0 2,685 2,787 0 0 1,224 2,795 4,019 South Carolina
722 0 1,690 2,412 238 0 2,430 351 3,019 Oklahoma
d
27 0 3,566 3,593 0 / 0 7,542 7,542 North Carolina
d,i
309 0 1,673 1,982 0 ... 1,035 1,102 2,137 Mississippi
401 0 499 900 26 4,756 ... 3,566 8,348 Maryland
c,h
89 0 426 515 0 10,011 418 827 11,256 Louisiana
/ 0 2,813 2,813 / ... 811 2,041 2,852 Kentucky
1 34 3,045 3,080 1,072 ... 46 7,615 8,733 Georgia
e
301 46 13,167 13,514 4,500 ... 3,885 131 8,516 Florida
e
110 0 2,171 2,281 738 60 / 2,649 3,447 District of Col.
a,b,c,d
449 0 243 692 0 423 / 31 454 Delaware
a,b,c
1 0 615 616 267 ... ... 3,331 3,598 Arkansas
d
81 0 2,805 2,886 0 ... 2,485 2,266 4,751 Alabama
2,866 80 42,211 45,157 7,702 33,758 14,231 48,524 104,215 South
22 0 87 109 0 1,182 ... 3,238 4,420 Wisconsin
d
... 0 323 323 ... 60 19 459 538 South Dakota
d,g
13 0 9,780 9,793 10 1,195 1,754 3,225 6,184 Ohio
d
0 0 154 154 8 ... 147 169 324 North Dakota
0 0 685 685 0 ... ... 644 644 Nebraska
40 0 850 890 1,445 0 2,959 4,009 8,413 Missouri
13 / 409 422 353 2,389 ... 2 2,744 Minnesota
f
0 0 1,003 1,003 0 ... ... 8,054 8,054 Michigan
e
0 0 255 255 143 ... 37 3,088 3,268 Kansas
92 0 541 633 839 ... 461 1,307 2,607 Iowa
e
496 0 0 496 0 3,881 3,674 0 7,555 Indiana
17 1 970 988 0 20,315 ... 44 20,359 Illinois
d,e
693 1 15,057 15,751 2,798 29,022 9,051 24,239 65,110 Midwest
0 0 80 80 569 ... 40 284 893 Vermont
a,e
0 3 9 12 6 ... 395 411 812 Rhode Island
a,d
121 0 1,488 1,609 0 ... ... 6,650 6,650 Pennsylvania
0 0 1,523 1,523 0 5,084 0 19,087 24,171 New York
0 0 3,379 3,379 478 ... ... 10,024 10,502 New Jersey
d
15 0 171 186 15 / 72 582 669 New Hampshire
67 1 1,811 1,879 0 / / 874 874 Massachusetts
b,c
0 0 424 424 0 0 202 2 204 Maine
6 0 205 211 849 ... ... 156 1,005 Connecticut
a
209 4 9,090 9,303 1,917 5,084 709 38,070 45,780 Northeast
4,578 89 74,966 79,633 18,318 176,229 27,154 124,096 345,797 State
/ 214 19,959 20,173 / 899 65 1,397 2,361 Federal
4,578 303 94,925 99,806 18,318 177,128 27,219 125,493 348,158 U.S. total
Other Commutation sentence Total Other release Probation Parole Total jurisdiction
of mandatory Region and
Expiration Supervised
Unconditional release Conditional release
from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Table 5.14. Sentenced male prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally

Prisoners in 1997 89
Explanatory notes.
h
Some or all data for release categories are
estimated.
i
Paroles may include supervised mandatory
releases. See Explanatory notes.
j
Supervised mandatory release includes
some releases to parole.
k
Nevada's escapees may be included in any
other release category.
l
Oregon's transfers may be included in any
other release category.
releases to probation or appeal/bond. See
Explanatory notes.
d
Data for inmates by sentence length may be
slightly incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
e
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction
counts.
f
Other unconditional releases may include some
commutations. See Explanatory notes.
g
Expirations of sentence may include
commutations and pardons. See
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions
and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State
variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Counts include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Expiration of sentence may include releases
to probation. See Explanatory notes.
c
Unconditional releases may include some
0 0 25 25 0 0 12 32 44 Wyoming
1 0 185 186 0 559 ... 2 561 Washington
d
13 0 0 13 0 0 0 247 247 Utah
1 0 0 1 15 ... ... 210 225 Oregon
l
0 0 141 141 0 ... ... 211 211 New Mexico
24 0 146 170 0 ... ... 209 209 Nevada
d,k
0 0 11 11 0 0 12 53 65 Montana
d
0 0 22 22 16 ... 210 64 290 Idaho
0 0 20 20 4 0 143 81 228 Hawaii
a,h
0 0 84 84 0 46 27 291 364 Colorado
d

/ / 143 143 ... 11,129 ... / 11,129 California
d,j
7 0 46 53 604 2 3 104 713 Arizona
e
10 0 89 99 32 17 147 10 206 Alaska
a
56 0 912 968 671 11,753 554 1,514 14,492 West
0 0 28 28 0 ... 1 20 21 West Virginia
d
51 / 444 495 0 268 ... 387 655 Virginia
f
... ... 120 120 0 1,718 39 1,706 3,463 Texas
d
0 0 104 104 170 / 187 279 636 Tennessee
d,i
17 0 288 305 0 0 124 183 307 South Carolina
127 0 230 357 33 0 495 91 619 Oklahoma
d
8 0 307 315 0 / 0 859 859 North Carolina
d,i
54 0 124 178 0 ... 117 120 237 Mississippi
59 0 39 98 0 292 ... 479 771 Maryland
c,h
8 0 42 50 0 1,023 42 119 1,184 Louisiana
/ 0 266 266 / ... 165 230 395 Kentucky
0 0 217 217 240 ... 5 887 1,132 Georgia
e
20 7 1,295 1,322 203 ... 296 3 502 Florida
e
0 0 269 269 12 3 / 205 220 District of Col.
a,b,c,d
75 0 16 91 0 46 / 0 46 Delaware
a,b,c
1 0 28 29 35 ... ... 347 382 Arkansas
d
9 0 290 299 0 ... 277 290 567 Alabama
429 7 4,107 4,543 693 3,350 1,748 6,205 11,996 South
5 0 5 10 0 65 ... 353 418 Wisconsin
d
... 0 40 40 ... 10 2 60 72 South Dakota
d,g
3 0 1,349 1,352 82 98 412 213 805 Ohio
d
0 0 10 10 1 ... 11 18 30 North Dakota
0 0 58 58 0 ... ... 119 119 Nebraska
4 0 53 57 75 0 459 573 1,107 Missouri
1 / 30 31 50 196 ... 0 246 Minnesota
f
0 0 49 49 0 ... ... 704 704 Michigan
e
0 0 28 28 2 ... 6 416 424 Kansas
22 0 31 53 69 ... 138 219 426 Iowa
e
58 0 0 58 0 326 443 0 769 Indiana
6 1 36 43 0 2,114 ... 0 2,114 Illinois
d,e
99 1 1,689 1,789 279 2,809 1,471 2,675 7,234 Midwest
0 0 10 10 40 ... 2 1 43 Vermont
a,e
0 0 0 0 0 ... 13 38 51 Rhode Island
a,d
10 0 64 74 0 ... ... 545 545 Pennsylvania
0 0 93 93 0 214 0 1,877 2,091 New York
0 0 266 266 59 ... ... 958 1,017 New Jersey
d
6 0 5 11 1 / 8 51 60 New Hampshire
13 0 170 183 0 / / 120 120 Massachusetts
b,c
0 0 17 17 0 0 8 0 8 Maine
1 0 14 15 163 ... ... 14 177 Connecticut
a
30 0 639 669 263 214 31 3,604 4,112 Northeast
614 8 7,347 7,969 1,906 18,126 3,804 13,998 37,834 State
/ 32 2,089 2,121 / 25 6 53 84 Federal
614 40 9,436 10,090 1,906 18,151 3,810 14,051 37,918 U.S. total
Other Commutation of sentence Total Other release Probation Parole Total jurisdiction
Expiration mandatory Region and
Supervised
Unconditional release Conditional release
from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1997
Table 5.15. Sentenced female prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally
90 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
estimated.
e
Parole violators with new sentences may include
h
Some or all data for the admission categories are Explanatory notes.
categories. See Explanatory notes. include inmates from other admission categories. See
sentences include inmates from other admission
d
Other conditional release violators with no new sentences
g
Other conditional release violators with new incorrect. See Explanatory notes.
f
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
c
Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly
Explanatory notes. See Explanatory notes.
inmates from other admission categories. See include inmates from other admission categories. Note: See the questionnaire for category
definitions and the Explanatory notes for
State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Figures include both jail and prison inmates;
jails and prisons are combined in one system.
b
Parole violators with no new sentences may
0 174 0 0 174 2 27 / / 29 203 Wyoming
b
117 584 2 39 742 1 39 0 3 43 785 Washington
c
0 0 0 0 0 90 956 27 371 1,444 1,444 Utah
0 0 0 0 0 38 385 37 615 1,075 1,075 Oregon
3 345 / / 348 78 711 / / 789 1,137 New Mexico
b,d
... ... ... ... ... 41 616 4 67 728 728 Nevada
c
1 212 / / 213 1 118 1 5 125 338 Montana
c
26 155 7 44 232 17 238 3 39 297 529 Idaho
55 248 53 280 636 0 382 27 34 443 1,079 Hawaii
a,h
20 96 3 61 180 79 1,008 24 322 1,433 1,613 Colorado
c
5,956 61,649 1,406 16,185 85,196 / / / / / 85,196 California
c,d,g
180 1,292 9 268 1,749 53 358 2 70 483 2,232 Arizona
f
67 388 2 108 565 5 183 3 26 217 782 Alaska
a
6,425 65,143 1,482 16,985 90,035 405 5,021 128 1,552 7,106 97,141 West
2 0 2 0 4 6 140 6 30 182 186 West Virginia
c
0 0 / / 0 109 937 47 384 1,477 1,477 Virginia
/ / 267 3,827 4,094 / / 592 5,403 5,995 10,089 Texas
c,e,g
/ / 165 1,520 1,685 / / 184 2,331 2,515 4,200 Tennessee
c,e,g
49 545 14 277 885 64 1,111 9 149 1,333 2,218 South Carolina
/ / / / / 12 47 20 103 182 182 Oklahoma
c
/ / / / / / / 261 2,651 2,912 2,912 North Carolina
c,e
0 0 23 212 235 4 72 1 41 118 353 Mississippi
0 3 0 0 3 114 1,861 58 949 2,982 2,985 Maryland
h
643 5,371 162 1,510 7,686 67 539 9 170 785 8,471 Louisiana
48 284 8 32 372 133 1,430 6 144 1,713 2,085 Kentucky
/ / / / / 75 609 145 2,723 3,552 3,552 Georgia
e,f
161 2,413 9 439 3,022 6 107 0 6 119 3,141 Florida
f
8 60 / / 68 / / 138 1,928 2,066 2,134 District of Col.
a,c
/ / 36 326 362 / / 2 43 45 407 Delaware
a,e,g
19 101 0 49 169 99 726 10 659 1,494 1,663 Arkansas
c
/ / 40 547 587 74 648 5 56 783 1,370 Alabama
g
930 8,777 726 8,739 19,172 763 8,227 1,493 17,770 28,253 47,425 South
5 200 8 127 340 40 767 33 409 1,249 1,589 Wisconsin
5 40 0 1 46 12 102 0 8 122 168 South Dakota
c
130 801 / / 931 56 1,527 15 1,435 3,033 3,964 Ohio
c
2 60 / / 62 6 41 / / 47 109 North Dakota
b,d
0 0 0 0 0 43 267 / / 310 310 Nebraska
b
184 1,461 0 35 1,680 94 1,090 31 367 1,582 3,262 Missouri
58 859 9 131 1,057 0 0 0 0 0 1,057 Minnesota
0 0 0 0 0 176 2,492 63 1,225 3,956 3,956 Michigan
f
1 77 0 13 91 91 967 11 163 1,232 1,323 Kansas
11 107 19 137 274 28 192 40 217 477 751 Iowa
f
/ / / / / 45 547 13 232 837 837 Indiana
43 1,608 306 4,188 6,145 / / / / / 6,145 Illinois
c,d,f,g
439 5,213 342 4,632 10,626 591 7,992 206 4,056 12,845 23,471 Midwest
/ / / / / 10 84 1 150 245 245 Vermont
a,b,e,f
1 26 2 56 85 14 102 3 60 179 264 Rhode Island
a,c
65 1,736 / / 1,801 38 902 21 445 1,406 3,207 Pennsylvania
e
21 999 / / 1,020 333 5,481 / / 5,814 6,834 New York
29 277 / / 306 469 4,772 33 484 5,758 6,064 New Jersey
c,d
/ / / / / 17 330 / / 347 347 New Hampshire
b
/ / 9 152 161 46 598 / / 644 805 Massachusetts
b
2 50 2 42 96 0 0 0 8 8 104 Maine
74 435 1 8 518 20 205 0 9 234 752 Connecticut
a
192 3,523 14 258 3,987 947 12,474 58 1,156 14,635 18,622 Northeast
7,986 82,656 2,564 30,614 123,820 2,706 33,714 1,885 24,534 62,839 186,659 State
131 1,714 / / 1,845 124 1,137 / / 1,261 3,106 Federal
8,117 84,370 2,564 30,614 125,665 2,830 34,851 1,885 24,534 64,100 189,765 U.S. total
Female Male Female Male Total Female Male Female Male Total Total jurisdiction
No new sentence New sentence No new sentence New sentence Region and
Other conditional release violators Parole violators
or other conditional release, by gender and status of sentence, 1997
Table 5.16. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation of parole
Prisoners in 1997 91
b
Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are
combined in one system.
d
Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts.
e
The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by gender;
therefore, all deaths are reported under males.
f
Unable to distinguish cause of death except by execution.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the
Explanatory notes for State-by-State variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
No female deaths due to execution occurred during 1997.
No female deaths were reported as caused by another during 1997.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 Wyoming
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 21 1 22 Washington
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 Utah
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 16 0 19 Oregon
0 7 / 0 / / / / 0 0 / / 0 7 New Mexico
f
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 1 17 2 23 Nevada
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 4 Montana
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 7 1 9 Idaho
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 4 0 8 Hawaii
c
0 0 3 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 25 0 34 Colorado
1 3 14 0 1 4 0 18 3 33 11 180 16 252 California
0 1 2 2 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 51 1 60 Arizona
d
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 3 Alaska
c
1 11 19 4 1 5 1 36 4 39 15 332 22 446 West
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 9 West Virginia
0 11 1 9 0 0 1 3 0 14 1 52 2 90 Virginia
0 5 9 37 0 3 1 16 5 51 13 201 19 322 Texas
0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 0 13 2 49 3 67 Tennessee
0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 18 1 32 2 53 South Carolina
0 0 3 1 0 1 0 2 0 3 3 55 3 65 Oklahoma
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 8 6 40 6 50 North Carolina
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 4 2 38 2 45 Mississippi
0 5 4 1 0 0 0 8 0 12 0 24 0 54 Maryland
0 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 0 17 1 57 1 79 Louisiana
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 26 1 27 Kentucky
0 5 0 0 0 1 0 6 3 38 2 59 5 109 Georgia
d
0 0 3 1 3 2 0 4 4 104 4 117 11 231 Florida
d
/ / 3 ... / 0 / 1 / / / 21 / 25 District of Col.
c,e
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 11 1 11 Delaware
c
0 0 3 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 20 1 30 Arkansas
3 71 / 3 / / / / 0 14 / / 3 88 Alabama
3 97 29 60 3 9 3 53 13 296 38 811 60 1,355 South
0 4 0 ... 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 15 0 22 Wisconsin
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 6 South Dakota
0 0 4 0 0 2 1 9 0 6 2 93 3 114 Ohio
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 North Dakota
0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 10 Nebraska
0 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 0 6 2 32 2 46 Missouri
0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 6 Minnesota
0 3 3 ... 0 2 0 5 3 15 1 67 4 95 Michigan
d
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 21 0 24 Kansas
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 9 Iowa
d
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 40 1 44 Indiana
0 0 2 2 1 2 1 10 2 14 1 66 5 96 Illinois
d
0 7 12 10 1 7 2 32 5 45 7 360 15 473 Midwest
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Vermont
c,d
0 0 1 ... 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 6 Rhode Island
c
0 4 4 0 0 3 0 8 1 18 4 67 5 104 Pennsylvania
0 0 4 0 0 3 0 14 2 58 8 132 10 211 New York
1 6 5 0 0 4 0 1 1 40 4 39 6 95 New Jersey
0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 5 New Hampshire
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 4 0 2 0 18 0 24 Massachusetts
0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Maine
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 12 2 15 3 30 Connecticut
c
1 10 15 0 0 11 0 32 5 131 18 278 24 477 Northeast
5 125 75 74 5 32 6 153 27 511 78 1,781 121 2,751 State
9 229 / 0 / / / / / / / / 9 229 Federal
14 354 75 74 5 32 6 153 27 511 78 1,781 130 2,980 U.S. total
Female Male Male Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male jurisdiction
tion
a
Suicide AIDS Total Region and
Unspecified
cause
Caused by
another
b

Execu- Accidental
self-injury
Illness or
natural cause
Number of deaths among sentenced prisoners
Table 5.17. Deaths among sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender and cause of death, 1997


92 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
d
Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence
length is unknown.
e
New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not
comparable because New Mexico included inmates
in local jails or out of State because of crowding in
their custody figures prior to 1997.
is unknown.
b
Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails
and prisons are combined in one system.
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may
include some inmates sentenced to a year or less;
see Explanatory notes.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions
and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State
variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may
include some inmates for whom sentence length
0 0 0 0 0 0 6.9 1,327 1,418 6.9 1,327 1,418 Wyoming
34 33 53 20 -39.1 87 53 5.4 12,501 13,173 5.1 12,588 13,226 Washington
82 59 29 27 -22.5 111 86 7.3 4,449 4,775 6.6 4,560 4,861 Utah
0 ... 1,327 684 -48.5 1,327 684 -0.6 7,130 7,090 -8.1 8,457 7,774 Oregon
0 0 279 266 ... 279 266 ... 4,454 3,373 ... 4,733 3,639 New Mexico
e
0 0 137 82 -40.1 137 82 7.5 7,944 8,541 6.7 8,081 8,623 Nevada
... ... ... / ... / 17.1 1,590 1,862 17.1 1,590 1,862 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 1.7 3,257 3,312 1.7 3,257 3,312 Idaho
889 1,314 96 172 50.9 985 1,486 11.5 2,324 2,592 23.2 3,309 4,078 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / 2.6 10,302 10,566 2.6 10,302 10,566 Colorado
c
3,184 3,051 / / -4.2 3,184 3,051 6.9 142,381 152,225 6.7 145,565 155,276 California
c
0 0 970 1,131 16.6 970 1,131 3.9 21,523 22,353 4.4 22,493 23,484 Arizona
910 1,016 230 270 12.8 1,140 1,286 4.9 1,828 1,918 8.0 2,968 3,204 Alaska
b
5,099 5,473 3,121 2,652 % -1.2 8,220 8,125 % 5.5 221,010 233,198 % 5.3 229,230 241,323 West

24 12 ... ... -50.0 24 12 -2.4 2,444 2,385 -2.9 2,468 2,397 West Virginia
... ... 352 330 -6.3 352 330 -2.0 24,797 24,302 -2.1 25,149 24,632 Virginia
... ... 4,345 4,786 10.1 4,345 4,786 5.9 128,038 135,565 6.0 132,383 140,351 Texas
... ... ... ... ... ... 11.3 13,565 15,095 11.3 13,565 15,095 Tennessee
c
... ... 663 907 36.8 663 907 2.7 19,197 19,706 3.8 19,860 20,613 South Carolina
... ... / / / / -1.6 15,130 14,893 -1.6 15,130 14,893 Oklahoma
c
277 280 2,810 3,712 29.3 3,087 3,992 5.2 25,669 26,998 7.8 28,756 30,990 North Carolina
0 0 319 337 5.6 319 337 3.1 9,711 10,010 3.2 10,030 10,347 Mississippi
... ... 1,055 1,127 6.8 1,055 1,127 0.3 20,674 20,743 0.6 21,729 21,870 Maryland
... ... ... ... ... ... 4.6 17,664 18,470 4.6 17,664 18,470 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 7.2 10,148 10,875 7.2 10,148 10,875 Kentucky
... ... 811 718 -11.5 811 718 4.3 34,328 35,787 3.9 35,139 36,505 Georgia
... ... 17 52 205.9 17 52 1.3 63,746 64,574 1.4 63,763 64,626 Florida
417 318 291 221 -23.9 708 539 -19.8 8,111 6,509 -20.1 8,819 7,048 District of Col.
b,d
899 990 1,092 1,181 9.0 1,991 2,171 4.7 3,116 3,261 6.4 5,107 5,432 Delaware
b
0 0 78 53 -32.1 78 53 3.8 8,597 8,926 3.5 8,675 8,979 Arkansas
a
0 0 652 610 -6.4 652 610 2.8 20,772 21,364 2.6 21,424 21,974 Alabama
1,617 1,600 12,485 14,034 % 10.9 14,102 15,634 % 3.2 425,707 439,463 % 3.5 439,809 455,097 South
561 261 27 23 -51.7 588 284 12.3 11,942 13,416 9.3 12,530 13,700 Wisconsin
d
... ... / / / / 8.5 2,063 2,239 8.5 2,063 2,239 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 4.0 45,968 47,808 4.0 45,968 47,808 Ohio
c
... ... 75 82 9.3 75 82 7.4 690 741 7.6 765 823 North Dakota
25 22 62 73 9.2 87 95 4.0 3,129 3,253 4.1 3,216 3,348 Nebraska
... 0 4 18 350.0 4 18 9.0 22,014 23,992 9.0 22,018 24,010 Missouri
c
5 20 0 ... 300.0 5 20 10.6 4,799 5,307 10.9 4,804 5,327 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.7 42,349 44,771 5.7 42,349 44,771 Michigan
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.1 7,755 7,914 2.1 7,755 7,914 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 9.4 6,342 6,938 9.4 6,342 6,938 Iowa
10 8 159 165 2.4 169 173 4.8 15,597 16,338 4.7 15,766 16,511 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 5.0 38,852 40,788 5.0 38,852 40,788 Illinois
c
601 311 327 361 % -27.6 928 672 % 6.0 201,500 213,505 % 5.8 202,428 214,177 Midwest
182 170 136 272 39.0 318 442 3.4 801 828 13.5 1,119 1,270 Vermont
b
583 663 641 564 0.2 1,224 1,227 3.7 2,009 2,083 2.4 3,233 3,310 Rhode Island
b
2 1 0 6 250.0 2 7 1.3 34,474 34,922 1.3 34,476 34,929 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 275 0 275 -0.9 69,709 69,108 -0.5 69,709 69,383 New York
... ... / / / / 10.3 23,123 25,497 10.3 23,123 25,497 New Jersey
c
11 6 38 19 -49.0 49 25 4.6 1,988 2,079 3.3 2,037 2,104 New Hampshire
686 684 176 292 13.2 862 976 9,941 9,942 1.1 10,803 10,918 Massachusetts
... ... 55 64 16.4 55 64 8.2 1,421 1,537 8.5 1,476 1,601 Maine
3,140 3,112 1,680 1,681 -0.6 4,820 4,793 3.4 10,413 10,765 2.1 15,233 15,558 Connecticut
b
4,604 4,636 2,726 3,173 % 6.5 7,330 7,809 % 1.9 153,879 156,761 % 2.1 161,209 164,570 Northeast
11,921 12,020 18,659 20,220 5.4 30,580 32,240 4.1 1,002,096 1,042,927 4.1 1,032,676 1,075,167 State
10,262 11,010 2,926 3,207 % 7.8 13,188 14,217 % 6.9 81,900 87,538 % 7.0 95,088 101,755 Federal
a
22,183 23,030 21,585 23,427 % 6.1 43,768 46,457 % 4.3 1,083,996 1,130,465 % 4.4 1,127,764 1,176,922 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length
Table 5.18. Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Prisoners in 1997 93
d
Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence
length is unknown.
e
New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not
comparable because New Mexico included inmates
in local jails or out of State because of crowding in their
custody figures prior to 1997.
length is unknown.
b
Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails
and prisons are combined in one system.
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year
may include some inmates sentenced to a year or
less; see Explanatory notes.
Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions
and the Explanatory notes for State-by-State
variations from definitions.
...Not applicable.
/Not reported.
a
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may
include some inmates for whom sentence
0 0 0 0 0 0 4.4 1,233 1,287 4.4 1,233 1,287 Wyoming
33 31 50 18 -41.0 83 49 5.8 11,584 12,254 5.5 11,667 12,303 Washington
66 54 28 23 -18.1 94 77 7.6 4,203 4,521 7.0 4,297 4,598 Utah
0 ... 1,124 611 -45.6 1,124 611 -1.0 6,798 6,731 -7.3 7,922 7,342 Oregon
0 0 234 210 ... 234 210 ... 4,118 3,055 ... 4,352 3,265 New Mexico
e
0 0 133 76 -42.9 133 76 7.4 7,373 7,916 6.5 7,506 7,992 Nevada
... ... ... / ... / 17.2 1,516 1,776 17.2 1,516 1,776 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 1.8 3,028 3,082 1.8 3,028 3,082 Idaho
825 1,173 83 152 45.9 908 1,325 11.2 2,123 2,360 21.6 3,031 3,685 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / 2.9 9,473 9,744 2.9 9,473 9,744 Colorado
c
2,495 2,448 / / -1.9 2,495 2,448 6.7 132,986 141,944 6.6 135,481 144,392 California
c
0 0 870 986 13.3 870 986 4.1 20,108 20,938 4.5 20,978 21,924 Arizona
831 926 211 249 12.8 1,042 1,175 4.5 1,739 1,818 7.6 2,781 2,993 Alaska
b
4,250 4,632 2,733 2,325 % -0.4 6,983 6,957 % 5.4 206,282 217,426 % 5.2 213,265 224,383 West

20 10 ... ... -50.0 20 10 -2.0 2,311 2,264 -2.4 2,331 2,274 West Virginia
... ... 309 296 -4.2 309 296 -1.6 23,496 23,114 -1.7 23,805 23,410 Virginia
... ... 3,386 3,512 3.7 3,386 3,512 6.3 119,064 126,539 6.2 122,450 130,051 Texas
... ... ... ... ... ... 10.4 13,130 14,490 10.4 13,130 14,490 Tennessee
c
... ... 566 769 35.9 566 769 2.5 18,134 18,589 3.5 18,700 19,358 South Carolina
... ... / / / / -1.7 13,808 13,578 -1.7 13,808 13,578 Oklahoma
c
247 247 2,433 3,240 30.1 2,680 3,487 5.9 24,281 25,725 8.3 26,961 29,212 North Carolina
0 0 283 273 -3.5 283 273 1.3 9,065 9,181 1.1 9,348 9,454 Mississippi
... ... 969 1,009 4.1 969 1,009 0.3 19,710 19,760 0.4 20,679 20,769 Maryland
... ... ... ... ... ... 3.8 16,882 17,529 3.8 16,882 17,529 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.9 9,640 10,209 5.9 9,640 10,209 Kentucky
... ... 707 637 -9.9 707 637 4.3 32,193 33,586 4.0 32,900 34,223 Georgia
... ... 14 45 221.4 14 45 1.2 60,447 61,162 1.2 60,461 61,207 Florida
351 261 259 193 -25.6 610 454 -20.1 7,755 6,197 -20.5 8,365 6,651 District of Col.
b,d
810 894 966 1,053 9.6 1,776 1,947 5.1 2,952 3,102 6.8 4,728 5,049 Delaware
b
0 0 68 42 -38.2 68 42 3.3 8,065 8,331 3.0 8,133 8,373 Arkansas
a
0 0 587 562 -4.3 587 562 3.0 19,490 20,065 2.7 20,077 20,627 Alabama
1,428 1,412 10,547 11,631 % 8.9 11,975 13,043 % 3.2 400,423 413,421 % 3.4 412,398 426,464 South
553 257 23 21 -51.7 576 278 12.0 11,321 12,682 8.9 11,897 12,960 Wisconsin
d
... ... / / / / 7.7 1,922 2,070 7.7 1,922 2,070 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 4.2 43,190 44,997 4.2 43,190 44,997 Ohio
c
... ... 66 75 13.6 66 75 6.2 642 682 6.9 708 757 North Dakota
22 22 50 58 11.1 72 80 4.4 2,917 3,046 4.6 2,989 3,126 Nebraska
... 0 4 15 275 4 15 8.5 20,550 22,302 8.6 20,554 22,317 Missouri
c
5 18 0 ... 260.0 5 18 10.5 4,576 5,056 10.8 4,581 5,074 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 5.7 40,429 42,715 5.7 40,429 42,715 Michigan
... ... ... ... ... ... 2.2 7,277 7,435 2.2 7,277 7,435 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 9.2 5,872 6,410 9.2 5,872 6,410 Iowa
5 6 150 153 2.6 155 159 4.3 14,673 15,311 4.3 14,828 15,470 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 4.8 36,603 38,358 4.8 36,603 38,358 Illinois
c
585 303 293 322 % -28.8 878 625 % 5.8 189,972 201,064 % 5.7 190,850 201,689 Midwest
175 159 132 264 37.8 307 423 1.8 780 794 12.0 1,087 1,217 Vermont
b
546 603 530 499 2.4 1,076 1,102 3.4 1,944 2,011 3.1 3,020 3,113 Rhode Island
b
2 1 0 5 200.0 2 6 1.5 32,999 33,506 1.5 33,001 33,512 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 244 0 244 -0.7 65,981 65,539 -0.3 65,981 65,783 New York
... ... / / / / 9.5 22,108 24,211 9.5 22,108 24,211 New Jersey
c
2 0 11 4 -69.2 13 4 4.6 1,883 1,969 4.1 1,896 1,973 New Hampshire
556 575 45 114 14.6 601 689 0.4 9,479 9,519 1.3 10,080 10,208 Massachusetts
... ... 49 60 22.4 49 60 7.1 1,388 1,486 7.6 1,437 1,546 Maine
2,873 2,840 1,420 1,464 0.3 4,293 4,304 4.0 9,800 10,195 2.9 14,093 14,499 Connecticut
b
4,154 4,178 2,187 2,654 % 7.7 6,341 6,832 % 2.0 146,362 149,230 % 2.2 152,703 156,062 Northeast
10,417 10,525 15,760 16,932 4.9 26,177 27,457 4.0 943,039 981,141 4.1 969,216 1,008,598 State
9,650 10,327 2,541 2,702 % 6.9 12,191 13,029 % 7.0 76,348 81,662 % 6.9 88,539 94,691 Federal
a
20,067 20,852 18,301 19,634 % 5.5 38,368 40,486 % 4.3 1,019,387 1,062,803 % 4.3 1,057,755 1,103,289 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length
Table 5.19. Male prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997

94 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
may include some inmates for whom sentence
their custody figures prior to 1997. or less; see Explanatory notes.
a
Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less
in local jails or out of State because of crowding in may include some inmates sentenced to a year /Not reported.
comparable because New Mexico included inmates
c
Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year ...Not applicable.
e
New Mexico's 1996 and 1997 custody data are not jails and prisons are combined in one system. State-by-State variations from definitions.
length is unknown.
b
Counts include both jail and prison inmates; definitions and the Explanatory notes for
d
Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. Note: See the questionnaire for category
0 0 0 0 0 0 39.4 94 131 39.4 94 131 Wyoming
1 2 3 2 4 4 0.2 917 919 0.2 921 923 Washington
16 5 1 4 -47.1 17 9 3.3 246 254 263 263 Utah
0 ... 203 73 -64.0 203 73 8.1 332 359 -19.3 535 432 Oregon
0 0 45 56 ... 45 56 ... 336 318 ... 381 374 New Mexico
e
0 0 4 6 50.0 4 6 9.5 571 625 9.7 575 631 Nevada
... ... ... / ... / 16.2 74 86 16.2 74 86 Montana
c
... ... ... ... ... ... 0.4 229 230 0.4 229 230 Idaho
64 141 13 20 109.1 77 161 15.4 201 232 41.4 278 393 Hawaii
b
... ... / / / / -0.8 829 822 -0.8 829 822 Colorado
c
689 603 / / -12.5 689 603 9.4 9,395 10,281 7.9 10,084 10,884 California
c
0 0 100 145 45.0 100 145 1,415 1,415 3.0 1,515 1,560 Arizona
79 90 19 21 13.3 98 111 12.4 89 100 12.8 187 211 Alaska
b
849 841 388 327 % -5.6 1,237 1,168 % 7.1 14,728 15,772 % 6.1 15,965 16,940 West

4 2 ... ... -50.0 4 2 -9.0 133 121 -10.2 137 123 West Virginia
... ... 43 34 -20.9 43 34 -8.7 1,301 1,188 -9.1 1,344 1,222 Virginia
... ... 959 1,274 32.8 959 1,274 0.6 8,974 9,026 3.7 9,933 10,300 Texas
... ... ... ... ... ... 39.1 435 605 39.1 435 605 Tennessee
c
... ... 97 138 42.3 97 138 5.1 1,063 1,117 8.2 1,160 1,255 South Carolina
... ... / / / / -0.5 1,322 1,315 -0.5 1,322 1,315 Oklahoma
c
30 33 377 472 24.1 407 505 -8.3 1,388 1,273 -0.9 1,795 1,778 North Carolina
0 0 36 64 77.8 36 64 28.3 646 829 30.9 682 893 Mississippi
... ... 86 118 37.2 86 118 2.0 964 983 4.9 1,050 1,101 Maryland
... ... ... ... ... ... 20.3 782 941 20.3 782 941 Louisiana
... ... ... ... ... ... 31.1 508 666 31.1 508 666 Kentucky
... ... 104 81 -22.1 104 81 3.1 2,135 2,201 1.9 2,239 2,282 Georgia
... ... 3 7 133.3 3 7 3.4 3,299 3,412 3.5 3,302 3,419 Florida
66 57 32 28 -13.3 98 85 -12.4 356 312 -12.6 454 397 District of Col.
b,d
89 96 126 128 4.2 215 224 -3.0 164 159 1.1 379 383 Delaware
b
0 0 10 11 10.0 10 11 11.8 532 595 11.8 542 606 Arkansas
a
0 0 65 48 -26.2 65 48 1.3 1,282 1,299 1,347 1,347 Alabama
189 188 1,938 2,403 % 21.8 2,127 2,591 % 3.0 25,284 26,042 % 4.5 27,411 28,633 South
8 4 4 2 -50.0 12 6 18.2 621 734 16.9 633 740 Wisconsin
d
... ... / / / / 19.9 141 169 19.9 141 169 South Dakota
c
... ... / / / / 1.2 2,778 2,811 1.2 2,778 2,811 Ohio
c
... ... 9 7 -22.2 9 7 22.9 48 59 15.8 57 66 North Dakota
3 0 12 15 15 15 -2.4 212 207 -2.2 227 222 Nebraska
... 0 0 3 0 3 15.4 1,464 1,690 15.6 1,464 1,693 Missouri
c
0 2 0 ... 0 2 12.6 223 251 13.5 223 253 Minnesota
... ... ... ... ... ... 7.1 1,920 2,056 7.1 1,920 2,056 Michigan
... ... ... ... ... ... 0.2 478 479 0.2 478 479 Kansas
... ... ... ... ... ... 12.3 470 528 12.3 470 528 Iowa
5 2 9 12 14 14 11.1 924 1,027 11.0 938 1,041 Indiana
0 0 / / 0 0 8.0 2,249 2,430 8.0 2,249 2,430 Illinois
c
16 8 34 39 % -6.0 50 47 % 7.9 11,528 12,441 % 7.9 11,578 12,488 Midwest
7 11 4 8 72.7 11 19 61.9 21 34 65.6 32 53 Vermont
b
37 60 111 65 -15.5 148 125 10.8 65 72 -7.5 213 197 Rhode Island
b
0 0 0 1 0 1 -4.0 1,475 1,416 -3.9 1,475 1,417 Pennsylvania
0 0 0 31 0 31 -4.3 3,728 3,569 -3.4 3,728 3,600 New York
... ... / / / / 26.7 1,015 1,286 26.7 1,015 1,286 New Jersey
c
9 6 27 15 -41.7 36 21 4.8 105 110 -7.1 141 131 New Hampshire
130 109 131 178 10.0 261 287 -8.4 462 423 -1.8 723 710 Massachusetts
... ... 6 4 -33.3 6 4 54.5 33 51 41.0 39 55 Maine
267 272 260 217 -7.2 527 489 -7.0 613 570 % -7.1 1,140 1,059 Connecticut
b
450 458 539 519 % -1.2 989 977 % 0.2 7,517 7,531 8,506 8,508 Northeast
1,504 1,495 2,899 3,288 8.6 4,403 4,783 4.6 59,057 61,786 4.9 63,460 66,569 State
612 683 385 505 % 19.2 997 1,188 % 5.8 5,552 5,876 % 7.9 6,549 7,064 Federal
a
2,116 2,178 3,284 3,793 % 10.6 5,400 5,971 % 4.7 64,609 67,662 % 5.2 70,009 73,633 U.S. total
12/31/96 12/31/97 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 change 12/31/96 12/31/97 jurisdiction
Unsentenced Year or less Percent Percent Percent Region and
Total More than a year Total
Year or less/unsentenced
Maximum sentence length
Table 5.20. Female prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1996 and 1997
Explanatory notes by jurisdiction
Federal prisons
Population, admissions, and releases:
Movement data were provided; however,
when admissions are added to the January
1 population and releases are subtracted,
the total does not equal the December 31,
1997, population.
Other releases and admissions: Include
miscellaneous and unknown admission and
release types.
Inmates with a year or less sentence:
Jurisdiction and custody counts include
inmates whose sentence length is
unknown.
Cause of death: Unknown at the time of
data collection.
Race, whites and Asians and Pacific
Islanders: Include an undetermined number
of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific
Islanders.
Alabama
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include inmates returned from
supervised release under Alabama Act 754
and split sentence/probation with and
without new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Unspecified in the
Alabama data system, but include other
conditional release violators with no new
sentence.
Cause of death: Can specify only
executions and AIDS-related deaths.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Alaska
Admissions and releases: Alaska is unable
to determine if movements are longer than
30 days.
Admissions, releases, jurisdiction
population: Excludes 55 inmates housed
in community jails solely to ease prison
crowding. Alaska does not maintain
movement data for these inmates. If there
were female inmates, they are reported as
males.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Alaska.
Other releases, unconditional and
conditional: Court-ordered releases and
other releases.
Other race: Alaska’s “Hispanic” race
category.
Arizona
Population, admissions and releases:
Based on custody data.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Other conditional releases: Include
supervised early releases, provisional
releases, supervised work furloughs,
earned credit releases, and releases to the
home arrest program.
Cause of death: Pending investigation
at time of data collection.
Other releases: Include early releases to
detainer, persons returned to prison
pending revocation hearing where no
revocation occurred, and persons who were
returned to supervision.
Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 211
men housed in local jails solely to ease
prison crowding.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Arizona’s “Other” race
category.
Arkansas
Other admissions: Consists of 11 returns
from the Department of Community
Punishment, a separate agency. Also
includes an adjustment residual to balance
the movement data with the December 31,
1997, jurisdiction population.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Other conditional releases: Persons
released under the provisions of Arkansas’
Acts 378 and 814 and Boot Camp to some
form of supervision.
Other releases: Releases to the
Department of Community Punishment,
a separate agency.
Jurisdiction population, inmates with a year
or less sentence: Includes 75 men and 10
women being held in the county jail for
whom the sentence is unknown.
Custody population, inmates with a year or
less sentence: Includes 42 men and 11
women transferred from the county jail
awaiting transfer to the Department of
Correction for whom the sentence is
unknown.
Other race: Includes Arkansas’ “Cuban”
race category.
California
Sentencing information: Reported
population with sentence of more than
1 year include an undetermined number
of inmates with a maximum sentence of
1 year or less.
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: May include some parole
violators and returns from supervised
mandatory releases with new sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: May include some parole
violators without new sentences and some
supervised mandatory or parole releases
returned pending a revocation hearing.
Escapee returns: Include AWOL returns
with or without new sentences.
Unconditional releases, expirations of
sentence: Include some court-ordered
releases.
Conditional releases, supervised
mandatory releases: Include some
court-ordered and parole releases.
Cause of death: Not specified, or drug
overdose.
Other releases, escapes from confinement:
Include inmates that are AWOL.

Prisoners in 1997 95
Other releases: Contains the net difference
between total admissions and the
December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population.
These are most likely temporary releases to
courts, jail, and hospitals, who have not
been returned to prison as of December 31,
1997. Also includes releases to
appeal/bond.
Jurisdiction population, unsentenced
inmates: Include civil narcotic addict
commitments and county diagnostic cases.
Other race and not known Hispanic origin:
Include some Asian, Pacific Islander, and
Hispanic inmates admitted to California
prisons prior to January 1990 (when these
categories were added to the California
computer system). Also includes
California’s “Hispanic/Mexican” category.
Colorado
Sentencing information: Reported
populations with sentences of more than 1
year include a small number of inmates
with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less.
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Include
admissions of inmates through interstate
compacts.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Numbers
are estimates.
Other releases: Court-ordered releases not
classified as conditional or unconditional.
Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are
estimates.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Connecticut
Jurisdiction population: Includes community
program (transitional supervision) and
some interstate compact custody
population data.
Other admissions: Type of admission
unknown. Includes adjustment residuals
to balance the movement data with the
December 31, 1997, jurisdiction population.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered discharges.
Other conditional releases: Releases to
home jurisdiction, community releases, and
discharges from Connecticut supervision.
Other releases: Type of release unknown.
Include adjustment residuals to balance the
movement data with the December 31,
1997, jurisdiction population.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Connecticut’s “Hispanic”
category.
Delaware
Parole and other conditional release
violators with new sentences: Include
violators with and without new sentences.
Other admissions: Include inmates who
were changed from jail sentences of less
than 1 year to prison sentences of more
than a year. Also included are adjustment
residuals to balance the movement data
with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction
population.
Other releases: Include releases to State
and local hospitals, inmates serving
weekend sentences.
Unconditional releases, expirations of
sentence: Include some releases to
probation.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
District of Columbia
Population, admissions, and releases: The
January 1, 1997, counts differ from the
December 31, 1996, counts. Movement
data were provided; however, when
admissions are added to the January 1
population and releases are subtracted, the
total does not equal the December 31,
1997, population.
Sentencing information, partially suspended
sentences: Prisoners with partially
suspended sentences (part served in
prison, part served under probation) are
included with the “Inmates with over 1 year
maximum sentence” only when the prison
portion of the sentence exceeded 12
months. As a result, the population and
movement counts of “Inmates with over 1
year maximum sentence” are understated,
and the counts of “Inmates with 1 year or
less maximum sentence” are overstated.
Sentencing information, short sentences:
An undetermined number of inmates
housed in neither the District of Columbia
jail nor the Detention Center and having
either no sentence or a minimum sentence
of 1 year or less are included in the
movement and population counts of
inmates with more than 1 year maximum
sentences. As a result, the population and
movement counts of inmates with maximum
sentences of more than 1 year are
overstated, and the counts of inmates with
1 year or less maximum sentence are
understated.
Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:
Include transfers from and to mental
hospitals and other State and Federal
facilities.
Unconditional releases, expirations of
sentence: Include some inmates with
partially suspended sentences and
releases to probation.
Other unconditional releases: Inmates
released to mental health facilities.
Other conditional releases: Emergency
Power Act releases.
Number of deaths: All deaths are reported
under “males.” As a result, total male
releases are slightly overcounted and
female releases are slightly undercounted.
Other releases: Inmates eligible for parole.
Total jurisdiction population: Include male
and female District code violators housed in
Federal Bureau of Prisons facilities and
male inmates housed in other State
facilities. An undetermined number of these
inmates are being housed solely to ease
prison overcrowding.
96 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
Unsentenced inmate populations:
Jurisdiction and custody counts include
unsentenced inmates held in the District of
Columbia Detention Center.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in the District of Columbia.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Florida
Population, admissions, and releases
counts: Based on custody data.
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include control release violators
with new sentences.
Other conditional release violators without
new sentences: Include conditional medical
returns, conditional medical violators,
provisional release violators, conditional
release violators, and supervised
community release violators without new
sentences.
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Include
admissions through interstate compact
agreements with and without new
sentences and inmates returning from
concurrent sentences served elsewhere.
Other admissions: Consists of returns from
court with new sentences and adjustment
residuals to balance the movement data
with the December 31, 1997, custody
population.
Other unconditional releases: Include
sentences vacated by the court.
Other conditional releases: Include
provisional releases, conditional pardons,
control releases with supervision,
conditional medical releases, conditional
releases, reinstatements, supervised
community releases, mandatory conditional
releases, and releases by Florida Parole
Commission order.
Transfers to other jurisdictions: Include out-
of-State and interstate transfers (inmates
who have been sentenced under Florida’s
jurisdiction but serve their sentence in
another State or Federal prison).
Race: Racial categories may Include an
undetermined number of Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Includes 980 male and 96
female inmates from Florida’s Latino
category.
Georgia
The January 1, 1997, jurisdiction count
differs from the December 31, 1996, count
due to delayed data entry.
Population, admissions, and releases:
Based on custody data.
Other admissions: Unknown.
Parole violators with new sentences: May
include a small number of other conditional
release violators with new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other unconditional releases: Consists of
an inmate who paid a fine.
Other conditional releases: Consists of
special and supervised conditional
reprieves controlled by the Georgia Parole
Board.
Other deaths: Cause of death unknown.
Jurisdiction population: Excludes inmates
awaiting transfer from local jails.
Other race: Includes inmates who identify
race categories other than those specified.
Hawaii
Category estimates: Jurisdiction and
custody counts are actual counts.
Admissions, releases, race, and Hispanic
origin are estimates based on information
from Hawaii’s Correctional Information
System (CIS).
Other unconditional releases: Dismissals
and suspended sentences.
Other conditional releases: Include
conditional releases and conditional
discharges.
Other releases: Include emergency
releases, supervised releases, releases to
own recognizance (ROR), temporary ROR,
administrative releases, releases to other
individuals/agencies, and other releases.
An adjustment of 195 men and 32 women
also are included to balance the movement
data with the December 31, 1997,
population.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Hawaii.
Other race: Includes inmates who identified
more than one race category, except for
individuals who are part-Hawaiian.
Prisoners of part-Hawaiian ancestry are
counted as “Asians/Pacific Islanders.”
Hispanic origin: Hawaii’s “Puerto Rican”
category.
Idaho
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other conditional releases: Include inmates
for whom the Department of Corrections
previously had jurisdiction, which was later
revoked.
Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are
estimates.
Illinois
Population, admissions, and releases:
Based on custody data.
Sentencing information: Inmates with
sentences of more than 1 year include
some inmates with a 1 year maximum
sentence.
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include some parole violators
with new sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Include some parole
violators without new sentences.
Escapees: Illinois reports the movement of
escapees using the Offender Tracking
System. All inmates in Community
Correctional Centers and Electronic
Detention Centers are now included in the
counts, which in part accounts for the
increase in the number of escapes and
returns from escape.

Prisoners in 1997 97
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Other releases: Contains the net difference
between long-term admissions and release
movements not reported in other categories
(for example, transfers, writs, and medical
furloughs) to balance the December 31
population. The category also includes an
undetermined number of transfers to other
jurisdictions.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Illinois’ “Hispanic” category.
Indiana
New court commitments: Include probation
violators with and without new sentences.
Other unconditional releases: Sentences
terminated based on Parole Board
decisions.
Iowa
Population, admissions, and releases:
Based on custody data.
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Include parolees remanded to prison prior
to a formal revocation hearing.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Conditional releases, paroles: Include
persons returned to parole following
revocation hearings and persons released
to parole by Conditional Commutation
Orders.
Other admissions and releases: Inmates
held for safekeeping.
Other conditional releases: Releases to
work release programs.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Iowa’s “Hispanic” category.
Kansas
New court commitments: May include a
small number of returns from appeal/bond.
Includes all probation violators, both with
and without new sentences, who may have
previously spent time in prison.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Type unknown at time of
data collection.
Paroles: Include post-release supervision.
Other conditional releases: Conditional
releases to supervision, similar to that for
parole.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Kentucky
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Court-ordered returns to
prison.
Other releases: Include court-ordered
releases not identifiable as conditional or
unconditional.
Other race: Includes an undetermined
number of Native Hawaiians and other
Pacific Islanders and inmates whose race
cannot be classified in the specified
categories.
Louisiana
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Admissions to treatment
programs from Probation and Parole
Districts.
Expiration of sentence: Includes good-time
releases.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Other releases: Include inmates released
in error.
American Indians or Alaska Natives:
American Indians only.
Other race: Includes Latinos, Native
Hawaiians, other Pacific Islanders, and all
“Other” race categories.
Hispanic origin: Not included in Louisiana’s
data system.
Maine
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include probation violators with
new sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Include probation violators
with no new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Consists of an
adjustment to balance the movement data
with the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction
population.
Race: Numbers by gender are estimates.
Categories may include Native Hawaiians
and other Pacific Islanders.
Maryland
Category estimates: The movement and
population totals are actual counts.
Categories for admissions and releases are
estimated by applying percentages from
automated data to the totals that are made
manually. The automated data system
counts only inmates with maximum
sentences of more than 1 year, while the
detailed categories in the manual data
include inmates with maximum sentences
of 1 year or less.
New court commitments: May include a
small number of returns from appeal/bond.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Interstate compact
admissions.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases. May also include a small
number of releases to appeal/bond.
Other conditional releases: Inmates paroled
from the Patuxent Institution to work
release.
98 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
Other releases: Include a small number of
interstate compact releases as well as
releases of new admissions that had been
double counted with admissions data.
Other deaths: Include 5 deaths for which
the cause is unknown.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Hispanic origin: Unknown.
Massachusetts
Sentencing information: Sentence length is
estimated for approximately 111 cases.
Parole violators only, no new sentence:
Include an undetermined number of parole
violators with new sentences, other
conditional release violators -- both with
and without new sentences -- and a small
number of returns from appeal/bond.
Unconditional releases, expirations of
sentence: Include some releases to
probation.
Other unconditional releases: Include
court-ordered releases.
Releases and Jurisdiction population:
Population counts may include a small,
undetermined number of inmates who were
remanded to court; transferred to the
custody of another State-, Federal-, or
locally operated system; and subsequently
released.
Jurisdiction population: By law, offenders in
Massachusetts may be sentenced to terms
of up to 2½ years in locally operated jails
and correctional institutions. Such
populations are excluded from the State
jurisdiction count, but are included in
published population counts and rates for
local jails and correctional institutions.
There are approximately 6,200 male
inmates in the county system serving a
sentence of over 1 year.
Jurisdiction population, unsentenced
inmates: Include inmates housed in State
facilities awaiting trial and civil
commitments as well as 119 men awaiting
trial for the State housed in county facilities.
State prison overcrowding: Other States
housing Massachusetts inmates include
Connecticut, Maine, New Mexico, Ohio,
and Vermont.
Other race: Includes Massachusetts
“Hispanic” and “Asian Indian” race
categories.
Michigan
Admissions and releases: Unable to
determine if movements are longer than 30
days.
Population, admissions, and releases:
Based on custody data plus 38 inmates
housed in Federal facilities.
Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:
Transfers from and to mental hospitals and
Federal and other State facilities.
Escapes: Consist mainly of zero tolerance
walkaways from community residential
programs.
Other admissions: Returns from county jail
and from parole status.
Returns from and releases to appeal/bond:
Contains the net difference of all
movements from and to the courts.
Other deaths: Consists of 1 death caused
by a car accident and 2 deaths for which
the cause is unknown because of an
outstanding death certificate.
Other releases: Include inmates temporarily
housed at a county jail and returns to
parole status.
Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 151
men housed in local jails solely to ease
overcrowding.
Population housed in jails: All inmates are
reported as males.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: May
include a small undetermined number of
Native Hawaiians and other Pacific
Islanders.
Other race: Mexican Americans and
Michigan’s “Other “ race category.
Hispanic origin: Mexican Americans only.
Minnesota
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include supervised mandatory
release violators with new sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Include supervised
mandatory release violators with no new
sentences.
Transfers, escapes, AWOL prisoners, and
admissions/returns from appeal/bond:
Categories are not considered releases and
therefore these returns are not counted as
admissions.
Other unconditional releases: Include
inmates discharged by court or executive
orders. May include some commutations
and overturned convictions.
Other conditional releases: Consists of
intensive community supervision.
State prison crowding: Consists of 50 men
in an in-State private correctional facility.
Other race: Includes 320 Hispanic men and
10 Hispanic women because Minnesota
classifies "Hispanic" as a race. Also
includes an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, and
inmates reported in Minnesota's "Other"
race category.
Mississippi
New court commitments: Include some
probation violators with and without new
sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Include inmates
awaiting revocation hearing and returns
from appeal/bond, as well as inmates
whose admission category was unavailable
at the time of data collection.
Other unconditional releases:
Court-ordered releases.
Other releases: Inmates returned to
community supervision following a
revocation hearing where no revocation
occurred. Also includes releases to
appeal/bond.

Prisoners in 1997 99
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Mississippi’s “Hispanic”
category.
Missouri
Admissions releases and population data:
Includes 15 men and 3 women with a 1-
year maximum sentence.
Total admissions: Include four inmates with
a 1- year sentence.
Other admissions: Include inmates returned
from erroneous releases, persons whose
commitment was reinstated, and parole
board holdovers (offenders arrested by
local authorities and returned to prison,
instead of to the local jail as customary).
Other conditional releases: Conditional
release to custody/detainer, administrative
parole, credit time releases, and parole
board hold-over releases.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases and cases with reversed
or remanded sentences.
Other releases: Erroneous releases.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Montana
Montana revised its December 31, 1996,
jurisdiction population count.
Population, movement and releases:
Include a small undetermined number of
inmates with a maximum sentence of 1
year or less.
Admissions and releases: Include
admissions and releases to and from the
Intensive Supervision Program.
Other unconditional releases:
Court-ordered releases.
Other race: Montana’s “Spanish-American”
category.
Nebraska
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Include some parole violators with new
sentences.
Race and ethnicity: Numbers are estimates.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Nebraska’s “Other” race
category.
Nevada
Nevada revised its December 31, 1996,
jurisdiction population count.
Total admissions and releases: Include
some inmates with a 1 year or less
sentence.
New court commitments: Include a very
small number of returns from appeal/bond.
AWOL returns and AWOL releases:
Categories are not considered valid
releases or returns in Nevada’s data
system.
Other admissions: Include inmates in boot
camp, county safekeeping, and the 120-day
evaluation program. Also include
adjustment residuals to balance the
movement data with the December 31,
1997, population.
Other unconditional releases:
Court-ordered releases and releases from
boot camp and the 120-day evaluation
program.
Other releases: Consists of adjustment
residuals to balance movement data with
the December 31, 1997, population.
Custody population, inmates with 1 year or
less sentence: Include inmates in boot
camp and the 120 day evaluation program.
Race and ethnicity: Numbers are estimates.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Nevada’s “Hispanic,” “Cuban,”
and “Other” race categories.
Ethnic origin: Includes Nevada’s “Hispanic”
and “Cuban” race categories.
New Hampshire
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Include parole violators with a new
sentence.
Other conditional releases: Include parole
violators who were not revoked and were
re-released.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.

New Jersey
Sentencing information: Inmates with
sentences of more than 1 year include
some inmates with a 1-year sentence.
New court commitments: May include some
transfers from other jurisdictions and
returns from appeal/bond.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Prisoners returned (some
with new sentences) from the Intensive
Supervision Program, an experimental
program operated by the Administrative
Office of Courts.
Other conditional releases: Prisoners
released to the Intensive Supervision
Program.
AWOL returns and releases: Due to an
incomplete new data system, New Jersey
is unable to report AWOL’s/walkaways.
Other deaths: Unknown at time of data
collection.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: “Hispanic” inmates who are not
classified as “White” or “Black.”
New Mexico
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Include parole violators with and without
additional sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Include violators with and
without new sentences. Also includes
100 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
returns from community corrections
programs.
Cause of death: Can specify only
executions.
Custody population: Inmates housed in
local jails or out of State because of
crowding are excluded. These inmates
were incorrectly included in the December
31, 1996, custody counts.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
New York
Admissions, releases and population data:
Excludes 903 men and 15 women housed
in local jails solely to ease prison crowding
because New York does not maintain
movement data for these inmates.
New court commitments: Include parole
and other conditional release violators with
new sentences.
Transfers from other jurisdictions: Consists
of transfers to and from the jurisdiction of
the Department of Mental Hygiene for
psychiatric treatment.
Other admissions: Consists of inmates
returned following erroneous discharge
from drug treatment.
Transfers to other jurisdictions: Include 515
men and 38 women transferred to the
jurisdiction of the Department of Mental
Hygiene for psychiatric treatment.
Other releases: Consists of inmates
classified as erroneous releases.
Unknown race: Includes an undetermined
number of Native Hawaiians and other
Pacific Islanders.
North Carolina
Sentencing information, partially suspended
sentences: Prisoners with partially
suspended sentences (part served in
prison, part served under probation) are
included with the “Inmates with over 1-year
maximum sentence” only when the prison
portion of the sentence exceeded 12
months. Virtually all inmates with a
partially suspended sentence are included
in the December 31, 1997, “Inmates with a
year or less maximum sentence” count. As
a result, the population and movement
counts of “Inmates with over 1-year
maximum sentence” are understated, and
the counts of “Inmates with 1-year or less
maximum sentence” are overstated.
Category estimates, sentencing: Population
totals are actual; populations by sentence
length are estimates.
Parole violators with new sentences:
Include some parole violators without new
sentences and some conditional release
violators with and without new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions: Consists of an
adjustment residual to balance movement
data with the December 31 population.
Other unconditional releases:
Court-ordered releases.
Paroles: Include some supervised
mandatory releases.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: North Carolina’s “Other” race
category.
Hispanic origin: Not included in North
Carolina’s data system.
North Dakota
Parole violators only, no new sentences:
Include some parole violators with new
sentences.
Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences: Include some conditional
release violators with new sentences.
Other conditional releases: Court-ordered
releases.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Ohio
Sentencing information: Inmates with
maximum sentences of more than 1 year
include some inmates with sentences of 1
year or less. As a result “Inmates with over
1-year maximum sentence” counts are
overstated.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All
unauthorized absences are classified as
escapes.
Other unconditional releases: Sentences
vacated by courts.
Paroles: Include an undetermined number
of releases to boot camp and intensive
supervision due to a reporting error.
Other conditional releases: Releases to
boot camp and intensive supervision.
Racial and ethnic composition: Numbers
are estimates.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Oklahoma
Sentencing information: Inmates with
maximum sentences of more than 1 year
includes a small number of inmates with
sentences of 1 year.
New court commitments: Include some
probation violators with and without new
sentences.
Other unconditional releases: Legislative
CAP releases (Senate Bill 445).
Other conditional releases: CAP releases
to probation supervision.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Includes “Other” races not
specified.
Unknown race: Includes Hispanic inmates.
Oregon
Transfers from and to other jurisdictions:
Oregon cannot distinguish transfers from
other admissions or release categories.
Transfers may be included in any
admissions or release category.

Prisoners in 1997 101
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: All
unauthorized absences are classified as
escapes.
Other unconditional releases: unknown at
time of data collection.
Other conditional releases: 183 men and 14
women released to local control status and
11 men and 1 woman recorded as
“unspecified other” releases.
Other releases: Consists of 3 men admitted
in error, and 12 men and 2 women whose
type of release was unknown at time of
data collection.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Pennsylvania
Parole violators with new sentences:
Include other conditional release violators
with new sentences.
Other admissions: Type of admission
unknown at time of data collection.
Other unconditional releases:
Court-ordered releases.
Other deaths: Unknown cause of death
at time of data collection.
Escapee: Excludes prisoners who
absconded while residents of
community-based facilities.
Other race: Pennsylvania’s “Hispanic”
category. Also includes an undetermined
number of Native Hawaiians and other
Pacific Islanders.
Rhode Island
Rhode Island revised its December 31,
1996, female jurisdiction population count.
Sentencing information, partially suspended
sentences: Prisoners with partially
suspended sentences (part served in
prison, part served under probation) are
included with the “Inmates with over 1-year
maximum sentence” only when the prison
portion of the sentence exceeded 12
months. As a result, the population and
movement counts of “Inmates with over 1-
year maximum sentence” are understated,
and the counts of “Inmates with 1 year or
less maximum sentence” are overstated.
Other admissions: Consists of returns from
erroneous release.
Other conditional releases: Court-ordered
releases to drug/alcohol treatment
programs.
Other releases: Consists of 1 release to
Immigration, 1 to Federal home
confinement and 1 erroneous release.
Jurisdiction and custody population,
unsentenced inmates: Includes 16 men and
1 woman held on civil contempt of court for
nonpayment of child support.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Rhode Island.
South Carolina
Other admissions and releases: Include
re-sentenced inmates who are released
from a Youthful Offender Act sentence and
readmitted to begin serving the adult
portion of their sentence.
Other unconditional releases: Releases by
court order or by payment of fines and
releases remanded to the county jail to
await retrial.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: South Carolina’s “other” race
category that includes Hispanic inmates
and other races.
South Dakota
Jurisdiction and custody population,
sentencing: Inmates with over 1 year
maximum sentence includes some with a
maximum sentence of less than 1 year.
Other admissions: Consists of 24 men and
3 women with suspended sentences, 13
men from a relapse group (a program for
parole violators who voluntarily recommit
themselves for substance abuse treatment
after a violation), and 1 man whose
admission type is unknown.
Unconditional releases, Expirations of
sentences: Include commutations and
pardons.
Ethnicity: South Dakota’s data system
does not include ethnicity.
Tennessee
Sentencing information: Inmates with
maximum sentences of 1 year are included
with inmates with maximum sentences of
more than 1 year. As a result, the
population and movement counts of
inmates with maximum sentences of more
than 1 year are overstated.
Parole violators with new sentences:
Include some parole violators with no new
sentences.
Other conditional release violators with new
sentences: Include some probation and
community correction program violators
with no new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Conditional releases, paroles: May include
a small number of supervised mandatory
releases.
Paroles: May include a small number of
supervised mandatory releases.
Other conditional releases: Releases to
community correction programs.
Total jurisdiction population: Includes 1,242
men and 186 women housed in local
facilities solely to ease prison crowding.
Excludes 3,461 felons sentenced to serve
their time in local facilities (the State pays
to house these felons, but the local court
maintains jurisdiction).
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Includes Hispanic inmates.
Texas
Jurisdiction population, sentencing
information: Includes 3,512 men and 1,274
women with maximum sentences of 1 year
or less who cannot be removed from the
appropriate admissions and release
categories.
102 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
Parole violators with and without new
sentences: Texas’ data system does not
distinguish parole violators with new
sentences from those without new
sentences.
Other conditional release violators with and
without new sentences: Texas’ data system
does not distinguish other conditional
release violators with new sentences from
those without new sentences.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other admissions and releases: Include
“State jail” felons not counted in other
admission and release categories, as well
as inmates with unclear or incomplete
admission or release information.
Other deaths: Cause unknown.
Custody population, Inmates with a year or
less sentence: Consists of inmates in a
substance abuse program.
Other race: Includes Texas’ “Hispanic”
category and all persons not specified as
“white” or “black.”
Utah
Utah revised its December 31, 1996, male
jurisdiction count.
Other unconditional releases: Inmates
whose sentences were terminated prior to
expiration.
Custody population, sentencing: Include
parole violators whose parole has not
officially been revoked.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Vermont
Population, admissions and releases:
Based on custody counts.
Parole violators with and without new
sentences: May include other conditional
release violators with or without new
sentences.
AWOL: May include some returns from
appeal/bond.
Other admissions: Consists of 313 male
and 43 female furlough violators and
adjustment residuals to balance the
movement data with the December 31,
1997, population.
Other releases: Include releases to
furlough.
Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and
custody counts include inmates in prisons
and jails, which form an integrated system
in Vermont. Excludes 700 inmates on
intermediate sanctions.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Virginia
Other unconditional releases: Include
unconditional administrative releases,
commutations, and releases by court order.
Conditional releases, supervised
mandatory releases and paroles: Releases
to detainer and transfers to other
jurisdictions.
Other deaths: Cause of death not available
at time of data collection.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Virginia’s “Hispanic,” “Chinese,”
and “Other” race categories.
Washington
Total population, admissions and releases,
sentencing: Include 14 men and 2 women
with a year or less maximum sentence.
Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted
as a single category.
Other unconditional releases: Vacated
sentences.
Race, Asian and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Inmates of mixed racial origin.
West Virginia
Admissions, releases and jurisdiction
population: Include 10 unsentenced men
and 2 unsentenced women held for
diagnostic purposes. Inmates held for
diagnostic evaluation.
Wisconsin
Admissions, releases and jurisdiction
population: Data for 1996 and 1997 are not
comparable because of a change in
reporting method.
Releases and jurisdiction population: The
number of releases is understated because
when sentence length is unknown,
Wisconsin substitutes time served for
sentence length. Inmates whose time
served is equal to 1 year or less (the
majority of whom are releases of alternative
to revocation admissions) are excluded
from the release categories. Therefore, the
admissions when added to the populations
for January 1, minus the releases, do not
equal the December 31, 1997, jurisdiction
population.
Other admissions: Include 727 men and 85
women temporarily returned to prison
without a formal revocation; 554 men and 9
women returned pending revocation
hearings; 11 men and 9 woman returned
from special placements on probation and
parole; 11 men and 1 woman with no
Wisconsin sentence; and 5 men and 1
woman erroneously admitted.
Other unconditional releases: Court-
ordered releases.
Other releases: Include 104 men and 20
women returned to the community after
being held without formal revocations; 3
men released from probation and parole
special placement; 5 men with no
Wisconsin sentence; 19 men who were
held pending revocation hearing; 1 man
from an erroneous admission, and 10 men
released to mental health facilities under
Wisconsin’s predator law.
Unsentenced inmates, jurisdiction and
custody counts: Include inmates whose
sentence was unknown at time of data
collection.
Other deaths: Cause of death unknown.

Prisoners in 1997 103
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Wisconsin’s “Other” race
category.
Wyoming
Wyoming revised its December 31, 1996,
jurisdiction population count.
New court commitments and unconditional
releases, expirations of sentence: May
include a small number of administrative
turnovers (starts and expirations of
consecutive sentences).
Parole violators only, no new sentence:
Include some parole violators with new
sentences.
Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include
an undetermined number of Native
Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
Other race: Wyoming’s “Hispanic” category.
104 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
FORM
(1-16-98)
NPS-1
National Prisoner Statistics
Summary of Sentenced
Population Movement
1997
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR
BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
OMB No. 1121-0102: Approval Expires 01/31/2001
(Please correct any error in name, mailing address, and ZIP Code)
NPS-1
GENERAL INFORMATION
• Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of the Census in
the enclosed envelope or FAX (all pages) to 1–301–457–3929 before
March 28, 1998.
DSD-Crime Surveys Branch
Bureau of the Census
4700 Silver Hill Rd. – Stop 8400
Washington, DC 20233-8400
DATA SUPPLIED BY
Respondent name Title
Telephone No.
( )
E-mail address
• If you have any questions about completing this form, call Elizabeth Griffin
toll-free at 1–800–221–1829.
REPORTING THE DATA
The NPS-1 is an effort to collect comparable data from all jurisdictions for
December 31, 1997. Please review the instructions and definitions on pages 5
and 6 before completing this report. If you are not able to report an item using the
standard definitions and reporting criteria, explain the differences in the "Notes"
sections.
• Enter "NA" (Not Applicable) in the space provided if your jurisdiction, by
law or regulation, cannot have the type of inmates described by the item.
• Enter "NR" (Not Reported) if your jurisdiction had the type of inmates described
by the item, but you cannot determine the number of such inmates you had in
1997. If you cannot determine the number of inmates separately by item, report
the combined count in one of the items, enter "NR" in the remaining items, and
specify in the "Notes" section all of the items represented by the combined
count.
• Enter "0" (Zero) in the space provided if your state can have the type of inmate
described by the item but did not have any during 1997.
• Describe the types of inmates reported in all "Other" categories in the "Notes"
sections.
BURDEN STATEMENT
Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average
6.5 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching
existing data sources, gathering and maintaining data needed, and completing
and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this
burden estimate or any aspect of this collection of information, including
suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics,
810 Seventh Street, NW; Washington, DC 20531; and to the Public Use Reports
Project, OMB number 1121-0102, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs,
Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503.
RETURN
TO
FAX No.
( )
1. Jurisdiction population on January 1
3. Total inmates handled – Sum of item 1 and 2k
2. Admissions
a. New court commitments
b. Parole violators with new sentences
c. Other conditional release
violators with new sentences
d. Parole violators only, no new sentences
e. Other conditional release violators only,
no new sentences
f. Transfers from other jurisdictions
g. AWOL returns, with or without new
sentences
h. Escapee returns, with or without
new sentences
i. Returns from appeal/bond
j. Other admissions – Specify in
"NOTES"
k. TOTAL ADMISSIONS
Sum of items 2a–2j
Item description
Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence
MALE FEMALE
1996 1996 1997 1997
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)
Page 2
t. TOTAL RELEASES
4. Releases
Commutations
Other unconditional releases –
Specify in "NOTES"
Probations
Paroles
Other conditional releases
Specify in "NOTES"
Executions
Illnesses/natural causes
(Exclude AIDS, report in 4j)
Suicides
Accidental injury to self
Uncondi-
tional
Conditional
Death
a.
Death caused by another person
n.
AWOLS
Escapes from confinement
Transfers to other jurisdictions
Releases to appeal/bond
Other releases
Specify in "NOTES"
Other
Expirations of sentence
b.
c.
d.
f.
g.
h.
i.
k.
e.
l.
m.
o.
p.
q.
r.
s.
Supervised mandatory releases
Acquired immune deficiency
syndrome (AIDS)
The immediate cause of death
in AIDS mortalities may be
Pneumocystis Carinii
Pneumonia, Kaposi’s
Sarcoma, or other diseases
related to HIV infection
j.
Other deaths – Specify in
"NOTES"
Sum of items 4a–4s
YEAR STATE
NPS-1
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)
Page 3
5. Jurisdiction
Item description
MALE FEMALE
1996 1996 1997 1997
a. Inmates with over 1 year maximum
population
Dec. 31
sentence – Item 3 minus item 4t
b. Inmates with a year or less
maximum sentence
c. Unsentenced inmates – Enumerate only
those in your State’s correctional
jurisdiction. Otherwise, report in item 6c.
d. TOTAL inmate population –
Sum of items 5a, b, and c
6. Custody
b. Inmates with a year or less
c. Unsentenced inmates
d. TOTAL inmate population
a. Inmates with over 1 year
maximum sentence
maximum sentence
Sum of items 6a, b, and c
NOTES
population
Dec. 31
7. State
b. Are these inmates included in item
c. Number of your State’s
a. Number of state inmates housed in
If any entry in item 7a for 1997 is not
"0" or "NA," please answer item 7b.
facilities operated by a county or
other local authority on December 31
solely to ease prison crowding
d. Are these inmates included in item 5d,
jurisdiction total?
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
YES
NO
5d, jurisdiction total?
prison
crowding
Dec. 31
If "NO," explain in the "NOTES."
Specify State(s) or Federal.
inmates housed in other
states or federal facilities on
December 31 solely to ease
prison crowding.



If "NO," explain in the "NOTES."
YEAR STATE
NPS-1
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)
Page 4
8. Racial
b. Race
Item description MALE FEMALE
1996 1996 1997 1997
a. TOTAL – Transcribe from item 5d
Of those enumerated in item 5d, jurisdiction, please
specify race counts.
(1) White
(2) Black or African American
(3) American Indian or
(4) Asian
Alaska Native
(5) Native Hawaiian or other
Pacific Islander
(7) Not known
9. Ethnic
b. Ethnicity
Item description MALE FEMALE
a. TOTAL – Transcribe from item 5d
Of those enumerated in item 5d, jurisdiction, please
specify ethnic counts.
(1) Hispanic or Latino
(2) Not Hispanic or Latino
(3) Not known
NOTES
composition
Dec. 31
composition
Dec. 31
10. HIV testing, a. During 1997 were any inmates tested for
the antibody to the Human Immuno
Deficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS?
Yes 1
No – Skip to item 11 2
b. Which inmates were tested during 1997?
Mark (X) all that apply.
All incoming inmates
All inmates currently in custody
All inmates at time of release
Certain inmates (Complete item 10c)
1
2
3
4
c. Who were the certain inmates tested?
Mark (X) all that apply.
High-risk groups – Specify 1
2
3
4
5
6
11. HIV
b. Inmates with lesser forms of symptomatic
Item description
TOTAL FEMALE
a. Inmates who were asymptomatic HIV
Of those enumerated in item 6d, custody, specify
number of HIV infection/AIDS cases.
positive
HIV disease
MALE
c. Inmates with confirmed AIDS
d. Total number of inmates who were HIV
positive or confirmed AIDS cases (Sum of
items 11a, b, and c)
Jan. 1– Dec.
31, 1997
infection/
AIDS cases
in custody
on Dec. 31,
1997
1996 1996 1997 1997
(6) Other – Specify in
"NOTES"
Upon inmate request
Upon clinical indication of need
Upon involvement in incident
Random sample
Other – Specify
YEAR STATE
NPS-1
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS
e. Other conditional release violators only, no
new sentences – Include all conditional release
violators (other than parole violators) returned only
for formal revocations of conditional release which
were not accompanied by new sentences. If the
conditional release was not formally revoked, that is,
the conditional release violator was held only
temporarily pending a hearing, no admission
occurred for NPS purposes.
f. Transfers from other jurisdictions – Include all
inmates transferred from another jurisdiction to the
jurisdiction of your State to continue sentences
already in force. Do not report the admission if your
State does not acquire jurisdiction. Do not report
movements from prison to prison within your State.
j. Other admissions – Include all other admissions
not covered by the above categories. Please specify
the nature of these admissions in the "NOTES."
3.
This entry should equal the jurisdiction population on
January 1 (Item 1) plus all admissions (Items 2a-2k).
Do not report short-term movements (less than 30
days) where the State has retained jurisdiction, such
as to court, to work, study or mercy furloughs.
Unconditional – An unconditional release occurs
only if the released inmate cannot be reimprisoned
for any sentence for which he was in prison.
a. Expirations of sentence – Include all inmates
whose maximum court sentences minus credits have
been served.
b. Commutations – Include all inmates whose
maximum sentences have been changed (lowered) to
time served to allow immediate unconditional release.
c. Other unconditional releases – Include all other
unconditional releases not covered by the above
categories. Please specify the nature of these
releases in the "NOTES."
Conditional – A conditional release occurs if the
released inmate, upon violating the conditions of his
release can be imprisoned again for any of the
sentences for which he was in prison.
d. Probations – Include all inmates who have been
placed under probation supervision and conditionally
released. Include all shock probation releases.
e. Supervised mandatory releases – Include all
inmates who must, by law, be conditionally released.
This type of release may also be called mandatory
conditional release.
f. Paroles – Include all inmates conditionally
released to parole. Enter only releases officially
entitled "parole."
g. Other conditional releases – Include all other
conditional releases not covered by the above
categories. Please specify the nature of these
releases in the "NOTES."
1.
The jurisdiction population on January 1, 1997 (Item
1) should equal the number of inmates with over 1
year maximum sentence on December 31, 1996 (item
5a). Revise item 5a for 1996 only if you must.
JURISDICTION POPULATION ON JANUARY 1
POPULATION MOVEMENT, ITEMS 2–4
In items 2–4, you are asked to summarize by category,
the movements of all adults and youthful offenders
adjudicated through the adult court and sentenced to
a maximum of at least one year and one day and
admitted to or released from the jurisdiction of your
State prison system. That is, report the movement of
all inmates for whom your State government had the
legal authority and responsibility for enforcing their
prison sentence in 1997 even though they were
housed in other states, county or city jails, halfway
houses, or federal facilities. Do not report the
admission or release of inmates your State was
merely housing for other states. Do not report the
admission or release of inmates with a sentence of a
year or less. Do not report the admission or release
of any unsentenced inmates, such as pretrial
detainees, inmates under the legal jurisdiction of the
county, those being held in protective custody, and
pre-sentence and diagnostic evaluators.
2. ADMISSIONS
Do not report returns from short-term movements
(less than 30 days) where the State has retained
jurisdiction, such as from a court session, work study,
or mercy furlough.
a. New court commitments – Include all inmates
who were admitted with all new sentences, that is,
these inmates were not readmitted for any sentences.
This category includes probation violators entering
prison for the first time on the probated offenses. Do
not include parole violators with new sentences as
new court commitments.
b. Parole violators with new sentences – Include
all parolees returned with new sentences.
c. Other conditional release violators with new
sentences – Include all conditional release violators
(other than parole violators) returned with new
sentences, for example, returns from shock probation,
supervised mandatory release, etc.
d. Parole violators only, no new sentences –
Include all parolees returned only for formal
revocations of parole which were not accompanied by
new sentences. If the parole was not formally
revoked, that is, the parolee was held only
temporarily pending a hearing, no admission
occurred for NPS purposes.
TOTAL INMATES HANDLED
RELEASES 4.
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)
Page 5
g. AWOL returns, with or without new
sentences – Include all returns from AWOL. AWOL is
defined as failure to return from authorized temporary
absences such as work furlough, study release, mercy
furlough, or other authorized temporary absence.
h. Escapee returns, with or without new
sentences – Include all returns from escape. Escape
is defined as unlawful departure from a state
correctional facility or from the custody of state
correctional personnel.
i. Returns from appeal/bond – Include all inmates
reinstated to correctional jurisdiction from long-term
jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Do not
report returns from short-term movements (that is,
less than 30 days) to court (that is, where the state
retained jurisdiction).
o. AWOLS – Include all failures to return from an
authorized temporary absence such as work furlough,
study release, mercy furlough, or other authorized
temporary absence.
p. Escapes from confinement – Include all
unlawful departures from a state correctional facility
or from the custody of state correctional personnel.
q. Transfers to other jurisdictions – Include all
inmates who were transferred from your State’s
jurisdiction to another jurisdiction to continue
sentences already in force. Do not report the release
if your State does not relinquish jurisdiction. Do not
report movements from prison to prison within your
State.
h. Executions – Self-explanatory.
i. Illnesses/natural causes – Do not include death
from AIDS in this category. Report in 4j.
k. Suicides – Self-explanatory
l. Accidental injury to self – Include all inmates
who accidentally caused their own deaths (for
example, a fall from a ladder, mishandling electrical
equipment).
m. Death caused by another person – Include all
inmates whose death was caused accidentally or
intentionally by another inmate or prison personnel.
n. Other deaths – Include all other deaths not
covered by the above categories. Please specify the
nature of these deaths in the "NOTES."
j. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
(AIDS) – the immediate cause of death in AIDS
mortalities may be Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia,
Kaposi’s Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV
infection.
Death
INSTRUCTIONS – Continued
5.
Include all inmates under your State’s jurisdiction on
December 31, regardless of the location of the
inmates. Do not include other jurisdictions’ inmates
(for example, other states’ inmates, pre-trial
detainees) merely housed in your prisons.
Include all inmates in your State’s custody, that is,
include inmates your State is housing for other states,
or federal or local authorities as well as your own
inmates who are physically located in your State
facilities on December 31. Do not include your State
inmates housed outside your State prison facilities.
b. The inmates counted in 7a should be included in
the jurisdiction population, Item 5d. Mark Item 7b to
indicate whether they were included. If you mark
"No", explain in the "NOTES."
c. Provide a count of all inmates under the
jurisdiction of your State who were housed in another
State or in a Federal prison on December 31
specifically because there was no room for them in
state correctional facilities. Enter the name of each
state in which the inmates were housed and the
number held in each state or by the Federal system.
d. The inmates counted in Item 7c should be
included in the jurisdiction population, Item 5d. Mark
Item 7d to indicate whether they were included. If you
mark "No", explain in the "NOTES."
(6) Other – Any other races not covered by the above
categories. Please specify the other races in the
"NOTES."
(7) Not known – Any inmate whose race is unknown
should be included here.
(1) Hispanic or Latino – A person of Mexican,
Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American or
other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.
(2) Not Hispanic or Latino – A person not covered
by the above category.
r. Releases to appeal/bond – Include all inmates
released from correctional jurisdiction to long-term
jurisdictional absences on appeal or bond. Do not
report short-term movements (that is, less than 30
days) to court where the state correctional system
retains jurisdiction.
s. Other releases – Include all other releases not
covered by the above categories. Please specify the
nature of these releases in the "NOTES."
JURISDICTION POPULATION DECEMBER 31
6. CUSTODY POPULATION DECEMBER 31
9. ETHNIC ORIGIN
a. Provide a count of all inmates that are under the
jurisdiction of your State but were housed in facilities
operated by county or local authorities on December
31 specifically because there was no room for them in
state correctional facilities.
7. PRISON CROWDING DECEMBER 31
(3) Not known – Any one whose ethnic origin is
unknown should be included here.
10. HIV TESTING
a. Mark "Yes" if any inmates in your custody during
calendar year 1997 were tested for the antibody to the
Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) that causes
AIDS.
b. If "Yes" marked in item 10a, mark one, all or any
combination of the categories in item 10b to specify
the type(s) of inmates who were tested. For example,
all incoming inmates and all inmates who requested it
may have been tested in 1997. You would mark
categories 1 and 4. If category 4, "certain inmates," is
marked, complete item 10c.
c. Mark as many categories as necessary to describe
the particular kinds of inmates who were tested in
1997. If some of the inmates tested are not described
by the listed categories, mark category 6 and write a
description of these inmates.
11. HIV INFECTION/AIDS CASES in custody
population
HIV infection – A person is identified as infected
with HIV when a sequence of tests, starting with
repeated enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and
including a Western blot or similar, more specific
assay, are repeatedly reactive.
a. Asymptomatic HIV positive – Include all
inmates who have tested positive for the HIV
antibody but who have no HIV-related symptoms.
b. Lesser forms of symptomatic HIV disease –
Include all inmates who have symptoms associated
with HIV infection but are not confirmed AIDS cases.
c. Confirmed AIDS cases – In the presence of
laboratory evidence of HIV infection, regardless of
the presence of other causes of immuno deficiency,
a person diagnosed with an indicator disease, such
as Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi’s
Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection,
should be classified as a confirmed AIDS case.
Include all inmates who are immune suppressed and
have life threatening infections, due to AIDS
indicator diseases.
d. Total HIV Infection/AIDS Cases – This is the
sum of 11a, 11b, and 11c.
4. RELEASES – Continued
FORM NPS-1 (1-16-98)
Page 6
8.
(1) White – A person having origins in any of the
original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the
Middle East.
(2) Black or African American – A person having
origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.
(3) American Indian or Alaska Native – A person
having origins in any of the original peoples of North
America, and who maintains cultural identification
through tribal affiliation or community recognition.
(4) Asian – A person having origins in any of the
original peoples of the Far East, including Southeast
Asia, or the Indian Subcontinent, including Cambodia,
China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the
Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam.
(5) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander – A
person having origins in any of the original peoples of
Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.
RACE
Absconding, from parole 6.3
-from probation 3.4
Abuse before entering jail 4.19
Accidents in prison, cause of death,
by gender 5.17
Admissions, to death row 7.2-7.4, 7.11-7.15
-to military facilities 8.9-8.11
-to Federal prison 5.10a-5.12a, 5.16;
1990-97 1.18-1.21, 1.26-1.27
-to prison, by type of admission
5.10a; men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-to State prison, 1990-97 1.17-1.27; by
offense, 1.22-1.27; by gender
1.18-1.19; by race 1.20-1.21
Age, jail inmates 4.1
-prisoners under sentence of death
7.6, 7.11, 7.19
AÌDS, among deaths in prison 5.17
Alaska Natives (see "race")
Alcohol use, jail inmates 4.16-4.17, 4.23
American Ìndians (see "race")
Average daily population, jails 2.2, 2.8
Capacity, jails 2.7
-military confinement facilities 8.1
Capital punishment 1.29; 7.1-7.26
-age of prisoners 7.6, 7.11, 7.19
-criminal history of prisoners, by race
7.10, 7.15, 7.23
-education level completed of prisoners
7.7, 7.12, 7.20
-Hispanic prisoners on death row, 7.4
-legal status at time of capital offense,
by race 7.9, 7.14, 7.22
-marital status of prisoners 7.8, 7.13, 7.21
-prisoners received from court
7.11-7.15
-prisoners removed from death row
7.16-7.23
-prisoners under sentence of death
at yearend 7.1-7.10
-time served on death row 7.5, 7.18
-women on death row, by race 7.3
Commutations of sentences 5.13;
men 5.14; women 5.15
-military 8.13
Completion, parole 6.5
-probation 3.6
Conditional releases, prison 5.13
-from military confinement 8.13
Correctional supervision, total under 1.1
-adults under 1.2-1.4
Criminal history
-jail inmates 4.11-4.12
-prisoners on death row 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Crowding, jails 2.7-2.8
-percent of prison inmates in jail 5.5
Custody populations, prisons 5.18-5.20
-female prisoners 5.20
-male prisoners 5.19
Death penalty statutes, by jurisdiction 7.24
Deaths,
-offenders on parole 6.5
-offenders on probation 3.6
-prisoners on death row 7.16-7.17
-prisons 5.10b, men 5.11b,
women 5.12b
-prisons, by cause and gender 5.17
Driving while intoxicated, probation 3.9
Drug use, jail inmates 4.14-4.16
EducationaI background, prisoners
under sentence of death 7.7, 7.12,
7.20
Electronic monitoring, parolees 6.9
-probationers 3.10
Entries, parole 6.2, 6.4
-probation 3.2, 3.5
Escapes, prisoners leaving prison 5.10b,
men 5.11b, women 5.12b
-prisoners returned to prison 5.10a,
men 5.11a, women 5.12a
Ethnicity (see "Hispanic origin")
Executions, number 7.2, 7.17, 7.25-7.26
-States' totals, 1930-97 7.25-7.26
Exits, parole 6.2, 6.5
-probation 3.2, 3.6
Expiration of sentences 5.13, men 5.14,
women 5.15
FederaI prisons 5.1-5.4, 5.6-5.20, 1990-97
1.5-1.12, 1.15-1.16, 1.18-1.21, 1.26-1.28
Felonies, probated sentences 3.9
Felony history, prisoners on death row,
by race 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Gender, admissions to prison 5.11a, 5.12a
-by detention status in jail 2.3
-jail inmates 2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-offenders on parole 6.6
-offenders on probation 3.7
-prisoners, by State and race 5.7-5.8
-prisoners, by State and sentence
length 5.1; men 5.2; women 5.3
-prisoners in custody 1.6-1.7, 5.19-5.20
-releases from prison 5.11b, 5.12b
-sentenced prisoners 1.8-1.12
-total number of men and women under
correctional supervision, 1.2-1.4
HeaIth care of jail inmates 4.21, mental
health 4.22
Hispanic origin, adults on parole 6.6
-adults on probation 3.7
-jail inmates 2.3, 4.3, 4.7, 4.9, 4.18-4.23
-military prisoners 8.5
-prisoners 1.12; 1990 and 1995-97 1.10
-prisoners, by State and gender 5.9
-prisoners under sentence of death 7.4

IIIness, cause of death, by gender 5.17
Ìncarceration rates, adults 1990-97 1.7
-sentenced prisoners 1.9
-by gender, race, Hispanic origin and age
(1990 and 1997) 1.11
-State prisons 5.4
Ìncarcerations from probation 3.6, 5.16
-from parole revocation 1.24, 5.16, 6.5
Ìntensive supervision, jail inmates 2.1
-parolees 6.9
-probationers 3.10
JaiIs and jail inmates 2.1-2.8; 1990-97 1.1
-alcohol use 4.17-4.18, 4.24
-average daily population, 1990-97 2.2
-age of inmates 2.2, 4.1; by offense 4.5
-capacity 2.7-2.8
-criminal history 4.7-4.8
-criminal justice status at arrest 4.8-4.9
-drug use 4.14-4.16
-health care 4.21
-mental health treatment 4.22
-prior physical or sexual abuse 4.13
-race/Hispanic origin of inmates 2.3; by
offense 4.6
-gender of inmates 1.2, 2.3, 4.1, 4.6
-with probation 3.5
Jurisdiction populations, prisons 5.1
-female prisoners 5.3
-male prisoners 5.2
Juvenile offenders in jail 2.2, 4.1
LegaI status at time of capital offense,
by race, 7.9, 7.14, 7.22
-at time of arrest of jail inmate 4.8-4.9
-of military prisoners 8.1
MaritaI status, prisoners under sentence
of death, by race 7.8, 7.13, 7.21
Men, deaths in prison, by cause 5.17
-in jail 2.1, 2.3
-in prison, by race and State 5.7
-military prisoners 8.5
-number under correctional
supervision 1.2, 1.4, 1990-97 1.6-1.12
-on death row 7.1
Index
Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997 187
-on parole 6.6
-on probation 3.7
-prison admissions, by type and State
5.11a, 5.16
-prison releases, by type and State
5.11b, 5.14
-prisoners, by sentence length
1996-97 5.2, 5.19
-violators of parole 5.16
Misdemeanors, probated sentence 3.9
Military corrections 8.1-8.13
-admissions 8.9-8.11
-capacity 8.1
-offenses 8.6-8.7
-pretrial 8.12
-prisoners 8.1-8.13
-releases 8.13
Native Americans (see "race")
Offense types, for adults on
probation 3.9
-for Federal prison inmates 1990 and
1995-97, 1.15-1.16, 1.26; 1990-97, 1.27
-for jail inmates 4.3-4.6, 4.10-4.12,
4.15-4.16
-for military prisoners 8.6-8.7
-for State prison inmates 1990-97
1.13-1.14, 1.22-1.25
-drug use 4.15-4.16
Officers, in military prison 8.5-8.13
Overcrowding (see "crowding")
Pacific Ìslanders (see "race")
Parole 6.1-6.10
-by gender 6.6
-by Hispanic origin 6.6
-by status of supervision 6.3
-changes in population size,
1996-97 6.2
-completions 6.5
-discretionary 6.4
-electronic monitoring 6.9
-entries 6.2, 6.4
-intensive supervision 6.9
-mandatory 6.4
-men released from prison 5.14
-military corrections 8.13
-rates per 100,000 residents 6.2
-revocations, by offense 1.24-1.25;
military 8.13
-releases, by State 5.10b, 5.11b,
5.12b, 6.2, 6.5
-sentence length 6.8
-violation of, admissions to prison
5.10a, 5.16; men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-women released from prison 5.15
Pretrial detentions, in jails 4.1-4.2, 4.12
-military 8.12
Prior felony convictions, prisoners
on death row, by race 7.10, 7.15, 7.23
Prisoners 1.1-1.2,1.5-1.14, 5.1-5.20
-admissions, by type 5.10a; men 5.11a;
women 5.12a, 1.15-1.16
-men, by sentence length, 1996-97
5.2, 5.19
-releases, by type 5.10b, men 5.11b,
women 5.12b
-women, by sentence length 1996-97
5.3, 5.20
Probation 1.1-1.2, 3.1-3.11
-by gender 3.7
-by Hispanic origin 3.7
-by race 3.8
-changes in population size, 1996-97 3.2
-completions 3.6
-electronic monitoring 3.10
-entries 3.2, 3.5
-exits 3.2, 3.6
-intensive supervision 3.10
-men released from prison 5.14
-offense types 3.9
-prison releases 5.13
-rates per 100,000 residents 3.2
-status 3.3
-status of supervision 3.4
-women released from prison 5.15
Race, jail inmates 1.2, 2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-parole 1.2, 6.7
-prisoners 1.2, 5.6, men 1.7, 5.7
women 1.7, 5.8
-prisoners under sentence of death
7.9-7.10, 7.14-7.15, 7.23, 7.26
-probation 1.2, 3.8
Rates of incarceration 1.7, 1.9,
1.11-1.12, 5.4
-by Hispanic origin 1.11
-by gender and race 1.7
Releases, from military confinement
facilities 8.13
-from parole 6.2, 6.5
-from prison, by type 5.10b, 5.13;
men 5.11b, 5.14; women 5.12b, 5.15
-from probation 3.2, 3.6
Revocation, parole 6.5, 1990-97 1.24
Sentence length, parole 6.8
-military prisoners 8.8
-prisoners in custody 5.18-5.20, under
jurisdiction 5.1-5.3
Sentences, suspended 3.3
Substance abuse treatment 4.17-4.22
Suicide, prison 5.17
-military confinement facilities 8.13
Supervision, parole 6.3, 6.9
-probation 3.4, 3.10
Suspended sentences 3.3
Time served, prisoners on death row,
by race 7.5, 7.17
Transfers, admissions to prison 5.10a;
men 5.11a; women 5.12a
-military 8.11
-parolees to another jurisdiction 6.5
-releases from prison 5.10b; men
5.11b; women 5.12b
Trends, 1990-97, 1.1, 1.3-1.11, 1.13-1.27
-admissions to prison 1.17-1.23
-by gender 1.3, 1.6-1.12, 1.18-1.19
-by race 1.3, 1.6-1.12, 1.20-1.21
-correctional supervision 1.1, 1.3-1.4
-deaths of prisoners 5.17
-Federal sentences to prison 1.26-1.27
-Hispanic prisoners 1.10
-incarceration 1.5-1.10
-incarceration rates 1.7, 1.9-1.12
-parole revocation 1.24-1.25
-prisoners under sentence of death 7.1

Veteran status, jail inmates 4.1
Whites (see "race")
Women, deaths in prison, by cause 5.17
-in jail 2.2-2.3
-military prisoners 8.5
-number under correctional supervision
1.2; 1990-97 1.3-1.4
-on death row 7.1, 7.3
-on parole 6.6
-on probation 3.7
-prisoners, by sentence length,
1995-97 5.3, 5.20
-prisoners, by race and State 5.8
-prisoners, by type of admission 5.12a
-prisoners, by type of release 5.12b, 5.15
-violators of parole 5.16
188 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997