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2016-2018 BATCH



Digital divide
The digital divide, ICT and broadband Internet
Dimensions of the divide
Factors attributing to the digital divide
Effective use
Social capital
Knowledge divide
Second level digital divide
Obstacles to overcoming it
Concrete examples
Are there any benefits to the digital divide
Concepts of digital immigrants and digital natives
Definition-What does digital immigrants mean?
Who are digital natives?
Who are digital immigrants?
Who knows more about technology?
Digital immigrants prefer
Digital natives prefer
Digital natives Vs. Digital immigrants


Information and communications technology or information and

communication technology( ICT),is often used as an extended synonym for information
technology( IT),but is an more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and
the integration of telecommunications ( telephone lines and wireless signals),computers as well
as necessary enterprise software,middleware,storage and audio-visual systems,which enable
users to access , store,transmit,and manipulate information.
A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of
information and communication technologies (ICT).Now discuss about the some information
technologies, are:

I. Digital divide
II. Concepts of digital immigrants and
III. Digital natives


A Digital divide is an economic and social inequality with

regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies( ICT) .The
divide within countries(such as the digital divide in the United States)may refer to inequalities
between individuals ,households ,businesses, or geographic areas, usually at different
socioeconomic levels or other demographic categories. The divide between differing countries or
regions of the world is referred to as the global digital divide, examining this technological gap
between developing and developed countries on an international scale.

The term digital divide describes a gap in terms of access to and usage of information
and communication technology. It was traditionally considered to be a question of having or not
having access, but with a global mobile phone penetration of over 95%, it is becoming a relative
inequality between those who have more and less bandwidth and more or less skills.


Dimensions of the divide

Broadly speaking, the difference is not necessarily determined by the access to the internet,
but by access to ICT (Information and Communications Technologies) and to Media that the
different segments of society can use. With regards to the Internet, the access is only one aspect,
other factors such as the quality of connection and related services should be considered. Today
the most discussed issue is the availability of the access at an affordable cost and quality.
The digital divide is not indeed a clear single gap which divides a society into
two groups. Researchers report that disadvantage can take such forms as lower-performance
computers, lower-quality or high price connections (i.e. narrowband or dialup connection),
difficulty of obtaining technical assistance, and lower access to subscription-based contents.

There are varieties of arguments regarding why closing the digital divide is important. The major
arguments are following:

1. Economic Inequality

Some think that the access to the internet is a basic component of civil life that some
developed countries aim to guarantee for their citizens. Telephone is often considered important
for security reasons. Health, Criminal, and other types of emergencies might indeed be handled
better if the person in trouble has an access to the telephone.

Another important fact seems to be that much vital information for people's career, civic life;
safety, etc. are increasingly provided via the Internet. Even social welfare services are sometimes

2.Social mobility
Some believe that computer and computer networks play an increasingly important
role in their learning and career, so that education should include that of computing and use of
the Internet. Without such offerings, the existing digital divide works unfairly to the children in
the lower socioeconomic status. In order to provide equal opportunities, governments might offer
some form of support.

3. Democracy
Some think that the use of the Internet would lead to a healthier democracy in one
way or another. Among the most ambitious visions is that of increased public participation in
elections and decision making processes.

4. Economic growth
some think that the development of information infrastructure and active use of it
would be a shortcut to economic growth for less developed nations. Information technologies in
general tend to be associated with productivity improvements. The exploitation of the latest
technologies may give industries of certain countries a competitive advantage.


Although the number of Americans with access to computers and the internet
continuous to soar on a yearly basis , the digital divide also continuous to grow at an alarming
rate . On the one hand, sections of society already connected such as higher income, educated
white and Asian Pacific Islander households are adopting newer technologies faster and are
connecting even more. On the other, groups with traditionally lower rates for Internet and
computer usage continue to lag far behind. Unfortunately, according to a study conducted by the
National telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), entitled falling Through
the Net: Defining the digital divide, the gap is widening along already strained economic and
racial lines.


Widening levels of education seem to magnify the digital divide; households with
higher levels of education are increasingly more likely to use computers and the internet .It has
been observed that those with college degrees or higher are 10 times more likely to have internet
access at work as than those with only a high school education. A study conducted by the NTIA
from 1997 to 1998 determined that the gap in computer usage and Internet access widened 7.8%
and 25% respectively, between those with the most and the least education.


Not surprisingly, and in direct correlation to education, the levels of household

income also play a significant role in the widening gap. Again, the study by the NTIA stated, In
the last year, the divide between the highest and lowest income groups grew 29% (NTIA Falling
through the Net99).It has been observed that households earning incomes over $75,000 are 20
times more likely to have home internet access than those at lowest income levels and 10 times
more likely to have a computer if living in the city or suburban area than in the rural area. Due to
lower income levels, poor neighborhoods lack the infrastructure available in affluent areas.
Telecommunication facilities are more readily available for wealthier communities and are more
attractive for developing companies to establish themselves .As a result ,poverty in less fortunate
neighborhoods make it less appealing for investments by outside companies, further
aggravating the divide.


At the same time, the digital divide continuous to widen along very specific racial
lines. The difference in computer usage grew by 39.2%between white and black households and
by 42.6% between white and Hispanic households in the period between 1994 and 1998.
Hispanic households are roughly half as likely to own computers as white households.
Interestingly, race affects the amount of computers in the school. Schools with a higher
percentage of minorities have fewer computers whereas those with a lower percentage of
minorities have greater number of computers. As would be expected, the gaps between racial
groups narrow at higher income levels, but widens among households at lower economic levels.
With regard to Internet access, Black and Hispanic households are falling even further behind:
access by White households grew by 37.6% between 1997 and 1998. Hispanic households are
nearly 2.5 times less likely to use the Internet than White households. The NTIA study also
demonstrated the racial disparities in Internet access exist irrespective of income. In a cultural
study to determine reasons for the divide other than income, the Hispanic, African- American,
and Asian-American communities we studied. In the Hispanic community, it was observed that
computers were a luxury, not a need; computer activities isolated individuals and took away
valuable time from family activities. In the African-American community it was observed that
African -Americans, historically, have had negative encounters with technological innovations.
Asian-Americans, on the other hand, generally emphasize education, resulting in a larger number
embracing rising technological advances.
Percent of U.S. Households Using the Internet by Race/Origin

Effective use

Community Informatics (CI)

provides a somewhat different
approach to addressing the
digital divide by focusing on
issues of "use" rather than simply "access". CI is concerned with ensuring the opportunity not
only for ICT access at the community level but also, according to Michael Gurstein, that the
means for the "effective use" of ICTs for community betterment and empowerment are
available. Gurstein has also extended the discussion of the digital divide to include issues around
access to and the use of "open data" and coined the term "data divide" to refer to this issue area.


Social capital

Once an individual is connected, Internet connectivity and ICTs can enhance his or her future
social and cultural capital. Social capital is acquired through repeated interactions with other
individuals or groups of individuals. Connecting to the Internet creates another set of means by
which to achieve repeated interactions. ICTs and Internet connectivity enable repeated
interactions through access to social networks, chat rooms, and gaming sites. Once an individual
has access to connectivity, obtains infrastructure by which to connect, and can understand and
use the information that ICTs and connectivity provide, that individual is capable of becoming a
"digital citizen".

Knowledge divide

Since gender, age, racial, income, and educational gaps in the digital divide have lessened
compared to past levels, some researchers suggest that the digital divide is shifting from a gap in
access and connectivity to ICTs to a knowledge divide. A knowledge divide concerning
technology presents the possibility that the gap has moved beyond access and having the
resources to connect to ICTs to interpreting and understanding information presented once

Second-level digital divide

The second-level digital divide, also referred to as the production gap, describes the gap that
separates the consumers of content on the Internet from the producers of content. As the
technological digital divide is decreasing between those with access to the Internet and those
without, the meaning of the term digital divide is evolving. Previously, digital divide research
has focused on accessibility to the Internet and Internet consumption. However, with more and
more of the population with access to the Internet, researchers are examining how people use the
Internet to create content and what impact socioeconomics are having on user behavior. New
applications have made it possible for anyone with a computer and an Internet connection to be a
creator of content, yet the majority of user generated content available widely on the Internet,
like public blogs, is created by a small portion of the Internet using population. Web
2.0 technologies like Facebook , YouTube, Twitter, and Blogs enable users to participate online
and create content without having to understand how the technology actually works, leading to
an ever increasing digital divide between those who have the skills and understanding to interact
more fully with the technology and those who are passive consumers of it. Many are only
nominal content creators through the use of Web 2.0, posting photos and status updates on
Facebook, but not truly interacting with the technology.

Some of the reasons for this production gap include material factors like the type of Internet
connection one has and the frequency of access to the Internet. The more frequently a person has
access to the Internet and the faster the connection, the more opportunities they have to gain the
technology skills and the more time they have to be creative.

Other reasons include cultural factors often associated with class and socioeconomic status.
Users of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to participate in content creation due to
disadvantages in education and lack of the necessary free time for the work involved in blog or
web site creation and maintenance. Additionally, there is evidence to support the existence of the
second-level digital divide at the K-12 level based on how educators' use technology for
instruction. Schools' economic factors have been found to explain variation in how teachers use
technology to promote higher-order thinking skills.

The global digital divide

Internet users in 2012 as a percentage of a country's population

Source: International Telecommunications Union.

Internet users per 100 inhabitants

Source: International Telecommunications Union.

Global bandwidth concentration: 3 countries have almost 50 %; 10 countries almost 75 %

Worldwide Internet users

2005 2010 2014a

World population[62] 6.5 billion 6.9 billion 7.2 billion

Not using the Internet 84% 70% 60%

Using the Internet 16% 30% 40%

Users in the developing world 8% 21% 32%

Users in the developed world 51% 67% 78%

Source: International Telecommunications Union.[63]

Internet users by region

2005 2010 2014a

Africa 2% 10% 19%

Americas 36% 49% 65%

Arab States 8% 26% 41%

Asia and Pacific 9% 23% 32%

Commonwealth of
Independent States 10% 34% 56%

Europe 46% 67% 75%

Source: International Telecommunications Union.[63]

Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012

as a percentage of a country's population

Source: International Telecommunications Union.[64]

Worldwide broadband subscriptions

2007 2010 2014a

World population[62] 6.6 billion 6.9 billion 7.2 billion

Fixed broadband 5% 8% 10%

Developing world 2% 4% 6%

Developed world 18% 24% 27%

Mobile broadband 4% 11% 32%

Developing world 1% 4% 21%

Developed world 19% 43% 84%

Source: International Telecommunications Union.[63]

Broadband subscriptions by region

Fixed subscriptions: 2007 2010 2014a

Africa 0.1% 0.2% 0.4%

Americas 11% 14% 17%

Arab States 1% 2% 3%

Asia and Pacific 3% 6% 8%

Commonwealth of
Independent States 2% 8% 14%

Europe 18% 24% 28%

Mobile subscriptions: 2007 2010 2014a

Africa 0.2% 2% 19%

Americas 6% 23% 59%

Arab States 0.8% 5% 25%

Asia and Pacific 3% 7% 23%

Commonwealth of
Independent States 0.2% 22% 49%

Europe 15% 29% 64%

Source: International Telecommunications Union.
The global digital divide describes global disparities, primarily
between developed and developing countries, in regards to access to computing and information
resources such as the Internet and the opportunities derived from such access. As with a
smaller unit of analysis, this gap describes an inequality that exists, referencing a global scale.

The Internet is expanding very quickly, and not all countriesespecially developing countries
are able to keep up with the constant changes. The term "digital divide" doesn't necessarily mean
that someone doesnt have technology; it could mean that there is simply a difference in
technology. These differences can refer to, for example, high-quality computers, fast Internet,
technical assistance, or telephone services. The difference between all of these is also considered
a gap.

In fact, there is a large inequality worldwide in terms of the distribution of installed

telecommunication bandwidth. In 2014 only 3 countries (China, US, Japan) host 50% of the
globally installed bandwidth potential (see pie-chart Figure on the right). This concentration is
not new, as historically only 10 countries have hosted 7075% of the global telecommunication
capacity (see Figure). The U.S. lost its global leadership in terms of installed bandwidth in 2011,
being replaced by China, which hosts more than twice as much national bandwidth potential in
2014 (29% versus 13% of the global total).

Versus the digital divide

The global digital divide is a special case of the digital divide, the focus is set on the fact that
"Internet has developed unevenly throughout the world causing some countries to fall behind in
technology, education, labor, democracy, and tourism. The concept of the digital divide was
originally popularized in regard to the disparity in Internet access between rural and urban areas
of the United States of America; the global digital divide mirrors this disparity on an
international scale.

The global digital divide also contributes to the inequality of access to goods and services
available through technology. Computers and the Internet provide users with improved
education, which can lead to higher wages; the people living in nations with limited access are
therefore disadvantaged. This global divide is often characterized as falling along what is
sometimes called the north-south divide of "northern" wealthier nations and "southern" poorer

Obstacles to overcoming it

Some people argue that basic necessities need to be considered before achieving digital
inclusion, such as an ample food supply and quality health care. Minimizing the global digital
divide requires considering and addressing the following types of access:

Physical access

Involves the distribution of ICT devices per capitaand land lines per thousands". Individuals
need to obtain access to computers, landlines, and networks in order to access the Internet. This
access barrier is also addressed in Article 21 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with
Disabilities by the United Nations.

Financial access

The cost of ICT devices, traffic, applications, technician and educator training, software,
maintenance and infrastructures require ongoing financial means.

Socio-demographic access

Empirical tests have identified that several socio-demographic characteristics foster or limit ICT
access and usage. Among different countries, educational levels and income are the most
powerful explanatory variables, with age being a third one. Others, like gender, don't seem to
have much of an independent effect after controlling for income, education and employment.

Cognitive access

In order to use computer technology, a certain level of information literacy is needed. Further
challenges include information overload and the ability to find and use reliable information.
Design access

Computers need to be accessible to individuals with different learning and physical abilities
including complying with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act as amended by the Workforce
Investment Act of 1998 in the United States.

Institutional access

In illustrating institutional access, Wilson states "the numbers of users are greatly affected by
whether access is offered only through individual homes or whether it is offered through schools,
community centers, religious institutions, cybercafs, or post offices, especially in poor countries
where computer access at work or home is highly limited".

Political access

Guillen & Suarez argue that "democratic political regimes enable a faster growth of the Internet
than authoritarian or totalitarian regimes". The Internet is considered a form of e-democracy and
attempting to control what citizens can or cannot view is in contradiction to this. Recently
situations in Iran and China have denied people the ability to access certain website and
disseminate information. Iran has also prohibited the use of high-speed Internet in the country
and has removed many satellite dishes in order to prevent the influence of western culture, such
as music and television.

Cultural Access

Many experts claim that bridging the digital divide is not sufficient and that the images and
language needed to be conveyed in a language and images that can be read across different
cultural lines.

Concrete examples

In the early 21st century, residents of First World countries enjoy many Internet services which
are not yet widely available in Third World countries, including:
In tandem with the above point, mobile phones and small electronic communication

E-communities and social-networking;

Fast broadband Internet connections, enabling advanced Internet applications;

Affordable and widespread Internet access, either through personal computers at home or
work, through public terminals in public libraries and Internet cafes, and through wireless
access points;

E-commerce enabled by efficient electronic payment networks like credit cards and
reliable shipping services;

Virtual globes featuring street maps searchable down to individual street addresses and
detailed satellite and aerial photography;

Online research systems like LexisNexis and Pro Quest which enable users to
peruse newspaper and magazine articles that may be centuries old, without having to leave

Electronic readers such as Kindle, Sony Reader, Samsung Papyrus and Iliad by iRex

Price engines like Google Shopping which help consumers find the best possible
online prices, and similar services like shoplocal which find the best possible prices at
local retailers;

Electronic services delivery of government services, such as the ability to pay taxes, fees,
and fines online.

Further civic engagement through e-government and other sources such as finding
information about candidates regarding political situations.
Are there any benefits to the Digital Divide?
Due to the fact that internet technology is not evenly distributed around the world and as a result,
there is the issue of the digital divide.
Developing countries have the opportunity to access internet technology whereas developing
countries do not have information technology facilities which deprive them from development
success and knowledge of society and economy.

Countries with awareness of information computer technology are able to obtain advanced
education and are able to develop the skills required in order to access present and oncoming
technology. If the two types of world citizens were provided with the equal opportunity of
access to information computer technology
There remains the stark disparity between two types of world citizens: one empowered by access
to information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve their own livelihood; the other
stunted and disenfranchised by the lack of access to ICT that provide critical development
opportunities. Indeed, those developing countries which fail to keep up with the accelerating
pace of IT innovation may not have the opportunity to participate fully in the information society
and economy. This is particularly so where the existing gaps in terms of basic economic and
social infrastructures, such as electricity, telecommunications and education, deter the diffusion
of IT.


Digital natives and Digital

Immigrants are terms used to describe where people fall on the technology
timeline based on when they were born, before or after 1980. The concept
was created by MARK PRENSKY in a 2001 article, Digital Natives, Digital

Definition - What does Digital Immigrant mean?

A digital immigrant is an individual who was born before the widespread adoption of digital
technology. The term digital immigrant may also apply to individuals who were born after the
spread of digital technology and who were not exposed to it at an early age. Digital immigrants
are the opposite of digital natives, who have been interacting with technology from childhood.

Who are Digital Natives?

Digital Natives are defined as those born after 1980 following the introduction of digital
technology. In other words, they are "born into it." In many parts of the world, Digital Natives
are surrounded by technology, often from their early childhood, and their daily activities include
learning and using digital technology. Digital Natives are savvy to smartphones, iPads, xBox,
Facebook and other technology. Whether or not they embrace it, they can't remember a time
when technology as it is today did not exist.

Who are Digital Immigrants

Digital Immigrants are those born prior to 1980. According to the definition by Mark Prensky,
these are the people who grew up reading newspapers, playing board games and cards, know
what a record is, and watched the news and weather on television. A large portion of Digital
Immigrants still do so and are quite content with their lives, often mixing "older" ways of doing
things with newer digital technologies. It's just that Digital Immigrants didn't grow up in with
today's "always-on" technology.

The funny thing about Digital Immigrants is that it contains the very people who often created
the technology in the first place. Many Digital Immigrants also love new technology and can't
wait to get their hands on the newest gadget. And, just to be clear, not all Digital Immigrants are
technologically impaired, just as not all Digital Natives are digital geniuses, nor do they all want
to be.

Who knows more about technology?

As I mentioned earlier, which one you are does not dictate how much you know about
technology. A teenager born in an Amish community in 1998 that has never touched a cell phone
or video game controller, much less a laptop is considered a Digital Native while Bill Gates is a
Digital Immigrant. The concept is falling out of favor, however, because it doesn't apply to vast
groups of people, such as third world or impoverished cultures and societies like the Amish. It's a
bit difficult to group people based on something that doesn't exist in their culture. It really only
applies to industrialized nations, such as here in the U.S., who have technology just about

Digital Natives Digital Immigrants

Digital native, the term chosen for this Prensky clearly distinguishes his digital
report, is perhaps the most widely used native generation from its predecessors by
phrase in circulation. Marc Prensky coined referring to the latter as "digital immigrants".
digital native in 2001, and later elaborated on
the concept in 2009 and elsewhere. Digital immigrants are "those who may have
acquired some form of digital literacy", but
Digital natives, according to Prensky, are nonetheless keep "their foot in the past".
the generation of young people who are all
"native speakers" of the digital language Roughly speaking, according to Prensky, in
of computers, video games and the the case of the USA, all people born before
Internet. 1980 are digital immigrants.

In other words, they are the first They do not turn to the Internet first for
generation to have grown up with new information, prefer to read manuals (rather
technology, having lived their entire lives than assume that a program teaches itself),
surrounded by and using tools and toys of print out e-mails and documents ready-for-
the digital age. E-mail, cell phones and edit, physically show (rather than e-mail) a
instant messages are not only a part of their link, and even speak in an outdated language.
lives but are integral parts of their lives.
According to Prensky, who focuses mostly
on youth in the United States, unlike older
generations young people are now
constantly surrounded by and immersed
in, and permanently plugged into,
portable personal devices such as mobile
telephones, MP3 players and handheld
games consoles.

There are a myriad of other

terms associated with digital natives:

- generation next
- Google generation (Helsper and Eynon,
2010: 2)
- born digital (Palfrey and Gasser, 2008)
- generation Y (Perillo, 2007)
- generation C (Duncan-Howell and Lee,
- homo-zappiens (Veen and Vrakking, 2006)
- technological generation (Monereo, 2004)
- net savvy youth (Levin and Arafeh, 2002)

Others have written about young people who

are new millennium learners (Pedr, 2007)
and are described as living digital childhoods
(Vandewater et al., 2007) within media
Hammel , 2006).
Digital immigrants Prefer:

Controlled release of info from limited source.

Single or focused tasks
Often prefer to get information from text.
Greater need for private and personal space for introspection.
Like info presented linearly, logically and sequentially.

Digital natives Prefer:

Receiving info quickly from multiple sources

Multitasking and parallel processing
Pictures, sounds and video before text.
Hyperlinked sources
Interacting in real time.
User generated content.
Learning that is instant, relevant and fun.

Digital Natives vs. Digital Immigrants

Don't let the word "digital" fool you in all this talk about how difficult it is for digital natives and
digital immigrants to communicate. The truth is that this generational gap between the so-called
digital natives (the generation of people born during or after the rise of digital technologies) and
the digital immigrants (people born before the advent of digital technology) doesn't actually have
to do with technology. The real issue is that the two worldviews that they represent are so

Digital natives view the world horizontally, in equalitarian terms. Rather than dividing the world
into hierarchies, they see everyone as existing on an equal level. They embrace the benefits of
sharing things and ideas with each other and, in doing so, they cross boundaries. They are driven
by values. For this reason, many of them are distrustful of traditional cultural and social
institutions: marriage, religion, government. In opting out of these institutions, they have
declared themselves micro segments of one -- free agents.
The advantage of a digital native's worldview is the genuine democracy and equality that comes
out of their rejection of centralized and control based forms of governance. The downside is that
they're unlikely to build anything that requires intensive capital, tangled complexity or
tremendous magnitude -- going to the moon, curing cancer, recreating the power grid: large-scale
projects that need vertical organization by goal-oriented, focused people.

Where digital natives imagine a world with little institutional structure and open access to people
of diverse backgrounds, the culture of digital immigrants is a meritocracy. Typically a more
aggressive, competitive and results-obsessed generation, they are often seen as cutthroat by their
younger associates. The advantage here is productivity: digital immigrants are goal oriented as
opposed to the value orientation of the digital natives. While they have the ability to get things
done quickly they may overlook the long term consequences of their actions. Workaholics are
not an uncommon manifestation of this win at all costs world view.

The paradox here is that digital immigrants, for the most part, invented the complex technologies
and systems that digital natives use fluently -- the Internet, microchips and the ubiquitous cloud
comes to mind. In this way, digital natives and digital immigrants must grow to work together
and learn from each other.

What can digital natives teach digital immigrants?

To collaborate across boundaries, with a variety of people

To make a place in life for values

To build solutions that are horizontal

What can digital immigrants teach digital natives?

To achieve goals quickly

To use focused resources in building things to scale

To revitalize or repurpose existing institutions


Globalization and technological changes have created a new global economy powered by
technology, fuelled by information and driven by knowledge.

The emergence of this new global economy has serious implications for
the nature and purpose of educational institutions. As the access to information continues to grow
rapidly, schools cannot be contented with the limited knowledge to be transmitted in a fixed
period of time .They have to become compatible to the ever expanding knowledge and also be
equipped with the technology to deal with this knowledge.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) which include radio and television, as well
as newer digital technologies such as computers and the Internet have been proven as potentially
powerful tools for educational change and reform. When used appropriately, different ICTs can
help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital
workplace, and raise educational quality by helping make teaching and learning into an active
process connected to real life.