PROJECT WORK

INTRODUCTION
The students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this individually. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work, we are to gain valuable experiences and able to : • • • • • • Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non routine problems Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking, reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience a classroom environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication and precisely • • • Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics

through oral and writing, and to use

the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly

Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment

• •

Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of more creative and innovative
1|Page

mathematics and to become

PROJECT WORK

APPRECIATION
Alhamdulillah, thank you to Allah for giving the will to me to complete this Additional Mathematics project. Secondly, I would like to thank the principle of Sekolah Menengah All Saint, Datin Lorna Matthews for giving me the permission to do my this Additional Mathematics Project Work. I also like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher, Teacher Bala for the guide and giving useful and important information for me to complete this project work. Besides that, I would like to thank my parents for their support and encouragement. Lastly, a special thanks to all my friends for their help and cooperation in searching for information and completing this project work.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS
By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened, then including the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all the sciences. Electronic

2|Page

PROJECT WORK

computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods. The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries, particularly in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800, astronomy used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the method of least squares, which was invented by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace; following Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method. Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. With its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science and computer science.

STATISTICS TODAY

During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research, public health concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control, and economic and social purposes (unemployment rate,econometry, etc.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices.

3|Page

PROJECT WORK

Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. Individuals and organizations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences, medicine, business, and other areas. Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct, albeit allied, field. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics departments. Statistics is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education, and public health.

PART 1
The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only reasonably priced but also give value for their money. You are required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the following categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different shops.

QUESTION
4|Page

PROJECT WORK

a) Collect pictures, newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. Design a collage to illustrate the chosen items Answer: FOODS

\

DETERGENTS

5|Page

PROJECT WORK

STATIONARY

6|Page

PROJECT WORK

(b) Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table 1.Since items maybe differently packed, be sure to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately. Answer: PRICE CATEGORY Food ITEM 1. Self Raising Flour kg) 2. Sugar kg) 3. Butter (250g) 4. Eggs (Grade A) 1 Dozen Total Price Detergent 1. Soap (3 Bars) 2. Liqui 4.29 d Dish wash er (100 0ml) 3. Cloth 18.90 es Deter gent (3kg) 4. Toile t
7|Page

SHOP A – 4.00 (1 (1 2.00 4.70 5.90 1.90 4.50 5.50 1.80 4.30 5.00 3.70 3.60

16.60 3.20

15.60 3.00

14.70 2.80

3.90

3.20

17.00

16.50

5.50

5.50

5.50

PROJECT WORK

Clea ner (500 ml) Total Price h a r p e n e r Stationary 2. P 5.00 e n c i l ( 2 B ) 1 Dozen 3. P 1.30 e n 4. E 1.30 r a s e r Total Price 9.10 8.50 7.60
8|Page

31.89 1. S 1.50

29.40 1.30

28.00 1.00

4.80

4.50

1.20

1.00

1.20

1.10

PROJECT WORK

Grand Total

57.59 Table 1

53.50

50.30

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast the price of the items chosen. Answer: Food

Detergent

Stationary

9|Page

PROJECT WORK

Grand Total

(d) Based on the graphical representation that you have constructed in Part 1(c), interpret, discuss and draw conclusions. Comments on your findings. Answer: Based on the graphical representation that I have constructed in Part 1(c), it is shown that there are large and small differences among the pries of items in each category between the shops. In the food category, the smallest price difference are of those sugar, while the highest is the price of eggs. Besides food, detergent also shows a large price difference between its items. Among them is the price of liquid dishwasher and clothes detergent. On the other hand, stationery items does not have any obvious price difference. The graph also show that most of the items that are high priced comes from the SHOP A, while the lowest price items

10 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

come from the SHOP C. The graph 1(d) will show the conclusion of the difference among

the shops based upon the shops grand total.

(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference. Answer: Liquid Dishwasher Mean =

18.9 + 17.00 + 16.50 3
= 17.47 Standard Deviation =
(Σx²)/N - ( χ )² 3
~

=

18.9² + 17² + 16.5² 3
11 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

= 0.97 The large price difference of clothes detergent among the shops maybe because of the standard of the shop. A high standard shop or supermarket, the items sold intend to be much more expensive than a regular shop or supermarket. Also, the price difference of the items may also due to the quality of the item present. A better quality means a higher price.

PART 2 Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year the school plans to install air conditioners in the school library. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold butter cakes. Because of the popularity of the butter cakes, your class has decided to carry out the same project for this year’s carnival. QUESTION

(a) Suggest a shop from Part 1 which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the butter

cakes. State and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested. Answer: The Giant Supermarket. This is because the total price of the ingredients from this shop is the lowest from the three shops.
12 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

(b) Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the shop/supermarket that you have

chosen.

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY PER CAKE

PRICE IN THE YEAR 2009 (RM) 0.90 0.35 3.30 1.25

PRICE IN THE YEAR 2010 (RM) 0.90 0.36 4.30 2.10

Self- Raising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A)

250g 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g) Table 2

(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009

Answer :

INGREDIENT

QUANTITY

PRICE IN

PRICE IN

PRICE INDEX
13 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

THE YEAR PER CAKE 2009 (RM)

THE YEAR 2010(RM)

FOR THE YEAR2010 BASED ON THE YEAR 2009 (I) 100 102.86 130.30

Self- Raising Flour Sugar Butter Eggs (Grade A)

250g 200g 250g 5 eggs (300g)

0.90 0.35 3.30

0.90 0.36 4.30

Table 3

(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009.Discuss how you obtained your answers.

Answer: To calculate the composite index, weightage is needed (W),
Weight Total Weight

INGREDIENT

WEIGHTAGE (W)

14 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

Self- Raising Flour

= 250 1000 = 200 1000 = 250 1000 =
330 1000

1 4

Sugar

1 5

Butter

1 4

Eggs (Grade A)

3 10

Table 4

Composite Index
= 1 1 1 3 (100) + (102.86)+ (130.30)+ (168) 4 5 4 10 1

= 128.54

(iii) In the year 2009,the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each. Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter cake in the year 2010.Give reasons for your answer. Answer:
On 2009,RM 15.00 On 2010, price = X 100 =128.54%

χ 5
x 100 = 128.54 x 15

χ

15 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

χ

x

=19.30

1928.1 100

Thus, the suitable price for the butter cake for the year 2010 is RM19.30.The increase in price is also suitable because of the rise in the price of the ingredients.

(c) (i) Find out from reliable source how to determine suitable Capacity of air conditioner to be

installed basedon the volume/size of a room.

Answer: For common usage, air conditioner is rated according to horse power (1HP), which is approximately 700W to 1000W of electrical power. It is suitable for a room size 1000ft³ which is around 27m³ of volume.

16 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

(ii) Work in group to estimate the volume of your

school Library. Explain how you arrive

at your answer. Hence, determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library. Answer: By using a measuring tape, the dimension for the library is: Height = 3.6m Width = 9.17m Length = 20.12m Volume of the room = 3.6 x 9.17 x 20.12 = 664.20m³ 1 unit of air conditioner is for 27m³ For 664.20m³ = 664.20 27 = 24.6 That means our school library needs 25 unit of air conditioner

(iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the School library, how many butter cakes must you sell in order to buy the air conditioner Answer:
17 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

1 unit of 1HP air conditioner =RM700 Cost for a cake = 0.9 + 0.36 + 4.3 + 2.1 = RM 7.66 Selling price = RM19.30 Profit = 19.30– 7.66 = RM 11.64 Number of cakes =

700 11.64
to buy 1 unit of air conditioner = 60.13 = 60 cakes

PART 3 As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organize this year’s carnival. The committee has to take into the consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents
18 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

has increased by 15%. The cost of games, prizes and decorations remains the same, whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increase by 30%. QUESTION (a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above Answer: AMOUNT IN EXPENDITURE Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous 2009 (RM) 1200.00 500.00 300.00 200.00 600.00 800.00 400.00 Table 5 AMOUNT IN 2010 (RM) 1380.00 500.00 345.00 200.00 600.00 920.00 520.00

(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Comment on your answer. Answer:

EXPENDITURE

AMOUNT IN 2009

AMOUNT IN 2010

PRICE INDEX I,

WEIGHTAGE, W

19 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

(RM)

(RM)

I=

100%

P1 Χ P0
Food Games Transportation Decorations Prizes Tents Miscellaneous 1200.00 500.00 300.00 200.00 600.00 800.00 400.00 1380.00 500.00 345.00 200.00 600.00 920.00 520.00 Table 6
Composite Index

115 100 115 100 100 115 130

12 5 3 2 6 8 4

=

~ I
=

ΣiWi ΣW

115(12) + 100(5) + 115(3) + 100(2) + 100(6) + 115(8) + 130(4) (12 + 5 + 3 + 2 + 6 + 8 + 4)
=

4465 40
= 111. 625 The total price for the year 2010 increase by 11.625%.This is because some price in the year 2009 increased in the year 2010. (c) The change in the composite index for the estimate budget for the carnival from the year 2009 to the year 2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index of the budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009. Answer:

20 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

Composite index for the year 2009 to the year 2010 = 111.625 Composite index for the year 2010 to the year 2011 = 111.625 100 =

~ 2011 Χ I 2009 ~ 2011 I 2009

~ 2010 ~ 2011 Χ I 2009 I 2009 1 100

= 111.625 X111.625 X

= 124.60

~ 2011 I 2009

FURTHER EXPLORATION
Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution index, stock market index, gold index and property index. Obtain information from the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index number of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life.

21 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

AIR POLLUTION INDEX Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that inessential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

22 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

The Air Quality Index (AQI) (also known as the Air Pollution Index (API) or Pollutant

Standard Index (PSI) is a number used by government agencies to characterize the quality of

the air at a given location. As the AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of the population is likely to experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute the AQI requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used to convert from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in different countries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each range is assigned a descriptor and a colour code. Standardized public health advisories are associated with each AQI range. An agency might also encourage members of the public to take public transportation or work from home when AQI levels are high. Limitations of the AQI Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants. Causes of Poor Air Quality The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion, or other lack of winds lets air pollution remain in a local area.

23 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

Indices by location South Korea The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensive Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. The index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through 500, which are divided into six categories. The higher the CAI value, the greater the level of air pollution. - Of values of the five air pollutants, the highest is the CAI value. Malaysia The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API or Air Pollution Index. Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide) are reported in PM10 particulate matter is reported in g/m³. Unlike the American AQI, the index number can exceed 500. Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the reporting area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area closed. There may also be a prohibition on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the reporting area excluding the food sector.

STOCK MARKET INDEX
A comparison of tree major U.S. stock indices: the NASDAQ Composite, Dow Jones Industrial Average, ands 500. All three have the same height at March 2007. Notice the large dot com spike on the NASDAQ, a result of the large number of tech. companies on that index. A stock market index is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news or financial services firms and are used as benchmarks, to measure the performance of portfolios such as mutual funds.
24 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

Types of indices Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded. Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. National index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation²and by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy. The most regularly quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P 500, the Japanese Nikkei 225, and the British FTSE 100. The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index, as its name implies, represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in the United States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange (but not ADRs) and most traded on the NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global Index.

More specialised indices exist tracking the performance of specific sectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index, for example, consists of 36 American firms in the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of a certain size, a certain type of management, or even more specialized criteria one index published by Linux Weekly News tracks stocks of companies that sell products and services based on the Linux operating environment. Index versions Some indices, such as the S&P 500, have multiple versions. These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how dividends are accounted for. For example, there are three versions of the S&P 500 index: price return, which only considers the price of the components, total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment, and net total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment after the deduction of a withholding tax. As another example, the Wilshire 4500 and Wilshire 5000 indices have five versions each: full
25 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

capitalization total return, full capitalization price, float-adjusted total return, float-adjusted price, and equal weight. The difference between the full capitalization, float-adjusted, and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted.

USES AND IMPORTANCE OF AIR POLLUTION INDEX AND STOCK MARKET INDEX
As everyone can see, the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the quality

of air index and to detect any pollutants in our country’s air. This is to ensure the air is
clean and safe for us to inhale. Besides that, an early warning can be given to us if the air pollution is too high for us to get out of our homes. This warning is given based upon readings and interpretations of the air index. As for the stock market index, it is mainly for the business entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock market. The stock market index is important because a country’s economical state sometimes depend on it.

26 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

REFLECTION After spending countless hours, days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time video games and mangas in this mid year holiday, there are several things that I can say... Additional Mathematics... From the day I born... From the day I was able to holding pencil... From the day I start learning... And... From the day I heard your name... I always thought that you will be my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life... But after countless of hours... Countless of days... Countless of nights... After sacrificing my precious time just for you... Sacrificing my Computer Games... Sacrificing my Video Games... Sacrificing my Facebook... Sacrificing my Internet... Sacrificing my Anime... Sacrificing my Manga... I realized something really important in you... I really love you... You are my real friend... You my partner... You are my soul mate... I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS...

27 | P a g e

PROJECT WORK

28 | P a g e

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.