U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997
5.7 million adults in the United States were under correctional supervision in 1997 1,176,900 558,000 3,266,800 690,800 in jail on probation on parole in prison

1.7 million in local jail or prison 1,602,000 132,900 871,500 816,600 female white black male

3.9 million on probation or parole 3,195,300 762,300 2,557,500 1,333,300 black female white male

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 Janet Reno Attorney General Daniel Marcus Acting Associate Attorney General Mary Lou Leary Acting Assistant Attorney General

Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D. Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics

Office of Justice Programs World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

Bureau of Justice Statistics World Wide Web Homepage: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/

For information contact: BJS Clearinghouse 1-800-732-3277

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

November 2000, NCJ 177613

Capital punishment in 1997

Tables By Tracy L. Snell, BJS Statistician

Prisoners removed from death row, 1997 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 164

7.16 Status of prisoners 7.17 Means of removal 7.18 Time between sentencing and removal 7.19 Age 7.20 Level of education completed 7.21 Marital status at time Prisoners under sentence of death, of imprisonment 1997 7.22 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.2 Movement of all prisoners 131 7.23 Felony history 7.3 Movement of female prisoners 132 7.4 Movement of Hispanic Current status prisoners 133 7.5 Time between sentencing 7.24 Status of death penalty and yearend 134 by jurisdiction, 1997 7.6 Age 135 7.7 Level of education completed 136 Prisoners executed under civil 7.8 Marital status at time authority in the United States, of imprisonment 137 1930-96 7.9 Legal status at time of capital offense 138 7.25 Year, region, and jurisdiction 7.10 Felony history 139 7.26 Race and offense 7.1 Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1997 130 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997 7.11 Age 7.12 Level of education completed 7.13 Marital status at time of imprisonment 7.14 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.15 Felony history Explanatory notes

167

168 169 170

Questionnaires 144 147 Status of Death Penalty Statutes, 1996 No Statute in Force 171 148 Statute in Force 173 Report of Inmates under Sentence of Death 175 149 150

Capital punishment in 1997 129

Table 7.1. Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death Sentence of death removed in 1997 Present Received By means yearend from court other than 1997 in 1997 Executed executiona 3,335 256 74 89

Characteristic U.S. total Gender Male Female Race White Black Otherb Hispanic origin Hispanic Non-Hispanic Not known Education 8th grade or less 9th to 11th grade 12th grade Any college Not reported Felony history Prior conviction, total Homicide Other offenses Offense not reported No prior conviction Not reported Age Under 20 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-54 years 55 years or older Median age
a

3,291 44

254 2

74 0

84 5

1,876 1,406 53

146 106 4

45 27 2

58 31 0

283 2,794 258

26 191 39

5 69 0

2 81 6

403 1,065 1,077 286 504

28 72 95 16 45

8 23 32 5 6

14 24 23 7 21

2,011 279 1,634 98 1,068 256

151 29 116 6 87 18

54 9 42 3 17 3

55 10 42 3 27 7

14 275 497 578 727 1,091 153 37

9 66 55 33 36 50 7 29

0 1 4 14 21 29 5 39

0 4 9 19 16 27 14 38

Includes deceased from causes other than execution, commutation of sentence, sentence vacated, and conviction vacated. b ”Other” race present at yearend includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race. “Other” race admitted includes 4 American Indians. One American Indian and 1 Asian inmate were executed in 1997.

130 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.2. Movement of all prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death Under death sentence 12/31/96 Total White Black Other 3,242 1,833 1,358 12 4 8 3,230 1,829 1,350 223 4 11 208 482 161 46 93 11 170 1 81 1 5 75 236 61 31 50 8 85 1 135 3 6 126 244 100 15 43 2 84 0 747 62 17 6 139 44 7 40 15 31 81 42 38 28 172 25 224 14 171 2 0 0 34 0 0 2 1 51 0 51 7 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 22 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 11 0 2 4 0 20 6 11 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Received from court in 1997 Total White Black Otherb 256 3 253 13 0 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 0 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 0 1 0 4 0 3 1 3 146 2 144 6 0 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 0 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 0 1 0 3 0 3 0 1 106 1 105 7 0 0 7 9 3 0 2 0 4 0 75 8 4 1 4 9 0 10 0 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 0 11 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
b

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota

Total 74 0 74 0 0 0 0 10 2 1 6 1 0 0 60 3 4 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

Executed in 1997 White Black Otherb 45 0 45 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 36 2 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 23 5 4 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 27 0 27 0 0 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 0 22 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 13 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Death sentence removed in 1997a Total White Black 89 0 89 4 0 0 4 18 6 2 9 0 1 0 52 5 1 0 21 0 0 3 1 0 7 7 3 2 1 1 15 7 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 58 0 58 2 0 0 2 13 4 2 7 0 0 0 34 4 0 0 11 0 0 1 1 0 6 6 2 2 1 0 9 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 31 0 31 2 0 0 2 5 2 0 2 0 1 0 18 1 1 0 10 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 6 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Under death sentence 12/31/97 Total White Black Otherb 3,335 1,876 1,406 15 6 9 3,320 1,870 1,397 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 85 1 8 76 236 60 30 46 9 89 2 140 3 6 131 243 99 14 42 1 87 0 782 68 19 7 132 53 7 48 14 34 94 45 38 30 171 22 232 10 180 2 0 0 35 0 0 2 3 53 0 53 7 0 0 7 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 22 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 10 0 2 3 0 22 7 11 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0

1,793 1,024 South Alabama 152 89 Arkansas 38 21 Delaware 11 5 c Florida 374 234 Georgia 102 58 Kentucky 29 22 Louisiana 62 22 Maryland 19 4 Mississippi 57 26 North Carolina 161 77 Oklahoma 134 81 South Carolina 68 30 Tennessee 93 63 Texasd 444 268 Virginia 49 24 West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington 732 121 455 5 18 7 83 4 19 9 11 488 101 273 3 18 6 48 4 18 7 10

1,838 1,034 159 90 38 19 15 8 370 237 115 61 30 23 70 22 17 3 64 30 176 78 137 82 68 30 98 66 438 264 43 21 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 515 103 295 2 19 6 51 4 19 7 9

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. a Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, order of a new trial, and death.

Four American Indians were received from court; 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas were executed; 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race were under sentence of death at yearend. c Race has been changed from white to American Indian for 1 inmate. d Race has been changed from black to white for 1 inmate.

Capital punishment in 1997 131

Table 7.3. Movement of female prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Female prisoners under sentence of death Received from Death sentence removed in 1997b court in 1997a Total White Black Total White Black 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
a

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri South Alabama Florida Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Idaho Nevada

Under death sentence 12/31/96 Total White Black 47 0 47 4 0 4 6 4 2 26 4 6 1 3 4 2 6 11 1 8 1 1 32 0 32 1 0 1 3 1 2 20 3 4 1 3 3 2 4 8 1 6 1 0 15 0 15 3 0 3 3 3 0 6 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 2 0 1

Under death sentence 12/31/97 Total White Black 44 0 44 5 1 4 3 2 1 25 3 6 1 3 3 2 7 11 1 8 1 1 30 0 30 2 1 1 1 0 1 19 2 4 1 3 2 2 5 8 1 6 1 0 14 0 14 3 0 3 2 2 0 6 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 2 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 0 5 0 0 0 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no women under sentence of death in 1997: Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Indiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

All women received from court with a death sentence in 1997 had been convicted of murder. Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, and order of a new trial. No women were executed in 1997.
b

132 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.4. Movement of Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Under death sentence 12/31/96 264 0 264 13 13 15 8 2 5 137 2 40 1 1 1 3 6 1 80 2 99 18 68 1 8 1 1 2 Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death Received Death senUnder death from court Executed tence removed sentence in 1997 in 1997 in 1997* 12/31/97 26 0 26 0 0 1 1 0 0 13 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 10 0 12 0 11 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 283 0 283 13 13 14 7 2 5 145 1 41 1 1 1 3 7 1 88 1 111 18 79 1 8 1 2 2

Region and State U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Ohio South Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah

Note: Hispanic prisoners may be of any race. States that do not appear had no Hispanic prisoners under a death sentence in 1997. *Dispositions of death sentences other

than by execution included dismissal of indictment, reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, and order of a new trial.

Capital punishment in 1997 133

Table 7.5. Time between sentencing and yearend for prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death 24-35 36-47 48-71 months months months 288 2 286 23 1 2 20 40 11 3 9 0 17 0 167 15 4 0 31 6 0 10 1 4 23 12 9 3 43 6 56 4 36 1 0 0 10 2 2 0 1 263 0 263 23 0 1 22 30 8 2 6 1 13 0 165 20 6 0 26 6 3 5 0 6 20 9 7 4 43 10 45 9 22 0 1 0 9 0 2 0 2 462 5 457 29 1 0 28 60 19 5 12 0 22 2 262 16 8 9 43 12 4 12 1 11 44 9 9 7 67 10 106 20 71 0 2 2 4 0 4 1 2

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Less than 12 months 242 3 239 13 0 3 10 26 6 1 10 1 8 0 145 14 3 4 17 12 1 12 0 7 18 10 4 7 32 4 55 8 36 0 1 0 4 0 2 1 3

12-23 months 298 4 294 17 0 3 14 44 14 3 8 2 17 0 168 17 5 0 23 6 2 9 7 9 24 16 8 5 36 1 65 5 40 1 1 2 10 1 2 1 2

More than 71 months 1,782 1 1,781 127 2 5 120 281 101 30 43 7 100 0 931 77 12 2 230 73 20 22 8 27 47 81 31 72 217 12 442 74 281 2 14 3 50 1 8 7 2

Median number of months 79 24 79 76 * 30 80 89 97 119 68 134 82 * 73 67 48 56 91 97 138 43 62 57 48 84 57 125 70 48 86 87 89 * 117 69 84 * 65 106 35

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. *Medians were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases.

134 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.6. Age of prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington All ages 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 Under 20 years 14 0 14 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Prisoners under sentence of death 20 to 25 to 30 to 35 to 24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years 275 3 272 6 0 0 6 32 7 0 5 1 19 0 197 18 5 4 26 8 1 14 1 9 14 10 5 6 69 7 37 6 20 1 1 0 6 1 2 0 0 497 4 493 40 2 2 36 55 19 5 9 1 21 0 299 35 5 3 41 21 2 6 4 17 31 25 14 6 76 13 99 11 58 0 1 1 17 1 4 1 5 578 4 574 46 0 3 43 103 35 13 19 0 36 0 310 20 7 4 68 13 3 17 3 10 34 22 17 12 72 8 115 23 68 1 0 3 17 0 1 2 0 727 1 726 56 2 2 52 103 32 10 20 1 40 0 386 31 8 3 81 27 5 14 4 13 40 34 15 23 84 4 181 32 116 0 5 0 16 1 5 5 1 40 to 54 years 1,091 3 1,088 74 0 5 69 164 61 15 27 6 53 2 558 45 10 1 137 40 19 16 5 11 46 35 17 47 122 7 292 39 196 2 12 3 25 1 7 1 6 55 or older 153 0 153 10 0 2 8 22 4 1 7 2 8 0 77 9 2 0 16 6 0 1 0 3 10 11 0 4 13 2 44 9 28 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 135

Table 7.7. Level of education completed by prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Total number 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12 7th grade or less 199 0 199 19 0 2 17 14 3 3 1 1 6 0 133 9 2 0 24 6 2 7 0 6 13 9 3 8 37 7 33 14 13 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 Prisoners under sentence of death 9th to 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 204 1 203 11 0 1 10 23 6 4 4 1 8 0 148 18 2 1 28 12 9 6 0 5 23 4 2 3 28 7 21 6 12 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1,065 3 1,062 61 1 3 57 176 62 19 35 2 58 0 599 45 15 4 105 38 5 24 3 26 47 69 12 21 171 14 226 33 154 0 3 2 22 2 3 3 4 1,077 1 1,076 72 3 1 68 146 47 18 26 3 50 2 556 51 9 0 110 41 8 25 3 6 78 39 10 29 134 13 302 43 192 4 8 4 35 1 6 5 4 Any college 286 1 285 16 0 1 15 48 17 0 7 4 20 0 117 9 4 0 24 13 4 3 2 4 15 10 0 5 22 2 104 20 55 0 5 0 20 1 2 0 1 Not reported 504 9 495 53 0 6 47 74 24 0 15 0 35 0 285 27 6 10 79 5 2 5 9 17 0 6 41 32 46 0 83 4 60 0 1 1 5 0 8 1 3

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

136 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.8. Marital status at time of imprisonment of prisoners under sentence of death, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death Divorced or Married separated Widowed 744 2 742 42 1 1 40 111 32 9 16 5 49 0 421 28 8 3 75 35 8 9 2 10 28 52 19 26 115 3 168 23 120 0 4 0 14 1 2 2 2 647 2 645 29 0 0 29 91 26 6 17 3 38 1 336 28 6 0 82 19 13 5 3 7 58 29 3 9 64 10 189 44 102 2 6 2 23 1 3 4 2 79 0 79 9 0 1 8 7 1 2 3 0 1 0 49 2 2 0 8 7 1 2 0 0 7 3 1 7 8 1 14 3 6 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 Never married 1,561 4 1,557 142 3 6 133 226 81 27 48 3 66 1 873 73 14 12 185 51 7 36 3 29 83 45 45 34 227 29 316 39 216 2 8 5 36 2 1 4 3 Not reported 304 7 297 10 0 6 4 46 19 0 4 0 23 0 159 28 8 0 20 3 1 18 9 18 0 8 0 22 24 0 82 11 42 0 0 0 12 0 13 0 4

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 137

Table 7.9. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 1,721 10 1,711 62 4 7 51 312 89 29 60 9 123 2 972 82 20 7 208 51 22 40 4 49 114 74 38 66 181 16 365 70 204 2 15 0 56 3 8 1 6 225 1 224 37 0 0 37 18 6 6 2 0 4 0 119 9 2 1 31 11 1 8 1 4 9 8 1 3 25 5 50 9 24 0 3 1 9 1 2 1 0 1,023 3 1,020 73 0 3 70 117 57 8 14 2 36 0 551 46 12 7 88 46 7 14 4 10 51 41 27 15 161 22 279 29 202 2 1 5 20 0 8 8 4 301 1 300 20 0 0 20 9 0 4 1 0 4 0 192 19 1 5 37 27 2 1 1 2 24 15 9 3 35 11 79 7 59 1 0 1 8 0 1 0 2 578 1 577 48 0 3 45 78 48 2 5 0 23 0 289 19 8 0 32 13 4 10 2 3 22 19 15 9 123 10 162 12 127 1 1 0 9 0 6 6 0 38 0 38 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 22 5 0 1 10 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 14 4 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 76 1 75 0 0 0 0 26 8 1 7 2 8 0 33 3 2 1 6 1 0 0 1 5 4 4 1 2 3 0 16 2 6 0 0 4 2 0 0 2 0 30 0 30 4 0 0 4 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 15 0 1 0 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 8 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Legal status not reported 366 1 365 60 0 4 56 34 7 1 12 0 14 0 196 22 4 0 43 7 0 8 8 1 2 14 2 14 71 0 75 12 56 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 2

138

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.9. Continued
Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 997 5 992 29 1 5 23 156 37 18 31 7 61 2 553 45 14 4 128 24 18 14 0 23 51 43 13 46 120 10 254 59 133 1 15 0 30 3 8 0 5 135 0 135 11 0 0 11 9 2 4 0 0 3 0 73 7 1 0 21 8 1 1 0 3 5 6 0 2 15 3 42 9 19 0 3 1 6 1 2 1 0 544 1 543 21 0 1 20 55 18 7 7 2 21 0 293 26 1 4 57 26 4 5 1 4 21 23 15 8 90 8 174 25 114 1 1 4 14 0 7 6 2 166 1 165 3 0 0 3 7 0 3 1 0 3 0 109 12 0 2 23 15 2 0 1 0 12 10 6 0 23 3 46 5 32 0 0 1 6 0 1 0 1 296 0 296 16 0 1 15 34 15 2 3 0 14 0 147 10 1 0 24 7 2 3 0 3 6 9 9 5 64 4 99 10 73 1 1 0 5 0 5 4 0 27 0 27 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 2 0 1 7 3 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 11 4 5 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 38 0 38 0 0 0 0 12 3 1 3 2 3 0 14 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 2 3 0 12 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 2 0 17 0 17 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Legal status not reported 200 0 200 24 0 2 22 16 3 1 8 0 4 0 115 12 3 0 31 3 0 2 2 0 1 10 2 10 39 0 45 10 29 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 2

Capital punishment in 1997 139

Table 7.9. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada Utah Washington Other prisonersb U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Florida Georgia North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Montana Nevada Oregon Utah Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Othera 696 5 691 29 3 2 24 154 52 11 29 1 61 408 36 6 3 79 27 4 26 4 26 62 26 25 19 59 6 100 7 65 1 25 1 1 86 1 85 25 0 0 25 9 4 2 2 0 1 44 2 1 1 10 2 0 7 1 1 4 1 1 1 10 2 7 0 4 0 3 0 0 463 2 461 51 0 2 49 62 39 1 7 0 15 251 20 11 3 31 20 3 9 3 6 27 15 12 7 70 14 97 2 85 1 6 1 2 132 0 132 17 0 0 17 2 0 1 0 0 1 82 7 1 3 14 12 0 1 0 2 11 5 3 3 12 8 31 0 27 1 2 0 1 273 1 272 31 0 2 29 44 33 0 2 0 9 138 9 7 0 8 6 2 7 2 0 14 9 6 4 58 6 59 2 52 0 4 1 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 36 1 35 0 0 0 0 14 5 0 4 0 5 18 1 2 0 5 1 0 0 1 4 2 1 1 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 12 0 12 3 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 Legal status not reported 161 1 160 35 0 2 33 18 4 0 4 0 10 79 10 1 0 12 4 0 6 6 1 1 3 0 3 32 0 28 1 26 0 1 0 0

28 4 4 2 1 1 11 1 1 0 1 5 1 2 11 4 6 0 1 0 0

4 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

16 1 1 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 8 2 3 1 0 1 1

3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0

9 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 4 0 2 0 0 1 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

5 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. a "Other" includes mandatory conditional release, bail, temporary leave, work release or furlough, halfway house, house arrest, and jail. b "Other prisoners" includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.

140

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.10. Felony history of prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 279 2 277 21 0 2 19 41 17 3 8 3 10 0 142 14 3 0 35 7 3 4 1 2 18 15 2 5 31 2 73 5 52 0 0 4 7 0 0 3 2 1,634 5 1,629 96 0 7 89 210 77 20 33 3 75 2 915 77 23 8 202 69 11 27 7 29 88 62 30 43 211 28 408 49 265 4 11 1 48 1 14 6 9 98 1 97 12 1 0 11 13 2 0 5 0 6 0 59 4 1 0 21 3 1 0 0 0 1 7 0 5 16 0 13 4 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 1,068 7 1,061 60 2 3 55 182 56 21 31 5 69 0 590 44 11 7 90 33 15 36 1 28 68 46 33 32 133 13 229 49 136 0 7 0 30 3 4 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 3,335 15 3,320 232 4 14 214 481 159 44 88 11 177 2 1,838 159 38 15 370 115 30 70 17 64 176 137 68 98 438 43 769 120 486 4 19 7 87 4 20 10 12

Total with prior felonies 2,011 8 2,003 129 1 9 119 264 96 23 46 6 91 2 1,116 95 27 8 258 79 15 31 8 31 107 84 32 53 258 30 494 58 326 4 11 5 55 1 14 9 11

Felony history not reported 256 0 256 43 1 2 40 35 7 0 11 0 17 0 132 20 0 0 22 3 0 3 8 5 1 7 3 13 47 0 46 13 24 0 1 2 2 0 2 1 1

Capital punishment in 1997 141

Table 7.10. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 144 1 143 7 0 1 6 13 4 1 2 2 4 0 74 10 2 0 20 4 3 2 0 0 11 6 1 1 14 0 49 5 32 0 0 3 6 0 0 2 1 885 2 883 31 0 3 28 102 28 17 17 3 35 2 493 42 9 5 123 36 8 6 1 13 37 34 16 29 124 10 257 39 152 2 11 1 26 1 13 5 7 53 0 53 2 0 0 2 3 1 0 1 0 1 0 39 3 0 0 13 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 4 11 0 9 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 648 3 645 27 1 3 23 102 25 12 22 4 39 0 346 24 8 3 63 19 11 13 0 13 30 30 13 25 83 11 170 44 93 0 7 0 19 3 4 0 0

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington

Total 1,876 6 1,870 85 1 8 76 236 60 30 46 9 89 2 1,034 90 19 8 237 61 23 22 3 30 78 82 30 66 264 21 515 103 295 2 19 6 51 4 19 7 9

Total with prior felonies 1,082 3 1,079 40 0 4 36 118 33 18 20 5 40 2 606 55 11 5 156 41 12 8 1 13 48 46 17 34 149 10 315 48 189 2 11 4 32 1 13 7 8

Felony not reported 146 0 146 18 0 1 17 16 2 0 4 0 10 0 82 11 0 0 18 1 0 1 2 4 0 6 0 7 32 0 30 11 13 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1

142

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.10. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenhomicide offenses ses unreported 128 1 127 14 0 1 13 28 13 2 6 1 6 65 4 1 0 15 3 0 2 1 2 6 7 1 4 17 2 20 0 18 0 1 0 1 731 3 728 62 0 4 58 108 49 3 16 0 40 414 35 14 3 79 32 3 21 6 16 48 25 14 14 86 18 144 7 110 2 22 1 2 43 1 42 10 1 0 9 10 1 0 4 0 5 19 1 1 0 8 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 398 4 394 30 1 0 29 78 31 9 9 0 29 235 19 3 4 26 14 4 23 1 15 38 11 20 7 48 2 51 3 38 0 10 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada Utah Washington Other prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Florida Georgia North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California Montana Nevada Oregon Utah

Total 1,406 9 1,397 140 3 6 131 243 99 14 42 1 87 782 68 19 7 132 53 7 48 14 34 94 45 38 30 171 22 232 10 180 2 35 2 3

Total with prior felonies 902 5 897 86 1 5 80 146 63 5 26 1 51 498 40 16 3 102 37 3 23 7 18 55 33 15 18 108 20 167 7 131 2 23 1 3

Felony not reported 106 0 106 24 1 1 22 19 5 0 7 0 7 49 9 0 0 4 2 0 2 6 1 1 1 3 5 15 0 14 0 11 0 2 1 0

53 7 7 2 1 1 22 1 1 1 4 10 2 3 22 7 11 1 1 1 1

27 3 3 0 0 0 12 0 0 1 4 5 1 1 12 3 6 1 0 1 1

7 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 4 0 2 1 0 0 1

18 3 3 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 3 3 0 1 7 3 3 0 0 1 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

22 3 3 2 1 1 9 1 1 0 0 5 0 2 8 2 5 0 1 0 0

4 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1997: New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, and Wyoming. *"Other prisoners" includes 28 American Indians, 17 Asians, and 8 inmates of unspecified race.

Capital punishment in 1997 143

Table 7.11. Age of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years 58 1 57 3 0 3 4 2 0 1 0 1 0 36 3 2 1 3 3 1 2 1 6 2 2 0 9 1 14 1 8 0 1 2 0 2 35 1 34 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 4 2 0 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 0 9 2 6 0 1 0 0 0 34 0 34 2 2 0 7 1 0 3 0 3 0 15 2 0 0 4 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 10 3 5 0 1 0 1 0 48 0 48 3 1 2 5 0 0 2 0 2 1 27 2 2 0 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 4 6 0 13 1 8 1 1 1 0 1

Region and State All prisonersa U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

All ages 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Under 20 years 13 0 13 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 2 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

20 to 24 years 62 1 61 3 0 3 5 1 0 1 1 2 0 43 5 1 2 3 4 0 3 3 7 3 0 2 10 0 10 1 9 0 0 0 0 0

55 years or older 6 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Median age in years 29 * 29 30 * 28 33 27 * 36 * 35 * 28 26 28 * 33 28 * 28 23 27 31 31 41 26 * 32 34 30 * * * * *

144

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.11. Continued
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years years 29 1 28 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 21 1 0 1 3 2 0 1 2 3 1 0 1 6 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 26 1 25 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 15 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 5 1 9 1 5 0 1 2 0 23 0 23 2 0 2 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 1 2 0 7 2 4 0 1 0 0 23 0 23 2 2 0 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 9 1 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 7 3 4 0 0 0 0 38 0 38 2 1 1 4 0 0 2 0 1 1 19 2 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 3 5 0 13 1 8 1 1 1 1

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

All ages 146 2 144 6 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 1 3 3 1

Under 20 years 3 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

55 years or older 4 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Median age in years 33 * 33 37 * * 35 * * 36 * * * 31 38 * * 33 * * * * 26 40 * 45 27 * 35 35 34 * * * *

Capital punishment in 1997 145

Table 7.11. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington All ages 106 1 105 7 7 9 3 2 4 75 8 4 1 4 9 10 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 11 1 2 Under 20 years 10 0 10 0 0 1 0 1 0 9 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 20 to 24 years 32 0 32 3 3 2 1 0 1 22 4 1 1 0 2 2 1 4 2 0 1 4 0 5 5 0 0 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 years years years years 32 0 32 3 3 3 2 0 1 21 1 2 0 2 3 2 1 4 1 1 0 4 0 5 3 0 2 12 1 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 9 0 9 0 0 2 0 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 1 0 10 0 10 1 1 1 0 0 1 8 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 55 years or older 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Median age in years 26 * 26 27 27 27 * * * 25 21 * * * 28 28 * 27 * * * 25 * 26 25 * *

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Median were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases. a Includes American Indians. Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was between 20 and 24 years old. Georgia and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was between 35 and 39 years old. North Carolina sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was aged 55 years or older.

146

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.12. Level of education completed by prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 7th grade 9th to Any college or less 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 12 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 5 1 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 72 0 72 5 1 4 6 1 0 3 0 2 0 48 6 1 0 4 4 1 2 1 7 4 0 4 13 1 13 1 10 0 0 0 0 2 95 0 95 5 1 4 15 4 1 6 1 2 1 53 3 1 0 4 4 1 9 0 12 5 0 1 12 1 22 5 16 0 0 1 0 0 16 0 16 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 9 1 2 1 4 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total number 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Not reported 45 3 42 3 1 2 4 1 0 0 0 3 0 24 0 2 4 8 0 0 0 5 0 0 4 1 0 0 11 0 8 0 0 1 1 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 147

Table 7.13. Marital status at time of imprisonment for prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1997
Prisoners received from court under sentence of death Divorced or Never Married separated Widowed married 55 0 55 0 0 0 8 0 1 2 1 4 0 32 5 0 0 3 3 0 1 0 3 5 1 2 9 0 15 5 7 1 0 1 0 1 46 0 46 1 0 1 7 1 0 4 0 1 1 27 1 1 0 4 2 1 1 0 7 1 0 0 7 2 11 3 4 0 3 0 1 0 10 0 10 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 119 1 118 10 2 8 9 5 0 3 0 1 0 80 6 3 4 8 7 1 10 2 11 4 4 3 15 2 19 0 17 0 1 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Not reported 26 2 24 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 10 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 8 0 0 1 0 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming.

148

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.14. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997
Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison 145 2 143 5 2 3 19 3 1 7 1 6 1 98 7 3 3 9 8 2 8 6 15 7 2 5 22 1 21 0 14 0 3 3 0 1 19 0 19 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 14 2 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 67 1 66 4 1 3 6 2 0 2 0 2 0 39 6 1 1 3 3 0 2 1 6 1 3 1 8 3 17 0 13 0 1 0 1 2 19 0 19 2 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 14 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 38 0 38 2 1 1 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 19 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 3 0 6 1 14 0 12 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 8 1 7 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Legal status not reported 25 0 25 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 17 8 9 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 149

Table 7.14. Continued

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Legal status Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison not reported 84 2 82 3 2 1 13 2 1 6 1 2 1 52 4 1 2 6 2 2 1 4 6 4 1 4 14 1 14 0 9 0 2 3 0 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 39 0 39 2 1 1 5 1 0 2 0 2 0 18 2 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 5 1 14 0 12 0 1 0 1 7 0 7 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 26 0 26 2 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 3 1 12 0 11 0 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 17 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 11 7 4 0 0 0 0

150

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.14. Continued
Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Legal status Not charged with or senCharged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison not reported 61 0 61 2 2 6 1 1 4 46 3 2 1 3 6 7 2 9 3 1 1 8 0 7 5 1 1 12 0 12 2 2 2 1 1 0 8 1 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 26 1 25 2 2 1 1 0 0 20 4 1 0 0 2 1 1 4 0 1 1 3 2 2 1 0 1 12 0 12 2 2 0 0 0 0 9 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 10 0 10 0 0 1 1 0 0 8 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 7 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Includes American Indians. Georgia sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was charged with another crime at the time of the capital offense. North Carolina and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was on parole at the time of the capital offense. Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian whose legal status at the time of the capital offense was not known.

Capital punishment in 1997 151

Table 7.15. Felony history of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1997

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Utah Washington

Total 256 3 253 13 3 10 27 6 1 10 1 8 1 157 15 5 4 18 13 2 12 7 22 11 5 7 32 4 56 8 36 1 4 3 1 3

Total with prior felonies 151 2 149 11 3 8 15 2 1 6 0 5 1 97 9 3 1 13 9 1 6 1 11 6 2 3 29 3 26 1 16 1 3 1 1 3

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offenses homicide offenses unreported 29 2 27 2 1 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 15 1 0 0 4 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 4 0 8 0 5 0 1 0 1 1 116 0 116 9 2 7 13 2 1 5 0 4 1 78 8 3 1 9 7 0 5 1 8 5 2 3 23 3 16 1 9 1 2 1 0 2 6 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0

With no prior felonies 87 1 86 1 0 1 11 4 0 3 1 3 0 54 6 2 3 3 3 1 6 6 11 4 3 3 2 1 20 7 10 0 1 2 0 0

Felony history not reported 18 0 18 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0

152

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.15. Continued

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington

Total 146 2 144 6 3 3 18 3 1 8 1 4 1 80 7 1 3 14 3 2 2 4 7 7 3 5 20 2 40 7 25 1 3 3 1

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offenses prior felonies homicide offenses unreported 82 1 81 6 3 3 11 1 1 5 0 3 1 47 3 0 1 10 2 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 18 1 17 1 11 1 2 1 1 18 1 17 1 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 8 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 6 0 4 0 1 0 1 61 0 61 5 2 3 9 1 1 4 0 2 1 37 3 0 1 7 2 0 1 1 2 2 1 2 14 1 10 1 6 1 1 1 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

With no prior felonies 53 1 52 0 0 0 7 2 0 3 1 1 0 27 4 1 2 2 0 1 1 3 4 3 2 2 1 1 18 6 9 0 1 2 0

Felony history not reported 11 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 153

Table 7.15. Continued

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Nevada Washington

Total 106 1 105 7 7 9 3 2 4 75 8 4 1 4 9 10 3 14 4 2 2 12 2 14 11 1 2

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offenses prior felonies homicide offenses unreported 66 1 65 5 5 4 1 1 2 48 6 3 0 3 6 5 0 7 3 1 1 11 2 8 5 1 2 9 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 54 0 54 4 4 4 1 1 2 40 5 3 0 2 4 4 0 6 3 1 1 9 2 6 3 1 2 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

With no prior felonies 33 0 33 1 1 4 2 0 2 27 2 1 1 1 3 5 3 7 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Felony history not reported 7 0 7 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1997: Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, and Wyoming. *Includes American Indians, Arizona sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had no prior felony convictions. North Carolina and Utah each sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had previously been convicted of homicide. Georgia sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had been convicted of a prior felony that was not homicide.

154

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.16. Status of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Awaiting Died new trial Total White Black Total White Black 87 0 0 11 2 1 7 1 0 66 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 38 9 10 4 3 1 2 0 56 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 41 3 3 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 24 5 9 4 2 1 2 0 29 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 23 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 13 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 23 0 0 8 2 0 6 0 0 15 3 0 6 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 0 6 1 0 5 0 0 12 2 0 4 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State U.S. totalsa Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Floridab Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Serving life sentences Total White Black 43 4 4 6 2 2 1 0 1 26 1 1 13 0 3 1 1 2 2 1 0 1 7 5 2 0 0 0 22 2 2 4 2 2 0 0 0 14 1 0 6 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 21 2 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 12 0 1 7 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 4 1 0 0 0

Awaiting new sentence Total White Black 9 0 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 7 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other Black 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a The totals include 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian inmate in Texas who were executed. b One black male whose sentence and conviction were overturned was found not guilty upon retrial.

Capital punishment in 1997 155

Table 7.17. Means of removal for all prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Death by other Sentence than executionb commutedc Total White Black Total White Black 13 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 6 2 3 0 1 0 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and State U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total Total White Black 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2 103 2 2 18 4 2 12 0 0 70 6 3 11 1 2 1 6 6 3 2 24 5 13 5 3 1 2 2 58 2 2 10 4 1 3 1 1 40 2 2 11 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 13 5 6 4 2 0 0 0

Executed Total White Black 74 0 0 10 2 1 6 1 0 60 3 4 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 0 37 9 4 2 0 1 1 0 45 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 36 2 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 23 5 4 2 0 1 1 0 27 0 0 5 2 1 1 1 0 22 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 13 4 0 0 0 0 0 0

a

Sentence Conviction vacatedd vacatedd Total White Black Total White Black 38 4 4 5 2 2 1 0 0 25 1 1 13 0 3 0 3 3 0 1 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 23 2 2 4 1 2 1 0 0 14 1 0 7 0 1 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 2 15 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 11 0 1 6 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 35 0 0 12 4 0 7 0 1 18 3 0 8 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 8 3 0 5 0 0 13 2 0 4 0 0 1 3 3 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 4 1 0 2 0 1 5 1 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a One American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas were executed. b Six white inmates died of natural causes (California, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Tennessee); 4 white inmates committed suicide (Alabama, Arizona, California, and Texas); and 1 white inmate in Arizona was shot during an escape attempt. Two black inmates died from natural causes (California and South Carolina). c Commutation changed sentences from death to life in prison or a term of years. d Further legal proceedings may have followed the vacating of sentences and of convictions and may have resulted in new sentences of death.

156

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.18. Time between sentencing and removal for prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Less than 12 months 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Prisoners removed from death row 12-23 24-35 36-47 months months months 7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 6 1 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 10 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 48-71 months 15 2 2 3 0 0 3 0 0 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 More than 71 months 114 2 2 20 5 3 10 1 1 79 7 5 6 1 3 1 2 3 4 2 37 8 13 5 4 1 1 2

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 157

Table 7.19. Age of prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row 25 to 30 to 35 to 29 years 34 years 39 years 13 0 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 8 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 2 2 0 0 0 0 33 1 1 3 0 1 1 0 1 27 0 1 7 0 1 1 4 0 1 0 12 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 37 1 1 4 0 1 3 0 0 28 1 1 4 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 13 3 4 3 0 0 0 1

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

All ages 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

20 to 24 years 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

40 to 54 years 56 2 2 12 5 1 6 0 0 35 5 3 2 1 1 0 2 4 2 2 11 2 7 2 4 1 0 0

55 years or older 19 0 0 5 0 0 4 1 0 10 2 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 2 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

158

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.20. Level of education completed by prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row 9th to 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade 13 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 11 2 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 47 2 2 8 5 0 3 0 0 33 0 2 5 1 2 0 3 2 0 0 15 3 4 2 2 0 0 0 55 2 2 9 0 2 6 1 0 39 4 3 4 0 2 1 3 4 0 1 12 5 5 3 1 1 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total number 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

7th grade or less 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Any college 12 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0 6 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 1 0 0 0

Not reported 27 0 0 7 2 0 4 0 1 14 2 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 4 0 6 1 1 0 2 2

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Capital punishment in 1997 159

Table 7.21. Marital status at time of imprisonment for prisoners removed from death row, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row Divorced or Never separated Widowed married 30 1 1 6 2 0 2 1 1 21 4 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 10 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 9 1 1 3 0 0 3 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 65 1 1 12 4 3 5 0 0 48 0 3 12 0 2 1 4 1 4 0 15 6 4 3 1 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Married 50 1 1 6 2 0 4 0 0 37 3 0 6 0 2 1 2 5 1 1 13 3 6 3 2 1 0 0

Not reported 9 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 3 1 0 1 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

160

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.22. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime Legal status tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other not reported 93 0 0 23 7 3 11 1 1 61 6 0 15 0 2 2 3 8 2 0 19 4 9 6 0 1 1 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 50 4 4 4 1 0 3 0 0 33 1 3 1 1 0 0 4 0 3 2 13 5 9 3 5 0 0 1 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 32 2 2 3 1 0 2 0 0 21 1 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 2 9 3 6 1 4 0 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 13 1 1 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 161

Table 7.22. Continued
Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other 56 0 0 14 3 2 9 36 5 0 6 0 0 1 3 6 0 0 12 3 6 3 0 1 1 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 31 2 2 3 1 0 2 20 0 2 0 1 0 0 3 0 3 2 8 1 6 2 3 0 0 1 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 21 1 1 2 1 0 1 14 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 3 2 5 1 4 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Legal status not reported 12 0 0 1 0 0 1 11 1 0 4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

162

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.22. Continued
Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Texas Virginia West Arizona California Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Not charged with or sen- Charged with Under sentence for another crime Legal status tenced for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison Other not reported 35 0 0 9 4 1 2 1 1 23 1 0 9 2 1 0 1 2 6 1 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 19 2 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 13 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 5 4 3 1 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 11 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. *Includes 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas who were not charged with or sentenced for another crime at the time of the capital offense.

Capital punishment in 1997 163

Table 7.23. Felony history of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1997
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 19 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 15 3 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 2 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 84 3 3 12 4 2 6 0 0 56 0 4 10 1 2 1 3 2 4 1 24 4 13 5 3 1 2 2 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 44 0 0 13 3 1 8 0 1 29 3 0 5 0 2 1 1 4 1 0 9 3 2 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State All prisoners* U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 163 4 4 28 8 3 15 1 1 112 8 5 22 1 4 2 7 8 5 2 38 10 19 9 5 1 2 2

Total with prior felonies 109 4 4 14 4 2 7 1 0 75 3 5 13 1 2 1 6 4 4 2 27 7 16 6 5 1 2 2

Felony history not reported 10 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 8 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

164

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.23. Continued
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 11 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 49 2 2 7 2 1 4 31 0 2 5 1 1 0 2 1 3 1 15 0 9 2 2 1 2 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 33 0 0 10 2 1 7 21 3 0 3 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 6 3 2 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State White prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Kentucky Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Oregon Washington

Total 103 2 2 18 4 2 12 70 6 3 11 1 2 1 6 6 3 2 24 5 13 5 3 1 2 2

Total with prior felonies 65 2 2 8 2 1 5 44 1 3 6 1 1 0 5 3 3 2 17 2 11 3 3 1 2 2

Felony history not reported 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Capital punishment in 1997 165

Table 7.23. Continued
Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Criminal Other Type of offense homicide offenses unreported 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 35 1 1 5 2 1 2 0 0 25 0 2 5 1 1 1 1 1 9 4 4 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 With no prior felonies 9 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 1 6 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0

Region and State Black prisoners U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Florida Louisiana Maryland North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Texas Virginia West Arizona California

Total 58 2 2 10 4 1 3 1 1 40 2 2 11 2 1 1 1 2 13 5 6 4 2

Total with prior felonies 44 2 2 6 2 1 2 1 0 31 2 2 7 1 1 1 1 1 10 5 5 3 2

Felony history not reported 5 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1997: Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Kansas, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. *Includes 1 American Indian in Oklahoma and 1 Asian in Texas who had no prior felonies.

166

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.24. Status of death penalty, by jurisdiction, 1997
Jurisdictions with death penalty law With no With execuexecutions, 1997 tions, 1997 California Connecticut Delaware Federal Georgia Idaho Kansas Mississippi Montana Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Pennsylvania South Dakota Tennessee Utah Washington Wyoming Alabama Arkansas Arizona Colorado Florida Illinois Indiana Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Missouri Nebraska Oklahoma Oregon South Carolina Texas Virginia Jurisdictions that changed a death penalty law in 1997 Montana Nevada Oregon Pennsylvania Tennessee Virginia Jurisdictions without death penalty law Alaska Dist. of Columbia Hawaii Iowa Maine Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota North Dakota Rhode Island Vermont West Virginia Wisconsin

Number of executions 3 4 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 2 37 9

Capital punishment in 1997 167

Table 7.25. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by year, region, and jurisdiction, 1930-97
Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Total 4,291 33 4,258 610 21 0 27 1 74 329 154 0 4 450 100 46 18 15 0 0 91 7 0 172 1 0 2,658 151 134 20 40 209 388 104 157 70 158 271 69 175 93 441 138 40 540 0 46 296 48 0 4 7 35 8 21 18 49 8 1997 74 0 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 60 3 4 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1996 45 0 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 29 1 1 3 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 0 3 8 0 7 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1995 56 0 56 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 11 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 41 2 2 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 19 5 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 19901994 137 0 137 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 2 1 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 112 3 9 4 0 12 4 0 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 52 16 0 11 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 19851989 88 0 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 81 6 0 0 0 11 11 0 12 0 3 1 0 2 0 29 6 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 19801984 29 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 1 0 0 0 9 3 0 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19751979 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 19701974 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19651969 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 19601964 181 1 180 17 1 0 0 0 3 10 3 0 0 16 2 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 7 0 0 102 4 9 0 0 12 14 1 1 1 10 1 5 8 1 29 6 0 45 0 4 29 5 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 19551959 304 3 301 51 5 0 0 0 9 25 12 0 0 16 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 12 0 0 183 6 7 0 1 27 34 8 13 4 21 5 3 10 7 25 8 4 51 0 6 35 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 2 0 19501954 413 6 407 56 0 0 0 0 8 27 19 0 2 42 8 2 1 5 0 0 5 1 0 20 0 0 244 14 11 0 3 22 51 8 14 2 15 14 4 16 1 49 15 5 65 0 2 39 1 0 2 0 9 2 4 2 4 0 19451949 639 6 633 74 5 0 3 0 8 36 21 0 1 64 5 5 4 2 0 0 9 2 0 36 1 0 419 21 18 2 13 27 72 15 23 19 26 62 7 29 18 36 22 9 76 0 3 45 7 0 0 0 5 2 6 1 7 0 19401944 645 7 638 110 5 0 6 0 6 78 15 0 0 42 13 2 3 3 0 0 6 0 0 15 0 0 413 29 20 2 3 38 58 19 24 26 34 50 6 32 19 38 13 2 73 0 6 35 6 0 0 1 5 0 6 3 9 2 19351939 891 9 882 145 3 0 11 1 16 73 41 0 0 113 27 20 7 0 0 0 20 0 0 39 0 0 524 41 33 6 5 29 73 34 19 10 22 80 9 30 31 72 20 10 100 0 10 57 9 0 0 4 3 0 1 2 13 1 19301934 776 1 775 155 2 0 7 0 24 80 41 0 1 105 34 11 1 0 0 0 16 0 0 43 0 0 419 19 20 2 15 15 64 18 39 6 26 51 25 37 16 48 8 10 96 0 7 51 16 0 0 1 5 2 1 0 10 3

168

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997

Table 7.26. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by race and offense, 1930-97
All races Total offenses Murder Rape 4,291 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 3,766 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 455 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 White Other offenses* 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total offenses 2,016 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 Murder 1,929 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 Rape 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Other offenses* 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total offenses 2,228 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Black Murder 1,792 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Other races Other Total Rape offenses* offenses Murder Rape 405 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 47 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Year All years 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977

No executions from 1968 to 1976 1965-67 1960-64 1955-59 1950-54 1945-49 1940-44 1935-39 1930-34 10 181 304 413 639 645 891 776 10 145 253 348 528 536 797 717 0 28 44 58 103 97 73 52 0 8 7 7 8 12 21 7 8 90 135 201 214 276 456 371 8 79 128 188 203 255 436 367 0 6 4 9 7 12 7 3 0 5 3 4 4 9 13 1 2 91 167 209 419 362 421 395 2 66 123 157 319 276 347 340 0 22 40 49 96 83 66 49 0 3 4 3 4 3 8 6 0 0 2 3 6 7 14 10 0 0 2 3 6 5 14 10 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

*Includes executions for armed robbery (25), kidnaping (20), burglary (11), sabotage (6), aggravated assault (6), and espionage (2).

Capital punishment in 1997 169

Explanatory notes
The statistics reported for capital punishment may differ from data collected by other organizations. The differences occur for a variety of reasons:

Some figures shown for yearend 1996 are revised from those reported in Correctional Populations in the United States, 1996. 

The data for 12/31/96 also include 8
inmates who were listed erroneously as being removed from death row: Federal Bureau of Prisons (1), Georgia (6), and Mississippi (1). 

The revised figures include 22 inmates
who either were reported late to the NPS program or were not in the custody of State correctional authorities at yearend 1996: Alabama (1) California (1) Florida (1) Indiana (1) Nevada (2) Oklahoma (2) Pennsylvania (6) Tennessee (2) Texas (6) 

Inmates under sentence of death are
originally added to the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) counts when they enter correctional facilities rather than when judges pronounce sentence. 

Race has been changed from that previously reported for 2 inmates: in Florida (from white to American Indian) and Texas (from black to white). 

One inmate in Mississippi was reported
as a female in previous reporting years. 

Following the year when prisoners are
first counted, their admissions or releases as a result of court order are attributed to the year for the sentence or court order. For example, a prisoner sentenced in November 1995 entering prison custody in January 1996 would be counted as an admission in the 1996 report; the 1996 report would count him or her as being under sentence of death at yearend 1995. Similarly, a prisoner whose sentence is overturned in 1994 but who remains in the count until 1996 when the court's decision is reported would be subtracted from the 1994 and 1995 reports. 

Seven inmates had sentences to death
removed in 1996 but were not reported: Arkansas (2) Louisiana (1) Mississippi (1) Oklahoma (1) Oregon (1) Pennsylvania (1) 

NPS counts of persons under sentence of
death are always for the last day of a calendar year and will differ from more recent counts.

170

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997  

 
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