Kertas Posisi Position paper

Indonesia Under “Biofuel Fever” : Indonesia Under “Biofuel Fever” :
Food, Fuel, Machine, Human Being = Food, Fuel, Machine, Human Being =
Not Different Not Different

“Kelaparan akan menimpa manusia “Hunger will fall on human being
karena kalangkaan bahan pangan because the scarcity of foodstuff is
akibat penggunaan bahan pangan untuk due to the use of foodstuff for biofuel
produksi biofuel” production”
(Fidel Castro) (Fidel Castro)

Indonesia Curent Situation : Indonesia Current Situation :
Indonesia negeri anomali : “negeri Indonesia is anomaly country: “the oil
produsen minyak, tetapi rakyatnya producer country, but its people always
selalu mengalami kelangkaan minyak; experience the oil scarcity; the CPO
negeri produsen CPO, tetapi rakyatnya producer country, but its people always
mengalami kelangkaan CPO/minyak experience the CPO/cooking oil
goreng”. Inilah situasi Indonesia scarcity”. This is the Indonesian
sekarang disaat “Biofuel fever” situation now at the “Biofuel fever”
menjalari pengusaha spreading over the oil
kelapa sawit, elite palm entrepreneurs, the
pemerintah, bahkan government elites, even
juga beberapa also several circles of
kalangan penggiat environment activators.
lingkungan hidup.
The price of cooking oil
Harga minyak goreng keeps increasing in the
terus merangkak naik market, from the
dipasaran, dari semula beginning of 6,500/kg
6500/kg mencapai reaching at the ranging
kisaran 7500-9000/kg of 7,500-9,000/kg
(naik hampir 30%!). Jika harga semula (increase almost of 30%!). If the
saja masih membuat rakyat kecil harus beginning price still makes the common
menguras isi kantong, apalagi lagi jika people drain the pocket contents,
harga sudah mencapai 9000/kg. morever if the price has reached of
Kenaikan harga minyak ini sangat 9,000/kg. The oil price increase is felt
dirasakan serta berdampak besar bagi and giving a huge impact toward home
industri rumah tangga dan industri industry and small industry, like chips
kecil, seperti industri kerupuk yang industry which is threatened to be
terancam bangkrut akibat kenaikan bankrupt due to this cooking oil
minyak goreng ini (Liputan6 pagi SCTV increase (Liputan6 SCTV in the
11 Mei 2007). Celakanya, minyak morning, 11 May 2007). It is
goreng tak hanya naik harganya, tetapi misfortune, the price of cooking oil is
juga menghilang dari pasar. not only increased, but also is
disappeared from the market.

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Hampir disemua kota di Indonesia, Almost all cities in Indonesia, the
rakyat antri untuk mendapatkan minyak people queue up from getting the
goreng. Siapa rakyat ini? Rakyat miskin. cooking oil. Who are these people? The
Ya, kelangkaan minyak goreng telah poor people. Yes, the cooking oil
semakin membuat rakyat miskin scarcity has made poor people more
semakin menderita. and more suffering.

Reaksi pemerintah Indonesia dengan The reaction of the government of
menggelar “Operasi Pasar” (penjualan Indonesia is spreading out the “Market
minyak goreng murah). Tetapi hal ini Operation” (the cheap cooking oil
belum memberikan perubahan sale). But this thing is not giving a
significant. Sebagai contoh di kota significant change yet. As an example
Jambi, Suamtra, harga tidak bergeser in Jambi city, Sumatra, the price is not
dari harga 7500 Rp.kg dan kualitasnya shifting from the price of Rp 7,500 kg
juga tidak sebaik minyak goreng yang and the quality is not as good as
dijual dengan harga yang merangkak cooking oil sold with the increasing
naik (hasil wawancara tim investiasi price (the interview result of the
SETARA 12 Mei 2007 pukul 9.33 di Pasar investigation team of SETARA, 12 May
tradisional Angso Duo Jambi). Saat 2007 at 9.33 in the traditional market
sekarang “Operasi Pasar” ini belum Angso Duo Jambi). At the moment, the
mampu menekan harga minyak goreng. “Market Operation” can not push down
the cooking oil price yet.
Ada Apa Dengan Minyak Goreng?
Ternyata besaran luas perkebunan What is happening with Cooking Oil?
kelapa sawit tidak selalu menjadi Apparently, the big oil palm plantation
mimpi indah bagi kesejahteraan rakyat. area is not always becoming the
Sebagai contoh, di propinsi Jambi luas beautiful dream for the people
perkebunan kelapa sawit mencapai prosperity. As an example, in Jambi
403.467 Ha dengan tingkat produksi province, the oil palm plantation area
mencapai 4.682.975 ton ditahun 2005, reaches for 403,467 Ha with the
tetapi kelangkaan minyak goreng tetap production level reaching for 4,682,975
juga melanda daerah ini? tons in 2005, but the cooking oil
scarcity persistenly also hits this area?

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Pemerintah Indonesia meminta The Government of Indonesia requires
perusahaan-perusahaan raksasa, seperti the giant companies, like Wilmar
Wilmar Group, PT Perkebunan Group, PT Perkebunan Nusantara, PT
Nusantara, PT Smart Tbk, PT Musim Smart Tbk, PT Musim Mas, PT BEST, PT
Mas, PT BEST, PT Astra Agro Lestari Astra Agro Lestari Tbk, PT Musim Mas
Tbk, PT Musim Mas dan PT Darmex Oil and PT Darmex Oil, to provide 150,000
agar menyediakan 150.000 ton/bulan tons/month of palm oil (Antara, 1 May
minyak goreng (Antara, 1 Mei 2007) 2007), for handling the scarcity and the
untuk mengatasi kelangkaan dan increase of cooking oil price. But, the
kenaikan harga minyak goreng. Tetapi, high CPO price in the international
harga CPO yang tinggi di pasar market makes the entrepreneurs only
internasional, membuat pihak promise for 100,000 tons/month. But,
pengusaha hanya menyanggupi 100,000 until when the entrepreneur wants to
ton/bulan. Tetapi sampai kapan be “generous”, at the time of the high
pengusaha mau “bermurah hati”, disaat CPO price and the “biofuel fever”?.
harga CPO yang tinggi dan “biofuel
fever”?. Why is cooking oil becoming scarce?
The following are some analyses :
Kenapa minyak goreng menjadi langka? 1. The oil palm entrepreneur is more
Berikut beberapa analisis : interested at exporting the raw
1. Para pengusaha kelapa sawit lebih material of CPO to the international
tertarik untuk mengekspor bahan market, this is because the price is
baku CPO kepasar international, ini higher compared to the domestic
dikarenakan harga lebih tinggi market (ranging from US 650-690
dibanding pasar dalam negeri dollar per ton).
(berkisar 650-690 US dollar per 2. The piling up practices are
ton). conducted by several business
2. Praktek penimbunan yang dilakukan circles, which want to reach for
oleh beberapa kalangan bisnis, yang profit from the increase of palm oil
ingin meraih keuntungan dari price, due to the “biofuel fever”
naiknya harga minyak kelapa sawit, impact.
akibat dampak “biofuel fever”. 3. The piling up is conducted by the
3. Penimbunan yang dilakukan oleh collector from international, for the
pengumpul di luar negeri, untuk preparation of supply project
persiapan supply project biofuel. biofuel. This analysis is
Analisis ini diperkuat dengan strengthened by the height of
tingginya volume eksport, padahal export volume, whereas the need of
kebutuhan pasar luar negeri selama international market during this
ini tercukupi dari suply CPO dari time is fulfilled from the CPO
berbagai negara produsen. Sebagai supply from various producer
ilustrasi, kuantitas ekspor CPO countries. As the illustration, the
Indonesia menaik pesat, dari 11,5 export quantity of Indonesian CPO
juta ton tahun 2005 menjadi 13,6 increased quickly, from 11.5 million
juta ton di tahun 2006. Selain itu, tons in 2005 to 13.6 million tons in
saat sekarang di Eropa sedang 2006. Besides that, at the moment,
dibangun pembangkit listrik in Europe the electric generator
berbahan baku biofuel yang with biofuel raw material is built,
membutuhkan supply 1-1,5 juta which needs the 1-1.5 million tons
ton. supply.

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4. Program Biofuel oleh Pemerintah 4. Biofuel Program by the Government
Indonesia, tidak memasukkan of Indonesia excludes the
komponen komparatif supply- comparative component of supply-
demand diantara industri berbahan demand between the industry with
baku CPO/biofuel, sehingga the raw material of CPO/biofuel, so
diantara industri ini terjadi among this industry it occurs the
kompetisi pencarian bahan baku. competition on the raw material
5. Kepentingan CPO untuk bahan baku quest.
biofuel, saat ini hanya bisa 5. The importance of CPO to get
dinikmati oleh pasar international, biofuel raw material, at the
karena PERTAMINA (Indonesia state moment, can only be enjoyed by
energy corporate) yang ditunjuk the international market, because
pemerintah sebagai perusahaan PERTAMINA (Indonesia state energy
yang akan memproduksi bahan corporate) which is appointed by
bakar nabati menyakan the government as the company to
mengnentikan produksi dikarenakan produce the vegetable oil fuel asks
kerugian yang dialami selama ini to stop the production since the
yang mencapai Rp 15,9 miliar. financial loss experience during this
6. Pembangunan perkebunan kelapa time reaches Rp 15.9 billion.
sawit di Indonesia memang telah 6. The development of oil palm
diskenario sedemikian rupa hingga plantation in Indonesia has indeed
hanya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan been a scenario of this sort, so only
ekport dan tidak untuk pasar for fulfilling the export need and
domestik. not for domestic market.

Mukjizat kelapa sawit kini tak hanya The oil palm miracle now is not only
diproduksi untuk memberi makan pada produced for giving food to human
manusia (Food), tapi juga bahan baku being, but also the fuel raw material
mesin (Fuel), kini telah berubah has changed into curses for million
menjadi kutukan bagi jutaan rakyat di people in Indonesia. This is because the
Indonesia. Ini dikarenakan “fight” between two palm oil raw
“perkelahian” dua konsumer bahan material consumers --- human being
baku minyak kelapa sawit --- manusia and machine --- has been won by the
dan mesin --- telah dimenangkan oleh machine consumer,
konsumer mesin,

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dan pemerintah Indonesia sendiri telah and the government of Indonesia alone
berdiri dikubu konsumer yang paling has stood on the consumer fortification
menjanjikan yaitu mesin. Lihat saja which is most promising i.e. machine.
Komitmen pemerintah Indonesia yang See that the commitment of the
diwakili oleh Menteri Pertanian, government of Indonesia which is
bersama pemerintah Malaysia sepakat represented by the Minister of
untuk menyediakan 12 juta ton CPO (6 Agriculture, together with the
juta ton dari Indonesia dan 6 juta ton government of Malaysia, agree to
dari Malaisia) bagi kebutuhan bahan provide 12 million tons of CPO (6
baku biodiesel, dan ini dianggap tidak million tons from Indonesia and 6
akan mempengaruhi volume ekspor CPO million tons from Malaysia) for the need
Indonesia yang diprediksi tahun 2006 of biodiesel raw material, and this is
yang mencapai 14,7 juta ton dan pasar regarded as nothing will affect the
domestik (Investor Daily 2007). export volume of Indonesian CPO which
Padahal, luas perkebunan kelapa sawit is predicted in 2006 reaching of 14.7
saat ini yang luasnya mencapai 5,4 juta million tons and the domestic market
hanya mampu menyediakan 16 juta ton (Investor Daily 2007). Whereas, the
CPO, dengan frekuensi 11,5 juta ton current area of oil palm plantation at
untuk pasar international dan 4 juta the moment reaching 5.4 million can
ton untuk pasar domestik (kompas, 13 only provide 16 million tons of CPO,
Maret 2007). with the frequency of 11.5 million tons
for international market and 4 million
tons for domestic market (Kompas, 13
What Our Demmand? March 2007).
Berdasarkan dari beberapa hal diatas,
kami dari SETARA Jambi, NGO lokal What are Our Demands?
yang bergerak dalam isu perkebunan Based on several things above, we from
kelapa sawit, khususnya di propinsi SETARA Jambi, local NGO running in
Jambi menyatakan bahwa dari the oil palm plantation issue,
keseluruhan persoalan yang particularly in Jambi province, state
ditimbulkan oleh minyak kelapa sawit, that from the entire problems caused
yang paling menderita adalah rakyat by palm oil, the most suffering is the
kecil. Maka Kami Meminta : common people. So, we ask:

1. Pemerintah melakukan pembatasan 1. The Government conducts the
eksport bahan baku baku biofuel export restriction of biofuel raw
dari kelapa sawit oleh pengusaha material from oil palm by the oil
perkebunan kelapa sawit, dan palm plantation entrepreneur, and
ketentuan ini harus dinyatakan this certainty should be stated with
dengan kebijakan yang harus ditaati policy, which should be adhered by
oleh pengusaha-pengusaha the entrepreneurs of oil palm
perkebunan kelapa sawit yang plantation operating in Indonesia.
beroperasi di Indonesia.

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2. Pemerintah melakukan kajian 2. The Government conducts a study
tentang kesesuaian dan kemampuan on the suitability and capacity of
suply bahan baku bagi kepentingan raw material supply for the
pasar domestik dan juga domestic market interest and also
kepentingan eksport. for the export interest.
3. Para investor menghentikan segera 3. The investors stop soon the
investasi disektor perkebunan investment in the oil palm
kelapa sawit hingga ada blueprint plantation sector until there is a
perkebunan kelapa sawit yang jelas clear blueprint of oil palm
dan menerapkan prinsip plantation and applies the
keberlanjutan (sustainable palm sustainable palm oil principle.
oil). 4. The investors stop the investment
4. Para investor menghentikan in the oil palm plantation sector
investasi di sektor perkebunan because SETARA Jambi is worried
kelapa sawit karena SETARA Jambi about. The development of oil palm
mengkhawatirkan, pembangunan plantation to fulfil vegetable oil
perkebunan kelapa sawit untuk consumption for the use of
memenuhi konsumsi bahan bakar renewable energy, which is
nabati bagi penggunaan energi directed to decrease the carbon
terbarukan yang ditujukan untuk emission, in fact will become
pengurangan emisi karbon, malah paradoxical to be the suffering
akan menjadi paradoks menjadi catalyst for the environment,
katalis penderitaan bagi lingkungan because of the development of oil
karena pembangunan perkebunan palm plantation which is
kelapa sawit yang tak terkendali. uncontrolled.

Penulis : Rukaiyah Rofiq Writen By : Rukaiyah Rofiq

Untuk Kontak :
Rukaiyah Rofiq
(mama_aca@cappa.or.id)
Rivani Noor (rivani@cappa.or.id)

Alamat Surat :
Jl Kol Abunjani, Lrg Cemara III No 56 RT
27/08
Telanaipura, Jambi 36129
T./F. +62-741-64986

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