Briefieng Paper Briefing Paper

Biofuel untuk mesin, Biofuel for machine,
”Minyak Jelantah” 1 untuk ”Jelantah Oil” 2 for human
manusia.
“Starting from 1 June 2007 the oil price in the
“Mulai Tanggal 1 Juni 2007 harga minyak market should have been reached Rp6,500-
dipasaran harus sudah mencapai Rp6.500- Rp6,800 per kilogram”. Directorate General
Rp 6.800 per kilogram”. Dirjen Pengolahan for Processing and Marketing the Agricultural
dan Pemasaran Hasil Pertanian (P2HP), Product (P2HP), Djoko Said Damardjati
Djoko Said Damardjati ketika membuka when he opens Agro and Food Expo 2007.
acara Agro and Food Expo 2007.
The first week
Minggu pertama bulan Juni sudah berlalu, in June has
tapi minyak goreng dipasar domestik passed, but
(Indonesia) tidak kunjung turun, malah the cooking oil
semakin menanjak naik. Berbagai usaha in the
dilakukan oleh pemerintah dari menggelar domestic
Operasi Pasar (OP) hingga melahirkan market
kebijakan tentang Domestic Market (Indonesia) does not go down, even more
Obligation (DMO) yang tertuang dalam and more increases. Various attempts are
Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Nomor 339 conducted by the government, from
tahun 2007. Kebijakan Domestic Market spreading out the Market Operation to
Obligation diharapkan mampu menstabilkan expressing the policy on Domestic Market
harga minyak goreng dalam negeri Obligation (DMO) which is poured out in the
(Indonesia), karena kebijakan ini Decree of Ministry of Agriculture Number 339
mengharuskan para pengusaha CPO untuk in 2007. Domestic Market Obligation policy is
menyetorkan CPO untuk diolah menjadi expected to be able to stabilize the domestic
minyak goreng guna menjaga kestabilan cooking oil price (Indonesia), because this
harga minyak goreng di Indonesia. Tapi tak policy requires the entrepreneurs of CPO for
satupun usaha tersebut berhasil, malah paying CPO to be processed into the cooking
harga minyak goreng terus melambung naik oil for maintaining the stability of cooking oil
hingga mencapai rate tertinggi yaitu Rp price in Indonesia. But no attempt succeeds,
9000/kg. Dan yang paling parah adalah di even the cooking oil price should jump up
desa-desa seperti di kabupaten Tebo, until reaches the highest rate i.e.
Propinsi Jambi, harga minyak goreng Rp9.000/kg. And the most serious condition
mencapai 10.000/kg (Harian Jambi Ekspres, is the village like in Tebo district, Jambi
4 Juni 2007), padahal kabupaten ini adalah Province, the cooking oil price reaches
salah satu wilayah pusat perkebunan kelapa 10,000/kg (Jambi Ekspres Daily, 4 June
sawit di Propinsi Jambi. 2007), besides this district is an oil palm
plantation center area in Jambi Province.

1 “Minyak Jelantah” adalah minyak yang sudah
dipergunakan untuk memasak, kemudian 2 “Jelantah Oil” is the oil which has been used for
dipergunakan kembali. Minyak jenis inilah yang cooking, it is then reused. This kind of oil at the
saat sekarang dijual dan dikonsumsi oleh rumah moment is sold and consumed by the poor
tangga miskin di Indonesia. household in Indonesia.
Strategi pemerintah dengan menggelar The government strategy by spreading out
Operasi Pasar, ternyata tidak membantu the Market Operation apparently does not
rakyat, karena selisih harga minyak goreng help the people, because the difference of
antara “harga pasar” dengan harga “Operasi cooking oil price between “market price” with
Pasar” hanya berbeda Rp 200 per kilogram “Market Operation” price is only different of
saja. Strategi pemerintah melalui Domestic Rp200 per kilogram. The government
Market Obligation (DMO) ternyata juga tak strategy through Domestic Market Obligation
berarti apa-apa, karena ternyata banyak (DMO) apparently means nothing, because
perusahaan yang mengingkari perjanjian apparently a lot of companies disavow the
dengan pihak pemerintah. Contoh kasus di agreement with the government. Case
Propinsi Riau, sekitar 18 perusahaan tidak sample in Riau Province, around 18
kunjung mengirimkan CPO ke pabrik companies never send CPO to the
pengolah untuk diproduksi menjadi minyak processing factory to be produced to become
goreng (Harian Riau Pos, 07 Juni 2007). Jika the cooking oil (Riau Pos Daily, 07 June
dalam skala regional saja, misalnya region 2007). If in the regional scale, such as
Sumatera, perusahaan lebih tertarik menjual Sumatra region, the company is more
CPO kepasar luar negeri ketimbang harus interested in selling CPO to the abroad
menjualnya dengan harga murah dipasar market than it should sell with the cheap
dalam negeri, apalagi dalam skala nasional, price to the domestic price, moreover in the
tentu saja perusahaan akan tertarik untuk national scale, of course the company will be
juga melakukan ekspor (menjual CPO ke interested in conducting the export (selling
pasar internasional). CPO to the international market).

Ketidak berhasilan kebijakan strategi DMO The unsuccessful of policy of DMO strategy
tidak hanya dipicu karena lemahnya kontrol is not only triggered, because it is the
pemerintah terhadap pengusaha-pengusaha weakness of government control toward the
perkebunan kelapa sawit yang notabene oil palm plantation entrepreneurs which
beroperasi diwilayah Indonesia, tapi juga operates in Indonesian area, but also the
kegagalan pemerintah melakukan negoisasi government failure to conduct the price
harga dengan pihak pengusah --- pengusaha negotiation with the entrepreneur party --- the
meminta pemerintah memberikan subsidi entrepreneur asks the government to give
harga untuk CPO yang mereka jual di pasar the price subsidy for CPO which they sell in
domestic (Indonesia). the domestic market (Indonesia).

The example of “Jelantah Oil” The example of Cooking oil
Harga minyak sawit dunia terus merangkak The world palm oil price continuously makes
naik dari 740 dollar AS per ton dibulan Mei, slow progress to increase from US$740 per
naik menjadi 870 dollar AS per ton di bulan ton in May, which is increasing to US$i870
Juni (Liputan 6 SCTV 10 Juni 2007). per ton in June (Liputan 6 SCTV 10 June
Kenaikan harga ini dipicu dengan permintaan 2007). The price increase is triggered with
di pasar luar negeri akan CPO sebagai the demand in the abroad market which will
bahan bakar Biofuel (lihat Position paper be CPO as Biofuel (see Position paper
SETARA Jambi dalam “Indonesia under Biofuel SETARA Jambi in “Indonesia under Biofuel
Fever: Food, Fuel, Machine, Human Being not Fever: Food, Fuel, Machine, Human Being not
different” 24 Mei 2007). different” 24 May 2007).

Dampak dari tingginya harga minyak goreng, The impact of the high of cooking oil price,
yang menjadi salah satu dari sembilan bahan which becomes one of nine staple foods, has
pokok ini, telah menggerogoti kehidupan undermined the life of poor people, not only
rakyat miskin, tidak hanya pendapatan their economic income, but also their health.
ekonomi mereka, tetapi juga kesehatannya. The following are some impacts which
Berikut beberapa dampak yang muncul appear due to the increase of cooking oil
akibat kenaikan harga minyak goreng di price in Indonesia, due to “biofuel fever”:
Indonesia akibat “demam biofuel” : 1. The home industry, like fried chips,
1. Industri kecil (home industry), seperti fermented soybean cake, and tofu, starts
industri kerupuk, tempe dan tahu goreng, and has been bankrupt.
banyak yang mulai serta telah bangkrut. 2. The poor community cannot purchase
2. Masyarakat miskin tidak mampu palm cooking oil to change into buy
membeli minyak goreng kelapa sawit oplosan cooking oil or cooking oil which
beralih membeli minyak goreng oplosan has been used for cooking and will be
atau minyak goreng jelantah, yang jauh reused, which is far from the health
dari standar kesehatan, bahkan bisa standard, even makes worse the health.
memperburuk kesehatan. 3. Some cooking oil sellers mix the oil
3. Beberapa penjual minyak goreng which has been used for cooking and will
mencampur minyak jelantah dengan be reused with chemical such as
bahan kimia seperti Hidrogen (H2O2), Hydrogen (H2O2), for keeping
guna tetap mempertahankan maintaining their incomes (Liputan
pendapatannya (Liputan Investigasi Investigasi SCTV 10 June 2007). The
SCTV 10 Juni 2007). Pencampuran mixing with chemical indeed can clear up
dengan bahan kimia ini memang bisa the color for oil which has been used for
menjernihkan warna minyak jelantah, cooking and will be reused it is believed
tetapi diyakini mempunyai dampak to have the negative impact for health.
negative buat kesehatan.
Maka, kembali kami menyerukan : Thus, again we call:
1. mendesak pemerintah segera 1. and urge the government to make DMO
mengefektifkan DMO tanpa “subsidi to be effective without “covered subsidy”,
terselubung”, yang akhirnya merugikan which finally inflicts a financial loss of
rakyat lainnya, seperti petani kelapa other people, like oil palm farmer.
sawit. Artinya, kewajiban perusahaan Meaning, the company obligation to pay
untuk menyetorkan CPO untuk diolah CPO to be processed into the palm oil for
menjadi minyak kelapa sawit bagi stabilizing the domestic price is the
menstabilkan harga dalam negeri adalah obligation and responsibility for all
menjadi kewajiban dan tanggung jawab entrepreneurs operating in Indonesia
bagi semua pengusaha yang beroperasi area, in this case also including
diwilayah Indonesia, dalam hal ini juga Malaysian companies.
termasuk perusahaan-perusahaan 2. and do not fully hand CPO price dynamic
Malaysia. over to the market mechanism, the
2. tidak menyerahkan dinamika harga CPO Indonesian government should become
sepenuhnya kepada mekanisme pasar, the price control holder, because
pemerintah Indonesia haruslah menjadi Indonesia is one of the palm oil players
pemegang kendali harga, karena in the global market.
Indonesia adalah salah satu pemain 3. to the consumer society of oil palm from
minyak sawit dalam pasar global. Indonesia, mainly for the consumption of
3. menyerukan kepada masyarakat alternative energy need in order to
konsumen minyak sawit dari Indonesia, conduct the control toward their
terutama untuk konsumsi kebutuhan alternative energy policy, in order to not
energi alternative agar melakukan to become the policy boomerang which
kontrol terhadap kebijakan energi causes the bad situation for producer
alternative mereka, agar tidak menjadi country, like Indonesia.
bumerang kebijakan yang menimbulkan
situasi buruk bagi negara produsen,
seperti Indonesia.

Akhirnya, kami menyatakan kepada At last, we state to the International
masyarakat Internasional, kami tidak ingin community, we do not want the world
komitmen masyarakat dunia untuk community commitment to carry away the
memampas kemiskinan dan poverty and increase the health standard
meningkatkan standar kesehatan sesuai in accord with the agenda of Multi
dengan agenda Multi Development Goals Development Goals (MDGs) to become
menjadi mimpi buruk akibat kebijakan the nightmare due to the policy of
energi alternative negara consumer alternative energy/rich country,
konsumen/negara kaya, karena faktanya because the fact is that the people of
rakyat Indonesia sekarang Indonesia currently consume the oil that
mengkonsumsi minyak jelantah yang has been used for frying and will be
berbahaya bagi kesehatan dan menjadi reused which is dangerous for health and
lebih berat beban hidup akibat kenaikan it becomes heavier living load due to the
harga minyak goreng! increase of cooking oil price!
SETARA adalah Non Government SETARA is a Non Government
Organisation (NGO) yang berbasis di Organization (NGO) based in Jambi
Propinsi Jambi, Sumatera, Indonesia. Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. This
Organisasi ini fokus bekerja untuk isu organization focuses on the working for
plantation, energy alternative, conflict plantation issue, energy alternative,
resolution, partnership system conflict resolution, partnership system
dan International Finance Institution (IFI). and International Finance Institution (IFI).
Didirikan pada tahun 2007 oleh beberapa Found in 2007 by some environment and
aktivis lingkungan dan sosial. social activists.

Untuk Kontak : For Being Contacted:

Rukaiyah Rofiq : mama_aca@cappa.or.id Rukaiyah Rofiq : mama_aca@cappa.or.id
atau or
Rivani Noor : rivani@cappa.or.id Rivani Noor : rivani@cappa.or.id