U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1998
Chapters 

2 3 5 6 7 8

Jail inmates Probation Prisoners Parole Capital punishment U.S. military corrections

in

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics

Correctional Populations in the United States, 1998
A BJS Internet Report

BJS Statisticians NCJ 192929

U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics Lawrence A. Greenfeld Acting Director This volume resulted from a collaborative effort of the BJS Corrections Statistics Program, under the supervision of Allen J. Beck. Todd D. Minton coordinated the preparation of the volume. Jennifer C. Karberg prepared the section on jail inmates. Thomas P. Bonczar, assisted by Lauren E. Glaze collected the data and prepared the tables for the probation and parole sections. Paige Harrison prepared the section on prisoners. Tracy L. Snell prepared the section on capital punishment. Christopher J. Mumola prepared the section on military corrections. Ida Hines created the ascii file and Priscilla Middleton supervised the electronic production for the BJS website. Lisa McNelis, assisted by Henrietta Herrin, Martha Greene, and Duane Cavanaugh, under the supervision of Stephanie Brown, Governments Division of the U.S. Census Bureau, collected and processed the Annual Survey of Jails. Elizabeth K. Griffin collected and processed the data on prisoners and Patricia A. Clark collected the data on capital punishment, under the supervision of Gertrude B. Odom and Marilyn M. Monahan, Demographic Surveys Division, U.S. Census Bureau.

Jail inmates in 1998
Tables By Jennifer C. Karberg, BJS Statistician 2.1 Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status and type of program, midyear 1995-98 One-day count and average daily population of jail inmates, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Gender, race, and Hispanic origin of local jail inmates, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, midyear 1990-98 Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, midyear 1990-98 Conviction status of adult jail inmates, by gender, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Jail capacity and occupancy, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average daily population, rated capacity, midyear 1996-98 Standard error estimates for the Annual Survey of Jails, 1998

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7 2.8

2.9

2.10 Standard error estimates for the number of inmates and rated capacity for the Annual Survey of Jails, midyear 1990-98 Methodology Questionnaire 1998 Annual Survey of Jails

Jail inmates in 1998

Table 2.1. Persons under jail supervision, by confinement status and type of program, midyear 1995-98 Number of persons under jail supervision 1996 1997 1998 591,469 518,492 637,319 567,079 664,847 592,462

1995 Total Held in jail Supervised outside of a jail facility/a Electronic monitoring Home detention/b Day reporting Community service Weekender programs Other pretrial supervision Other work programs/c Treatment programs/d Other 541,913 507,044

34,869 6,788 1,376 1,283 10,253 1,909 3,229 9,144 -887

72,977 7,480 907 3,298 17,410 16,336 2,135 14,469 10,425 517

70,239 8,699 1,164 2,768 15,918 17,656 7,368 6,631 6,693 3,342

72,385 10,827 370 3,089 17,518 17,249 6,048 7,089 5,702 4,493

--Not available. a/Excludes persons supervised by a probation or parole agency. b/Includes only those without electronic monitoring. c/Includes persons in work release programs, work gangs/crews, and other work alternative programs administered by the jurisdiction. d/Includes persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, and other medical treatment.

Table 2.2. One-day count and average daily population of jail inmates, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Number of Jail inmates 1995 1996 1997 509,828 515,432 556,586

1990 Average daily population/a One-day count/b All inmates Adults Male Female Juveniles/c Held as adults/d Held as juveniles 408,075

1998 593,808

405,320 403,019 365,821 37,198 2,301 -2,301

507,044 499,300 448,000 51,300 7,800 5,900 1,800

518,492 510,400 454,700 55,700 8,100 5,700 2,400

567,079 557,974 498,678 59,296 9,105 7,007 2,098

592,462 584,372 520,581 63,791 8,090 6,542 1,548

Notes: Data are for June 30 in 1995 and 1997-98; for June 29, 1990; and for June 28 in 1996. Detailed data for 1995-96 were estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. Previously published numbers for 1995 have been revised to include only inmates held in jail facilities. --Not available. a/The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in a jail each day for a year, divided by the total number of days in the year. b/Inmate counts for 1990 include an unknown number of persons who were under jail supervision but not confined. Detailed counts for 1995-96 were estimated based on the number of inmates held in jail facilities. c/Juveniles are persons defined by State statute as being under a certain age, usually 18, and subject initially to juvenile court authority even if tried as adults in criminal court. In 1994 the definition was changed to include all persons under age 18. d/Includes juveniles who were tried or awaiting trial as adults.

Table 2.3. Gender, race, and Hispanic origin of local jail inmates, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Number of jail inmates 1995 1996 1997 507,044 518,492 567,079 Percent of jail inmates 1995 1996/a 1997 100 % 100 % 100 %

Characteristic Total Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin/b White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Hispanic Other/c

1990 405,320

1998 592,462

1990 100 %

1998 100 %

368,002 37,318

455,400 51,600

462,500 55,800

507,200 59,900

528,200 64,300

90.8 % 9.2

89.8 % 10.2

89.2 % 10.8

89.4 % 10.6

89.2 % 10.8

169,600 172,300 58,100 5,400

203,300 220,600 74,400 8,800

215,900 213,100 80,900 8,600

230,300 237,900 88,900 10,000

244,900 244,000 91,800 11,800

41.8 % 42.5 14.3 1.3

40.1 % 43.5 14.7 1.7

41.6 % 41.1 15.6 1.7

40.6 % 42.0 15.7 1.8

41.3 % 41.2 15.5 2.0

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. --Not available. a/Data for 1996 were based on all persons under jail supervision. b/Data on race/Hispanic origin were reported for 89.7% of all inmates in 1990, 97.1% in 1995, 99.3% in 1996-97, and 99.6% in 1998. c/Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

Table 2.4. Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, midyear 1990-1998 Inmates per 100,000 residents 219 212 196 193 188 178 174 169 163 Adult inmates per 100,000 adult residents 292 282 260 257 249 239 234 277 218

Year 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990

All jail inmates/a 592,462 567,079 518,492 507,044 486,474 459,804 444,584 426,479 405,320

Adult jail inmates/b 584,400 558,000 510,400 499,300 479,800 455,500 441,800 424,100 403,000

Note: Inmate counts for the 1990-1992 and 1994-1998, are survey estimates subject to sampling error. For estimates of the sampling error for each year, see table 2.10. a/Inmate counts for 1990-1993 may include an unknown number of persons who were under jail supervision but not confined. b/The number of adult inmates was estimated and rounded to the nearest 100. See Methodology.

Table 2.5. Number of jail inmates and rates per 100,000 U.S. residents, by race, midyear 1990-1998 Number of jail inmates Per 100,000 white U.S. residents Black 145 138 130 122 117 111 109 109 106 252,500 246,200 220,600 232,000 224,900 214,100 195,200 188,300 174,300

Year 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990

White 323,900 306,500 285,200 266,200 253,500 239,500 233,000 229,900 221,400

Per 100,000 black U.S. residents 733 725 658 700 688 665 619 604 569

Note: Categories for black and white inmates include Hispanics. Inmate counts for 1990-1992, and 1994-1998 are survey estimates subject to sampling error. Data are estimated and rounded to the nearest 100.

Table 2.6. Conviction status of adult jail inmates, by gender, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Number of Jails inmates 1995 1996 1997 499,300 219,600 198,400 21,200 279,600 250,000 29,600 582,300 284,200 252,800 31,400 298,100 266,000 32,100 558,000 235,200 210,600 24,700 322,700 288,200 34,600

1990 Total Convicted Male Female Unconvicted Male Female 403,019 195,661 177,619 18,042 207,358 188,202 19,156

1998 584,400 252,600 224,700 27,900 331,800 295,900 35,900

Note: The number of convicted inmates may be undercounted because some jail records do not distinguish between inmates who are unconvicted and those who are convicted but waiting to be sentenced. *Data on conviction status by sex were reported for 96.3% of all adult inmates in 1995, 98.5% in 1996, 99.6% in 1997, and 99.9% in 1998. Totals were estimated using known data and rounded to the nearest 100. Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

Table 2.7. Jail capacity and occupancy, midyear 1990 and 1995-98 Annual Survey of Jails 1996 1997 518,492 562,971 567,079 586,564

1990 Number of inmates held Rated capacity of jails/a Percent of rated capacity occupied/b Amount of capacity added/c 405,320 389,171

1995 507,044 545,763

1998 592,462 612,780

104 % 21,402

93 % 41,439

92 % 17,208

97 % 23,593

97 % 26,216

Note: Capacity data for years shown are survey estimates subject to sampling error. See the appendix table for sampling errors. a/Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction. b/The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity times 100. For 1990 the ratio may include some inmates under supervision who were not confined in a jail facility. For 1995-98 the ratio includes only those held in jail. c/The number of beds added during the 12 months before June 30 of each year.

Table 2.8. The 25 largest local jail jurisdictions: Number of inmates held, average, daily population, rated capacity, midyear 1996-98 Percent of capacity occupied at midyear/d 1996 1997 1998 93 % 95 91 100 89 76 % 91 75 102 119 83 % 139 80 112 96 107 % 94 113 94 69 84 % 84 97 117 72 103 % 77 98 117 95 79 % 108 91 99 103 85 % 140 83 122 110 133 % 97 123 105 80 91 % 100 110 126 88 100 % 78 95 117 88 85 % 112 93 97 104 88 % 145 114 123 124 128 % 91 131 120 75 94 % 92 107 116 97

Jurisdiction Los Angeles County, CA New York City, NY Cook County, IL Dade County, FL Harris County, TX Dallas County, TX Maricopa County, AZ Orleans Parish, LA Philadelphia County, PA San Diego County, CA Shelby County, TN Orange County, CA San Bernardino County, CA Santa Clara County, CA Broward County, FL Fulton County, GA Alameda County, CA Baltimore City , MD Orange County, FL Tarrant County, TX Sacramento County, CA/e Bexar County, TX Hillsborough County, FL Milwaukee County, WI Duval County, FL

Number or inmates/a 1996 1997 1998 18,627 19,890 8,713 6,357 7,703 6,380 5,679 5,368 5,695 5,549 5,264 5,326 3,958 4,213 3,528 2,489 3,994 3,309 3,120 2,881 3,093 3,058 2,661 2,653 2,384 21,962 17,528 9,189 7,320 8,224 6,439 6,732 6,537 5,563 5,709 5,568 5,368 4,156 4,588 4,125 3,982 4,098 3,598 3,411 3,366 3,505 3,683 3,155 2,876 2,743 21,268 17,680 9,321 7,036 7,587 6,941 7,019 6,670 5,990 6,040 5,808 5,546 5,713 4,658 4,640 3,827 4,164 3,881 3,865 3,572 3,654 3,368 3,101 2,850 2,899

Average daily population/b 1996 1997 1998 18,167 18,382 9,169 6,499 7,140 5,862 5,542 5,433 5,341 5,522 5,153 5,143 4,119 4,314 3,470 2,395 3,954 3,300 3,332 2,876 3,217 2,821 2,679 2,695 2,473 19,931 19,205 9,100 7,157 8,153 6,528 6,520 6,270 5,600 5,588 5,297 5,246 4,500 4,317 4,129 3,401 4,109 3,636 3,321 3,291 3,329 3,491 2,973 2,757 2,687 21,136 17,524 9,297 7,836 7,781 7,000 6,910 6,398 5,753 5,745 5,627 5,374 5,103 4,722 4,289 4,276 3,823 3,791 3,547 3,529 3,507 3,398 3,062 2,918 2,755

Rated capacity/c 1996 1997 1998 20,099 20,862 9,617 6,387 8,698 8,374 6,252 7,174 5,600 4,653 6,364 3,821 4,957 3,774 3,656 2,320 4,264 2,933 3,329 4,193 3,700 3,640 2,757 2,274 3,300 21,416 22,634 9,376 6,237 8,657 8,182 6,252 7,174 5,600 5,539 6,532 3,821 5,000 3,774 3,736 2,987 4,218 2,933 3,234 4,193 3,871 3,670 2,877 2,274 3,100 21,366 22,584 9,776 6,005 8,657 8,182 6,252 7,174 6,179 5,815 6,583 3,821 5,000 3,774 3,756 2,987 4,590 2,966 3,234 4,739 3,871 3,670 2,909 2,466 3,000

Notes: Jurisdictions are ordered by their average daily population in 1998. a/Number jail inmates in custody. b/Based on the average daily population for the year ending June 30. The average daily population is the sum of the number of inmates in jail each day for a year, divided by the number of days in the year. c/Rated capacity is the number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to facilities within each jurisdiction. d/The number of inmates divided by the rated capacity multiplied by 100. e/The figure figures for rated capacity in Sacramento county have been updated from the 1997 Annual Survey of Jails. Therefore, the total figures for the 1997 rated capacity may differ from previously published totals.

Table 2.9. Standard error estimates for the Annual Survey of Jails, 1998 Relative standard error (percent)/b 0.87 % 0.67 5.14 1.72 % 0.8 %

Characteristics Total number under supervision Held in jail Supervised outside a jail facility Average daily population Rated capacity Gender Male Female Adults Juveniles Held as adults Held as juveniles Race/Hispanic origin/a White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Hispanic Other/b Adult conviction status Awaiting trial or in other unconvicted category Convicted

Survey estimates 664,847 592,462 72,385 593,808 612,780

Standard error 5,774 3,958 3,718 10,233 4,891

528,157 64,306 584,372 8,090 6,542 1,548

3,577 604 3,930 232 202 183

0.68 % 0.94 0.67 % 2.87 % 3.09 11.82

243,798 242,927 91,388 11,732

3,031 2,400 1,312 496

1.24 % 0.99 1.44 4.23

331,323 252,266

2,662 2,769

0.8 % 1.10

a/Excludes persons of unknown race/Hispanic origin. b/Includes American Indians, Alaska Natives, Asians, and Pacific Islanders.

Table 2.10. Standard error estimates for the number of inmates and rated capacity for the Annual Survey of Jails, midyear 1990-1998 Number of inmates Relative Estimated standard standard error Number/a error (percent)/b 592,462 567,079 518,492 507,044 486,474 444,584 426,479 405,320 3,958 3,649 3,065 2,931 2,485 2,076 2,151 1,778 0.67 % 0.64 0.59 % 0.58 0.51 0.47 % 0.50 0.44 Rated capacity of jail Relative Estimated standard standard error Number/a error (percent)/b 612,780 586,564 562,971 545,763 504,324 449,197 421,197 389,171 4,891 4,428 3,932 3,788 3,221 2,693 2,522 2,249 0.80 % 0.75 0.70 % 0.69 0.64 0.60 % 0.60 0.58

Year 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1992 1991 1990

a/Data for 1990-1992 may include persons held outside of jail facilities. Data for 1994-1998 are for custody only. b/Relative standard error is the estimated standard error divided by the estimated number of inmates or rated capacity.

Chapter 2: Jails Methodology Annual Survey of Jails (ASJ) In each year between the full censuses, a survey of jails is conducted to estimate baseline characteristics of the Nation's jails and the inmates housed in these jails. The 1998 Annual Survey of Jails is the 14th such survey in a series begun in 1982. The reference date for the 1998 survey was June 30. Based on information from the 1993 Census of Jails, a sample of jail jurisdictions was selected for the 1994-1998 surveys. A jurisdiction is a county (parish in Louisiana) or municipal government that administers one or more local jails. The sample included all jails in 795 selected jail jurisdictions and 25 multijurisdiction jails. A multijurisdiction jail is one in which two or more jurisdictions have a formal agreement to operate the facility. In the drawing of the sample, jail jurisdictions were first stratified into two groups: single-jurisdiction jails and multijurisdiction jails. All of the multijurisdiction jails were included in the survey. The remaining jurisdictions were then further stratified into two groups: jurisdictions with jails authorized to hold juveniles and jurisdictions with jails holding adults only. Jurisdictions were then selected based on the average daily population in the 1993 census. All jails in 204 jurisdictions were automatically included if in 1993 the jurisdiction held juveniles and had an average daily population of 250 or more inmates or if it held only adults and had an average population of 500 or more. The other jurisdictions (591) were then selected based on stratified probability sampling. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires. After follow-up phone calls to nonrespondents, the response rate for the survey was 100%. Sampling error Survey estimates have an associated sampling error because not all jurisdictions were contacted for the survey. Estimates based on the sample survey may differ somewhat from the results of conducting a complete census. Different samples could yield somewhat different results. Standard error is a measure of the variation among the estimates from all possible samples, stating the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average of all possible samples. The estimated relative sampling error for the number of persons under the jurisdiction of jail authorities of 664,847 on June 30, 1998, was 0.87%; for persons held in custody of jail authorities of 592,462, 0.67%. (See tables 2.9 and 2.10.)

Measuring confinement status For the first time, in 1995 the ASJ obtained separate counts of the total number of offenders under jail supervision, those held in jail facilities, and those supervised outside jail facilities. Previous surveys and censuses included a small but unknown number of offenders under community supervision. To estimate the percentage change from 1994 to 1995 in the jail population, the 1995 survey included a count of inmates held at midyear 1994. In the 1996 survey, the number of persons supervised outside a jail facility included for the first time persons under drug, alcohol, mental health, or other medical treatment. Comparisons with the 1995 estimates should exclude these persons. Juveniles State statutes and judicial practices allow juveniles to be incarcerated in adult jails under a variety of circumstances. Because of the differing statutes and practices, however, accurate and comparable data on juveniles are difficult to collect. Beginning in 1994 the ASJ provided estimates of the total number of jail inmates under age 18, the number held as adults, and the number held as juveniles. New sampling procedures were also introduced in 1994 to minimize the standard errors of these estimates. By stratifying jurisdictions based on the authority to house juveniles, the precision of the juvenile counts was improved.

CJ-5
RETURN 1201 East 10th Street Jeffersonville, IN 47132-0001 TO
Bureau of the Census
FORM (6-5-98)

OMB No.1121-0094: Approval Expires 06/30/2001

CJ-5

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

1998 Annual Survey of Jails
FAX number

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

DATA SUPPLIED BY
Name Telephone number ( ) E-mail address

(

)

(Please correct any error in name, mailing address, and ZIP Code)

GENERAL INFORMATION 



If you have any questions, call the Bureau of the Census toll-free at 1-800-253-2078. Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of the Census in the enclosed envelope before July 17, 1998, or FAX (all) pages to 1-812-218-3304.

What types of facilities are included in this survey? Confinement facilities usually administered by a local law enforcement agency, intended for adults but sometimes holding juveniles.  INCLUDE jails and city/county correctional centers.  INCLUDE special jail facilities (e.g., medical/treatment/release centers, halfway houses, and work farms).  EXCLUDE temporary holding or lockup facilities from which inmates are usually transferred within 72 hours and not held beyond arraignment. What offenders should be counted?  INCLUDE all confined persons.  INCLUDE persons in community-based programs administered by jails under your jurisdiction (e.g., electronic monitoring, house arrest, community service, day reporting, boot camps, work release, weekenders, etc.).  INCLUDE persons on transfer to treatment facilities but who remain under your jurisdiction.  INCLUDE persons held for other jurisdictions. What offenders should be excluded?  EXCLUDE inmates on AWOL, escape, or long-term transfer to other jurisdictions.  EXCLUDE any persons housed in a jail not operated by your jurisdiction or in a facility operated by two or more jurisdictions (i.e., a multi-jurisdiction facility).  EXCLUDE from the NOT CONFINED counts persons reported by other agencies as probationers or parolees. 

   

INSTRUCTIONS If your jurisdiction operates more than one jail, sum data for all jails, and report totals on this form. If the answer to a question is "not available" or "unknown," write "DK" in the space provided. If the answer to a question is "not applicable" write "NA" in the space provided. If the answer to a question is "none" or "zero," write "0" in the space provided. When exact numeric answers are not available, provide estimates and mark (X) in the box beside each figure that is estimated. For example 1,234 .

Burden statement Under the Paperwork Reduction Act, we cannot ask you to respond to a collection of information unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The burden of this collection is estimated to average 1 ¼ hours per response, including reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering necessary data, and completing and reviewing this form. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this survey, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 Seventh Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531. Do not send your completed form to this address.
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FORM CJ-5 (6-5-98)

SECTION I  SUPERVISED POPULATION 1. On June 30, 1998, how many persons under the supervision of your jail jurisdiction were  a. CONFINED in your jail facilities?

7. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were  a. White, not of Hispanic origin. . . . 

EXCLUDE temporary holding facilities or lockups
that do not hold persons after being formally charged in court. 

      

b. Black or African American not of Hispanic origin. . . . . . . . . . c. Hispanic or Latino. . . . . . . . . . . d. American Indian/Alaska Native. e. Asian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. . . . . . . . . . . . . . g. TOTAL (Sum of items 7a to 7f should equal item 1a). . . . . . . . .

b. Under jail supervision but NOT CONFINED? 

INCLUDE all persons in community-based programs
run by your jails (e.g., electronic monitoring, house arrest, community service, day reporting, work programs, weekend programs, etc.). community based program run by your jails. parole or other agencies. 

EXCLUDE persons on pretrial release who are not in a  EXCLUDE persons under supervision of probation,
c. Total (Sum of items 1a+1b). . . . . . . . 

 

8. For the year ending June 30, 1998, what was the average daily population (ADP) of all jail confinement facilities operated by your jurisdiction?

2. Of all persons under your jail supervision reported in item 1c, how many were not U.S. citizens? Non-US citizens 3. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were  a. Adult males (age 18 or older) . . . . . b. Adult females (age 18 or older). . . . c. Juvenile males (under age 18). . . . d. Juvenile females (under age 18). . . e. TOTAL (Sum of items 3a to 3d should equal item 1a). . . . . . 

To calculate the average daily population, add the number
of persons for each day during the period July 1, 1997, through June 30, 1998, and divide the result by 365.

SECTION II  INMATE COUNTS AND MOVEMENTS

ADP  

    

9. On June 30, 1998, what was the total rated capacity (as set by a rating official) of all jail confinement facilities operated by your jurisdiction? 

If rated capacity is unavailable, estimate by using the design
capacity and mark the box (X).

Rated capacity 

4. Of all male and female juveniles CONFINED in your jail facilities on June 30, 1998, how many were tried, or awaiting trial, in adult court? Juveniles

10. Between June 24, 1998, and June 30, 1998, how many persons were  a. New admissions to your jail facilities?

5. Of all adults CONFINED in your jail facilities on June 30, 1998, how many were  a. Convicted males (includes probation and parole  violators with no new sentence). . . . b. Unconvicted males. . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Convicted females (includes probation and parole violators with no new sentence). . . . d. Unconvicted females. . . . . . . . . . . e. TOTAL (Sum of items 5a to 5d should equal sum of items 3a to 3b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were held for  a. Federal authorities. . . . . . . . . . . . . b. State authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. Other local authorities (Regional, county, or city authories who are not your governing body). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

INCLUDE persons officially booked into your facilities by  EXCLUDE returns from escape, work release, weekend
sentence, medical appointments/treatment facilities, bail and court appearances.

formal legal document and by the authority of the courts or some other official agency. 

      
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New admissions b. Final discharges from your jail facilities?  

INCLUDE all persons released after a period of

confinement (e.g., sentence completion, bail/bond, other pretrial release, transfers to other jurisdictions, and death). weekenders, medical appointments/treatment facilities, to courts, furloughs, day reporters, and transfers to other facilities within your jurisdiction). 

EXCLUDE temporary discharges (e.g., work releases,

Final discharges 

FORM CJ-5 (6-5-98)

SECTION III  POPULATION SUPERVISED IN THE COMMUNITY If item 1b equals 0 (zero), skip to Section IV. 11. On June 30, 1998, how many persons under your jail supervision who were NOT CONFINED, participated in  a. Electronic monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . b. Home detention without electronic monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . c. Community service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . d. Day reporting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . e. Weekend programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . f. Other pretrial supervision. . . . . . . . g. Other alternative work programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h. Alcohol/drug treatment programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. Other programs outside of jail facilities Specify

SECTION IV  DRUG TESTING SANCTIONS, AND INTERVENTION 14a. Does your jurisdiction currently conduct any urinalysis or other tests for drug use from persons CONFINED in your jail facilities? 1  Yes  Continue 2  No Go to item 16a 

        

b. How are these tests conducted? Mark (X) all that apply 1  Randomly on inmates 2  Systematically on all persons at admission 3  On indication of possible drug use 4  Other basis Specify

c. Between June 1, 1998, and June 30, 1998, how many samples were taken? 

If no samples were taken during the 30-day period,
mark “0” and go to item 15.

Number of samples taken 

d. How many samples tested positive for any drug? 

A positive sample is defined as 1 sample testing positive
for 1 or more drugs.

j. TOTAL (Sum of items 11a to 11i should equal item 1b). . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. On June 30, 1998, how many persons under your jail supervision who were NOT CONFINED were  a. Adult males (age 18 or older). . . . . b. Adult females (age 18 or older). . . c. Juvenile males (under age 18). . . . d. Juvenile females (under age 18). . e. TOTAL (Sum of items 12a to 12d should equal item 1b). . . . . . . . . . . . 

If the actual number is unknown, please provide the

percentage of samples testing positive for any drug use.

Number tested positive or 

 

   

Percent positive 15. When a person CONFINED in a jail under your jurisdiction tests positive for drug use, what actions are usually taken? Mark (X) all that apply

13. Of all adults under your jail supervision who were NOT CONFINED on June 30, 1998, how many were  a. Convicted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Unconvicted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. TOTAL (Sum of items 13a+13b should equal sum of items 12a+ 12b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 

 

1  Reclassification to higher security level 2  Charged with a drug violation and subsequent prosecution 3  Loss of good time 4  Time added to sentence upon conviction 5  Mandatory participation in drug teatment/counseling programs 6  Privileges lost or reduced 7  Separation from general population 8  Continued/enhanced urine surveillance 9  Other disciplinary actions  Specify

NOTES

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FORM CJ-5 (6-5-98)

16a. Does your jurisdiction provide drug or alcohol education or awareness training to persons CONFINED in your jail facilities?

20. On June 30, 1998, what was the estimated capacity of all substance abuse treatment programs provided to persons CONFINED in your jail facilities? 

EXCLUDE Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics
Anonymous (NA), or other self help groups. 

Capacity is defined as the maximum number of

1  Yes  Continue

2  No  Go to item 17a

individuals who could be enrolled as active participants, given available staffing, funding, and physical space. or a contractor inside or outside your jail facilities.

b. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were enrolled in drug or alcohol education or awareness training? Number enrolled 

Include drug treatment services provided by your staff
Total capacity of drug treatment programs for persons CONFINED in your facilities  

17a. Does your jurisdiction detoxify from drugs or alcohol persons CONFINED in your jail facilities? 1  Yes  Continue 2  No  Go to item 18a

21a. Does your jurisdiction currently conduct urinalysis or other tests for drug use on your jail staff? 1  Yes  Continue 2  No  End of survey

b. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were being detoxified? Number being detoxified

b. What types of staff are tested? Mark (X) all that apply 1  All staff 2  Correctional officers 3  Administrative staff 4  Treatment/education staff 5  New hires/employees on probationary status 6  Other staff  Specify 

18a. Does your jurisdiction provide Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), or other self-help group programs for substance abuse to ANY persons CONFINED in your jail facilities? 1  Yes  Continue 2  No  Go to item 19a

b. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were participating in AA, NA, or other self-help groups for substance abuse? Number participating

c. How is drug testing of staff conducted? Mark (X) all that apply 1  Randomly 2  Systematically on all staff at least once a year 3  On indication of possible drug use 4  Other basis  Specify 

19a. Does your jurisdiction provide any substance abuse treatment to ANY persons CONFINED in your jail facilities? 

INCLUDE treatment services that focus on initiating  INCLUDE detoxification, group or individual

and maintaining recovery from alcohol or drug abuse and on averting relapse. counseling, rehabilitation, and methadone or other pharmaceutical treatment. training.

22. If a staff member tests positive for drug use, what actions are usually taken? Mark (X) all that apply 1  Dismissal 2  Referral to internal affairs or law enforcement agency 3  Referral to treatment services 4  Temporary suspension until evidence of successful treatment 5  Continued employment with urine surveillance 6  Continued employment in a position with limited inmate/resident contact or which poses little or no security risk 7  Other disciplinary actions  Specify 

EXCLUDE drug or alcohol education or awareness  EXCLUDE self-help groups, such as AA and NA.
1  Yes  Continue 2  No  Go to item 20

b. On June 30, 1998, how many persons CONFINED in your jail facilities were provided any substance abuse treatment? Number in treatment 

NOTES

Page4

Probation in 1998
Tables By Thomas P. Bonczar, BJS Statistician Assisted by Lauren E. Glaze, BJS Statistician Adults on probation, 1998 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Characteristics Counts, January 1 and December 31 Status of probation Status of supervision Adults entering probation, by type of sentence Adults leaving probation, by type of discharge Gender and Hispanic origin Race Severity of offense

3.10 Intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, bootcamp,or incarcerated 3.11 Selected offenses Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Questionnaire 1998 Probation Data Survey

Probation in 1998

Table 3.1. Characteristics of adults on probation, 1998 Number of adults on probation from State or Federal courts 3,417,613 49,539 20,734 28,805 3,368,074 1,810,898 922,015 180,792 489,328 173,864 44,899 3,156,421 2,444,841 276,733 317,429 56,591 60,827 958,669 733,449 164,126 61,094 1,307,664 772,752 225,353 65,386 112,637 47,330 41,969 115,921 19,980 6,690 124,999 2,703,919 2,133,158 570,761 2,266,654 1,450,095 782,138 22,186 10,837 1,398 2,065,980 311,350 1,754,630 3,210,010 1,820,906 1,284,834 104,270 Percent of those persons with a known status 100 % 1 1 1 99 100 % 51 10 27 10 2 100 % 77 9 10 2 2 100 % 77 17 6 100 59 17 5 9 4 3 9 2 1 10 100 % 79 21 100 % 64 35 1 --100 % 15 85 100 % 57 40 3

Characteristic Total number of adults on probation Incarcerated State or Federal prison Jail Community Status of probation Direct imposition of probation Split sentence (incarceration with probation) Execution of sentence suspended Imposition of sentence suspended Other Status of supervision Active supervision Inactive supervision Absconded from supervision Supervised out of State Other Adults entering probation Probation without incarceration Probation with incarceration Probation of other types Adults leaving probation Successful completions Returned to incarceration With new sentence With the same sentence Type of return unknown Absconder Other unsuccessful Transferred to another probation jurisdiction Death Other Gender Male Female Race White Black/African American American Indian/Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Hispanic origin Hispanic Non-Hispanic Severity of offense Felony Misdemeanor Other infractions

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions. For every characteristic there were persons of unknown status or type; their numbers are in the detailed tables. Jurisdictions failed to report data for 47% of "status of probation," 8% of "status of supervision," 43% of "adults entering probation," 16% of "adults leaving probation," 21% of "gender," 34% of "race," 40% of "Hispanic or Latino origin," and 6% of "severity of offense." -- Less than 0.5%.

Table 3.2. Adults on probation, 1998 Percent change in probation population during 1998 3.7 % -0.8 % 3.7 5.2 % 2.7 -3.1 0.3 6.1 2.0 5.2 11.9 3.5 21.0 3.8 % 10.4 5.3 9.6 -1.1 4.0 -4.2 3.7 -3.1 -1.6 3.6 -6.7 2.7 1.6 % 13.8 18.7 6.3 5.6 -0.3 1.3 6.6 -6.8 4.6 4.8 -0.7 0.5 -4.1 4.4 1.3 1.9 1.0 6.6 % 5.8 17.3 6.5 5.0 2.0 20.6 9.6 7.6 17.5 1.9 -0.5 4.9 9.7 Number on probation on 12/31/98 per 100,000 adult residents 1,705 17 1,688 1,509 2,316 730 993 584 2,175 1,393 1,325 2,710 2,068 1,664 1,488 2,326 862 837 2,369 2,625 1,191 1,309 559 1,406 648 1,427 1,874 1,348 1,782 3,548 2,524 2,101 2,702 437 1,039 2,029 578 1,861 1,173 1,436 913 3,140 594 452 1,576 1,057 1,544 1,366 1,631 1,756 875 782 981 849 1,824 678 3,619 1,088

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/b,c State Northeast Connecticut Maine/b,c Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania/d Rhode Island/d Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa/c Kansas/c,d Michigan/b,d Minnesota Missouri/d Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b,d South Dakota/b,d,e Wisconsin South Alabama/b,d Arkansas/d Delaware/d District of Columbia Florida/b,d Georgia/c Kentucky Louisiana/c Maryland Mississippi/d North Carolina Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d Texas/c Virginia West Virginia/b,d West Alaska/d Arizona/d California/d Colorado/b,d Hawaii Idaho Montana/b,d Nevada/d New Mexico/d Oregon Utah Washington/b,d Wyoming

Probation population 1/1/98 3,296,513 33,532 3,262,981 561,707 55,989 7,178 46,430 4,876 130,565 181,105 108,230 19,648 7,686 746,286 119,481 96,752 16,834 16,339 165,449 94,920 46,301 16,439 2,700 113,493 3,730 53,848 1,306,375 38,720 28,294 18,837 10,043 239,694 149,963 12,093 35,453 74,612 10,997 105,416 28,790 43,095 35,836 438,232 30,002 6,298 648,613 4,212 44,813 304,531 45,499 15,401 6,367 4,683 11,670 8,905 43,980 9,519 145,547 3,486

1998 Entries Exits Reported Imputed/a Reported Imputed/a 1,672,910 14,871 1,658,039 238,520 32,318 : 40,165 3,760 58,200 48,384 43,091 7,099 5,503 441,239 68,232 84,946 17,184 19,306 61,755 54,671 17,815 12,560 1,622 74,298 4,098 24,752 658,788 17,279 13,668 11,013 9,840 144,384 60,206 6,554 16,136 40,179 6,461 59,436 13,912 15,280 23,368 196,385 24,687 : 319,492 1,745 28,944 167,106 26,477 7,443 3,138 : 5,794 8,926 16,876 4,130 45,839 3,074 1,771,952 14,871 1,757,081 241,607 32,318 3,087 40,165 3,760 58,200 48,384 43,091 7,099 5,503 501,065 68,232 84,946 17,184 19,306 118,932 54,671 17,815 12,560 1,622 76,947 4,098 24,752 671,005 17,279 13,668 11,013 9,840 153,563 60,206 6,554 16,136 40,179 6,461 59,436 13,912 15,280 23,368 196,385 24,687 3,037 343,405 1,745 28,944 167,106 31,720 7,443 3,138 1,316 5,794 8,926 16,876 4,130 63,193 3,074 1,555,762 14,861 1,540,901 209,318 30,797 : 40,028 3,461 55,538 38,971 30,227 6,404 3,892 416,898 55,863 79,798 15,571 19,482 58,729 58,618 16,110 13,062 1,664 70,719 3,958 23,324 638,146 15,626 8,379 9,820 9,278 142,007 58,304 5,755 18,561 36,740 5,928 60,154 13,760 17,066 21,796 190,859 24,113 : 276,539 1,501 21,177 147,210 21,337 7,133 1,828 : 4,903 7,371 16,047 4,174 41,123 2,735 1,652,571 14,861 1,637,710 212,630 30,797 3,312 40,028 3,461 55,538 38,971 30,227 6,404 3,892 474,221 55,863 79,798 15,571 19,482 113,906 58,618 16,110 13,062 1,664 72,865 3,958 23,324 653,296 15,626 8,379 9,820 9,278 154,183 58,304 5,755 18,561 36,740 5,928 60,154 13,760 17,066 21,796 190,859 24,113 2,973 297,564 1,501 21,177 147,210 26,400 7,133 1,828 866 4,903 7,371 16,047 4,174 56,219 2,735

Probation population, 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825

: Not known. a/Imputed entries and exits reflect reported data except for jurisdictions in which data were not available; see Explanatory notes for details on imputation methods. b/Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on December 31, 1998, does not equal the population on January 1, 1998, plus entries, minus exits. c/See Explanatory notes for more detail. d/Data do not include cases in one or more of the following categories: absconder, out-of-State, inactive, intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, or otherwise may be estimated; see Explanatory notes for more detail. e/Data are for period beginning July 1, 1997, and ending June 30, 1998.

Table 3.3. Adults on probation, by status of probation, 1998 Probation population 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825 Direct imposition of probation 922,015 32,815 889,200 239,938 0 : : : : 137,773 96,617 : 5,548 131,234 : 64,960 : : 39,112 : : 10,478 0 16,684 : 0 309,349 : 25,714 : : 193,413 9,306 12,851 32,380 ... : 0 406 34,878 401 : : : 208,679 : 191 167,106 728 15,397 : : 0 : 9,851 2,784 11,019 1,603 Split sentence (incarceration with probation) 180,792 378 180,414 40,511 6,779 : : : : 31,217 ... : 2,515 43,598 : 20,270 : : 12,325 : : 5,459 0 5,544 : 0 65,154 10,531 3,096 : : 10,154 12,748 0 648 7,722 : 9,411 2,569 6,431 1,844 : : : 31,151 : 1,018 : 348 : : : 0 : 26,740 0 2,500 545 Execution of sentence suspended/a 489,328 0 489,328 39,634 38,400 : : : : 0 ... : 1,234 67,363 : : : 16,163 7,136 : 2 0 2,082 23,058 : 18,922 300,085 27,327 885 : : 1,004 97,601 0 0 60,173 : 95,287 13,526 0 4,282 : : : 82,246 : 51,371 : 1,560 : : : 12,347 : 3,877 6,658 5,088 1,345 Imposition of sentence suspended/b 173,864 0 173,864 36,843 12,331 0 : : : 35 24,477 : 0 62,720 : : : : 3,173 : 529 0 576 22,287 : 36,155 65,310 : 3,888 1,119 : 4,577 32,201 0 0 10,156 : 0 11,412 0 1,957 : : : 8,991 : : : 272 : : : 214 : 3,877 0 4,310 318

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York/c Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana/c Iowa Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri/d Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota Wisconsin/c South Alabama/d Arkansas/c,d Delaware District of Columbia Florida/d Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/c,d South Carolina Tennessee/d Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona/d California/d Colorado/d Hawaii/d Idaho Montana Nevada/d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/d Wyoming

Other 44,899 61 44,838 21,493 0 0 0 0 0 21,493 0 0 0 21,009 0 16,670 0 0 1,603 0 0 0 0 2,537 0 199 126 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 0 0 0 0 85 0 0 0 0 0 2,210 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,183 14

Unknown or not reported 1,606,715 0 1,606,715 212,265 0 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 0 0 20,343 0 448,531 131,850 0 18,447 0 108,798 90,973 47,475 0 0 47,508 3,480 0 587,681 6,189 0 18,911 10,605 29,873 9 0 0 0 11,530 0 944 0 28,924 443,758 30,576 6,362 358,238 4,456 0 157,321 44,871 314 7,677 5,133 0 10,460 464 33 127,509 0

: Not known ... Not applicable. a/Sentence to incarceration imposed, then suspended. b/Persons not fully adjudicated (e.g., probation before verdict). c/See Explanatory notes for more detail. d/Some or all data detailed data are estimated for status of probation.

Table 3.4. Adults on probation, by status of supervision, 1998 Number of adults on probation in each status of supervision Active 2,444,841 32,176 2,412,665 457,466 57,510 5,829 : 3,098 90,461 188,293 92,393 12,100 7,782 481,066 90,485 99,564 17,446 16,163 65,473 : 47,715 15,282 2,323 76,450 3,459 46,706 904,912 21,543 21,406 13,298 6,248 151,085 98,027 12,892 31,028 38,573 11,528 93,771 21,757 29,238 25,862 298,080 30,576 : 569,221 4,456 35,557 324,427 43,439 : 6,914 4,190 7,695 9,646 28,832 8,221 92,335 3,509 Inactive 276,733 273 276,460 37,012 0 0 : 143 18,840 ... 10,373 7,302 354 81,230 41,365 : : : 12,729 : 291 ... 0 26,845 0 0 132,747 6,054 5,938 ... ... 16,587 49,450 : 0 29,540 -4,120 1,039 1,125 4,448 14,446 0 : 25,471 ... 0 : 1,576 : ... 251 297 : 1,225 0 22,122 0 Absconded 317,429 805 316,624 33,732 0 1,016 : 288 20,426 : 11,273 : 729 31,034 0 0 689 -14,858 : : 41 0 7,941 21 7,484 199,410 4,806 3,933 4,476 2,680 61,102 4,380 : 1,879 6,775 -5,822 4,820 8,962 7,097 82,678 0 : 52,448 -7,983 : 754 : : : 2,224 63 14,457 979 25,831 157 Out of State 56,591 ... 56,591 14,659 0 108 : 398 3,500 2,225 7,055 941 432 5,751 0 2,336 292 -62 : : 614 335 2,112 -0 28,632 1,882 1,640 1,137 1,677 5,440 8 : 121 2,182 -985 1,057 1,984 1 10,518 0 : 7,549 0 0 : 1,479 : 763 692 2,345 751 295 275 790 159 Other 60,827 0 60,827 248 0 0 0 248 0 0 0 0 0 1,533 0 0 0 0 51 0 0 0 0 396 0 1,086 49,714 9,762 666 0 0 0 0 0 0 981 0 0 269 0 0 38,036 0 0 9,332 0 9,040 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 223 0 Unknown or not reported 261,192 0 261,192 47,567 0 0 46,567 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 173,841 0 0 20 0 78,974 90,973 0 0 0 3,874 0 0 12,290 0 0 1,119 0 4,807 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,362 27,494 0 0 0 475 15,711 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,308 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/a New Jersey/b New York Pennsylvania/b Rhode Island/b Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa/a Kansas Michigan/b Minnesota Missouri/b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota Wisconsin/a South Alabama/b Arkansas/a,b Delaware District of Columbia Florida/b Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/a Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/a,b South Carolina Tennessee/b Texas/a Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/b Arizona/a,b California/b Colorado/b Hawaii Idaho Montana/b Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/b Wyoming

Probation population 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825

: Not known ... Not applicable. -- Not reported in December 31, 1998 population; see Explanatory notes for more detail. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for status of supervision.

Table 3.5. Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 1998 Number of adults entering probation Probation Probation Total without with Imputed Reported incarceration incarceration 1,771,952 14,871 1,757,081 241,607 32,318 3,087 40,165 3,760 58,200 48,384 43,091 7,099 5,503 501,065 68,232 84,946 17,184 19,306 118,932 54,671 17,815 12,560 1,622 76,947 4,098 24,752 671,005 17,279 13,668 11,013 9,840 153,563 60,206 6,554 16,136 40,179 6,461 59,436 13,912 15,280 23,368 196,385 24,687 3,037 343,405 1,745 28,944 167,106 31,720 7,443 3,138 1,316 5,794 8,926 16,876 4,130 63,193 3,074 1,672,910 14,871 1,658,039 238,520 32,318 : 40,165 3,760 58,200 48,384 43,091 7,099 5,503 441,239 68,232 84,946 17,184 19,306 61,755 54,671 17,815 12,560 1,622 74,298 4,098 24,752 658,788 17,279 13,668 11,013 9,840 144,384 60,206 6,554 16,136 40,179 6,461 59,436 13,912 15,280 23,368 196,385 24,687 : 319,492 1,745 28,944 167,106 26,477 7,443 3,138 : 5,794 8,926 16,876 4,130 45,839 3,074 733,449 14,778 718,671 106,375 : : : : 24,950 34,071 43,091 : 4,263 215,306 : 60,524 : 13,362 32,150 : 16,685 8,440 1,622 57,771 : 24,752 336,095 11,538 12,793 : : 111,415 57,446 6,554 13,644 7,406 3,678 55,118 8,892 14,089 18,682 : 14,840 : 60,895 582 14,483 : 22,889 : 3,138 : : : 6,700 2,086 11,017 : 164,126 65 164,061 15,979 : : : : 6,750 7,989 ... : 1,240 38,856 : 12,107 : 4,509 11,272 : 1,130 4,120 0 5,718 : : 62,990 3,588 875 : : 7,260 2,175 ... 530 32,773 2,783 4,318 2,811 1,191 4,686 : 0 : 46,236 1,163 14,461 : 2,416 : : : : : 10,176 1,999 16,021 :

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/a,b New York Pennsylvania/b Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas/a Michigan/b Minnesota Missouri/b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/b Arkansas/b Delaware/a,b District of Columbia Florida/b Georgia/a,b Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/b South Carolina Tennessee/b Texas Virginia West Virginia/b West Alaska/b Arizona/a,b California/b Colorado/b Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/a,b New Mexico/a,b Oregon Utah/a Washington/b Wyoming

Other 61,094 28 61,066 32,824 0 0 0 0 26,500 6,324 0 0 0 22,355 0 12,315 0 1,435 432 0 0 0 0 8,173 0 0 2,836 0 0 0 0 289 585 0 1,962 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,051 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 45 3,006 0

Unknown or not reported 714,241 0 714,241 83,342 32,318 0 40,165 3,760 0 0 0 7,099 0 164,722 68,232 0 17,184 0 17,901 54,671 0 0 0 2,636 4,098 0 256,867 2,153 0 11,013 9,840 25,420 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,209 0 0 196,385 9,847 0 209,310 0 0 167,106 1,172 7,443 0 0 5,794 8,926 0 0 15,795 3,074

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for entries.

Table 3.6. Adults leaving probation, by type of discharge, 1998 Number of adults leaving probation Incarcerated With Under new current Other sentence sentence Absconder unsuccessful/a 65,386 1,786 63,600 8,674 : : : 441 1,600 4,836 1,287 237 273 18,070 : 5,430 1,023 977 3,494 : 672 1,280 127 4,206 : 861 31,614 2,054 875 : : 11,625 630 141 8,815 3,156 131 1,074 1,258 718 1,137 : 0 : 5,242 343 : : 101 : : : : : 3,449 249 1,100 : 159,967 : 159,967 8,960 : : : 0 : 6,520 2,161 : 279 26,728 : 6,726 1,239 1,347 3,901 : 2,146 0 475 4,982 : 5,912 115,090 2,356 730 : : 25,047 411 1,823 0 4,897 1,616 19,974 983 4,239 5,684 47,330 0 : 9,189 404 4,467 : 38 : 500 : : 715 1,305 371 766 623 41,969 : 41,969 3,695 : : : 0 3,200 0 495 : 0 22,016 : 5,676 2,756 3,400 4,036 : 2,521 41 110 3,476 : 0 11,304 0 732 : 886 6,707 1,100 ... 1,879 0 0 ... 0 0 0 : 0 : 4,954 0 : : 3,410 : : : : 702 0 132 561 149 115,921 : 115,921 3,225 : : : 0 3,225 0 0 : 0 6,142 : : 0 0 3,793 : 40 2,025 0 284 : 0 32,319 : 228 3,252 : 7,157 3,005 0 608 10,300 0 0 793 0 297 0 6,679 : 74,235 0 204 62,508 2,440 : : : 2,483 1,123 453 1,273 3,751 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/b State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/b,c New York Pennsylvania/c Rhode Island/b,c Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas/b Michigan/c Minnesota Missouri/c Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota Wisconsin/b South Alabama/c Arkansas/b,c Delaware/b District of Columbia Florida/c Georgia/b,c Kentucky Louisiana/b Maryland/b Mississippi/b North Carolina Oklahoma/b,c South Carolina Tennessee/b,c Texas/b,d Virginia West Virginia/c West Alaska/c Arizona/b,c California/c Colorado/c Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/b New Mexico Oregon/b Utah/b Washington/c Wyoming

Total Imputed 1,652,571 14,861 1,637,710 212,630 30,797 3,312 40,028 3,461 55,538 38,971 30,227 6,404 3,892 474,221 55,863 79,798 15,571 19,482 113,906 58,618 16,110 13,062 1,664 72,865 3,958 23,324 653,296 15,626 8,379 9,820 9,278 154,183 58,304 5,755 18,561 36,740 5,928 60,154 13,760 17,066 21,796 190,859 24,113 2,973 297,564 1,501 21,177 147,210 26,400 7,133 1,828 866 4,903 7,371 16,047 4,174 56,219 2,735 Reported 1,555,762 14,861 1,540,901 209,318 30,797 : 40,028 3,461 55,538 38,971 30,227 6,404 3,892 416,898 55,863 79,798 15,571 19,482 58,729 58,618 16,110 13,062 1,664 70,719 3,958 23,324 638,146 15,626 8,379 9,820 9,278 142,007 58,304 5,755 18,561 36,740 5,928 60,154 13,760 17,066 21,796 190,859 24,113 : 276,539 1,501 21,177 147,210 21,337 7,133 1,828 : 4,903 7,371 16,047 4,174 41,123 2,735

Successful completion 772,752 12,630 760,122 96,534 0 : : 2,593 39,350 22,130 25,179 4,167 3,115 196,445 : 56,288 8,272 9,145 35,000 : 10,629 9,202 919 50,543 : 16,447 339,786 9,525 4,457 5,166 : 38,417 51,956 3,252 7,034 18,007 2,819 37,981 10,612 11,884 13,477 116,976 8,223 : 127,357 748 9,873 64,010 13,556 : 1,328 : 2,420 3,421 10,627 2,067 17,990 1,317

Death 6,690 111 6,579 1,196 : : : 18 375 594 188 : 21 596 : : 0 5 192 : : 39 16 240 : 104 4,147 164 128 67 : 323 348 75 104 372 19 483 114 225 108 1,484 133 : 640 6 75 : 4 : : : : 66 181 38 266 4

Transferred to another jurisdiction 19,980 : 19,980 1,029 : : : 0 : 0 845 : 184 8,490 : 3,673 1,124 1,618 59 : 102 475 0 1,439 : 0 7,628 1,487 1,229 : 1,398 2,345 854 186 121 8 0 0 0 0 0 ... 0 : 2,833 : : : 1,416 : : : ... 1,344 29 0 20 24

Other 124,999 334 124,665 15,160 0 0 0 409 7,788 4,891 72 2,000 0 10,030 0 2,005 518 2,990 340 0 0 0 17 4,160 0 0 71,575 0 0 1,335 0 34,142 0 0 0 0 858 0 0 0 1,093 25,069 9,078 0 27,900 0 6,558 18,858 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 44 1,819 618

Unknown or not reported 248,098 0 248,098 70,845 30,797 0 40,028 0 0 0 0 0 20 128,381 55,863 0 639 0 7,914 58,618 0 0 0 1,389 3,958 0 24,683 40 0 0 6,994 16,244 0 278 0 0 485 642 0 0 0 0 0 0 24,189 0 0 1,834 372 7,133 0 0 0 0 0 0 14,850 0

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Other unsuccessful exits include violations of probation, probation revocations, warrants issued, and some absconders. b/See Explanatory notes for more detail. c/Some or all detailed data are estimated for type of exit. d/In 1998, Texas had a combined total of 47,330 persons discharged to incarceration, but sentence status was unknown.

Table 3.7. Adults on probation, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1998 Number of adults on probation Hispanic origin Not Nonreported Hispanic Hispanic 713,694 84 713,610 66,910 0 0 46,567 0 0 0 0 20,343 0 207,930 0 101,900 3 0 91,523 0 0 0 0 11,024 3,480 0 58,646 475 0 1,119 0 26,814 0 12,892 0 0 0 0 944 0 1 10,039 0 6,362 380,124 0 0 324,427 9,277 0 0 5,133 0 1,084 0 0 40,203 0 311,350 4,543 306,807 64,476 8,505 : : 1,553 15,721 33,890 4,807 : : 14,959 : : 671 : 3,681 3,587 : 2,109 124 1,392 : 3,395 176,113 157 495 661 361 19,508 249 : 33 : : 2,700 1,169 : 446 149,937 397 : 51,259 : 14,371 : 8,543 : 950 : 1,884 5,319 3,422 890 15,589 291 1,754,630 28,426 1,726,204 452,345 49,005 : : 3,622 117,506 156,628 116,287 : 9,297 277,128 : : 17,776 : 52,044 87,386 : 13,828 2,534 65,833 : 37,727 787,969 33,226 33,088 18,250 10,244 174,447 10,809 : 32,995 : : 101,998 26,829 : 32,122 283,782 30,179 : 208,762 : 38,209 : 33,931 : 6,727 : 10,677 4,057 41,387 8,205 62,035 3,534

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a,b Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/a,b New Jersey/a,b New York Pennsylvania/a,b Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois/a Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan/a,b Minnesota/a,b Missouri/a Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/a,b South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a,b Arkansas/a,b Delaware District of Columbia/a,b Florida/a,b Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi/a North Carolina Oklahoma/a,b South Carolina Tennessee/a,b Texas/a,b Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/a Arizona/a,b California Colorado/a,b Hawaii/a Idaho Montana Nevada/a,b New Mexico/a,b Oregon Utah Washington/a,b Wyoming

Probation population 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825

Gender Male 2,133,158 23,369 2,109,789 430,238 48,193 5,966 : 3,622 109,379 158,090 97,562 : 7,426 439,818 105,744 : 14,104 13,254 60,401 71,675 37,839 12,411 2,049 79,925 : 42,416 992,991 34,953 24,391 14,944 8,664 165,692 120,445 : 25,432 64,032 8,993 82,300 20,643 34,440 29,497 334,441 24,124 : 246,742 3,655 43,203 : 29,680 12,255 5,899 : 8,792 7,256 35,971 7,379 89,793 2,859 Female 570,761 9,801 560,960 93,536 9,317 987 : 1,553 23,848 32,428 23,532 : 1,871 126,707 26,106 : 4,340 2,909 20,223 19,298 10,167 3,526 609 26,669 : 12,860 276,068 8,619 9,192 3,967 1,941 46,515 31,420 : 7,596 14,019 2,537 22,398 7,355 6,869 7,910 99,278 6,452 : 64,649 801 9,377 : 8,835 3,456 1,778 : 3,769 2,120 8,838 2,096 22,613 966

Not reported 1,351,633 285 1,351,348 73,863 0 6,953 46,567 0 0 0 0 20,343 0 482,368 131,850 101,900 0 16,163 116,422 0 48,006 0 0 50,393 3,480 14,154 363,623 10,664 0 1,119 0 45,066 140,807 12,892 0 78,051 11,530 0 944 41,309 4,840 10,039 0 6,362 431,494 4,456 0 324,427 5,318 15,711 0 5,133 0 1,084 0 380 74,985 0

: Not known. a/Some or all detailed data are estimated for gender. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin.

Table 3.8. Adults on probation, by race, 1998 Number of adults on probation Native American Hawaiian/ Indian/ Other Pacific Alaska Native Asian Islander 22,186 686 21,500 858 116 : : 0 220 473 2 : 47 7,123 : : 176 162 1,103 3,036 51 649 286 15 : 1,645 4,413 32 68 15 : 147 4 : 6 57 : 1,958 2,000 34 74 : 18 : 9,106 1,263 2,920 : 366 : 275 : 251 720 327 285 2,604 95 10,837 1,297 9,540 1,128 161 : : 0 294 628 2 : 43 2,868 : : 146 : 723 1,100 84 165 20 100 : 530 1,955 52 47 29 : 623 128 : 3 337 : 247 121 16 352 : : : 3,589 303 215 : 334 : 45 : 376 : 357 173 1,780 6 1,398 : 1,398 517 0 : : 517 : 0 0 : 0 182 : : 0 0 61 0 25 90 0 6 : : 229 0 3 0 : 213 3 : 0 : : 0 10 0 : : : : 470 : : : : : : : 126 : 327 : 17 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/a,b,c Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/b New Jersey/a,b,c New York Pennsylvania/a,c Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa/a,c Kansas/a Michigan/a,b,c Minnesota/b Missouri/b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/a,b,c South Dakota Wisconsin/a South Alabama/b Arkansas/a,b,c Delaware/a,c District of Columbia/b Florida/a,b,c Georgia/a Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/a,b,c South Carolina Tennessee/a,b,c Texas/a,b,c Virginia/a West Virginia West Alaska/b Arizona/a,b California Colorado/a,b,c Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/b New Mexico/b Oregon/a,c Utah/a Washington/a,b,c Wyoming/a,c

Probation population 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825

White 1,450,095 22,355 1,427,740 279,379 34,362 : : 3,364 59,153 94,805 78,655 : 9,040 292,996 : : 15,293 11,638 47,760 70,686 33,542 12,458 2,293 63,765 : 35,561 626,052 20,219 20,501 9,614 965 138,337 70,141 : 13,674 32,451 4,520 48,252 18,471 18,374 20,413 196,691 13,429 : 229,313 2,401 44,934 : 31,451 : 7,197 : 8,416 8,033 37,640 8,324 77,617 3,300

Black 782,138 8,476 773,662 175,064 14,366 : : 1,294 57,839 64,975 36,423 : 167 101,052 : : 1,980 4,363 13,207 10,768 14,304 2,575 59 41,030 : 12,766 467,060 23,110 12,469 8,592 9,258 67,595 81,580 : 19,190 44,916 6,745 50,586 6,179 22,537 16,117 81,626 16,560 : 30,486 489 4,511 : 5,508 : 120 : 3,265 623 2,514 313 13,037 106

Unknown or not reported 1,150,959 440 1,150,519 133,738 8,505 6,953 46,567 0 15,721 29,637 6,012 20,343 0 370,234 131,850 101,900 852 0 109,293 5,383 0 0 0 12,702 3,480 4,774 227,996 634 495 1,780 382 32,106 9 12,892 155 290 265 3,655 2,161 348 452 165,441 569 6,362 418,551 0 0 324,427 10,133 15,711 40 5,133 127 1,084 3,644 380 57,554 318

: Not known. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for race. c/"Unknown or not reported" includes Hispanic probationers of unknown race.

Table 3.9. Adults on probation, by severity of offense, 1998 Probation population 12/31/98 3,417,613 33,254 3,384,359 590,684 57,510 6,953 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 20,343 9,297 774,455 131,850 101,900 18,447 16,163 172,147 90,973 48,006 15,937 2,658 117,618 3,480 55,276 1,327,705 44,047 33,583 20,030 10,605 239,021 151,865 12,892 33,028 78,051 11,530 104,698 28,942 41,309 37,408 443,758 30,576 6,362 691,515 4,456 52,580 324,427 47,792 15,711 7,677 5,133 12,561 10,460 44,809 9,475 152,609 3,825 Number of adults on probation Felony 1,820,906 22,026 1,798,880 274,949 30,032 : : 3,105 99,787 99,724 27,253 12,389 2,659 250,786 50,375 35,504 7,511 5,871 2,772 27,743 37,138 3,691 2,221 52,274 2,438 23,248 816,229 29,192 32,320 : 3,597 179,619 110,467 11,083 29,065 20,890 11,530 34,030 27,592 18,788 27,858 251,049 29,149 : 456,916 4,404 44,103 229,681 24,914 9,348 7,677 5,133 9,421 8,415 27,636 6,658 77,818 1,708 Misdemeanor 1,284,834 8,732 1,276,102 256,700 27,478 : : 2,070 33,440 87,882 91,238 7,954 6,638 349,739 19,975 66,396 10,936 7,995 66,247 63,230 10,337 12,246 437 59,121 1,042 31,777 455,811 9,823 1,263 : 5,819 48,990 41,398 1,809 3,963 57,161 0 70,344 1,350 10,756 9,500 192,709 926 : 213,852 52 3,349 94,746 16,872 6,363 0 0 3,140 2,045 16,670 2,784 65,714 2,117 Other 104,270 2,496 101,774 2,912 0 0 0 0 0 2,912 0 0 0 68,810 61,500 0 0 2,297 3,976 0 531 0 0 506 0 0 18,687 1,557 0 0 1,189 3,351 0 0 0 0 0 324 0 11,765 0 0 501 : 11,365 0 5,128 0 5,601 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 636 0 Unknown or not reported 207,603 0 207,603 56,123 0 6,953 46,567 0 0 0 2,603 0 0 105,120 0 0 0 0 99,152 0 0 0 0 5,717 0 251 36,978 3,475 0 20,030 0 7,061 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 6,362 9,382 0 0 0 405 0 0 0 0 0 503 33 8,441 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/b New Jersey/b New York Pennsylvania/a Rhode Island/b Vermont Midwest Illinois/a Indiana Iowa Kansas/a Michigan/b Minnesota/b Missouri/a,b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a,b Arkansas/b Delaware District of Columbia/a,b Florida/b Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/b South Carolina/a Tennessee/b Texas Virginia/a West Virginia West Alaska/b Arizona/a,b California/b Colorado/b Hawaii Idaho Montana/b Nevada/b New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/b Wyoming

: Not known. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for severity of offense.

Table 3.10. Adults on probation under intensive supervision, under electronic monitoring, in a bootcamp, or incarcerated, 1998

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a,b,c State Northeast Connecticut/d Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania/d Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri/d Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/d Arkansas/d Delaware District of Columbia/b,c Florida/d Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/c Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/d Arizona/d California Colorado/d Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/d Wyoming

Intensive supervision 103,618 : 103,618 19,245 1,425 ... : 49 1,149 3,144 13,153 325 ... 23,530 1,347 : 751 2,700 1,295 ... 6,740 732 20 9,915 30 ... 52,028 1,353 11 4,865 105 20,691 4,306 604 ... 1,795 ... 8,236 2,587 1,641 1,846 2,827 1,161 ... 8,815 76 3,348 ... 1,376 104 108 : 271 166 493 207 2,543 123

Electronic monitoring 19,677 3,433 16,244 7,435 250 3 : 13 ... ... 7,169 ... ... 2,952 : : 33 62 1,304 : 250 428 0 875 ... : 4,497 54 105 539 105 1,279 7 ... ... ... ... 616 : : 526 1,229 37 ... 1,360 ... 248 ... 215 12 121 : 175 25 320 32 91 121

Bootcamp 1,520 ... 1,520 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 81 ... ... ... 81 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,404 ... ... : 223 ... 420 ... ... ... ... 188 ... ... ... 494 79 ... 35 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35

Incarcerated Jail Prison 28,805 ... 28,805 5,660 ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,660 ... 0 1,665 ... : ... ... 756 ... : ... : 909 : ... 9,698 ... 380 : : 193 ... : 2,305 : ... : 379 ... 85 6,356 : : 11,782 ... 729 ... 3,572 : ... ... : : 434 848 6,199 ... 20,734 ... 20,734 252 ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... 252 336 ... : ... ... 17 ... : ... : 319 : ... 19,291 : 254 : : 178 ... : 0 7,722 ... 3,047 ... ... ... 8,090 : : 855 ... : ... : : ... ... 297 0 14 44 500 ...

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Reported data include both probationers and parolees. b/Intensive supervision probationers could not be separated from electronic monitoring probationers and were, therefore, reported together. c/See Explanatory notes for more detail. d/Some or all detailed data are estimated; see Explanatory notes for more detail.

Table 3.11. Adults on probation, by selected offenses, 1998 Number of adults on probation, 12/31/98 Number of probationers Number of probationers in agencies reporting Driving while in agencies reporting driving while intoxicated intoxicated drug law violation 2,221,247 33,254 2,187,993 505,878 : : 46,567 5,175 133,227 190,518 121,094 : 9,297 431,507 131,850 : : : 79,505 90,973 531 15,937 2,658 54,777 : 55,276 1,120,597 8,038 33,583 : 10,605 212,208 151,865 : : 78,051 : 104,698 27,998 41,309 8,484 443,758 : : 130,011 4,456 1,298 : 9,822 : 7,677 : : 9,376 44,809 9,475 39,273 3,825 391,117 2,039 389,078 84,092 : : 18,767 1,552 9,300 31,536 21,092 : 1,845 102,285 17,729 : : : 33,637 34,173 142 5,871 80 10,038 : 615 174,831 1,146 391 : 704 12,991 16,087 : : 450 : 20,543 3,002 5,465 2,499 111,553 : : 27,870 160 569 : 2,929 : 815 : : 454 5,873 370 16,333 367 1,982,297 33,254 1,949,043 338,217 : : : 5,175 133,227 190,518 : : 9,297 266,933 : : : : 60,953 90,973 47,475 15,937 : 51,595 : : 1,160,987 8,038 33,583 : : 209,988 143,128 : 33,028 78,051 : 104,698 27,998 41,309 37,408 443,758 : : 182,906 : : : 9,822 : 7,677 : : : 44,809 9,475 107,298 3,825

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/a New Jersey/a New York Pennsylvania/b Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan/a Minnesota/a Missouri/a Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/a South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a Arkansas/a Delaware District of Columbia Florida/a Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/a Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/a South Carolina Tennessee/a Texas/a Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/a Arizona/a California Colorado/a Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/a Wyoming

Drug law violation 472,666 5,519 467,147 104,071 : : : 3,623 53,850 46,108 : : 490 38,945 : : : : 8,545 6,437 14,242 2,518 : 7,203 : : 279,055 3,800 10,813 : : 52,974 39,620 : 13,145 24,022 : 19,675 8,436 9,343 8,922 88,305 : : 45,076 : : : 173 : 2,457 : : : 11,082 3,290 27,571 503

: Not known. a/Some or all detailed data are estimated for specific offenses. b/See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Chapter 3: Probation Explanatory notes Because many States update their population counts, the January 1, 1998, numbers may differ from those previously published for December 31, 1997. Federal Data for the Federal system are from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts as provided to the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Definitional differences exist between probation data reported here and in other BJS data series. “Other” entries include probationers whose cases were reopened statistically (table 3.5). “Other” discharges include probationers for which specific codes were not assigned. Includes such cases as closings at chief’s discretion, closings because of revocation in another case, and withdrawing of warrants after expiration (table 3.6). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” probationers (table 3.8). “Other” offense type includes petty offenses (table 3.9). Although no formal intensive supervision program exists at the national level, some individual probation offices that use electronic monitoring may regard such a program to be an intensive supervision program (table 3.10). Alabama Alabama has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. Alabama’s state agency, which represents 76% of all Alabama’s probationers, estimated all data. One local agency did not provide data. The December 31, 1997 population count was used as an estimate of the January 1, 1998 and December 31, 1998 population counts. “Other” offense type includes driving under the influence of alcohol cases (table 3.9). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision and electronic monitoring (table 3.10). Alaska All data are estimated. Data exclude 668 absconders (table 3.4).

Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision (table 3.10). Arizona Arizona has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. The local agency estimated all data. The State agency’s probation population on December 31, 1998 includes an additional 1,251 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. The probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an unknown number of persons under the supervision of Limited Jurisdiction courts (includes municipal and other courts). The active probation population of the Limited Jurisdiction courts is estimated to have been less than 500; no estimate is available for the inactive population under the supervision of such courts, though it is known to be much larger. The State agency reported that “other” supervision status includes 7,789 indirect service cases for which Arizona is legally responsible but which are not under active supervision (table 3.4). “Total” entries are estimated as reported by the State (table 3.5). The State also reported that “other” discharges include an unspecified number of transfers to various locations (table 3.6). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” probationers as reported by the State agency (table 3.8). It was also reported by the State that “other” offense type includes an unspecified number of the State’s driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol cases (table 3.9). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and jail (table 3.10). Arkansas All data are estimated. “Split sentence” refers to probationers incarcerated in a substance abuse treatment program as a condition of probation (table 3.3). “Other” supervision status includes transfers to other counties (table 3.4). “Successful completion” includes early discharges and administrative closures. “Other unsuccessful” discharges include probationers who completed their sentence but still owe fines (table 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 495 Hispanics probationers of unknown race (table

3.8). California All data are estimated. Colorado Colorado has 9 reporting agencies: 1 State and 8 local. Colorado’s State agency, which represents approximately 79% of all Colorado’s probationers, and one local agency estimated all data. Missing local agency data were imputed based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among local agencies in Colorado which were able to provide data. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Total population on December 31, 1998 excludes 1,376 probationers in an intensive supervision program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 2,840 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and jail (table 3.10). Connecticut “Unknown or not reported” race includes 8,505 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for electronic monitoring (table 3.10). Delaware Total population on January 1, 1998 is estimated. “Total” entries are estimated. Data for “total” entries and exits exclude “Attorney General probation” and “pretrial diversion” cases “Attorney General probation” includes persons with charges which have been adjudicated, but the disposition was withheld. Successful completion results in dismissal of charges. “Pretrial diversion” includes persons who have not been found guilty, but who have been placed on supervised probation by the court pending disposition of their charges (tables 3.5 and 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 661 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).

District of Columbia “Other” offense type includes 653 domestic violence civil protection orders and 536 domestic violence deferred sentences (table 3.9). The intensive supervision and electronic monitoring program are combined. There are 105 probationers in an intensive supervision program who are also on electronic monitoring (table 3.10). Florida Florida has 14 reporting agencies: 1 State and 13 local. Approximately 21% of the local agencies in Florida estimated all of the data. In addition, approximately 21% of the localities in Florida estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1998. Missing local agency data were imputed based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among local agencies in Florida which were able to provide data. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Total population on December 31, 1998 excludes 313 probationers in an intensive supervision program and 226 probationers in an electronic monitoring program in 2 local agencies (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 85 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and jail (table 3.10). Georgia Georgia has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. Inclusion of an additional local agency added 1,530 persons to the January 1, 1998 probation population, and 2,321 to the December 31, 1998 probation population. It was reported by the State agency that “other” entries include out-of-State probationers (table 3.5). “Other unsuccessful” discharges include probationers whose supervision was revoked and they were returned to prison as reported by the State (table 3.6). The State agency reported race in two classifications, “white” and “non-white”, and included “non-white” under “Black or African American” (table 3.8).

Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision (table 3.10). Illinois “Other” offense type includes 41,365 administrative offenses, 17,729 driving under the influence of alcohol offenses, and 2,406 traffic offenses (table 3.9). Indiana “Other” probation status includes “shock” probationers, probationers sentenced to probation in lieu of prosecution, and others (table 3.3). Iowa Total population on December 31, 1998 excludes an unspecified number of misdemeanor cases from two districts whose records for inactive misdemeanor cases are maintained on paper only. “Active” and “inactive” probationers could not be separated. Active counts include an undetermined number of inactive probationers (table 3.4). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 671 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Kansas Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 345 persons under pretrial diversion supervision. Data exclude 6,869 absconders and 591 probationers supervised out-of-State (table 3.4). “Other” entries include transfers from other jurisdictions (table 3.5). “Other” discharges include transfers to Community Corrections programs (table 3.6). “American Indian or Alaska Native” includes an unspecified number of “Asian” probationers (table 3.8). “Other” offense type includes driving under the influence of alcohol and other traffic offenses (table 3.9). Louisiana The probation population on December 31, 1998 includes an unspecified number of interstate compact cases supervised for other jurisdictions. “Successful completion” includes probationers with court orders and overturned sentences (table

3.6). Maine Imputation of entries was based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among similar States. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Maryland “Other” supervision status includes 981 probationers “delinquent in custody” (table 3.4). “Other unsuccessful” discharges include 3,793 probationers with outstanding warrants (table 3.6). Probationers confined in local jails or State and Federal prisons could not be separately counted (table 3.10). Massachusetts Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional unspecified number of persons, who because of the offense they were accused of, were placed under supervision prior to arraignment. The December 31, 1998 population also excludes an additional 729 probate and family cases. Michigan Michigan has 131 reporting agencies: 1 State and 130 local. A total of 18 additional local agencies, created through changes in authority and fragmentation of District Court probation agencies in Michigan, were included in the 1998 survey. Inclusion of these agencies added 11,183 persons to the January 1, 1998 probation population, and 11,261 to the December 31, 1998, probation population. Two local agencies in Michigan did not provide data. For these agencies, the December 31, 1997 population count was used as an estimate of the January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998 counts. Approximately 39% of Michigan’s local agencies estimated all of their data. In addition, approximately 18% of Michigan’s localities estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1998. Imputation of entries was based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among similar States. Missing local agency data were imputed based on this same ratio among local agencies in Michigan which were able to provide data. Exits were imputed from the requirement

that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Total population on December 31, 1998 excludes an unspecified number of probationers in an electronic monitoring program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 181 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, jail, and prison (table 3.10). Mississippi Data exclude 6,456 persons on inactive supervision, 864 probationers supervised out-of-State, and 44 absconders (table 3.4). “Other” discharges include 858 probationers whose sentences were held in abeyance (table 3.6). Missouri Missouri has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. Missouri’s State agency, which represents approximately 99% of all Missouri’s probationers, estimated all data. The State agency’s probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 1,165 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Other” offense type includes ordinance violations (table 3.9). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision and electronic monitoring (table 3.10). Montana All data are estimated. Imputation of entries was based on the ratio of 1997 entries to the January 1, 1997 population in Montana. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an unspecified number of probationers in an intensive supervision and electronic monitoring program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). Nevada “Total” entries are estimated (table 3.5).

“Successful completion” includes an unspecified number of deaths. “Other unsuccessful” discharges include 750 issued warrants and an unspecified number of revocations (table 3.6). New Hampshire “Other” supervision status includes probationers on bail supervision (table 3.4). New Jersey Total population on December 31, 1998 excludes 1,149 probationers in an intensive supervision program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Total” entries are estimated. “Other” includes approximately 12,000 probationers in a pretrial intervention or conditional discharge program, approximately 8,500 probationers in a community service program, and approximately 6,000 probationers supervised for collections (table 3.5). “Total” exits are estimated. “Other unsuccessful” includes 3,225 probationers who violated probation. “Other” includes 7,788 probationers in a community service program (table 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 15,721 Hispanics probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). New Mexico New Mexico has 2 reporting agencies: 1 State and 1 local. The local agency estimated “total” entries (table 3.5). New York “Other” probation status includes an unspecified number of persons on local conditional release and other unknowns (table 3.3). Ohio Ohio has 53 reporting agencies: 1 State and 52 local. Inclusion of an additional local agency added 355 persons to the January 1, 1998 probation population, and 380 persons to the December 31, 1998 probation population. Approximately 16% of Ohio’s local agencies estimated all of their data. Additionally, approximately 18% of Ohio’s localities estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1998. Missing local agency data were imputed based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998

population among local agencies in Ohio which were able to provide data. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes 53 probationers in an intensive supervision program and 94 probationers in an electronic monitoring program in 2 local agencies (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 519 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, jail, and prison (table 3.10). Oklahoma Oklahoma has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. Oklahoma’s State agency, which represents approximately 95% of all Oklahoma’s probationers, estimated all data. The State agency’s probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes 2,181 probationers in an intensive supervision program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). The State reported that “other” probation status includes 85 probationers with a delayed sentence (table 3.3). “Other” supervision status includes 269 probationers on hearing status (table 3.4). “Total” exits are estimated (table 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 30 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for jail (table 3.10). Oregon “Successful completion” includes seven offender appeals. “Other unsuccessful” discharges include 453 probationers with an expired absconder status (table 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 3,422 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Pennsylvania “Total” entries are estimated (table 3.5). “Total” exits are estimated (table 3.6).

“Unknown or not reported” race includes 4,807 Hispanic probationers of unknown race. “American Indian or Alaska Native” and “Asian” include State data only (table 3.8). “Felony,” “misdemeanor,” and “driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol” include county data only (tables 3.9 and 3.11). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision and jail. Data for the intensive supervision and electronic monitoring programs include county data only. The State operated an intensive supervision program and an electronic monitoring program but the number of probationers in the programs was unknown (table 3.10). Rhode Island Total population on December 31, 1998 is estimated. “Total” exits are estimated. “Other” discharges include 2,000 administrative closures (table 3.6). South Carolina “Other” offense type includes 11,765 unclassified offenses for which a majority are minor offenses (table 3.9). South Dakota Data exclude 160 probationers supervised out-of-State (table 3.4). Tennessee Tennessee has 3 reporting agencies: 1 State and 2 local. One local agency estimated all data. Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes 52 probationers in an electronic monitoring program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). The State agency reported that “other” discharges include 933 internal transfers and 160 interstate compact cases (table 3.6). The State also reported that “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” and “unknown or not reported” race includes 373 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision and jail (table 3.10). Texas Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 616 probationers on

civil probation. The characteristics of gender, race, Hispanic origin, and specific offense are unknown for the 10,039 persons on pretrial supervision. “Active” includes interstate transfers to Texas. “Other” supervision status includes indirect supervision cases of the following types: persons deported or waiting to be deported from an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention center whose cases have not been officially closed, persons in Federal prison whose cases have not been officially terminated, persons in a Substance Abuse Felony Punishment Facility who have been released to a Transitional Treatment Center, persons incarcerated in another State with a case pending in Texas, persons appealing the revocation of their probation, and others (table 3.4). “Other” discharges include 14,431 pretrial terminations and 10,638 administrative closures (table 3.6). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 149,937 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Utah “Other” entries include 40 reinstatements and five court orders (table 3.5). “Other unsuccessful” discharges include 173 revocations. “Other” includes 28 probationers deported, ten released on court orders, and six appeals (table 3.6). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” probationers (table 3.8). Virginia “Unknown or not reported” race includes an unspecified number of “Asian,” “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander,” and probationers of other races (table 3.8). “Other” offense type includes an unspecified number of driving while intoxicated offenses and unknowns (table 3.9) Washington Washington has 38 reporting agencies: 1 State and 37 local. Washington’s State agency, which represents 59% of all Washington’s probationers, estimated all data. A total of 15 additional local agencies, created through the growth and fragmentation of probation agencies in Washington, were included in the 1998 survey. Inclusion of these agencies added 14,596 persons to the January 1, 1998 probation population, and 15,960 to the December

31, 1998 probation population. In addition, one office with 625 probationers on December 31, 1997 has been deleted because the probation department had been eliminated. Missing local agency data were imputed based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among local agencies in Washington which were able to provide data. Exits were imputed from the requirement that beginning population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. The probation population on December 31, 1998 includes an additional 2,835 interstate compact cases supervised for other jurisdictions. Approximately 30% of the local agencies in Washington estimated all data. In addition, approximately 16% of the local agencies in Washington estimated one or more characteristics of the total population on December 31, 1998. Total probation population on December 31, 1998 excludes 59 probationers in an electronic monitoring program (tables 3.2 and 3.10). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 664 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8). Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, jail, and prison (table 3.10). West Virginia All data are estimated. Imputation of entries was based on the ratio of entries to the January 1, 1998 population among similar States. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Wisconsin “Other” probation status includes 199 probationers with a deferred sentence (table 3.3). “Other” supervision status includes 1,086 probationers with a violation warrant (table 3.4). “Successful completion” includes probationers released on court orders (table 3.6). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” probationers (table 3.8). Wyoming “Unknown or not reported” race includes 291 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 3.8).

CJ-8
Bureau of Justice Statistics
FORM

OMB No. 1121-0064: Approval Expires 03/01/99

CJ-8

RETURN 810 Seventh Street, NW Washington, DC 20531 TO
Attn: Corrections Unit

(11-24-98)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

1998 Probation Data Survey

BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

Please correct any errors in the mailing address.

GENERAL INFORMATION 

If you have any questions, call the Bureau of Justice Statistics at (202) 616-3615.  Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of Justice Statistics before February 26, 1999,
or FAX (all pages) to (202) 307-1463. Who is included in this survey? 

INCLUDE all adult probationers, regardless of conviction status, who have been placed under the supervision of a
probation agency as part of a court order between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998. 

INCLUDE adult probationers sent to another jurisdiction through an interstate compact.  INCLUDE adult probationers legally your responsibility, but supervised outside your jurisdiction.  INCLUDE persons on active and inactive supervision.  INCLUDE absconders who have not been discharged from probation.
Who is excluded from this survey? 

EXCLUDE juveniles (persons under the jurisdiction of a juvenile court or agency).  EXCLUDE interstate compact cases supervised by your jurisdiction for another jurisdiction.  EXCLUDE adult probationers supervised by your jurisdiction but legally the responsibility of another jurisdiction.
Burden statement We estimate that it will take about 90 minutes per jurisdiction to collect this information. This includes time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 Seventh Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531; and to the Office of Management and Budget, OMB Number 1121-0064, Washington, DC 20503. INSTRUCTIONS 

If the answer to a question is "not available" or "unknown," write DK in the space provided.  If the answer to a question is "not applicable," write NA in the space provided.  If the answer to a question is "none" or "zero," write 0 in the space provided.  When an exact numeric answer is not available, provide an estimate and mark  in the box beside each figure.

1,000 For example________________.
Please continue on page 2

ITEMS AND DEFINITIONS 1. On January 1, 1998, what was your agency's adult probation population? Population on January 1, 1998 2. Between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, how many adults entered probation by  A. Probation without incarceration B. Probation with incarceration C. Other  Specify 1. Include adult probationers who have been placed under the supervision of a probation agency as part of a court order  regardless of whether convicted. 

2. Individuals entering probation more than once during the year should be counted as multiple entries. 

  
3.

A. Probation without incarceration is a sentence to probation with no jail or prison term. B. Probation with incarceration is a sentence to probation with a term of incarceration in jail or prison (e.g., those individuals who entered probation from a correctional facility.)

D. Total (Should equal the sum of items 2A through 2C) 3. Between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers were released from supervision for the following reason  A. Successful completion

Individuals exiting probation more than once during the year should be counted as multiple exits. A. Successful completions are probationers who completed their sentence and were discharged or who were discharged early. B. 1. All probationers and returned absconders removed from probation supervision because of incarceration with a new sentence. 2. All probationers and returned absconders whose probation was revoked and who were incarcerated under their current sentence. C. All discharged probationers who had failed to report and could not be located. D. Probationers transferred to another jurisdiction while still on probation, only if legal responsibility was also transferred to the other jurisdiction. Exclude interstate compact cases unless jurisdiction is no longer retained by your jurisdiction. F. Specify type of discharge within the categories of successful, unsuccessful, and other. 1. Other successful discharges are those whose sentence was not completed. 2. Other unsuccessful discharges are those other than absconder or incarcerated. 

       
4. 

  
    
 
   
            
 
B. Incarcerated 

F.

Other discharges  Specify each 1. Successful

2. Unsuccessful

3. Other

G. Total (Should equal the sum of items 3A through 3F)

4. On December 31, 1998, what was your agency's adult probation population? (This figure should equal item 1 plus item 2D minus item 3G.) Population on December 31, 1998

The count of adult probationers at yearend 1998. This figure should equal the population on January 1, plus the total entering probation in 1998, minus the total released from probation in 1998. 

PAGE 2

FORM CJ-8 (11-24-98)

5. On December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers in your jurisdiction were  A. Male B. Female C. Total (Sum of items 5A and 5B should equal item 4.) 

 

9. On December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers reported in item 4, regardless of conviction status, had an offense type of  A. Driving while intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol B. A drug law violation (Include offenses relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, or manufacturing of narcotic drugs.) 



6. On December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers in your jurisdiction were  A. White (Include whites of Hispanic or Latino origin.) B. Black or African American (Include blacks or African Americans of Hispanic or Latino origin.) C. American Indian or Alaska Native D. Asian E. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander F. Other  Specify 

     

10. Of your probation population on December 31, 98, how many had entered probation supervision through  A. Suspended execution of sentence to incarceration (Incarceration sentence imposed then suspended) B. Suspended imposition of sentence (Persons not fully adjudicated, e.g., Probation before verdict) C. Direct sentence to probation D. Split sentence (Incarceration combined with probation) E. Other  Specify 

   

G. Total (Sum of items 6A through 6F should equal item 4.)

7. On December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers in your jurisdiction were  A. Of Hispanic or Latino origin (i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or other Spanish culture or origin) B. Not of Hispanic or Latino origin C. Total (Sum of items 7A and 7B should equal item 4.)

F. Total (Sum of items 10A through 10E should equal item 4.) 11. On December 31, 1998, what was the supervision status of the probationers in your jurisdiction?  

  

Exclude interstate compact cases that you supervise.
A. Active (Those required to regularly contact a probation authority in person, by mail, or by telephone) B. Inactive (Those excluded from regular reporting but still on probation) C. Absconder (Those still on probation but have failed to report and cannot be located) D. Supervised out of State (Active and inactive probationers under your jurisdiction who are supervised by authorities of another State) E. Other  Specify 

    

8. On December 31, 1998, how many adult probationers, regardless of conviction status, had an offense type of  A. Felony B. Misdemeanor C. Other  Specify 

 

D. Total (Sum of items 8A through 8C should equal item 4.) 

F. Total (Sum of items 11A through 11E should equal item 4.)

FORM CJ-8 (11-24-98)

PAGE 3

12. Does the total probation population on December 31, 16. Does the total probation population on December 31, 1998, reported in item 4, include persons in jail or prison? 1998, reported in item 4, include any persons whose sentence to probation was imposed after a mandatory 1  Yes  release from prison? A. How many were in local jail?  (Include evening confinements.) 1 Yes  A. How many adult probationers reported B. How many were in State  in item 4 had their sentence to probation or Federal prisons imposed after a mandatory release from 2  No prison? 13. Does your probation agency have an intensive  supervision program (ISP)? 

1 

     
                        

2

No 

Yes 

A. How many probationers were in this program on December 31, 1998? B. Are these probationers included in item 4?

17. On December 31, 1998, did your probation agency supervise adult probationers other than those reported in item 4? 

 Yes 
No

1

2 

No program.

Yes  A. How many adult probationers under supervision did not have their probation imposed by a court? (Include prosecutorial probation, probation by police and other pretrial diversion.) B. Other  Specify

14. Does your probation agency operate a program involving electronic monitoring of probationers? 

 

1  

         
               

. 

Yes 

A. How many probationers were in this program on December 31, 1998? B. Are these probationers included in item 4?

2  No 

 Yes 
No 18. Does the information reported in this survey represent the calendar year ending on December 31, 1998? 1  Yes 2  No  Specify when your reporting year ends

2 

No program.

15. Does your agency have any probationers enrolled in a program that approximates a bootcamp?

Month

Year 

A bootcamp incorporates a highly regimented activity
schedule, drill and ceremony, physical challenge and fitness, discipline, emphasis on personal appearance, and a chain of command.

1 

Yes 
A. How many probationers were in this program on December 31, 1998? B. Are these probationers included in item 4?

DATA SUPPLIED BY NAME 

 Yes  No

TITLE

2 

No program.

PHONE (area code, number, ext.)

Notes and comments  Please specify the item number

PAGE 4

FORM CJ-8 (11-24-98)

Prisoners in 1998

Tables By Paige Harrison, BJS Statistician Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 All prisoners Male prisoners Female prisoners Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1998 Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded State facilities, by gender, 1997 and 1998

Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 5.13 All prisoners 5.14 Male prisoners 5.15 Female prisoners Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation of parole or other conditional release 5.16 All prisoners, by gender and status of sentence Sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction 5.17 Deaths, by gender and cause of death Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 5.18 All prisoners 5.19 Male prisoners 5.20 Female prisoners Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Questionnaire Summary of Sentenced Population Movement: National Prisoner Statistics, 1998

5.5

Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, 1998 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 All prisoners, by race Male prisoners, by race Female prisoners, by race All prisoners, by gender and Hispanic origin

Sentenced prisoners admitted to or released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission or release, 1998 5.10a 5.10b 5.11a 5.11b 5.12a 5.12b All prisoners admitted All prisoners released Male prisoners admitted Male prisoners released Female prisoners admitted Female prisoners released

Prisoners in 1998

Table 5.1. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum Sentence Length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,d Indiana Iowa/d Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri/e Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/a,e,f South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida/d Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/g Mississippi North Carolina/g,h Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia/f West Alaska/b Arizona/d California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho/g Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 1,299,096 123,041 1,176,055 175,771 17,605 1,781 11,799 2,169 31,121 70,001 36,377 3,445 1,473 228,326 43,051 19,197 7,394 8,183 45,879 5,572 24,974 3,676 915 48,450 2,422 18,613 512,622 22,676 10,638 5,558 9,829 67,224 39,262 14,987 32,228 22,572 16,678 31,961 20,892 22,115 17,738 144,510 30,276 3,478 259,336 4,097 25,311 160,127 14,312 4,924 4,083 2,734 9,651 4,985 8,927 4,453 14,161 1,571 12/31/97 1,240,659 112,973 1,127,686 170,050 17,241 1,620 11,947 2,168 28,361 69,108 34,964 3,371 1,270 218,038 40,788 17,903 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,326 23,664 3,402 797 48,016 2,242 16,280 490,493 22,290 10,021 5,435 9,353 64,626 36,505 14,600 29,265 22,232 14,296 31,612 20,542 21,173 16,659 140,351 28,385 3,148 249,105 4,165 23,484 155,790 13,461 4,978 3,911 2,541 9,024 4,688 7,999 4,301 13,214 1,549 Percent change 4.7 % 8.9 % 4.3 3.4 % 2.1 9.9 -1.2 0.0 9.7 1.3 4.0 2.2 16.0 4.7 % 5.5 7.2 6.6 3.4 2.5 4.6 5.5 8.1 14.8 0.9 8.0 14.3 4.5 % 1.7 6.2 2.3 5.1 4.0 7.6 2.7 10.1 1.5 16.7 1.1 1.7 4.4 6.5 3.0 6.7 10.5 4.1 % -1.6 7.8 2.8 6.3 -1.1 4.4 7.6 6.9 6.3 11.6 3.5 7.2 1.4 More than a year 12/31/98 1,248,370 103,682 1,144,688 167,466 12,193 1,731 10,744 2,169 31,121 70,001 36,373 2,175 959 226,925 43,051 19,016 7,394 8,183 45,879 5,557 24,950 3,588 834 48,450 2,417 17,606 498,461 22,214 10,561 3,211 8,144 67,193 38,758 14,987 32,228 21,540 15,855 27,244 20,892 21,236 17,738 144,510 28,672 3,478 251,836 2,541 23,955 157,424 14,312 3,670 4,083 2,734 9,651 4,732 8,600 4,402 14,161 1,571 12/31/97 1,194,334 94,987 1,099,347 161,831 11,920 1,542 10,847 2,168 28,361 69,108 34,957 2,100 828 217,108 40,788 17,730 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,306 23,664 3,329 715 48,016 2,242 15,698 479,278 21,680 9,936 3,264 9,353 64,574 35,787 14,600 29,265 21,088 13,676 27,567 20,542 20,264 16,659 140,351 27,524 3,148 241,130 2,571 22,353 152,739 13,461 3,448 3,911 2,541 9,024 4,450 7,589 4,280 13,214 1,549 Percent change 4.5 % 9.2 % 4.1 3.5 % 2.3 12.3 -0.9 0.0 9.7 1.3 4.1 3.6 15.8 4.5 % 5.5 7.3 6.6 3.4 2.5 4.7 5.4 7.8 16.6 0.9 7.8 12.2 4.0 % 2.5 6.3 -1.6 -12.9 4.1 8.3 2.7 10.1 2.1 15.9 -1.2 1.7 4.8 6.5 3.0 4.2 10.5 4.4 % -1.2 7.2 3.1 6.3 6.4 4.4 7.6 6.9 6.3 13.3 2.9 7.2 1.4 12/31/98 50,726 19,359 31,367 8,305 5,412 50 1,055 ... / 0 4 1,270 514 1,401 0 181 ... ... ... 15 24 88 81 / 5 1,007 14,161 462 77 2,347 1,685 31 504 ... ... 1,032 823 4,717 / 879 ... / 1,604 / 7,500 1,556 1,356 2,703 / 1,254 ... / 0 253 327 51 / 0 Total 12/31/97 46,325 17,986 28,339 8,219 5,321 78 1,100 ... / 0 7 1,271 442 930 0 173 ... ... ... 20 0 73 82 / / 582 11,215 610 85 2,171 / 52 718 ... ... 1,144 620 4,045 / 909 ... / 861 / 7,975 1,594 1,131 3,051 / 1,530 ... / 0 238 410 21 / 0 Percent change 9.5 % 7.6 % 10.7 1.0 % 1.7 -35.9 -4.1 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 24,526 5,176 19,350 3,579 2,225 50 283 ... / 0 4 706 311 406 / 172 ... ... ... ... 22 88 81 / 5 38 12,614 462 77 1,169 1,316 31 504 ... ... 1,032 823 4,717 / 879 ... / 1,604 ... 2,751 553 1,356 / / 211 ... / / 253 327 51 / 0 21,280 4,676 16,604 3,504 2,212 78 297 ... / 0 6 639 272 347 / 165 ... ... ... ... / 73 82 / / 27 10,225 610 85 1,181 / 52 718 ... ... 1,144 620 4,045 / 909 ... / 861 ... 2,528 528 1,131 / / 200 ... / / 238 410 21 / 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 26,200 14,183 12,017 4,726 3,187 ... 772 ... ... 0 0 564 203 995 0 9 ... ... ... 15 2 ... ... ... ... 969 1,547 0 ... 1,178 369 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 4,749 1,003 0 2,703 ... 1,043 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 25,045 13,310 11,735 4,715 3,109 ... 803 ... ... 0 1 632 170 583 0 8 ... ... ... 20 0 ... ... ... ... 555 990 0 ... 990 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 5,447 1,066 0 3,051 ... 1,330 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

-42.9 -0.1 16.3 50.6 % 4.6

-25.0 20.5 -1.2

73.0 26.3 % -24.3 -9.4 8.1 -40.4 -29.8

-9.8 32.7 16.6 -3.3

86.3

-6.0 % -2.4 19.9 -11.4 -18.0

6.3 -20.2 142.9

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e/1997 and 1998 data are not comparable; see Explanatory Notes. f/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some unsentenced inmates. g/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. h/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.

Table 5.2. Male prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,d Indiana Iowa/d Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri/e Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/a,e,f South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida/d Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/g Mississippi North Carolina/g,h Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia/f West Alaska/b Arizona/d California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho/g Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 1,214,969 113,855 1,101,114 166,490 16,248 1,678 11,053 2,053 29,468 66,499 34,860 3,210 1,421 214,616 40,405 17,999 6,903 7,660 43,827 5,284 23,094 3,427 846 45,538 2,219 17,414 479,360 21,215 9,942 5,118 9,470 63,698 36,788 13,941 30,048 21,432 15,465 30,023 18,801 20,703 16,852 134,178 28,419 3,267 240,648 3,795 23,531 148,600 13,242 4,494 3,762 2,486 8,908 4,670 8,404 4,173 13,143 1,440 12/31/97 1,161,468 104,667 1,056,801 161,082 15,840 1,558 11,214 2,059 26,957 65,539 33,540 3,158 1,217 205,273 38,358 16,832 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,068 22,001 3,180 735 45,174 2,073 15,292 458,832 20,930 9,410 5,052 8,946 61,207 34,223 13,548 27,397 21,124 13,334 29,752 18,489 19,871 15,861 130,051 26,675 2,962 231,614 3,861 21,924 144,876 12,512 4,460 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,314 7,549 4,088 12,290 1,413 Percent change 4.6 % 8.8 % 4.2 3.4 % 2.6 7.7 -1.4 -0.3 9.3 1.5 3.9 1.6 16.8 4.6 % 5.3 6.9 7.7 3.0 2.6 4.3 5.0 7.8 15.1 0.8 7.0 13.9 4.5 % 1.4 5.7 1.3 5.9 4.1 7.5 2.9 9.7 1.5 16.0 0.9 1.7 4.2 6.2 3.2 6.5 10.3 3.9 % -1.7 7.3 2.6 5.8 0.8 3.1 5.8 7.0 8.3 11.3 2.1 6.9 1.9 More than a year 12/31/98 1,169,858 96,356 1,073,502 159,315 11,464 1,635 10,317 2,053 29,468 66,499 34,858 2,084 937 213,305 40,405 17,832 6,903 7,660 43,827 5,272 23,070 3,357 769 45,538 2,214 16,458 466,624 20,819 9,871 3,016 7,785 63,672 36,349 13,941 30,048 20,511 14,753 25,879 18,801 19,972 16,852 134,178 26,910 3,267 234,258 2,383 22,374 146,519 13,242 3,311 3,762 2,486 8,908 4,448 8,118 4,124 13,143 1,440 12/31/97 1,120,544 88,448 1,032,096 153,926 11,128 1,484 10,406 2,059 26,957 65,539 33,534 2,025 794 204,451 38,358 16,673 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,050 22,001 3,118 660 45,174 2,073 14,784 448,927 20,368 9,335 3,105 8,946 61,162 33,586 13,548 27,397 20,098 12,792 26,191 18,489 19,100 15,861 130,051 25,936 2,962 224,792 2,415 20,938 142,428 12,512 3,080 3,648 2,350 8,329 4,129 7,190 4,070 12,290 1,413 Percent change 4.4 % 8.9 % 4.0 3.5 % 3.0 10.2 -0.9 -0.3 9.3 1.5 3.9 2.9 18.0 4.3 % 5.3 7.0 7.7 3.0 2.6 4.4 4.9 7.7 16.5 0.8 6.8 11.3 3.9 % 2.2 5.7 -2.9 -13.0 4.1 8.2 2.9 9.7 2.1 15.3 -1.2 1.7 4.6 6.2 3.2 3.8 10.3 4.2 % -1.3 6.9 2.9 5.8 7.5 3.1 5.8 7.0 7.7 12.9 1.3 6.9 1.9 12/31/98 45,111 17,499 27,612 7,175 4,784 43 736 ... / 0 2 1,126 484 1,311 0 167 ... ... ... 12 24 70 77 / 5 956 12,736 396 71 2,102 1,685 26 439 ... ... 921 712 4,144 / 731 ... / 1,509 / 6,390 1,412 1,157 2,081 / 1,183 ... / 0 222 286 49 / 0 Total 12/31/97 40,924 16,219 24,705 7,156 4,712 74 808 ... / 0 6 1,133 423 822 0 159 ... ... ... 18 0 62 75 / / 508 9,905 562 75 1,947 / 45 637 ... ... 1,026 542 3,561 / 771 ... / 739 / 6,822 1,446 986 2,448 / 1,380 ... / 0 185 359 18 / 0 Percent change 10.2 % 7.9 % 11.8 0.3 % 1.5 -41.9 -8.9 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 21,380 4,378 17,002 2,940 1,907 43 87 ... / 0 2 608 293 364 / 159 ... ... ... ... 22 70 77 / 5 31 11,288 396 71 1,023 1,316 26 439 ... ... 921 712 4,144 / 731 ... / 1,509 ... 2,410 504 1,157 / / 192 ... / / 222 286 49 / 0 18,398 3,964 14,434 2,898 1,875 74 114 ... / 0 5 566 264 315 / 153 ... ... ... ... / 62 75 / / 25 9,011 562 75 1,053 / 45 637 ... ... 1,026 542 3,561 / 771 ... / 739 ... 2,210 483 986 / / 179 ... / / 185 359 18 / 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 23,731 13,121 10,610 4,235 2,877 ... 649 ... ... 0 0 518 191 947 0 8 ... ... ... 12 2 ... ... ... ... 925 1,448 0 ... 1,079 369 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 3,980 908 0 2,081 ... 991 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 22,526 12,255 10,271 4,258 2,837 ... 694 ... ... 0 1 567 159 507 0 6 ... ... ... 18 0 ... ... ... ... 483 894 0 ... 894 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 4,612 963 0 2,448 ... 1,201 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

-66.7 -0.6 14.4 59.5 % 5.0

-33.3 12.9 2.7

88.2 28.6 % -29.5 -5.3 8.0 -42.2 -31.1

-10.2 31.4 16.4 -5.2

104.2

-6.3 % -2.4 17.3 -15.0 -14.3

20.0 -20.3 172.2

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e/1997 and 1998 data are not comparable; see Explanatory Notes. f/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some unsentenced inmates. g/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. h/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.

Table 5.3. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum Sentence Length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,d Indiana Iowa/d Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri/e Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/a,e,f South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida/d Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/g Mississippi North Carolina/g,h Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia/f West Alaska/b Arizona/d California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho/g Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 84,127 9,186 74,941 9,281 1,357 103 746 116 1,653 3,502 1,517 235 52 13,710 2,646 1,198 491 523 2,052 288 1,880 249 69 2,912 203 1,199 33,262 1,461 696 440 359 3,526 2,474 1,046 2,180 1,140 1,213 1,938 2,091 1,412 886 10,332 1,857 211 18,688 302 1,780 11,527 1,070 430 321 248 743 315 523 280 1,018 131 12/31/97 79,191 8,306 70,885 8,968 1,401 62 733 109 1,404 3,569 1,424 213 53 12,765 2,430 1,071 528 476 2,056 258 1,663 222 62 2,842 169 988 31,661 1,360 611 383 407 3,419 2,282 1,052 1,868 1,108 962 1,860 2,053 1,302 798 10,300 1,710 186 17,491 304 1,560 10,914 949 518 263 191 695 374 450 213 924 136 Percent change 6.2 % 10.6 % 5.7 3.5 % -3.1 66.1 1.8 6.4 17.7 -1.9 6.5 10.3 -1.9 7.4 % 8.9 11.9 -7.0 9.9 -0.2 11.6 13.0 12.2 11.3 2.5 20.1 21.4 5.1 % 7.4 13.9 14.9 -11.8 3.1 8.4 -0.6 16.7 2.9 26.1 4.2 1.9 8.4 11.0 0.3 8.6 13.4 6.8 % -0.7 14.1 5.6 12.8 -17.0 22.1 29.8 6.9 -15.8 16.2 31.5 10.2 -3.7 More than a year 12/31/98 78,512 7,326 71,186 8,151 729 96 427 116 1,653 3,502 1,515 91 22 13,620 2,646 1,184 491 523 2,052 285 1,880 231 65 2,912 203 1,148 31,837 1,395 690 195 359 3,521 2,409 1,046 2,180 1,029 1,102 1,365 2,091 1,264 886 10,332 1,762 211 17,578 158 1,581 10,905 1,070 359 321 248 743 284 482 278 1,018 131 12/31/97 73,790 6,539 67,251 7,905 792 58 441 109 1,404 3,569 1,423 75 34 12,657 2,430 1,057 528 476 2,056 256 1,663 211 55 2,842 169 914 30,351 1,312 601 159 407 3,412 2,201 1,052 1,868 990 884 1,376 2,053 1,164 798 10,300 1,588 186 16,338 156 1,415 10,311 949 368 263 191 695 321 399 210 924 136 Percent change 6.4 % 12.0 % 5.9 3.1 % -8.0 65.5 -3.2 6.4 17.7 -1.9 6.5 21.3 -35.3 7.6 % 8.9 12.0 -7.0 9.9 -0.2 11.3 13.0 9.5 18.2 2.5 20.1 25.6 4.9 % 6.3 14.8 22.6 -11.8 3.2 9.5 -0.6 16.7 3.9 24.7 -0.8 1.9 8.6 11.0 0.3 11.0 13.4 7.6 % 1.3 11.7 5.8 12.8 -2.4 22.1 29.8 6.9 -11.5 20.8 32.4 10.2 -3.7 Total 12/31/98 12/31/97 5,615 1,860 3,755 1,130 628 7 319 ... / 0 2 144 30 90 0 14 ... ... ... 3 0 18 4 / 0 51 1,425 66 6 245 / 5 65 ... ... 111 111 573 / 148 ... / 95 / 1,110 144 199 622 / 71 ... / 0 31 41 2 / 0 5,401 1,767 3,634 1,063 609 4 292 ... / 0 1 138 19 108 0 14 ... ... ... 2 0 11 7 / / 74 1,310 48 10 224 / 7 81 ... ... 118 78 484 / 138 ... / 122 / 1,153 148 145 603 / 150 ... / 0 53 51 3 / 0 Percent change 4.0 % 5.3 % 3.3 6.3 % 3.1 75.0 9.2 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 3,146 798 2,348 639 318 7 196 ... / 0 2 98 18 42 / 13 ... ... ... ... 0 18 4 / 0 7 1,326 66 6 146 / 5 65 ... ... 111 111 573 / 148 ... / 95 ... 341 49 199 / / 19 ... / / 31 41 2 / 0 2,882 712 2,170 606 337 4 183 ... / 0 1 73 8 32 / 12 ... ... ... ... / 11 7 / / 2 1,214 48 10 128 / 7 81 ... ... 118 78 484 / 138 ... / 122 ... 318 45 145 / / 21 ... / / 53 51 3 / 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 2,469 1,062 1,407 491 310 ... 123 ... ... 0 0 46 12 48 0 1 ... ... ... 3 0 ... ... ... ... 44 99 0 ... 99 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 769 95 0 622 ... 52 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0 2,519 1,055 1,464 457 272 ... 109 ... ... 0 0 65 11 76 0 2 ... ... ... 2 0 ... ... ... ... 72 96 0 ... 96 / ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 0 ... ... ... / 835 103 0 603 ... 129 ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 0

100.0 4.3 57.9 -16.7 % 0.0

50.0 63.6 -42.9

-31.1 8.8 % 37.5 -40.0 9.4 -28.6 -19.8

-5.9 42.3 18.4 7.2

-22.1 -3.7 % -2.7 37.2 3.2 -52.7

-41.5 -19.6 -33.3

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e/1997 and 1998 data are not comparable; see Explanatory Notes. f/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some unsentenced inmates. g/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. h/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.

Table 5.4. Incarceration rates for prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction or in State or Federal custody, by sentence length, 1998 Number of prisoners per 100,000 resident population Total More than a year Year or less/unsentenced Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or Under Federal or In Federal or State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction State custody State jurisdiction State custody 478 45 433 339 537 143 292 182 382 385 303 348 249 362 357 324 258 310 466 117 458 221 144 432 328 355 534 519 418 743 1,890 447 509 379 736 438 604 420 622 573 325 724 444 192 427 665 535 486 357 412 330 310 542 286 270 210 247 327 450 41 409 327 491 131 279 180 335 387 304 335 209 353 357 298 258 309 466 115 458 217 148 429 329 277 489 510 394 743 1,348 447 509 284 434 431 360 403 439 544 284 724 387 156 412 422 535 485 289 299 279 266 519 197 262 242 248 298 460 38 421 323 372 139 275 182 382 385 303 220 162 360 357 321 258 310 466 117 457 215 131 432 327 336 519 509 415 429 1,566 447 502 379 736 418 574 358 622 550 325 724 420 192 415 413 507 478 357 307 330 310 542 271 260 208 247 327 432 35 397 312 340 127 163 176 335 385 304 217 123 350 357 294 258 309 466 115 457 210 135 429 329 260 472 500 392 429 1,272 447 502 284 434 411 349 341 439 522 283 701 383 155 400 222 507 477 289 195 279 266 502 189 253 236 247 298 19 7 12 16 165 4 17 ... / 0 0 128 87 2 0 3 ... ... ... 0 0 5 13 / 1 19 15 11 3 314 324 0 7 ... ... 20 30 62 / 23 ... / 24 / 12 253 29 8 / 105 ... / 0 15 10 2 / 0 18 6 12 16 152 4 15 4 / 2 0 118 86 2 0 3 ... ... ... 0 0 7 13 / 1 17 16 10 3 314 75 0 7 ... ... 20 11 63 / 22 0 23 5 1 12 200 29 8 / 104 ... / 16 9 9 5 1 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c,d New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/d,e Indiana Iowa/e Kansas Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri/f Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota/d Wisconsin/a, f, g South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/h Mississippi North Carolina/h,i Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d Texas/d Virginia West Virginia/g West Alaska/b Arizona/e California/d Colorado/d Hawaii/b Idaho/h Montana/d Nevada/d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/d Wyoming

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for unsentenced inmates or inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some 'inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Includes an estimated 6,200 inmates sentenced to more than 1 year but held in local jails or houses of corrections. d/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/1997 and 1998 data are not comparable; see Explanatory Notes. g/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some unsentenced inmates. h/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year are estimated. i/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less are estimated.

Table 5.5. Prisoners housed in jails because of crowded State facilities, by gender, 1997 and 1998 Prisoners in jails as a percent of all prisoners 12/31/98 2.3 3.8 4.2 2.5 12.2 3.2 0.1 0.9 7.3 0.5 1.1 / 1.5 1.6 3.0 1.8 4.1 7.3 32.7 0.8 4.4 1.7 11.9 12.7 18.7 2.0 / 0.8 19.0 1.9 5.3 24.7 0.2 16.9 2.6

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Northeast Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Indiana Michigan* Minnesota Missouri North Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Kentucky Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona Colorado Idaho Montana New Mexico Oregon Utah Wyoming

Number of prisoners housed in jails Total Male 12/31/98 12/31/97 12/31/98 12/31/97 29,410 6,681 501 54 3,811 2,288 27 1,988 1,408 208 62 0 14 296 15,569 409 432 1,097 5,450 255 920 377 2,119 3,859 651 5,172 / 197 2,716 77 144 1,230 14 753 41 25,523 4,357 484 66 2,864 918 25 1,952 1,323 151 50 55 79 294 15,874 1,965 1,376 1,144 3,951 280 802 400 1,428 3,753 775 3,340 55 211 1,886 31 213 557 9 349 29 27,630 6,350 481 53 3,563 2,248 5 1,917 1,360 208 62 0 14 273 14,401 387 393 1,013 5,329 255 819 349 1,865 3,388 603 4,962 / 183 2,627 61 124 1,230 14 682 41 23,971 4,181 466 66 2,746 903 0 1,898 1,293 151 50 55 73 276 14,766 1,873 1,376 1,076 3,882 280 693 371 1,242 3,265 708 3,126 55 211 1,759 31 193 557 9 282 29

Female 12/31/98 12/31/97 1,780 331 20 1 248 40 22 71 48 / 0 0 0 23 1,168 22 39 84 121 0 101 28 254 471 48 210 / 14 89 16 20 0 0 71 0 1,552 176 18 0 118 15 25 54 30 / 0 0 6 18 1,108 92 0 68 69 0 109 29 186 488 67 214 / 0 127 0 20 0 0 67 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. Excludes 10,795 Louisiana inmates at yearend 1997 and 13,211 inmates at yearend 1998 held in local jails as a result of a partnership with local authorities. Unlisted jurisdictions either had combined jail-prison systems or did not report prisoners held in local jails. Arizona, Michigan, and New York did not include inmates housed in local jails because of crowding in their jurisdiction count; however, the percentage of jurisdiction population was calculated for all persons serving sentences to incarceration in State prison or in jail. /Not reported. *Michigan is unable to distinguish the gender of prison inmates housed in jails; therefore, all inmates are reported under males.

Table 5.6. Prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1998 Number of prisoners American Indian/ Black Alaska Native Asian 616,106 47,847 568,259 91,904 8,290 57 3,384 115 20,323 38,284 20,413 992 46 115,737 28,220 8,109 1,770 3,050 25,336 2,088 11,243 979 31 25,798 97 9,016 294,537 14,905 5,699 3,521 9,574 37,143 26,022 5,574 24,621 17,495 12,442 20,355 7,119 15,339 8,993 65,133 20,050 552 66,081 556 3,739 50,052 3,376 220 57 49 2,657 560 1,136 346 3,255 78 13,396 2,001 11,395 434 20 13 32 2 4 270 71 8 14 2,471 72 48 125 154 235 376 79 155 172 93 499 463 2,278 3 9 2 0 18 77 7 6 5 18 600 1,485 20 20 / 6 2 6,212 1,459 1,099 1,319 286 54 149 503 174 274 203 139 457 96 6,695 2,074 4,621 870 63 6 139 18 98 382 126 32 6 489 71 24 59 68 64 / 30 20 9 53 / 91 315 1 9 4 0 8 47 7 1 8 11 47 32 5 20 / 114 1 2,947 72 61 1,228 94 772 23 1 116 11 112 114 341 2

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/b,c Maine/d Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania/c Rhode Island/b,c Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,e Indiana Iowa/c,e Kansas Michigan/c,e Minnesota/c Missouri Nebraska/d North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/b District of Columbia/b,d Florida/c,e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana/c Maryland Mississippi/c North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina/c Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/c,f West Virginia West Alaska/b,c Arizona/e California/c Colorado/d Hawaii/b,d Idaho/d Montana/c Nevada/c,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming/c

Prison population 12/31/98 1,299,096 123,041 1,176,055 175,771 17,605 1,781 11,799 2,169 31,121 70,001 36,377 3,445 1,473 228,326 43,051 19,197 7,394 8,183 45,879 5,572 24,974 3,676 915 48,450 2,422 18,613 512,622 22,676 10,638 5,558 9,829 67,224 39,262 14,987 32,228 22,572 16,678 31,961 20,892 22,115 17,738 144,510 30,276 3,478 259,336 4,097 25,311 160,127 14,312 4,924 4,083 2,734 9,651 4,985 8,927 4,453 14,161 1,571

White 533,238 71,119 462,119 67,606 4,691 1,525 5,325 2,031 7,880 30,806 12,287 1,845 1,216 103,045 10,371 11,016 5,117 4,853 19,067 2,619 13,617 2,520 703 22,434 1,826 8,902 173,836 7,693 4,868 2,028 93 28,632 13,055 9,373 7,559 5,039 4,150 10,419 11,397 6,651 8,615 41,383 9,958 2,923 117,632 1,878 20,141 47,595 10,492 1,039 3,327 2,108 5,324 4,140 6,561 3,825 10,006 1,196

Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander/a 2,309 / 2,309 1 / / 0 / / / / 1 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 2,308 / / 216 / 2,092 / 0 / / / / / /

Not known 127,352 0 127,352 14,956 4,541 180 2,919 3 2,816 259 3,480 567 191 6,584 4,317 0 323 58 1,177 489 5 2 0 72 0 141 41,656 74 53 3 162 1,423 61 26 41 25 57 540 859 100 90 37,994 148 0 64,156 132 271 59,717 64 747 527 73 1,380 0 915 29 102 199

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/See the Explanatory Notes for details on State-by-Statereporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b/Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are in one system. c/Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not known." d/The numbers in racial categories were estimated. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not known."

Table 5.7. Male prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1998 Number of prisoners American Indian/ Black Alaska Native Asian 577,289 44,351 532,938 86,977 7,675 56 3,223 108 19,205 36,079 19,656 930 45 108,785 26,374 7,629 1,671 2,851 24,186 1,981 10,450 908 30 24,216 92 8,397 276,247 14,080 5,421 3,260 9,229 35,265 24,508 5,166 23,149 16,690 11,643 19,290 6,338 14,429 8,662 59,709 18,888 520 60,929 509 3,444 46,235 3,059 204 53 48 2,435 506 1,046 324 2,997 69 12,241 1,880 10,361 417 18 12 30 0 4 267 64 8 14 2,239 58 44 108 146 222 349 71 134 158 90 439 420 2,070 3 7 2 0 6 71 7 6 4 15 561 1,344 19 18 / 5 2 5,635 1,363 1,018 1,157 263 52 124 434 156 253 172 130 420 93 6,325 1,905 4,420 846 54 5 135 18 95 376 125 32 6 472 67 24 59 68 62 / 26 18 9 51 / 88 298 1 9 3 0 8 44 7 1 7 10 44 30 5 19 / 109 1 2,804 68 53 1,182 90 722 23 0 112 11 106 109 326 2

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/b,c Maine/d Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania/c Rhode Island/b,c Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,e Indiana Iowa/c,e Kansas Michigan/c,e Minnesota/c Missouri Nebraska/d North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/b District of Columbia/b,d Florida/c,e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana/c Maryland Mississippi/c North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina/c Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/c,f West Virginia West Alaska/b,c Arizona/e California/c Colorado/d Hawaii/b,d Idaho/d Montana/c Nevada/c,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming/c

Prison population 12/31/98 1,214,969 113,855 1,101,114 166,490 16,248 1,678 11,053 2,053 29,468 66,499 34,860 3,210 1,421 214,616 40,405 17,999 6,903 7,660 43,827 5,284 23,094 3,427 846 45,538 2,219 17,414 479,360 21,215 9,942 5,118 9,470 63,698 36,788 13,941 30,048 21,432 15,465 30,023 18,801 20,703 16,852 134,178 28,419 3,267 240,648 3,795 23,531 148,600 13,242 4,494 3,762 2,486 8,908 4,670 8,404 4,173 13,143 1,440

White 495,593 65,719 429,874 63,987 4,245 1,433 4,930 1,925 7,394 29,527 11,656 1,705 1,172 96,767 9,735 10,302 4,753 4,539 18,226 2,481 12,543 2,366 649 21,109 1,688 8,376 160,800 7,062 4,452 1,850 81 27,117 12,109 8,736 6,854 4,706 3,740 9,605 10,273 6,158 8,068 37,973 9,272 2,744 108,320 1,732 18,752 43,229 9,770 934 3,039 1,941 4,861 3,900 6,181 3,581 9,314 1,086

Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander/a 2,104 / 2,104 1 / / 0 / / / / 1 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 2,103 / / 202 / 1,901 / 0 / / / / / /

Not known 121,417 0 121,417 14,262 4,256 172 2,735 2 2,770 250 3,359 534 184 6,353 4,171 0 312 56 1,131 473 4 1 0 72 0 133 39,945 69 53 3 160 1,302 56 25 38 25 57 523 816 92 85 36,496 145 0 60,857 123 264 56,595 60 681 523 63 1,344 0 899 29 86 190

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/See the Explanatory Notes for details on State-by-State reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b/Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are in one system. c/Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not Known." d/The numbers in racial categories were estimated. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not Known."

Table 5.8. Female prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by race, 1998 Number of prisoners American Indian/ Alaska Native Asian 1,155 121 1,034 17 2 1 2 2 0 3 7 0 0 232 14 4 17 8 13 27 8 21 14 3 60 43 208 0 2 0 0 12 6 0 0 1 3 39 141 1 2 / 1 0 577 96 81 162 23 2 25 69 18 21 31 9 37 3 370 169 201 24 9 1 4 0 3 6 1 0 0 17 4 0 0 0 2 / 4 2 0 2 / 3 17 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 3 2 0 1 / 5 0 143 4 8 46 4 50 0 1 4 0 6 5 15 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/b,c Maine/d Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania/c Rhode Island/b,c Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c,e Indiana Iowa/c,e Kansas Michigan/c,e Minnesota/c Missouri Nebraska/d North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/b District of Columbia/b,d Florida/c,e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana/c Maryland Mississippi/c North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina/c Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/c,f West Virginia West Alaska/b,c Arizona/e California/c Colorado/d Hawaii/b,d Idaho/d Montana/c Nevada/c,d New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming/c

Prisoner population 12/31/98 84,127 9,186 74,941 9,281 1,357 103 746 116 1,653 3,502 1,517 235 52 13,710 2,646 1,198 491 523 2,052 288 1,880 249 69 2,912 203 1,199 33,262 1,461 696 440 359 3,526 2,474 1,046 2,180 1,140 1,213 1,938 2,091 1,412 886 10,332 1,857 211 18,688 302 1,780 11,527 1,070 430 321 248 743 315 523 280 1,018 131

White 37,645 5,400 32,245 3,619 446 92 395 106 486 1,279 631 140 44 6,278 636 714 364 314 841 138 1,074 154 54 1,325 138 526 13,036 631 416 178 12 1,515 946 637 705 333 410 814 1,124 493 547 3,410 686 179 9,312 146 1,389 4,366 722 105 288 167 463 240 380 244 692 110

Black 38,817 3,496 35,321 4,927 615 1 161 7 1,118 2,205 757 62 1 6,952 1,846 480 99 199 1,150 107 793 71 1 1,582 5 619 18,290 825 278 261 345 1,878 1,514 408 1,472 805 799 1,065 781 910 331 5,424 1,162 32 5,152 47 295 3,817 317 16 4 1 222 54 90 22 258 9

Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander/a 205 / 205 0 / / 0 / / / / 0 / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / 0 / 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / 0 205 / / 14 / 191 / 0 / / / / / /

Not known 5,935 0 5,935 694 285 8 184 1 46 9 121 33 7 231 146 0 11 2 46 16 1 1 0 0 0 8 1,711 5 0 0 2 121 5 1 3 0 0 17 43 8 5 1,498 3 0 3,299 9 7 3,122 4 66 4 10 36 0 16 0 16 9

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/See the Explanatory Notes for details on State-by-State reporting of Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders. b/Counts include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are in one system. c/Some or all Hispanic prisoners are reported under "Not Known." d/The numbers in racial categories were estimated. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Virginia's Chinese prisoners are reported under "Not Known."

Table 5.9. Prisoners under State and Federal jurisdiction, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1998 Number of prisoners Male NonHispanic 922,098 85,718 836,380 133,773 13,064 1,605 8,879 1,594 25,580 47,276 32,897 2,878 / 215,134 38,734 18,737 7,070 7,539 44,813 5,183 24,475 3,285 862 47,382 / 17,054 310,276 22,671 10,561 5,243 9,664 60,713 0 14,898 / / 16,621 / 20,076 21,626 17,648 107,083 0 3,472 177,197 3,965 16,907 100,410 10,266 4,688 2,831 2,661 8,294 2,228 8,012 3,598 11,965 1,372 Not known 146,089 0 146,089 2,575 1 172 190 480 0 259 0 0 1,473 3,082 1 0 14 58 2 4 178 1 0 72 2,422 330 134,529 0 0 89 162 627 38,926 0 32,228 / 0 31,961 0 387 0 0 30,149 0 5,903 0 0 4,629 64 94 740 6 2 0 0 29 339 0 NonHispanic 859,082 79,013 780,069 126,396 11,992 1,510 8,318 1,491 24,108 44,800 31,501 2,676 / 202,148 36,234 17,558 6,590 7,043 42,801 4,908 22,739 3,049 794 44,516 / 15,916 288,713 21,210 9,866 4,827 9,307 57,414 0 13,856 / / 15,408 / 18,026 20,553 16,767 98,218 0 3,261 162,812 3,672 15,540 92,005 9,412 4,271 2,641 2,423 7,586 2,064 7,505 3,355 11,088 1,250 Not known 136,301 0 136,301 2,494 1 164 190 471 0 247 0 0 1,421 2,735 1 0 11 56 2 2 54 1 0 72 2,219 317 125,720 0 0 82 160 584 36,473 0 30,048 / 0 30,023 0 56 0 0 28,294 0 5,352 0 0 4,237 60 87 654 5 2 0 0 29 278 0

Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a Vermont/a,b Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa/c Kansas Michigan/c,d Minnesota Missouri Nebraska/e North Dakota Ohio/e South Dakota/b Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware/a District of Columbia/a Florida/c Georgia/c Kentucky Louisiana/b Maryland/b Mississippi North Carolina/b Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/a Arizona/c California Colorado/e Hawaii/a,e Idaho/e Montana Nevada/e New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Prisoner population 12/31/98 1,299,096 123,041 1,176,055 175,771 17,605 1,781 11,799 2,169 31,121 70,001 36,377 3,445 1,473 228,326 43,051 19,197 7,394 8,183 45,879 5,572 24,974 3,676 915 48,450 2,422 18,613 512,622 22,676 10,638 5,558 9,829 67,224 39,262 14,987 32,228 22,572 16,678 31,961 20,892 22,115 17,738 144,510 30,276 3,478 259,336 4,097 25,311 160,127 14,312 4,924 4,083 2,734 9,651 4,985 8,927 4,453 14,161 1,571

Female NonHispanic 63,016 6,705 56,311 7,377 1,072 95 561 103 1,472 2,476 1,396 202 / 12,986 2,500 1,179 480 496 2,012 275 1,736 236 68 2,866 / 1,138 21,563 1,461 695 416 357 3,299 0 1,042 / / 1,213 / 2,050 1,073 881 8,865 0 211 14,385 293 1,367 8,405 854 417 190 238 708 164 507 243 877 122 Not known 9,788 0 9,788 81 0 8 0 9 0 12 0 0 52 347 0 0 3 2 0 2 124 0 0 0 203 13 8,809 0 0 7 2 43 2,453 0 2,180 / 0 1,938 0 331 0 0 1,855 0 551 0 0 392 4 7 86 1 0 0 0 0 61 0

Hispanic 208,337 37,323 171,014 39,423 4,540 4 2,730 95 5,541 22,466 3,480 567 / 10,110 4,316 460 310 586 1,064 385 321 390 53 996 / 1,229 45,245 5 77 226 3 5,884 336 89 / / 57 / 816 102 90 37,427 127 6 76,236 132 8,404 55,088 3,982 142 512 67 1,355 2,757 915 826 1,857 199

Total 1,214,969 113,855 1,101,114 166,490 16,248 1,678 11,053 2,053 29,468 66,499 34,860 3,210 1,421 214,616 40,405 17,999 6,903 7,660 43,827 5,284 23,094 3,427 846 45,538 2,219 17,414 479,360 21,215 9,942 5,118 9,470 63,698 36,788 13,941 30,048 21,432 15,465 30,023 18,801 20,703 16,852 134,178 28,419 3,267 240,648 3,795 23,531 148,600 13,242 4,494 3,762 2,486 8,908 4,670 8,404 4,173 13,143 1,440

Hispanic 198,154 34,842 163,312 37,600 4,255 4 2,545 91 5,360 21,452 3,359 534 / 9,733 4,170 441 302 561 1,024 374 301 377 52 950 / 1,181 43,495 5 76 209 3 5,700 315 85 / / 57 / 775 94 85 35,960 125 6 72,484 123 7,991 52,358 3,770 136 467 58 1,320 2,606 899 789 1,777 190

Total 84,127 9,186 74,941 9,281 1,357 103 746 116 1,653 3,502 1,517 235 52 13,710 2,646 1,198 491 523 2,052 288 1,880 249 69 2,912 203 1,199 33,262 1,461 696 440 359 3,526 2,474 1,046 2,180 1,140 1,213 1,938 2,091 1,412 886 10,332 1,857 211 18,688 302 1,780 11,527 1,070 430 321 248 743 315 523 280 1,018 131

Hispanic 10,183 2,481 7,702 1,823 285 0 185 4 181 1,014 121 33 / 377 146 19 8 25 40 11 20 13 1 46 / 48 1,750 0 1 17 0 184 21 4 / / 0 / 41 8 5 1,467 2 0 3,752 9 413 2,730 212 6 45 9 35 151 16 37 80 9

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/State does not distinguish ethnicity of prisoners. c/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. d/Michigan reported only Mexican-Americans as Hispanic prisoners and reported other Hispanic inmates as non-Hispanic. e/Data for Hispanic prisoners are estimated.

Table 5.10a. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1998 Number of sentenced prisoners admitted during 1998 Parole or other Escapees Returns conditional release and AWOLs from appeal violators returned returned or bond 209,782 3,630 206,152 20,684 849 303 682 358 6,822 7,613 3,665 270 122 25,028 6,802 1,052 660 1,595 4,453 1,306 3,965 309 150 2,961 208 1,567 60,041 700 1,694 513 2,285 2,362 4,078 1,700 8,853 3,408 454 1,681 879 2,140 3,836 23,784 1,493 181 100,399 993 2,398 87,539 1,951 1,408 / 616 794 671 1,271 1,683 788 287 7,175 / 7,175 1,436 131 8 16 13 0 1,092 72 10 94 3,394 892 17 618 8 1,067 / 760 20 1 6 5 / 1,490 217 14 33 347 167 51 88 97 102 44 111 116 48 53 0 / 2 855 40 15 209 322 26 / 33 / 10 51 7 139 3 845 / 845 154 6 10 / / 41 83 14 0 / 87 13 / 41 / 0 / 15 / 1 17 0 ... 547 64 19 0 0 15 2 ... 440 / / 0 0 7 / 0 / 0 57 0 1 / 5 / / / / 1 28 8 11 3

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c New Hampshire New Jersey/b,d New York/d Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,b Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/b,e Indiana/d Iowa/e Kansas/d Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota/b Wisconsin South Alabama/f Arkansas/b Delaware/a District of Columbia/a,b Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,d Mississippi/d,g North Carolina/b Oklahoma/b,d South Carolina Tennessee/b Texas/b Virginia West Virginia/b West Alaska/a,b,c Arizona/e California/b Colorado/b,h Hawaii/a,c,d Idaho Montana/b Nevada/b,d New Mexico Oregon/i Utah Washington/b Wyoming/d

Number of prisoners 1/1/98 1,195,211 94,987 1,100,224 161,840 11,920 1,542 10,847 2,168 28,361 69,108 34,964 2,100 830 217,108 40,788 17,730 6,938 7,911 44,771 5,306 23,664 3,329 715 48,016 2,242 15,698 479,910 21,731 9,936 3,264 9,827 64,574 35,894 14,600 29,265 21,088 13,676 27,567 20,542 20,264 16,659 140,351 27,524 3,148 241,366 2,571 22,353 152,739 13,461 3,448 3,948 2,541 9,024 4,649 7,589 4,280 13,214 1,549

Total 615,226 39,188 576,038 65,121 1,933 795 3,227 1,000 16,801 28,871 10,679 991 824 112,960 27,362 10,566 4,798 4,517 14,435 4,307 13,660 1,791 765 20,637 1,337 8,785 214,586 7,750 6,204 1,888 7,613 25,524 15,471 7,989 17,079 11,078 6,670 11,403 7,297 8,914 8,770 59,340 10,152 1,444 183,371 2,647 10,175 134,485 6,881 3,481 2,621 1,289 4,773 2,347 3,688 3,076 7,151 757

New court commitments 381,646 34,376 347,270 41,175 947 449 2,154 629 9,938 19,497 6,650 700 211 79,799 19,655 9,495 3,312 2,886 8,024 3,001 7,822 1,462 613 17,652 1,087 4,790 146,324 6,664 3,732 1,118 3,099 21,937 11,329 6,171 7,367 7,552 5,301 9,582 6,302 6,521 4,855 34,876 8,659 1,259 79,972 1,612 7,709 46,529 4,585 2,003 1,331 638 3,617 1,631 2,267 1,378 6,211 461

Transfers from other jurisdictions 4,541 969 3,572 1,082 0 25 375 0 / 568 102 10 2 118 / 2 101 / 10 / 0 0 0 1 4 0 2,053 41 1 2 1,878 49 11 0 34 9 0 0 0 / 26 / / 2 319 2 52 208 18 / / 2 / 34 / 0 0 3

Other admissions 11,237 213 11,024 590 0 0 0 0 0 18 176 1 395 4,534 0 0 66 28 881 0 1,098 0 0 0 33 2,428 4,131 64 744 222 4 994 0 30 288 7 871 29 0 198 0 680 0 0 1,769 0 0 0 0 44 1,290 0 362 0 71 0 2 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. c/Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. d/New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory Notes. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Other admissions may include other conditional release violators returned. See Explanatory Notes. g/Other admissions may include returns from appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. h/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other admission category.

Table 5.10b. Sentenced prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Number of sentenced prisoners released during 1998 Out on Transfers Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases and AWOL's or bond jurisdictions 126,086 23,939 102,147 10,055 238 229 1,923 206 4,116 1,648 1,608 6 81 15,658 1,409 614 748 301 1,174 504 1,036 809 140 8,372 356 195 64,817 2,375 584 911 3,894 13,504 3,431 3,629 671 1,225 2,170 5,007 3,685 3,488 2,168 12,922 4,743 410 11,617 746 1,268 2,603 1,103 205 331 216 1,862 712 4 253 2,037 277 6,530 / 6,530 1,324 94 6 16 13 0 1,117 72 6 0 2,818 894 17 3 6 1,249 / 622 16 1 4 6 / 1,409 221 13 0 269 144 47 93 103 118 73 111 101 39 63 0 3 11 979 41 10 319 347 27 17 20 / 1 64 7 123 3 797 / 797 219 1 4 0 0 102 105 4 3 0 248 11 / 56 7 105 / 20 / 5 43 1 ... 140 86 40 0 / 1 / / / / / 0 0 11 / / / 2 190 3 0 / 14 125 0 4 2 1 7 16 15 3 4,856 246 4,610 1,210 52 12 414 0 0 676 39 17 0 131 / 0 100 / 10 / 16 0 0 1 4 0 3,154 43 42 356 1,967 97 429 4 76 16 0 0 0 0 124 / / 0 115 21 4 32 0 7 0 10 / 11 / 2 0 28

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,e New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,c Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/c,d Indiana Iowa/d Kansas Michigan/d Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/a,b District of Columbia/a,b,c,f Florida/d Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,e Mississippi/h North Carolina/c Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/g West Virginia/c West Alaska/a,c,e Arizona/d California/c,f Colorado/c,i Hawaii/a,e Idaho Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon/j Utah Washington/c Wyoming

Total 561,020 29,708 531,312 59,495 1,660 606 3,330 999 14,041 27,978 9,270 916 695 102,730 25,099 9,280 4,342 4,245 13,327 4,056 12,374 1,532 646 20,203 1,162 6,464 196,186 7,280 5,579 1,941 9,434 22,905 12,607 7,602 14,116 10,626 4,491 11,726 6,947 7,942 7,691 55,181 9,004 1,114 172,901 2,677 8,573 129,800 6,030 3,259 2,486 1,096 4,146 2,264 2,677 2,954 6,204 735

Conditional releases 406,050 2,148 403,902 45,798 1,104 352 953 768 9,654 24,197 7,285 877 608 81,381 22,662 8,603 3,366 3,910 10,500 3,544 10,636 702 499 11,643 793 4,523 123,119 4,420 4,854 454 3,284 8,674 8,602 3,739 13,179 9,205 2,193 6,560 3,104 4,134 5,288 40,550 4,193 686 153,604 1,862 6,917 122,094 4,387 2,042 2,127 839 2,255 1,421 2,584 2,673 3,983 420

Deaths 3,018 223 2,795 483 33 2 24 8 69 213 127 6 1 501 99 46 7 21 96 8 42 5 1 140 2 34 1,316 76 35 9 20 207 98 30 80 46 49 48 57 70 48 373 65 5 495 4 62 284 26 11 11 7 27 2 13 3 41 4

Other releases 13,683 3,152 10,531 406 138 1 0 4 100 22 135 5 1 1,993 24 0 62 0 193 0 2 0 0 0 0 1,712 2,231 59 11 211 / 278 0 107 7 16 6 0 0 200 0 1,336 0 0 5,901 0 312 4,468 153 842 0 0 0 116 5 0 5 0

Number of prisoners 12/31/98 1,248,370 103,682 1,144,688 167,466 12,193 1,731 10,744 2,169 31,121 70,001 36,373 2,175 959 226,925 43,051 19,016 7,394 8,183 45,879 5,557 24,950 3,588 834 48,450 2,417 17,606 498,461 22,214 10,561 3,211 8,144 67,193 38,758 14,987 32,228 21,540 15,855 27,244 20,892 21,236 17,738 144,510 28,672 3,478 251,836 2,541 23,955 157,424 14,312 3,670 4,083 2,734 9,651 4,732 8,600 4,402 14,161 1,571

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. c/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. d/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. e/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. f/The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by sex; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. g/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. h/Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. i/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. j/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.11a. Sentenced male prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1998 Number of male prisoners 1/1/98 1,121,397 88,448 1,032,949 153,936 11,128 1,484 10,406 2,059 26,957 65,539 33,540 2,025 798 204,451 38,358 16,673 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,050 22,001 3,118 660 45,174 2,073 14,784 449,593 20,403 9,335 3,105 9,470 61,162 33,693 13,548 27,397 20,098 12,792 26,191 18,489 19,100 15,861 130,051 25,936 2,962 224,969 2,415 20,938 142,428 12,512 3,080 3,665 2,350 8,329 4,289 7,190 4,070 12,290 1,413 Number of sentenced male prisoners admitted during 1998 Parole or other Escapees Returns Transfers New court conditional release and AWOLs from appeal from other commitments violators returned returned or bond jurisdictions 341,573 30,981 310,592 37,846 874 431 1,920 580 9,084 17,962 6,152 648 195 71,053 17,559 8,543 2,942 2,514 7,401 2,730 6,807 1,309 546 15,495 914 4,293 130,685 6,014 3,333 950 2,961 20,164 10,100 5,445 6,666 6,882 4,823 8,846 5,301 5,884 4,323 30,156 7,678 1,159 71,008 1,380 7,014 41,191 4,109 1,657 1,211 577 3,177 1,530 2,060 1,218 5,497 387 190,453 3,358 187,095 19,289 775 279 632 338 6,229 7,137 3,529 256 114 23,167 6,389 957 574 1,468 4,171 1,233 3,549 284 143 2,743 184 1,472 53,477 655 1,571 487 2,184 2,272 3,733 1,562 7,897 3,141 406 1,519 759 1,996 3,437 20,356 1,337 165 91,162 887 2,171 79,653 1,786 1,152 / 522 724 619 1,205 1,501 656 286 6,345 / 6,345 1,305 112 8 13 12 0 995 70 9 86 2,942 769 17 503 8 944 / 671 19 1 6 4 / 1,353 179 14 28 308 157 50 84 95 101 41 103 100 44 47 0 / 2 745 35 7 192 262 26 / 32 / 10 45 7 127 2 752 / 752 141 5 9 / / 37 77 13 0 / 75 10 / 36 / 0 / 14 / 0 15 0 ... 481 54 14 0 0 15 1 ... 392 / / 0 0 5 / 0 / 0 55 0 1 / 3 / / / / 1 28 8 11 3 4,106 685 3,421 1,005 0 5 371 0 / 516 101 10 2 109 / 2 92 / 10 / 0 0 0 1 4 0 2,003 34 1 2 1,849 45 10 0 33 4 0 0 0 / 23 / / 2 304 2 48 199 17 / / 1 / 34 / 0 0 3

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c New Hampshire New Jersey/b,d New York/d Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,b Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/b,e Indiana/d Iowa/e Kansas/d Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota/b Wisconsin South Alabama/f Arkansas/b Delaware/a District of Columbia/a,b Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,d Mississippi/d,g North Carolina/b Oklahoma/b,d South Carolina Tennessee/b Texas/b Virginia West Virginia/b West Alaska/a,b,c Arizona/e California/b Colorado/b,h Hawaii/a,c,d Idaho Montana/b Nevada/b,d New Mexico Oregon/i Utah Washington/b Wyoming/d

Total 553,241 35,224 518,017 60,120 1,766 732 2,936 930 15,350 26,702 10,021 924 759 101,512 24,727 9,519 4,210 4,018 13,343 3,963 12,003 1,612 690 18,260 1,139 8,028 191,616 6,996 5,606 1,657 7,306 23,557 13,894 7,120 15,339 10,135 6,004 10,492 6,160 8,123 7,830 51,054 9,015 1,328 164,769 2,304 9,241 121,235 6,177 2,879 2,242 1,132 4,254 2,194 3,403 2,734 6,293 681

Other admissions 10,012 200 9,812 534 0 0 0 0 0 15 156 1 362 4,166 0 0 63 28 817 0 962 0 0 0 33 2,263 3,617 60 673 190 4 904 0 29 256 7 734 24 0 194 0 542 0 0 1,495 0 0 0 0 44 1,031 0 353 0 65 0 2 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. c/Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. d/New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory Notes. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction f/Other admissions may include other conditional release violators returned. See Explanatory Notes. g/Other admissions may include returns from appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. h/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other admission category.

Table 5.11b. Sentenced male prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Number of sentenced male prisoners released during 1998 Out on Transfers Conditional Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases releases and AWOLs or bond jurisdictions 364,799 2,050 362,749 42,078 981 339 858 713 8,780 22,236 6,804 827 540 73,249 20,403 7,754 2,898 3,478 9,624 3,258 9,347 612 445 10,622 674 4,134 109,445 4,002 4,393 430 3,095 8,192 7,554 3,225 11,831 8,396 1,957 6,029 2,537 3,791 4,605 34,949 3,821 638 137,977 1,639 6,281 110,008 3,958 1,678 1,800 765 1,966 1,267 2,388 2,419 3,436 372 113,037 21,475 91,562 9,368 222 217 1,739 199 3,807 1,559 1,540 6 79 13,909 1,367 545 700 281 1,105 475 968 742 130 7,098 313 185 57,642 2,175 543 796 3,779 12,193 3,167 3,288 605 1,138 1,971 4,626 3,176 3,151 2,011 10,501 4,155 367 10,643 640 1,176 2,444 1,020 174 323 196 1,681 664 4 233 1,841 247 5,835 / 5,835 1,195 81 6 13 12 0 1,009 69 5 0 2,491 781 15 3 6 1,116 / 546 14 1 4 5 / 1,302 183 13 0 268 133 46 86 101 115 64 103 81 34 61 0 3 11 847 36 3 284 290 25 12 17 / 1 61 7 111 0 702 / 702 202 1 4 0 0 94 96 4 3 0 218 10 / 49 7 90 / 19 / 4 38 1 ... 120 72 36 0 / 1 / / / / / 0 0 9 / / / 2 162 2 0 / 13 103 0 1 2 1 7 16 14 3 4,431 242 4,189 1,122 50 12 391 0 0 621 31 17 0 30 / 0 0 / 10 / 16 0 0 1 3 0 2,930 35 40 355 1,829 93 377 3 68 14 0 0 0 0 116 / / 0 107 16 4 29 0 7 0 10 / 11 / 2 0 28 Number of male prisoners 12/31/98 1,169,858 96,356 1,073,502 159,315 11,464 1,635 10,317 2,053 29,468 66,499 34,858 2,084 937 213,305 40,405 17,832 6,903 7,660 43,827 5,272 23,070 3,357 769 45,538 2,214 16,458 466,624 20,819 9,871 3,016 7,785 63,672 36,349 13,941 30,048 20,511 14,753 25,879 18,801 19,972 16,852 134,178 26,910 3,267 234,258 2,383 22,374 146,519 13,242 3,311 3,762 2,486 8,908 4,448 8,118 4,124 13,143 1,440

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,c Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/c,e Indiana Iowa/e Kansas Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/a,b District of Columbia/a,b,c,f Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,d Mississippi/g North Carolina/c Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/h West Virginia/c West Alaska/a,c,d Arizona/e California/c,d Colorado/c,i Hawaii/a,d Idaho Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon/j Utah Washington/c Wyoming

Total 503,675 26,641 477,034 54,741 1,430 581 3,025 936 12,839 25,742 8,703 865 620 92,217 22,680 8,360 3,717 3,793 12,231 3,741 10,934 1,373 581 17,896 998 5,913 174,596 6,591 5,070 1,746 8,991 21,047 11,238 6,727 12,688 9,722 4,043 10,804 5,848 7,251 6,839 46,927 8,041 1,023 155,480 2,336 7,805 117,144 5,447 2,648 2,145 996 3,675 2,035 2,475 2,680 5,440 654

Deaths 2,879 212 2,667 460 29 2 24 8 66 201 123 6 1 484 95 46 7 21 94 8 38 5 1 133 2 34 1,255 74 35 9 20 193 94 29 77 43 46 46 54 68 46 354 62 5 468 3 58 270 25 10 10 7 26 2 12 3 38 4

Other releases 11,992 2,662 9,330 316 66 1 0 4 92 20 132 1 0 1,836 24 0 60 0 192 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,560 1,902 50 10 156 / 242 0 96 6 16 5 0 0 198 0 1,123 0 0 5,276 0 283 4,109 141 651 0 0 0 89 3 0 0 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. c/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. d/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by sex; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. g/Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. h/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. i/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. j/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.12a. Sentenced female prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of admission, 1998 Number of female prisoners 1/1/98 73,814 6,539 67,275 7,904 792 58 441 109 1,404 3,569 1,424 75 32 12,657 2,430 1,057 528 476 2,056 256 1,663 211 55 2,842 169 914 30,317 1,328 601 159 357 3,412 2,201 1,052 1,868 990 884 1,376 2,053 1,164 798 10,300 1,588 186 16,397 156 1,415 10,311 949 368 283 191 695 360 399 210 924 136 Number of sentenced female prisoners admitted during 1998 Parole or other Escapees Returns Transfers New court conditional release and AWOLs from appeal from other commitments violators returned returned or bond jurisdictions 40,073 3,395 36,678 3,329 73 18 234 49 854 1,535 498 52 16 8,746 2,096 952 370 372 623 271 1,015 153 67 2,157 173 497 15,639 650 399 168 138 1,773 1,229 726 701 670 478 736 1,001 637 532 4,720 981 100 8,964 232 695 5,338 476 346 120 61 440 101 207 160 714 74 19,329 272 19,057 1,395 74 24 50 20 593 476 136 14 8 1,861 413 95 86 127 282 73 416 25 7 218 24 95 6,564 45 123 26 101 90 345 138 956 267 48 162 120 144 399 3,428 156 16 9,237 106 227 7,886 165 256 / 94 70 52 66 182 132 1 830 / 830 131 19 0 3 1 0 97 2 1 8 452 123 0 115 0 123 / 89 1 0 0 1 / 137 38 0 5 39 10 1 4 2 1 3 8 16 4 6 0 / 0 110 5 8 17 60 0 / 1 / 0 6 0 12 1 93 / 93 13 1 1 / / 4 6 1 0 / 12 3 / 5 / 0 / 1 / 1 2 0 ... 66 10 5 0 0 0 1 ... 48 / / 0 0 2 / 0 / 0 2 0 0 / 2 / / / / 0 0 0 0 0 435 284 151 77 0 20 4 0 / 52 1 0 0 9 / 0 9 / 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 7 0 0 29 4 1 0 1 5 0 0 0 / 3 / / 0 15 0 4 9 1 / / 1 / 0 / 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c New Hampshire New Jersey/b,d New York/d Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,b Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/b,e Indiana/d Iowa/e Kansas/d Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/b South Dakota/b Wisconsin South Alabama/f Arkansas/b Delaware/a District of Columbia/a,b Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,d Mississippi/d,g North Carolina/b Oklahoma/b,d South Carolina Tennessee/b Texas/b Virginia West Virginia/b West Alaska/a,b,c Arizona/e California/b Colorado/b,h Hawaii/a,c,d Idaho Montana/b Nevada/b,d New Mexico Oregon/i Utah Washington/b Wyoming/d

Total 61,985 3,964 58,021 5,001 167 63 291 70 1,451 2,169 658 67 65 11,448 2,635 1,047 588 499 1,092 344 1,657 179 75 2,377 198 757 22,970 754 598 231 307 1,967 1,577 869 1,740 943 666 911 1,137 791 940 8,286 1,137 116 18,602 343 934 13,250 704 602 379 157 519 153 285 342 858 76

Other admissions 1,225 13 1,212 56 0 0 0 0 0 3 20 0 33 368 0 0 3 0 64 0 136 0 0 0 0 165 514 4 71 32 0 90 0 1 32 0 137 5 0 4 0 138 0 0 274 0 0 0 0 0 259 0 9 0 6 0 0 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Data by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. c/Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. d/New court commitments may include a small number of other admissions. See Explanatory Notes. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Other admissions may include other conditional release violators returned. See Explanatory Notes. g/Other admissions may include returns from appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. h/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. i/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other admission category.

Table 5.12b. Sentenced female prisoners released from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Number of sentenced female prisoners released during 1998 Out on Transfers Conditional Unconditional Escapees appeal to other releases releases and AWOLs or bond jurisdictions 41,251 98 41,153 3,720 123 13 95 55 874 1,961 481 50 68 8,132 2,259 849 468 432 876 286 1,289 90 54 1,021 119 389 13,674 418 461 24 189 482 1,048 514 1,348 809 236 531 567 343 683 5,601 372 48 15,627 223 636 12,086 429 364 327 74 289 154 196 254 547 48 13,049 2,464 10,585 687 16 12 184 7 309 89 68 0 2 1,749 42 69 48 20 69 29 68 67 10 1,274 43 10 7,175 200 41 115 115 1,311 264 341 66 87 199 381 509 337 157 2,421 588 43 974 106 92 159 83 31 8 20 181 48 0 20 196 30 695 / 695 129 13 0 3 1 0 108 3 1 0 327 113 2 0 0 133 / 76 2 0 0 1 / 107 38 0 0 1 11 1 7 2 3 9 8 20 5 2 0 0 0 132 5 7 35 57 2 5 3 / 0 3 0 12 3 95 / 95 17 0 0 0 0 8 9 0 0 0 30 1 / 7 0 15 / 1 / 1 5 0 ... 20 14 4 0 / 0 / / / / / 0 0 2 / / / 0 28 1 0 / 1 22 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 425 4 421 88 2 0 23 0 0 55 8 0 0 101 / 0 100 / 0 / 0 0 0 0 1 0 224 8 2 1 138 4 52 1 8 2 0 0 0 0 8 / / 0 8 5 0 3 0 0 0 0 / 0 / 0 0 0 Number of female prisoners 12/31/98 78,512 7,326 71,186 8,151 729 96 427 116 1,653 3,502 1,515 91 22 13,620 2,646 1,184 491 523 2,052 285 1,880 231 65 2,912 203 1,148 31,837 1,395 690 195 359 3,521 2,409 1,046 2,180 1,029 1,102 1,365 2,091 1,264 886 10,332 1,762 211 17,578 158 1,581 10,905 1,070 359 321 248 743 284 482 278 1,018 131

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,c Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/c,e Indiana Iowa/e Kansas Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/c Delaware/a,b District of Columbia/a,b,c,f Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b,c,d Mississippi/g North Carolina/c Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia/h West Virginia/c West Alaska/a,c,d Arizona/e California/c,d Colorado/c,i Hawaii/a,d Idaho Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon/j Utah Washington/c Wyoming

Total 57,345 3,067 54,278 4,754 230 25 305 63 1,202 2,236 567 51 75 10,513 2,419 920 625 452 1,096 315 1,440 159 65 2,307 164 551 21,590 689 509 195 443 1,858 1,369 875 1,428 904 448 922 1,099 691 852 8,254 963 91 17,421 341 768 12,656 583 611 341 100 471 229 202 274 764 81

Deaths 139 11 128 23 4 0 0 0 3 12 4 0 0 17 4 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 7 0 0 61 2 0 0 / 14 4 1 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 19 3 0 27 1 4 14 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 0

Other releases 1,691 490 1,201 90 72 0 0 0 8 2 3 0 5 157 0 0 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 152 329 9 1 55 / 36 0 11 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 213 0 0 625 0 29 359 12 191 0 0 0 27 2 0 5 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. c/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. d/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by sex; therefore, all deaths are reported under males. g/Other releases may include some releases to appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. h/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. i/Escape and AWOL data are estimated. j/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.13. Sentenced prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Conditional release Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d,e New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,d Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/d,f Indiana Iowa/f Kansas Michigan/f Minnesota/g Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota/d,h Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/d Delaware/a,b,c District of Columbia/a,b,c,d Florida/f Georgia/f Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/c,d,e Mississippi North Carolina/d,i Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d,i Texas/d Virginia/g,j West Virginia/d West Alaska/a,d,e Arizona/f California/d,k Colorado/d Hawaii/a,e Idaho Montana/d Nevada/d New Mexico Oregon/l Utah Washington/d Wyoming Supervised mandatory release 211,135 741 210,394 5,830 ... 0 / / ... 5,830 ... ... ... 35,696 22,630 4,313 ... ... ... 2,738 0 ... ... 3,997 105 1,913 41,301 / ... 428 169 ... ... ... 12,158 5,845 ... / 0 0 / 19,864 2,837 ... 127,567 327 65 122,094 1,161 / ... 0 ... ... ... 0 3,920 0 Unconditional release Expiration of sentence Commutation 120,859 23,768 97,091 9,928 233 212 1,851 194 4,116 1,648 1,589 4 81 14,804 1,365 0 641 301 1,173 483 1,013 809 140 8,364 356 159 61,441 2,368 584 209 3,894 12,964 3,321 3,629 565 700 1,653 4,971 3,026 3,462 2,167 12,922 4,596 410 10,918 671 1,222 2,603 1,103 202 331 216 1,515 712 0 54 2,017 272 404 171 233 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 / 0 0 0 0 / 0 225 0 0 0 0 110 110 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 1 ... / 0 1 0 0 / 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Total 406,050 2,148 403,902 45,798 1,104 352 953 768 9,654 24,197 7,285 877 608 81,381 22,662 8,603 3,366 3,910 10,500 3,544 10,636 702 499 11,643 793 4,523 123,119 4,420 4,854 454 3,284 8,674 8,602 3,739 13,179 9,205 2,193 6,560 3,104 4,134 5,288 40,550 4,193 686 153,604 1,862 6,917 122,094 4,387 2,042 2,127 839 2,255 1,421 2,584 2,673 3,983 420

Parole 136,466 1,328 135,138 36,934 211 3 953 636 8,821 18,367 7,285 427 231 30,730 32 0 1,729 3,691 10,500 10 4,828 702 285 5,656 688 2,609 52,201 2,688 4,428 26 2,432 160 7,195 2,611 978 3,352 1,084 6,560 317 2,687 2,626 13,037 1,356 664 15,273 80 600 / 3,011 852 988 634 2,255 1,420 2,386 2,673 63 311

Probation 37,164 79 37,085 876 ... 311 / 89 ... 0 ... 444 32 10,886 ... 4,290 694 59 ... ... 3,647 ... 206 1,990 0 ... 21,282 1,644 ... / / 3,898 42 1,128 43 ... 1,109 0 2,532 1,424 1,791 7,649 ... 22 4,041 1,156 30 ... 215 1,186 1,139 205 ... 1 ... 0 ... 109

Other 21,285 / 21,285 2,158 893 38 0 43 833 0 0 6 345 4,069 0 0 943 160 0 796 2,161 0 8 0 ... 1 8,335 88 426 0 683 4,616 1,365 / 0 8 0 0 255 23 871 0 0 0 6,723 299 6,222 ... 0 4 / 0 0 0 198 0 0 0

Total 126,086 23,939 102,147 10,055 238 229 1,923 206 4,116 1,648 1,608 6 81 15,658 1,409 614 748 301 1,174 504 1,036 809 140 8,372 356 195 64,817 2,375 584 911 3,894 13,504 3,431 3,629 671 1,225 2,170 5,007 3,685 3,488 2,168 12,922 4,743 410 11,617 746 1,268 2,603 1,103 205 331 216 1,862 712 4 253 2,037 277

Other 4,823 / 4,823 122 4 15 72 12 0 0 19 0 0 852 43 614 107 0 0 21 23 0 0 8 ... 36 3,151 7 0 702 / 430 0 / 106 524 517 33 659 26 0 ... 147 0 698 75 46 / 0 3 / 0 347 0 4 199 20 4

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Expirations of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory Notes. c/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. d/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. e/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. f/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g/Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory Notes. h/Expirations of sentence may include commutations and pardons. See Explanatory Notes. i/Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory Notes. j/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. k/Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. l/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.14. Sentenced male prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Conditional release Supervised mandatory release Probation 32,050 68 31,982 836 ... 299 / 83 ... 0 ... 423 31 9,389 ... 3,829 556 53 ... ... 3,142 ... 194 1,615 0 ... 18,403 1,513 ... / / 3,625 37 942 40 ... 992 0 2,085 1,276 1,582 6,290 ... 21 3,354 1,001 28 ... 189 947 901 188 ... 1 ... 0 ... 99 191,277 711 190,566 5,594 ... 0 / / ... 5,594 ... ... ... 32,441 20,372 3,925 ... ... ... 2,552 0 ... ... 3,694 97 1,801 37,696 / ... 405 168 ... ... ... 10,938 5,509 ... / 0 0 / 18,009 2,667 ... 114,835 302 64 110,008 1,086 / ... 0 ... ... ... 0 3,375 0 Unconditional release Expiration of sentence Commutation 108,450 21,332 87,118 9,256 217 200 1,679 188 3,807 1,559 1,523 4 79 13,152 1,329 0 610 281 1,104 456 945 742 130 7,090 313 152 54,723 2,170 543 191 3,779 11,727 3,074 3,288 505 676 1,529 4,591 2,603 3,130 2,011 10,501 4,038 367 9,987 568 1,131 2,444 1,020 171 323 196 1,353 664 0 53 1,822 242 333 143 190 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 / 0 0 0 0 / 0 183 0 0 0 0 87 93 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 ... / 0 1 0 0 / 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d,e New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,d Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/d,f Indiana Iowa/f Kansas Michigan/f Minnesota/g Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota/d,h Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/d Delaware/a,b,c District of Columbia/a,b,c,d Florida/f Georgia/f Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/c,d,e Mississippi North Carolina/d,i Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d,i Texas/d Virginia/g,j West Virginia/d West Alaska/a,d,e Arizona/f California/d,k Colorado/d Hawaii/a,e Idaho Montana/d Nevada/d New Mexico Oregon/l Utah Washington/d Wyoming

Total 364,799 2,050 362,749 42,078 981 339 858 713 8,780 22,236 6,804 827 540 73,249 20,403 7,754 2,898 3,478 9,624 3,258 9,347 612 445 10,622 674 4,134 109,445 4,002 4,393 430 3,095 8,192 7,554 3,225 11,831 8,396 1,957 6,029 2,537 3,791 4,605 34,949 3,821 638 137,977 1,639 6,281 110,008 3,958 1,678 1,800 765 1,966 1,267 2,388 2,419 3,436 372

Parole 122,372 1,271 121,101 33,747 207 3 858 588 8,038 16,642 6,804 401 206 27,826 31 0 1,494 3,269 9,624 10 4,321 612 243 5,313 577 2,332 45,849 2,405 4,005 25 2,305 154 6,431 2,283 853 2,879 965 6,029 237 2,494 2,363 10,650 1,154 617 13,679 71 533 / 2,683 727 899 577 1,966 1,266 2,204 2,419 61 273

Other 19,100 / 19,100 1,901 774 37 0 42 742 0 0 3 303 3,593 0 0 848 156 0 696 1,884 0 8 0 ... 1 7,497 84 388 0 622 4,413 1,086 / 0 8 0 0 215 21 660 0 0 0 6,109 265 5,656 ... 0 4 / 0 0 0 184 0 0 0

Total 113,037 21,475 91,562 9,368 222 217 1,739 199 3,807 1,559 1,540 6 79 13,909 1,367 545 700 281 1,105 475 968 742 130 7,098 313 185 57,642 2,175 543 796 3,779 12,193 3,167 3,288 605 1,138 1,971 4,626 3,176 3,151 2,011 10,501 4,155 367 10,643 640 1,176 2,444 1,020 174 323 196 1,681 664 4 233 1,841 247

Other 4,254 / 4,254 107 4 15 60 11 0 0 17 0 0 756 38 545 90 0 0 19 23 0 0 8 ... 33 2,736 5 0 605 / 379 0 / 100 461 442 33 573 21 0 ... 117 0 655 72 45 / 0 3 / 0 328 0 4 180 19 4

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Expirations of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory Notes. c/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. d/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. e/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. f/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g/Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory Notes. h/Expirations of sentence may include commutations and pardons. See Explanatory Notes. i/Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory Notes. j/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. k/Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. l/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.15. Sentenced female prisoners released conditionally or unconditionally from State or Federal jurisdiction, by type of release, 1998 Conditional release Supervised mandatory release Probation 5,114 11 5,103 40 ... 12 / 6 ... 0 ... 21 1 1,497 ... 461 138 6 ... ... 505 ... 12 375 0 ... 2,879 131 ... / / 273 5 186 3 ... 117 0 447 148 209 1,359 ... 1 687 155 2 ... 26 239 238 17 ... 0 ... 0 ... 10 19,858 30 19,828 236 ... 0 / / ... 236 ... ... ... 3,255 2,258 388 ... ... ... 186 0 ... ... 303 8 112 3,605 / ... 23 1 ... ... ... 1,220 336 ... / 0 0 / 1,855 170 ... 12,732 25 1 12,086 75 / ... 0 ... ... ... 0 545 0 Unconditional release Expiration of sentence Commutation 12,409 2,436 9,973 672 16 12 172 6 309 89 66 0 2 1,652 36 0 31 20 69 27 68 67 10 1,274 43 7 6,718 198 41 18 115 1,237 247 341 60 24 124 380 423 332 156 2,421 558 43 931 103 91 159 83 31 8 20 162 48 0 1 195 30 71 28 43 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 / 0 42 0 0 0 0 23 17 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 ... / 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d,e New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,d Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/d,f Indiana Iowa/f Kansas Michigan/f Minnesota/g Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/d South Dakota/d,h Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas/d Delaware/a,b,c District of Columbia/a,b,c,d Florida/f Georgia/f Kentucky Louisiana Maryland.c,d,e Mississippi North Carolina/d,i Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/d,i Texas/d Virginia/g,j West Virginia/d West Alaska/a,d,e Arizona/f California/d,k Colorado/d Hawaii/a,e Idaho Montana/d Nevada/d New Mexico Oregon/l Utah Washington/d Wyoming

Total 41,251 98 41,153 3,720 123 13 95 55 874 1,961 481 50 68 8,132 2,259 849 468 432 876 286 1,289 90 54 1,021 119 389 13,674 418 461 24 189 482 1,048 514 1,348 809 236 531 567 343 683 5,601 372 48 15,627 223 636 12,086 429 364 327 74 289 154 196 254 547 48

Parole 14,094 57 14,037 3,187 4 0 95 48 783 1,725 481 26 25 2,904 1 0 235 422 876 0 507 90 42 343 111 277 6,352 283 423 1 127 6 764 328 125 473 119 531 80 193 263 2,387 202 47 1,594 9 67 / 328 125 89 57 289 154 182 254 2 38

Other 2,185 / 2,185 257 119 1 0 1 91 0 0 3 42 476 0 0 95 4 0 100 277 0 0 0 ... 0 838 4 38 0 61 203 279 / 0 0 0 0 40 2 211 0 0 0 614 34 566 ... 0 0 / 0 0 0 14 0 0 0

Total 13,049 2,464 10,585 687 16 12 184 7 309 89 68 0 2 1,749 42 69 48 20 69 29 68 67 10 1,274 43 10 7,175 200 41 115 115 1,311 264 341 66 87 199 381 509 337 157 2,421 588 43 974 106 92 159 83 31 8 20 181 48 0 20 196 30

Other 569 / 569 15 0 0 12 1 0 0 2 0 0 96 5 69 17 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 ... 3 415 2 0 97 / 51 0 / 6 63 75 0 86 5 0 ... 30 0 43 3 1 / 0 0 / 0 19 0 0 19 1 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Expirations of sentence may include releases to probation. See Explanatory Notes. c/Unconditional releases may include some releases to probation or appeal/bond. See Explanatory Notes. d/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. e/Some or all data for release categories are estimated. f/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g/Other unconditional releases may include some commutations. See Explanatory Notes. h/Expirations of sentence may include commutations and pardons. See Explanatory Notes. i/Paroles may include supervised mandatory releases. See Explanatory Notes. j/Virginia's transfers may be included in the conditional releases category. k/Supervised mandatory release includes some releases to parole. l/Oregon's transfers may be included in any other release category.

Table 5.16. Sentenced prisoners admitted to State or Federal jurisdiction for violation of parole or other conditional release, by gender and status of sentence, 1998 Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut/a Maine Massachusetts/b,c,d New Hampshire/b New Jersey/c,e New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/a,c Vermont/a Midwest Illinois/c,e,f,g Indiana Iowa/f Kansas Michigan/f Minnesota Missouri Nebraska/b North Dakota/b,e Ohio/b,c,h South Dakota/c Wisconsin South Alabama/g Arkansas/c Delaware/a,g,h District of Columbia/a,c Florida/f Georgia/f,h Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/c,d Mississippi North Carolina/c,h Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c,g,h Texas/c,g,h Virginia West Virginia/c West Alaska/a,c,d Arizona/f California/c,e,g Colorado/c Hawaii/a,d Idaho Montana/c Nevada/c New Mexico/e Oregon Utah Washington/c Wyoming/b Parole violators New sentence No new sentence Male emale Male emale 23,999 / 23,999 852 0 0 / / 360 / 379 47 66 3,499 / 282 197 208 1,280 0 627 / / 581 7 317 17,886 69 844 25 2,074 8 2,891 113 84 962 27 1,519 75 117 2,020 6,135 903 20 1,762 10 59 / 342 31 / 2 51 / 814 451 2 / 2,275 / 2,275 51 0 0 / / 25 / 18 4 4 201 / 27 33 13 64 0 28 / / 20 0 16 1,870 4 1 0 47 0 218 4 6 90 1 162 22 5 209 990 107 4 153 2 2 / 33 12 / 3 6 / 50 45 0 / 35,073 1,215 33,858 13,103 252 0 556 338 5,558 5,919 317 115 48 8,190 / 675 160 1,178 2,891 0 574 284 62 1,455 132 779 7,473 586 591 / / 117 842 922 518 2,176 106 / 53 983 / / 434 145 5,092 233 410 / 1,338 361 / 121 673 423 387 1,050 37 59 3,093 106 2,987 1,066 8 0 34 20 535 447 11 7 4 690 / 68 24 107 218 0 98 25 4 68 15 63 729 41 110 / / 1 127 75 58 176 11 / 12 57 / / 49 12 502 12 43 / 120 39 / 18 64 52 16 137 0 1 Other conditional release violators New sentence No new sentence Male emale Male Female 32,536 / 32,536 421 4 149 76 / / / 125 67 / 5,558 4,498 / 105 11 0 134 714 0 / / 3 93 10,123 / 70 462 / 509 / 21 1,021 0 271 / 389 296 1,417 5,667 / 0 16,434 63 291 15,745 34 265 / / ... / 0 0 36 0 2,916 / 2,916 31 1 11 16 / / / 0 3 / 474 336 / 23 1 0 5 101 0 / / 0 8 752 / 1 26 / 24 / 4 78 0 36 / 51 26 190 316 / 0 1,659 3 15 1,549 3 86 / / ... / 0 0 3 0 98,845 2,143 96,702 4,913 519 130 / / 311 1,218 2,708 27 / 5,920 1,891 / 112 71 0 1,099 1,634 0 81 707 42 283 17,995 / 66 / 110 1,638 / 506 6,274 3 2 / 242 600 / 8,554 0 0 67,874 581 1,411 63,908 72 495 / 399 ... 196 4 0 581 227 11,045 166 10,879 247 65 13 / / 33 29 107 0 / 496 77 / 6 6 0 68 189 0 3 130 9 8 3,213 / 11 / 54 65 / 55 814 1 0 / 35 56 / 2,122 0 0 6,923 89 167 6,337 9 119 / 73 ... 0 0 0 129 0

Total 209,782 3,630 206,152 20,684 849 303 682 358 6,822 7,613 3,665 270 122 25,028 6,802 1,052 660 1,595 4,453 1,306 3,965 309 150 2,961 208 1,567 60,041 700 1,694 513 2,285 2,362 4,078 1,700 8,853 3,408 454 1,681 879 2,140 3,836 23,784 1,493 181 100,399 993 2,398 87,539 1,951 1,408 / 616 794 671 1,271 1,683 788 287

Total 64,440 1,321 63,119 15,072 260 0 590 358 6,478 6,366 725 173 122 12,580 / 1,052 414 1,506 4,453 0 1,327 309 66 2,124 154 1,175 27,958 700 1,546 25 2,121 126 4,078 1,114 666 3,404 145 1,681 162 1,162 2,229 7,125 1,493 181 7,509 257 514 / 1,833 443 / 144 794 475 1,267 1,683 39 60

Total 145,342 2,309 143,033 5,612 589 303 92 / 344 1,247 2,940 97 / 12,448 6,802 / 246 89 0 1,306 2,638 0 84 837 54 392 32,083 / 148 488 164 2,236 / 586 8,187 4 309 / 717 978 1,607 16,659 0 0 92,890 736 1,884 87,539 118 965 / 472 ... 196 4 0 749 227

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. b/Parole violators with no new sentences may include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory Notes. c/Data for inmates by sentence length may be slightly incorrect. See Explanatory Notes. d/Some or all data for the admission categories are estimated. e/Other conditional release violators with no new sentences include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory Notes. f/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. g/Other conditional release violators with new sentences include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory Notes. h/Parole violators with new sentences may include inmates from other admission categories. See Explanatory Notes.

Table 5.17. Deaths among sentenced prisoners under State or Federal jurisdiction, by gender and cause of death, 1998 Illness or natural cause Male Female 1,744 / 1,744 313 16 1 20 5 34 147 87 2 1 389 59 45 6 19 78 6 29 5 1 117 0 24 696 / 30 8 15 122 68 29 / 23 41 35 44 45 36 161 34 5 346 3 46 198 17 7 8 5 18 / 7 3 31 3 87 / 87 15 0 0 0 0 2 11 2 0 0 15 4 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 7 0 0 36 / 0 0 / 8 2 1 / 2 3 2 3 1 2 9 3 0 21 1 4 10 1 1 0 0 1 / 0 0 3 0 Accidental self-injury/a Male 41 / 41 7 0 0 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 12 3 / 0 1 5 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 13 / 0 0 0 1 2 0 / 2 1 0 0 0 1 6 0 0 9 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 1 / 0 0 1 0 Caused by another/b Male 55 / 55 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 6 4 / 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 21 / 1 0 3 5 1 0 / 0 0 0 2 0 2 6 1 0 25 0 1 15 3 1 1 0 3 / 1 0 0 0 Unspecified cause Male Female 485 212 273 16 1 0 0 0 13 0 2 0 0 5 2 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 245 73 0 0 / 0 4 0 77 5 0 0 0 0 0 86 0 0 7 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 23 11 12 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 2 0 0 / 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/c State Northeast Connecticut/d Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/d Vermont/d Midwest Illinois/e Indiana/f Iowa/e Kansas Michigan/e Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/f Arkansas Delaware/d District of Columbia/d,g Florida/e Georgia/e Kentucky Louisiana/f Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/d Arizona/e California Colorado Hawaii/d Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico/f Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Total Male Female 2,879 212 2,667 460 29 2 24 8 66 201 123 6 1 484 95 46 7 21 94 8 38 5 1 133 2 34 1,255 74 35 9 20 193 94 29 77 43 46 46 54 68 46 354 62 5 468 3 58 270 25 10 10 7 26 2 12 3 38 4 139 11 128 23 4 0 0 0 3 12 4 0 0 17 4 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 0 7 0 0 61 2 0 0 / 14 4 1 3 3 3 2 3 2 2 19 3 0 27 1 4 14 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 3 0

AIDS Male Female 325 / 325 93 12 0 3 1 15 39 20 3 0 26 14 / 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 7 0 1 176 / 0 0 / 58 15 0 / 11 2 6 2 14 2 54 12 0 30 0 0 25 0 1 1 0 1 / 0 0 2 0 14 / 14 3 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 / 0 0 / 3 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0

Suicide Male Female 163 / 163 28 0 1 1 1 2 13 10 0 0 41 12 / 1 1 7 1 5 0 0 7 2 5 51 / 3 1 2 4 3 0 / 1 2 2 2 2 5 22 2 0 43 0 5 21 5 1 0 1 2 / 4 0 3 1 13 / 13 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 / 0 0 / 2 2 0 / 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 / 1 0 0 0

Execution Male Female 66 / 66 0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 0 ... ... 5 1 1 ... 0 ... ... 3 0 ... 0 0 ... 53 1 1 0 ... 3 1 0 0 1 0 3 4 7 0 19 13 ... 8 ... 4 1 0 ... 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 / 2 0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 0 ... ... 0 0 0 ... 0 ... ... 0 0 ... 0 0 ... 2 0 0 0 ... 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ... 0 ... 0 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable. /Not reported. a/No female deaths due to accidental self-injury occurred during 1998. b/No female deaths were reported as caused by another during 1998. c/Federal Bureau of Prisons was unable to report cause of death by sex. d/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. e/Data are for custody rather than jurisdiction counts. f/Unable to distinguish cause of death except by execution. g/The District of Columbia was unable to report deaths by sex; therefore, all deaths are reported under males.

Table 5.18. Prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/d South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/b,e Arizona California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho Montana/c,e Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah/f Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 1,222,436 110,793 1,111,643 169,513 16,104 1,629 10,982 2,140 27,310 70,350 36,440 3,318 1,240 222,238 43,051 17,605 7,394 8,180 45,879 5,480 24,978 3,612 941 48,171 2,435 14,512 469,402 22,267 10,042 5,554 7,008 67,224 39,262 11,214 18,975 22,232 9,943 30,682 14,765 20,997 15,483 144,510 26,417 2,827 250,490 2,601 25,311 159,563 11,578 3,569 3,459 2,340 9,239 3,440 8,652 5,118 14,188 1,432 12/31/97 1,176,564 101,755 1,074,809 164,570 15,558 1,601 10,918 2,104 25,497 69,383 34,929 3,310 1,270 213,819 40,788 16,511 6,938 7,914 44,771 5,327 23,652 3,348 823 47,808 2,239 13,700 455,097 21,974 8,979 5,432 7,048 64,626 36,505 10,875 18,470 21,870 10,347 30,990 14,893 20,613 15,095 140,351 24,632 2,397 241,323 3,204 23,484 155,276 10,566 4,078 3,312 1,862 8,623 3,639 7,774 4,861 13,226 1,418 Percent change 3.9 % 8.9 % 3.4 3.0 % 3.5 1.7 0.6 1.7 7.1 1.4 4.3 0.2 -2.4 3.9 % 5.5 6.6 6.6 3.4 2.5 2.9 5.6 7.9 14.3 0.8 8.8 5.9 3.1 % 1.3 11.8 2.2 -0.6 4.0 7.6 3.1 2.7 1.7 -3.9 -1.0 -0.9 1.9 2.6 3.0 7.2 17.9 3.8 % ... 7.8 2.8 9.6 -12.5 4.4 ... 7.1 -5.5 11.3 5.3 7.3 1.0 More than a year 12/31/98 1,174,717 95,628 1,079,089 161,467 11,129 1,579 10,037 2,095 27,310 70,001 36,436 2,150 730 220,909 43,051 17,424 7,394 8,180 45,879 5,465 24,953 3,503 860 48,171 2,430 13,599 453,674 21,838 9,972 3,207 6,616 67,193 38,758 11,214 18,975 21,214 9,647 25,900 14,765 20,148 15,458 139,863 26,098 2,808 243,039 1,369 23,955 156,860 11,578 2,326 3,459 2,340 8,947 3,288 8,339 5,004 14,142 1,432 12/31/97 1,130,107 87,538 1,042,569 156,761 10,765 1,537 9,942 2,079 25,497 69,108 34,922 2,083 828 213,147 40,788 16,338 6,938 7,914 44,771 5,307 23,634 3,253 741 47,808 2,239 13,416 439,463 21,364 8,926 3,261 6,509 64,574 35,787 10,875 18,470 20,743 10,010 26,998 14,893 19,706 15,095 135,565 24,302 2,385 233,198 1,918 22,353 152,225 10,566 2,592 3,312 1,862 8,541 3,373 7,090 4,775 13,173 1,418 Percent change 3.9 % 9.2 % 3.5 3.0 % 3.4 2.7 1.0 0.8 7.1 1.3 4.3 3.2 -11.8 3.6 % 5.5 6.6 6.6 3.4 2.5 3.0 5.6 7.7 16.1 0.8 8.5 1.4 3.2 % 2.2 11.7 -1.7 1.6 4.1 8.3 3.1 2.7 2.3 -3.6 -4.1 -0.9 2.2 2.4 3.2 7.4 17.7 4.2 % ... 7.2 3.0 9.6 -10.3 4.4 ... 4.8 -2.5 17.6 4.8 7.4 1.0 12/31/98 47,719 15,165 32,554 8,046 4,975 50 945 45 / 349 4 1,168 510 1,329 0 181 ... ... ... 15 25 109 81 / 5 913 15,728 429 70 2,347 392 31 504 ... ... 1,018 296 4,782 / 849 25 4,647 319 19 7,451 1,232 1,356 2,703 / 1,243 ... / 292 152 313 114 46 0 Total 12/31/97 46,457 14,217 32,240 7,809 4,793 64 976 25 / 275 7 1,227 442 672 0 173 ... ... ... 20 18 95 82 / / 284 15,634 610 53 2,171 539 52 718 ... ... 1,127 337 3,992 / 907 ... 4,786 330 12 8,125 1,286 1,131 3,051 / 1,486 ... / 82 266 684 86 53 0 Percent change 2.7 % 6.7 % 1.0 3.0 % 3.8 -21.9 -3.2 80.0 26.9 -42.9 -4.8 15.4 97.8 % 4.6 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 23,902 3,417 20,485 3,479 1,795 50 311 34 / 349 4 629 307 401 / 172 ... ... ... ... 23 87 81 / 5 33 13,960 429 70 1,169 129 31 504 ... ... 1,018 296 4,499 / 849 ... 4,647 319 ... 2,645 302 1,356 / / 182 ... / 270 152 313 58 12 0 23,427 3,207 20,220 3,173 1,681 64 292 19 / 275 6 564 272 361 / 165 ... ... ... ... 18 73 82 / / 23 14,034 610 53 1,181 221 52 718 ... ... 1,127 337 3,712 / 907 ... 4,786 330 ... 2,652 270 1,131 / / 172 ... / 82 266 684 27 20 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 23,817 11,748 12,069 4,567 3,180 ... 634 11 / 0 0 539 203 928 0 9 ... ... ... 15 2 22 ... ... 0 880 1,768 0 0 1,178 263 ... ... ... ... ... 0 283 ... ... 25 ... ... 19 4,806 930 0 2,703 ... 1,061 ... ... 22 0 ... 56 34 0 23,030 11,010 12,020 4,636 3,112 ... 684 6 ... 0 1 663 170 311 0 8 ... ... ... 20 0 22 ... ... ... 261 1,600 0 0 990 318 ... ... ... ... ... 0 280 ... ... ... ... ... 12 5,473 1,016 0 3,051 ... 1,314 ... ... 0 0 ... 59 33 0

-25.0 38.9 14.7 -1.2

221.5 0.6 % -29.7 32.1 8.1 -27.3 -40.4 -29.8

-9.7 -12.2 19.8 -6.4 -2.9 -3.3 58.3 -8.3 % -4.2 19.9 -11.4 -16.4

256.1 -42.9 -54.2 32.6 -13.2

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the Explanatory Notes for State-by-State variations from definitions. ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. e/Percent change not calculated due to changes in reporting. f/Utah's custody population may include parole violators whose parole has not yet been officially revoked. See Explanatory Notes.

Table 5.19. Male prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/d South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/b,e Arizona California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho Montana/c,e Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah/f Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 1,144,569 102,833 1,041,736 160,746 14,989 1,562 10,264 1,980 25,905 66,809 34,932 3,117 1,188 208,889 40,405 16,455 6,903 7,655 43,827 5,204 23,099 3,364 871 45,285 2,232 13,589 439,868 20,828 9,398 5,114 6,721 63,698 36,788 10,544 18,035 21,109 9,028 28,833 13,558 19,667 14,861 134,178 24,844 2,664 232,233 2,390 23,531 148,078 10,597 3,197 3,178 2,131 8,552 3,134 8,158 4,804 13,170 1,313 12/31/97 1,102,978 94,691 1,008,287 156,062 14,499 1,546 10,208 1,973 24,211 65,783 33,512 3,113 1,217 201,378 38,358 15,470 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,074 22,006 3,126 757 44,997 2,070 12,960 426,464 20,627 8,373 5,049 6,651 61,207 34,223 10,209 17,529 20,769 9,454 29,212 13,578 19,358 14,490 130,051 23,410 2,274 224,383 2,993 21,924 144,392 9,744 3,685 3,082 1,776 7,992 3,265 7,342 4,598 12,303 1,287 Percent change 3.8 % 8.6 % 3.3 3.0 % 3.4 1.0 0.5 0.4 7.0 1.6 4.2 0.1 -2.4 3.7 % 5.3 6.4 7.7 3.0 2.6 2.6 5.0 7.6 15.1 0.6 7.8 4.9 3.1 % 1.0 12.2 1.3 1.1 4.1 7.5 3.3 2.9 1.6 -4.5 -1.3 -0.1 1.6 2.6 3.2 6.1 17.2 3.5 % ... 7.3 2.6 8.8 -13.2 3.1 ... 7.0 -4.0 11.1 4.5 7.0 2.0 12/31/98 1,102,911 88,929 1,013,982 153,797 10,559 1,519 9,632 1,973 25,905 66,499 34,930 2,072 708 207,632 40,405 16,288 6,903 7,655 43,827 5,192 23,075 3,275 794 45,285 2,227 12,706 426,671 20,461 9,332 3,012 6,390 63,672 36,349 10,544 18,035 20,202 8,787 24,645 13,558 18,964 14,838 130,662 24,573 2,647 225,882 1,264 22,374 145,997 10,597 2,040 3,178 2,131 8,265 3,009 7,882 4,700 13,132 1,313 More than a year 12/31/97 1,062,492 81,662 980,830 149,230 10,195 1,486 9,519 1,969 24,211 65,539 33,506 2,011 794 200,753 38,358 15,311 6,410 7,435 42,715 5,056 21,991 3,046 682 44,997 2,070 12,682 413,421 20,065 8,331 3,102 6,197 61,162 33,586 10,209 17,529 19,760 9,181 25,725 13,578 18,589 14,490 126,539 23,114 2,264 217,426 1,818 20,938 141,944 9,744 2,360 3,082 1,776 7,916 3,055 6,731 4,521 12,254 1,287 Percent change 3.8 % 8.9 % 3.4 3.1 % 3.6 2.2 1.2 0.2 7.0 1.5 4.2 3.0 -10.8 3.4 % 5.3 6.4 7.7 3.0 2.6 2.7 4.9 7.5 16.4 0.6 7.6 0.2 3.2 % 2.0 12.0 -2.9 3.1 4.1 8.2 3.3 2.9 2.2 -4.3 -4.2 -0.1 2.0 2.4 3.3 6.3 16.9 3.9 % ... 6.9 2.9 8.8 -13.6 3.1 ... 4.4 -1.5 17.1 4.0 7.2 2.0 12/31/98 41,658 13,904 27,754 6,949 4,430 43 632 7 / 310 2 1,045 480 1,257 0 167 ... ... ... 12 24 89 77 / 5 883 13,197 367 66 2,102 331 26 439 ... ... 907 241 4,188 / 703 23 3,516 271 17 6,351 1,126 1,157 2,081 / 1,157 ... / 287 125 276 104 38 0 Total 12/31/97 40,486 13,029 27,457 6,832 4,304 60 689 4 / 244 6 1,102 423 625 0 159 ... ... ... 18 15 80 75 / / 278 13,043 562 42 1,947 454 45 637 ... ... 1,009 273 3,487 / 769 ... 3,512 296 10 6,957 1,175 986 2,448 / 1,325 ... / 76 210 611 77 49 0 Percent change 2.9 % 6.7 % 1.1 1.7 % 2.9 -28.3 -8.3 75.0 0.0 27.0 -66.7 -5.2 13.5 101.1 % 5.0 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 20,004 2,837 17,167 2,874 1,561 43 116 7 / 310 2 546 289 359 / 159 ... ... ... ... 22 68 77 / 5 28 11,601 367 66 1,023 103 26 439 ... ... 907 241 3,939 / 703 ... 3,516 271 ... 2,333 279 1,157 / / 166 ... / 267 125 276 56 7 0 19,634 2,702 16,932 2,654 1,464 60 114 4 / 244 5 499 264 322 / 153 ... ... ... ... 15 58 75 / / 21 11,631 562 42 1,053 193 45 637 ... ... 1,009 273 3,240 / 769 ... 3,512 296 ... 2,325 249 986 / / 152 ... / 76 210 611 23 18 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 21,654 11,067 10,587 4,075 2,869 ... 516 0 ... 0 0 499 191 898 0 8 ... ... ... 12 2 21 ... ... 0 855 1,596 0 0 1,079 228 ... ... ... ... ... 0 249 ... ... 23 ... ... 17 4,018 847 0 2,081 ... 991 ... ... 20 0 ... 48 31 0 20,852 10,327 10,525 4,178 2,840 ... 575 0 ... 0 1 603 159 303 0 6 ... ... ... 18 0 22 ... ... ... 257 1,412 0 0 894 261 ... ... ... ... ... 0 247 ... ... ... ... ... 10 4,632 926 0 2,448 ... 1,173 ... ... 0 0 ... 54 31 0

-33.3 60.0 11.3 2.7

217.6 1.2 % -34.7 57.1 8.0 -27.1 -42.2 -31.1

-10.1 -11.7 20.1 -8.6 0.1 -8.4 70.0 -8.7 % -4.2 17.3 -15.0 -12.7

277.6 -40.5 -54.8 35.1 -22.4

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the State-by-State variations from definitions. Explanatory Notes for ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. e/Percent change not calculated due to changes in reporting. f/Utah's custody population may include parole violators whose parole has not yet been officially revoked. See Explanatory Notes.

Table 5.20. Female prisoners in custody of State or Federal correctional authorities, by sentence length, 1997 and 1998 Maximum sentence length Year or less/unsentenced Total Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/b Maine Massachusetts/c New Hampshire New Jersey/c New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island/b Vermont/b Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/c South Dakota/c Wisconsin/d South Alabama Arkansas/a Delaware/b District of Columbia/b,e Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/c Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/b Arizona California/c Colorado/c Hawaii/b Idaho Montana/c,e Nevada/c New Mexico Oregon Utah/f Washington/c Wyoming 12/31/98 77,867 7,960 69,907 8,767 1,115 67 718 160 1,405 3,541 1,508 201 52 13,349 2,646 1,150 491 525 2,052 276 1,879 248 70 2,886 203 923 29,534 1,439 644 440 287 3,526 2,474 670 940 1,123 915 1,849 1,207 1,330 622 10,332 1,573 163 18,257 211 1,780 11,485 981 372 281 209 687 306 494 314 1,018 119 12/31/97 73,586 7,064 66,522 8,508 1,059 55 710 131 1,286 3,600 1,417 197 53 12,441 2,430 1,041 528 479 2,056 253 1,646 222 66 2,811 169 740 28,633 1,347 606 383 397 3,419 2,282 666 941 1,101 893 1,778 1,315 1,255 605 10,300 1,222 123 16,940 211 1,560 10,884 822 393 230 86 631 374 432 263 923 131 Percent change 5.8 % 12.7 % 5.1 3.0 % 5.3 21.8 1.1 22.1 9.3 -1.6 6.4 2.0 -1.9 7.3 % 8.9 10.5 -7.0 9.6 -0.2 9.1 14.2 11.7 6.1 2.7 20.1 24.7 3.1 % 6.8 6.3 14.9 ... 3.1 8.4 0.6 -0.1 2.0 2.5 4.0 -8.2 6.0 2.8 0.3 28.7 32.5 7.8 % 0.0 14.1 5.5 19.3 -5.3 22.2 ... 8.9 -18.2 14.4 19.4 10.3 -9.2 More than a year Percent 12/31/98 12/31/97 change 71,806 6,699 65,107 7,670 570 60 405 122 1,405 3,502 1,506 78 22 13,277 2,646 1,136 491 525 2,052 273 1,878 228 66 2,886 203 893 27,003 1,377 640 195 226 3,521 2,409 670 940 1,012 860 1,255 1,207 1,184 620 9,201 1,525 161 17,157 105 1,581 10,863 981 286 281 209 682 279 457 304 1,010 119 67,615 5,876 61,739 7,531 570 51 423 110 1,286 3,569 1,416 72 34 12,394 2,430 1,027 528 479 2,056 251 1,643 207 59 2,811 169 734 26,042 1,299 595 159 312 3,412 2,201 666 941 983 829 1,273 1,315 1,117 605 9,026 1,188 121 15,772 100 1,415 10,281 822 232 230 86 625 318 359 254 919 131 6.2 % 14.0 % 5.5 1.8 % 0.0 17.6 -4.3 10.9 9.3 -1.9 6.4 8.3 -35.3 7.1 % 8.9 10.6 -7.0 9.6 -0.2 8.8 14.3 10.1 11.9 2.7 20.1 21.7 3.7 % 6.0 7.6 22.6 ... 3.2 9.5 0.6 -0.1 3.0 3.7 -1.4 -8.2 6.0 2.5 1.9 28.4 33.1 8.8 % 5.0 11.7 5.7 19.3 23.3 22.2 ... 9.1 -12.3 27.3 19.7 9.9 -9.2 Total Percent 12/31/98 12/31/97 change 6,061 1,261 4,800 1,097 545 7 313 38 / 39 2 123 30 72 0 14 ... ... ... 3 1 20 4 / 0 30 2,531 62 4 245 61 5 65 ... ... 111 55 594 / 146 2 1,131 48 2 1,100 106 199 622 / 86 ... / 5 27 37 10 8 0 5,971 1,188 4,783 977 489 4 287 21 / 31 1 125 19 47 0 14 ... ... ... 2 3 15 7 / / 6 2,591 48 11 224 85 7 81 ... ... 118 64 505 / 138 ... 1,274 34 2 1,168 111 145 603 / 161 ... / 6 56 73 9 4 0 1.5 % 6.1 % 0.4 12.3 % 11.5 75.0 9.1 81.0 25.8 100.0 -1.6 57.9 53.2 % 0.0 Year or less 12/31/98 12/31/97 3,898 580 3,318 605 234 7 195 27 / 39 2 83 18 42 / 13 ... ... ... ... 1 19 4 / 0 5 2,359 62 4 146 26 5 65 ... ... 111 55 560 / 146 ... 1,131 48 ... 312 23 199 / / 16 ... / 3 27 37 2 5 0 3,793 505 3,288 519 217 4 178 15 / 31 1 65 8 39 / 12 ... ... ... ... 3 15 7 / / 2 2,403 48 11 128 28 7 81 ... ... 118 64 472 / 138 ... 1,274 34 ... 327 21 145 / / 20 ... / 6 56 73 4 2 0 Unsentenced 12/31/98 12/31/97 2,163 681 1,482 492 311 ... 118 11 / 0 0 40 12 30 0 1 ... ... ... 3 0 1 ... ... 0 25 172 0 0 99 35 ... ... ... ... ... 0 34 ... ... 2 ... ... 2 788 83 0 622 ... 70 ... ... 2 0 ... 8 3 0 2,178 683 1,495 458 272 ... 109 6 ... 0 0 60 11 8 0 2 ... ... ... 2 0 0 ... ... ... 4 188 0 0 96 57 ... ... ... ... ... 0 33 ... ... ... ... ... 2 841 90 0 603 ... 141 ... ... 0 0 ... 5 2 0

50.0 -66.7 33.3 -42.9

400.0 -2.3 % 29.2 -63.6 9.4 -28.2 -28.6 -19.8

-5.9 -14.1 17.6 5.8 -11.2 41.2 0.0 -5.8 % -4.5 37.2 3.2 -46.6

-16.7 -51.8 -49.3 11.1 100.0

Note: See the questionnaire for category definitions and the variations from definitions. Explanatory Notes for State-by-State ...Not applicable /Not reported a/Data for inmates sentenced to 1 year or less may include some inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. b/Figures include both jail and prison inmates; jails and prisons are combined in one system. c/Data for inmates sentenced to more than 1 year may include some inmates sentenced to a year or less; see Explanatory Notes. d/Unsentenced includes inmates for whom sentence length is unknown. e/Percent change not calculated due to changes in reporting. f/Utah's custody population may include parole violators whose parole has not yet been officially revoked. See Explanatory Notes.

Chapter 5: Prisoners Explanatory notes Federal prisons Movement data were provided but, when added to the population for January 1, 1998, minus the releases, do not equal population on December 31, 1998. Other releases and admissions: Include miscellaneous and unknown admission types. Inmates with a year or less sentence: Include inmates whose sentence length is unknown. Other deaths: All deaths are reported in the “Unspecified cause” category because they are unable to breakdown categories by gender. The death totals for each category are: Executions0; Illness/natural causes- 186; AIDS- 19; Suicides- 12; Accidental injury to self- 3; Death caused by another person- 3; Other deaths- 0. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Alabama Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include inmates returned from supervised release under Act 754 and split sentence/probation with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Unspecified in the Alabama data system, but include other conditional release violators with no new sentence. Deaths: Alabama’s data system does not distinguish cause of death, except by execution and AIDS-related deaths. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Alaska Admissions and releases: Alaska is unable to determine if movements are longer than 30 days. All movements are considered estimates since Alaska’s fields do not exactly match NPS categories. Jurisdiction and custody counts: Include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Alaska.

Other releases, unconditional and conditional: Court-ordered releases and other releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Alaska’s “Hispanic” race category. Arizona Population, admissions and releases: Based on custody data. Total jurisdiction population: Excludes 183 male and 14 female inmates housed in local jails solely to ease prison crowding. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other conditional releases: Include supervised early releases, provisional releases, supervised work furloughs, earned credit releases and releases to home arrest program. Other releases: Include early releases to detainer and persons returned to prison pending revocation hearing where no revocation occurred and the inmate was returned to supervision. Cause of death: Type of death pending investigation at time of data collection. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Arizona’s “Other” race category. Arkansas Other admissions: Consists of 37 returns from Department of Community Punishment (DCP), a separate agency. These inmates were returned to the Arkansas DOC because of a violation or were sent to DCP by mistake. This item also includes an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. Other conditional releases: Persons released under the provisions of Arkansas’ Acts 378, 814, and Boot Camp to some form of community supervision. Other releases: Consists of persons released to Department of Community Punishment (DCP), a separate agency. Jurisdiction population, inmates with a sentence of a year or less: Includes 71 male and 6 female inmates incarcerated in the county jail awaiting transfer to Department of Correction for whom the Arkansas DOC does not know the sentence.

Custody population: Includes 69 male and 4 female inmates transferred from the county jail for whom the Arkansas DOC is awaiting complete sentence data. Unknown race: Includes Arkansas’ “Cuban” race category. California Sentencing information: Reported population with a sentence of more than 1 year include some inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: May include some parole violators with new sentences and returns from supervised mandatory release with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: May include some parole violators without new sentences. Also includes supervised mandatory and parole releases returned pending a revocation hearing. Escapees returns: Include AWOL returns, with or without new sentences. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some court-ordered releases. Conditional releases, supervised mandatory releases: Include some court-ordered releases and parole releases. Other releases, escapes from confinement: Include inmates that are AWOL. Other releases: Consists of releases to appeal/bond and an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. These are most likely temporary releases to courts, jails, and hospitals, who had not been returned to prison as of December 31, 1998. Cause of death: Not specified, or drug overdose. Jurisdiction population, unsentenced inmates: Include civil narcotic addict commitments and county diagnostic cases. Unknown race and not known Hispanic origin: Include some Asians and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanic inmates admitted to California prisons prior to January 1990 (when these categories were added to the California computer system). Also includes California’s “Hispanic/Mexican” category. Colorado Sentencing information: Reported populations with sentences of more than 1 year include a small number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less.

Transfers from other jurisdictions: Include admissions through interstate compact agreements. Escapee and AWOL prisoners: Numbers are estimates. Other releases: Court-ordered releases not determinable as conditional or unconditional. Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are estimated. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Connecticut Jurisdiction population: The 1998 jurisdiction counts for Connecticut includes inmates in its Community Program (Transitional Supervision). Other admissions: Type of admission is unknown. Includes adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered discharges. Other conditional releases: Releases to home jurisdiction and community releases, or discharge from Connecticut supervision. Other releases: Type of release is unknown. Include adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Connecticut. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Connecticut’s “Hispanic” category. Delaware Parole and other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include parole violators both with and without new sentences. Other admissions: Include persons whose status changed from a jail sentence of less than 1 year to prison sentences of more than 1 year. Other releases: Include releases to a state or local hospital and persons serving weekend sentences.

Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some releases to probation. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Delaware. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. District of Columbia Population, admissions, and releases: The January 1, 1998 jurisdiction counts differ from the December 31, 1997 jurisdiction counts. Movement data were provided; however when admissions are added to the population for January 1, 1998 and releases are subtracted, the total does not equal the December 31, 1998 population. Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: Populations and movements of inmates given partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part under probation) are included with the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” only if the prison portion of the sentence exceeds one year. As a result, the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” populations and movements are understated and the “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” are overstated. Transfers to and from other jurisdictions: Include transfers from and to mental hospitals, other State and Federal facilities. Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Include some inmates with partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part under probation) released subject to conditions of probation. Other conditional releases: Emergency Power Act releases. Number of deaths: The District of Columbia is unable to provide number of deaths by sex. Therefore, all deaths have been reported under “males.” As a result, total male counts are overcounted and female releases are slightly undercounted. Total male and female inmate populations will be similarly affected. Total jurisdiction population: Include male and female District of Columbia code violators housed in Federal Bureau of Prison facilities and male inmates housed in other state facilities. Of these, an undetermined number are being housed solely to ease District of Columbia prison crowding. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in the District of Columbia.

Unsentenced inmate populations: Jurisdiction and custody counts include unsentenced inmates held in the District of Columbia jail or Detention Center Racial composition is estimated. Estimates assume that 96% of the male and female inmate populations is black. Race, Asians, and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Florida Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include control release violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators without new sentences: Include conditional medical returns, conditional medical violators, provisional release violators, conditional release violators, and supervised community release violators without new sentences. Transfer from other jurisdictions: Include admissions through interstate compact agreements both with and without new sentences and inmates returning from concurrent sentences served elsewhere. Other admissions: Consists of returns from court with new sentences and adjustment residuals to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 custody population. Other unconditional releases: Include sentences vacated by the court. Other conditional releases: Include provisional releases, conditional pardons, control releases with supervision, conditional medical releases, conditional releases, reinstatements, supervised community releases, mandatory conditional releases, and releases by Florida Parole Commission order. Transfers to other jurisdictions: Include interstate and out of state transfers. Interstate transfers are those inmates that have been sentenced in Florida but go directly to another state or Federal prison to serve their sentence. Other releases: Include inmates who are releases from custody, discharges, discharges from provisional supervision, discharges from parole, and an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 custody population. Race: Racial categories may include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

Unknown race: Includes 980 male and 96 female inmates from Florida’s “Latin” category. Georgia The January 1, 1998 jurisdiction counts differ from the December 31, 1997 jurisdiction counts due to delayed data entry. Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Parole violators with new sentences: May include a small undetermined number of other conditional release violators with new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other conditional releases: Consists of special reprieves and supervised reprieves which are conditional releases controlled by Georgia’s Parole Board. Other deaths: Cause of death is unknown. Jurisdiction population: Excludes an undetermined number of inmates awaiting pick-up from local jails. Unknown race: Include inmates who identify race categories other than those specified. May include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Hawaii Category estimates: Hawaii’s total jurisdiction and custody figures are actual counts. However, the movement data, race, and ethnicity compositions are estimates based on information from Hawaii’s Correctional Information System (CIS). New court commitments: Consists of new admissions and status change admissions. Other unconditional releases: Dismissals and suspended sentences. Other conditional releases: Consists of conditional releases and conditional discharges. Other releases: Include emergency releases, supervised releases, releases to own recognizance (ROR), temporary ROR, administrative releases, releases to other individuals/agencies, status change releases, other releases and an adjustment to balance the movement data with the December 31,1998 population.. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Hawaii.

Unknown race: Include inmates who identified themselves with more than one racial category, except for individuals who are part-Hawaiian. Prisoners of part-Hawaiian ancestry are counted as “Asians/Pacific Islanders.” Hispanic origin: Hawaii’s “Puerto Rican” category. Idaho Other admissions: Department receives report that now has only 2 categories - “Timers” and “those sentenced to retained jurisdiction”. “Timers” are persons sentenced to prison. “Sentenced to retained jurisdiction” are persons assigned by a judge to a 120 day assessment/treatment program and then the judge will sentence the person to prison or release them to probation. Also consists of an adjustment in admissions to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. Releases: Department now releases report that has only 3 categories - Probation, Parole, and Expiration of sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Jurisdiction population, sentenced to more than 1 year: Counts for inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence are estimates based on historical averages. Race and Hispanic origin: Numbers are estimates. Illinois Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Sentencing information: Inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include some inmates with a 1 year maximum sentence. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include some parole violators without new sentences. Escapees: Illinois reports the movement of escapees using the Offender Tracking System. This accounts for part of the increase in the number of escapes and returns from escape, because all the Community Correctional Centers and Electronic Detention Centers are now included. Three males and zero females escaped from prison. Other releases: Includes the net difference between long-term admission and release movements not reported in other categories (e.g., transfers, writs, and medical furloughs) in order to balance

end-of-year populations. Also includes an undetermined number of transfers to other jurisdictions. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Illinois’ “Hispanic” race category. Indiana New court commitments: Include probation violators, both with and without new sentences because numbers can not be differentiated. Other unconditional releases: Terminations of sentence determined by Parole Board. Other deaths: Includes all deaths except death by execution because cause of death was not recorded during 1998. Iowa Population, admissions, and releases: Based on custody data. Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include persons remanded prior to formal revocation hearing. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered discharges. Conditional releases, paroles: Include returns to parole of persons remanded to prison prior to a formal revocation hearing and inmates released to parole by Conditional Communication Orders. Other conditional releases: Releases to a work release program. Transfers to another state: Consists of 100 women prisoners transferred to a Virginia correctional facility to relieve crowding. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Iowa’s Hispanic race category. Kansas

New court commitments: May include a small undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond and includes all probation violators, both with and without new sentences, who may have previously spent time in prison. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Type unknown at time of data collection. Paroles: Include releases to “post release supervision”. Other conditional releases: Kansas’ “Conditional Release” to supervision. It is similar to parole. Transfers: Kansas inmate transfers were not counted in 1998. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Kentucky Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Kentucky’s data system does not distinguish AWOLs from escapes. Other admissions: Consists of court-ordered returns to prison. Other releases: Consists of court-ordered releases not determinable as conditional or unconditional. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Consists of an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders and inmates whose race cannot be classified elsewhere. Louisiana Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Consists of admissions to treatment programs from Probation and Parole Districts. Expiration of sentence: Includes good-time releases. Other unconditional releases: Consists of court-ordered releases. Deaths: Deaths are not categorized anymore. Other releases: Consists of inmates released in error.

Jurisdiction population, sentenced to more than 1 year: Includes the 12,018 males and 1,193 females housed in local jails through Cooperative Endeavor Agreements and Partnerships. American Indians or Alaska Natives: American Indians only. Unknown race: Includes Latinos, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders and Louisiana’s “Other” race category. Hispanic origin: Louisiana’s data system does not include ethnicity. Maine Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include probation violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include probation violators with no new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other unconditional releases: Consists of releases by expiration of hold orders. Other conditional releases: Consists of releases by custody detainer or warrant. Other releases: Contains inmates with an erroneous release code. Race: Numbers by gender are estimates. Categories may include Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Consists of inmates of “mixed” race. Maryland Category estimates: The number of inmates with over one year maximum sentence for the population and movement categories is estimated by taking the percentages for over-one-yearmaximum-sentence inmates from the automated data and applying these percentages by category to the manual data totals. The manual data provide actual movement counts but includes inmates with a year or less maximum sentence, whereas the automated data makes it possible to distinguish inmates with over one year maximum sentences. New court commitments: May include a small undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category.

Other admissions: Consists of interstate compact admissions. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases and a small undetermined number of releases to appeal/bond. Other conditional releases: Inmates paroled from the Patuxent Institution to work release. Other releases: Include a small number of interstate compact releases and releases of new admissions that had been double counted on the admissions side. Other deaths: Includes 5 deaths for which the cause is unknown. Race, Asian, and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Hispanic origin: Maryland’s data system does not include ethnicity. Massachusetts Sentencing information: Population totals are actual counts, however, sentence lengths are estimated for approximately 42 cases for the jurisdiction and custody populations, while there are 342 sentences estimated for the admissions and releases sections (these may include multiple moves for an individual with missing sentence information). Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include parole violators with no new sentences and parole violators with new sentences. Expirations of sentence: Include an undetermined number of releases to probation. Other unconditional releases: Include court-ordered releases. Releases and jurisdiction population: Population counts may include a small, undetermined number of inmates who were remanded to court, transferred to the custody of another state, Federal, or county system, and subsequently released. Jurisdiction and custody population: The jurisdiction and custody population on December 31 are actually the January 4, 1999 counts. Jurisdiction population: By law, offenders in Massachusetts may be sentenced to terms of up to 2½ years in locally-operated jails and correctional institutions. Such populations are excluded from the state jurisdiction count, but are included in published population counts and rates for local jails and correctional institutions. There are approximately 6,200 male inmates in the county system serving a sentence of over 1 year.

Jurisdiction population, unsentenced inmates: Include inmates housed in state facilities awaiting trial and civil commitments as well as 125 males awaiting trial for the state housed in county facilities. State prison overcrowding: Other states housing Massachusetts inmates include Connecticut, Maine, New Mexico, Ohio, Vermont, Virginia and Pennsylvania. Unknown race: Massachusetts’ “Hispanic” race category. Michigan Population, admissions, and releases: Michigan’s movement and population counts are based on custody data plus 1,317 inmates housed in beds leased from the Virginia DOC. Counts exclude 208 male inmates housed in local jails solely to ease prison crowding. Admissions and releases: Michigan is unable to determine if movements are longer than thirty days. Transfers from and to other jurisdictions: Include transfers from and to mental hospitals, and Federal and other states’ facilities. Escapes: Consist predominantly of zero tolerance escapes from community residential programs. Returns from and admissions to appeal/bond: The net difference of all movements to and from the courts. The length of time out to court is not available. Other admissions: Include returns from county jail and administrative returns from parole status.

Other releases: Consists of inmates temporarily sent to a county jail and administrative returns to parole status. State prison crowding: Michigan is unable to distinguish gender of prison inmates housed in jails; therefore, all inmates are reported as males. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: May include a small undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Include Mexican Americans and Michigan’s “Other” race category. Hispanic origin: Mexican Americans. Minnesota

Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release and work release violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release and work release violators with no new sentences. Transfers, escapes, AWOL prisoners, and admissions/returns from appeal/bond: Minnesota does not consider AWOLs, escapes, transfers, releases to appeal/bond as prison releases; therefore returns from these statutes are not considered admissions. Other unconditional releases: Include inmates discharged by court/executive order and may include an undetermined number of commutations and overturned convictions. Other conditional releases: Include inmates on supervised release and intensive supervised release. May also include inmates on conditional release, intensive community supervision and work release. State prison crowding: Consists of 50 males in an in-state private correctional facility and 12 males in county jail. Unknown race: Includes 374 Hispanic males and 11 Hispanic females because Minnesota classifies “Hispanic” as a race. Also includes inmates reported in Minnesota’s “Other” race category. Mississippi New court commitments: Include an undetermined number of probation violators both with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Include inmates awaiting a revocation hearing and returns from appeal/bond, as well as inmates whose admission category had not yet been keyed at the date of submission. Also includes an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 population. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other releases: Consists of a small number of releases to appeal/bond and returns to community supervision after a revocation hearing where no revocation occurred. State prison crowding: Include inmates housed in regional jails, county jails, and private prisons. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

Unknown race: Mississippi’s “Hispanic” category. Missouri Missouri revised its December 31, 1997 jurisdiction population count. Admissions, releases, and population data: Starting in the 1998 report year, Missouri changed the classification of the Electronic Monitoring Program (EMP) and the Residential Treatment Facility (RTF). The new computer system does not allow analysis of EMP and RTF (inmates are considered to be under Parole Board supervision). Previously a certain number of offenders in EMP and RTF were classified as state prison inmates and were included in the NPS-1 report, therefore the data for 1997 and 1998 are not comparable. Other conditional releases violators returned, with and without new sentences: Include admissions from Electronic Monitoring Program (EMP) and Residential Treatment Facility (RTF). Other admissions: Include parole board holdovers (offenders arrested by local authorities who are returned to DOC custody, instead of to the local jail’s custody, as was customary in the past) and return of inmates erroneously released. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases and cases with reversed or remanded sentences. Other conditional releases: Conditional releases to custody/detainer, parole board holdover releases, and releases to EMP/RTF. Other releases: Erroneous releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Montana Montana revised its December 31, 1997 female jurisdiction population count. Population, movement, and releases: Inmates with a sentence of more than 1 year include a small undetermined number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Admissions and releases: Include admissions to and releases from the Intensive Supervision Program (ISP).

Unknown race: Montana’s “Hispanic” category.

Nebraska Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include an undetermined number of parole violators with new sentences. Race and ethnicity: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include and undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Nebraska’s “Other” race category. Nevada Total admissions and releases: Include a small undetermined number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. New court commitments: May include a very small undetermined number of returns from appeal/bond. AWOL returns and AWOL releases: Nevada does not consider AWOLs as releases, therefore, do not consider these returns as admissions. Escapee returns and releases: Nevada’s data system carries escapees as part of the jurisdictional population, therefore neither their departure or return is reported. Other admissions: Inmates admitted to boot camp, county safekeepers, and inmates in the 120day evaluation program. Also included is an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 population. Other unconditional releases: Inmates whose sentences were overturned by court action and inmates who were released from boot camp and the 120-day evaluation program. Custody population, inmates with a sentence of more than 1 year: Include 500 female inmates currently being housed with Corrections Corporation of America, a private prison located in Nevada. These inmates are counted because this facility is located in Nevada and is dedicated to housing only Nevada female inmates. Custody population, inmates with 1 year or less sentences: Include inmates in boot camp and the 120-day evaluation program. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Race and Ethnicity: Numbers are estimates.

Unknown race: Nevada’s “Hispanic,” “Cuban,” and “Other” race categories. Ethnic origin: Nevada’s “Hispanic” and “Cuban” race categories. New Hampshire Parole violators only, no new sentence: Include parole violators with a new sentence. Other conditional releases: Include parole violators who were not revoked and were re-released. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other releases: Released on court-ordered bail. Jurisdiction population, Inmates with a sentence of more than 1 year: 1997 data were revised to reflect 4 corrections to the 1997 figures. Changes also made in race and ethnicity numbers to reflect these changes. State prison crowding: Includes 76 inmates housed in over 20 different states. Race: Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders are included in item 8b(4) “Asian” category. New Jersey Sentencing information: Inmates with sentences of more than 1 year include an undetermined number of inmates with a sentence equal to one year. New court commitments: Include an undetermined number of transfers from other jurisdictions. Other conditional releases violators only, no new sentences: Returns from the Intensive Supervision Program (an experimental program, administered by the Administrative Office of the Courts, that is an intermediate form of punishment between incarceration and probation). An undetermined number of these returns may have new sentences. Other conditional releases: Prisoners released to the Intensive Supervision Program. AWOLS returns and releases: Due to changes in its data system which are not yet complete, New Jersey is unable to report AWOLS/Walkaways. Other Releases: Release type not coded in data system. Other deaths: Unknown at time of data collection.

Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: “Hispanic” inmates who are not classified as “White” or “Black.” New Mexico The January 1, 1998 jurisdiction counts differ from the December 31, 1997 jurisdiction counts due to a delay in data entry. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include returns from community corrections program and conditional release violators both with and without new sentences. Cause of death: New Mexico’s data system does not distinguish cause of death other than death by execution. Other releases: Releases from the Probation and Parole Division. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. New York Admissions, releases, and population data: Excludes 2248 male and 40 female inmates housed in local jails solely to ease prison crowding because New York does not maintain movement data for these inmates.

New court commitments: Include parole violators with new sentences and other conditional release violators with new sentences. Transfers from other jurisdictions: Transfers to and from the jurisdiction of the Department of Mental Hygiene for psychiatric treatment. Other admissions: Consists of inmates returned following erroneous discharge from drug treatment. Other releases: Consists of inmates classified as erroneous releases. Unknown race: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. North Carolina

Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: Partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part under probation) are only included in the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” counts if the prison portion of these sentences is more than 1 year. Virtually all inmates with a partially suspended sentence are included in the December 31, 1998 “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations. As a result, the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” populations and movements are understated and the “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations are overstated. Parole violators with new sentences: Include an undetermined number of parole violators without new sentences and other conditional-release violators, both with and without new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions: Consists of an adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 population. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Paroles: Include some supervised mandatory releases. Jurisdiction population: North Carolina’s “Total inmate population” is an actual count. However, “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” and “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations are estimated. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: North Carolina’s “Other” race category. Hispanic origin: North Carolina does not collect ethnicity information. North Dakota Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include some parole violators with new sentences. Other conditional release violators only, no new sentences: Include an undetermined number of conditional-release violators with new sentences. Other conditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Ohio

Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year include some inmates with sentences of 1 year or less. As a result, the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” populations and movements are overstated and the “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations are understated. Parole violators, with new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release violators with new sentences. Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include supervised mandatory release violators with no new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Ohio’s data system classifies all unauthorized absences as escapes. Other unconditional releases: Consists of sentences vacated by the court. Paroles: Include an undetermined number of releases from transitional control to intensive supervision. Racial and ethnic composition: Numbers are estimates. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Oklahoma Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of more than 1 year includes a small number of inmates with a one year sentence. New court commitments: Include probation violators with and without new sentences. Other conditional release violators, with and without new sentences: Include returns from the probation part of a split sentence. Other unconditional releases: Legislative CAP releases (Senate Bill 445). Other conditional releases: CAP releases (Senate Bill 445) to probation supervision. State prison crowding: Consists of 4522 male and 767 female inmates in private prison facilities in Oklahoma that are included in Oklahoma’s jurisdiction population (Item 5a). These inmates have been given a new code of “70“ to reflect they are housed in private prisons within state. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: “Other” races not specified.

Unknown race: Includes Hispanics. Oregon Transfers from and to other jurisdictions: Oregon cannot distinguish transfers from any other admission or release category. Transfers may be included in any admission or release category. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Oregon classifies all unauthorized absences as escapes. Other admissions: Includes 65 male and 6 female inmates whose admission reason was unknown at time of data collection. Other unconditional releases: Type of unconditional release unknown at time of data collection. Other conditional releases: Consists of 128 male and 8 female inmates released to local control status, and 56 male and 6 female inmates recorded as “unspecified other” releases. Other releases: Consists of 3 male inmates admitted in error, and 2 female inmates whose type of release was unknown at time of data collection. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Pennsylvania Other admissions: Type of admission unknown at the time of data collection. Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other releases: Detentioners who were released. Other deaths: Unknown cause of death at time of data collection. Unknown race: Pennsylvania’s “Hispanic” race category. Also includes an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Rhode Island Sentencing information, partially suspended sentences: In Rhode Island, populations and movements of inmates given partially suspended sentences (part served in prison, part under probation) are included with the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” only if the prison portion of the sentence exceeds one year. As a result, the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” populations and movements are understated and the “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations are overstated.

Other admissions: Consists of returns from erroneous release. Other conditional releases: Court-ordered releases to drug and/or alcohol treatment programs. Other releases: One erroneous release. Jurisdiction and custody population, unsentenced inmates: Includes 11 males held on civil contempt of court for not paying child support. Total inmate population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Rhode Island. Unknown race: Rhode Island’s Hispanic race category. South Carolina Other admissions and releases: Include resentenced inmates who are released from a Youthful Offender Act sentence and readmitted to begin serving the adult portion of their sentence. Other unconditional releases: Inmates released by court order or payment of fine and inmates ordered by the court to be remanded to the county jail to await retrial. Other conditional releases: Inmates released under “community supervision” after serving 85% of sentence under “Truth in Sentencing”. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: South Carolina’s “Other” race category, which includes Hispanic inmates as well as other races. South Dakota Admissions, releases, and population data: Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence include a small undetermined number of inmates with a maximum sentence of 1 year or less. Other admissions: Includes 33 male inmates admitted to a relapse group (a program for parole violators who voluntarily recommit themselves for substance abuse treatment after a violation). Unconditional releases, expirations of sentence: Includes commutations and pardons. Ethnic origin: South Dakota’s data system does not include ethnicity. Tennessee

Sentencing information: Inmates with maximum sentences of 1 year are included in the movement and population counts of “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence.” As a result, the “Inmates with over 1 year maximum sentence” populations and movements are overstated and the “Inmates with a year or less maximum sentence” populations are understated. Parole violators with new sentences: Include a small undetermined number of parole violators with no new sentences. Other conditional release violators with new sentences: Include some probation and community correction program violators returned with no new sentences. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Tennessee’s data system does not distinguish AWOLs from escapes. Paroles: May include a small number of supervised mandatory releases. Other conditional releases: Releases to community correction programs. Total jurisdiction population: Population counts include 1,865 males and 254 females housed in local facilities to ease crowding in state prison facilities but exclude 3,700 felons sentenced to serve their time in local facilities (the state pays to house these 3,700 felons, but the local court maintains jurisdiction). Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Tennessee’s “Other” race category which consist of Hispanics. Texas Admissions, releases, and jurisdiction population: Includes 3,516 male inmates and 1,131 female inmates in a substance abuse program with a year or less maximum sentence who cannot be removed from the appropriate admission and release categories. Parole violators with and without new sentences: Texas’ data system does not distinguish parole violators with new sentences from those without new sentences. Other conditional release violators with and without new sentences: Texas’ data system does not distinguish other conditional release violators with new sentences from those without new sentences. Other conditional release violators, with new sentences: “State jail” felons who had their probation revoked and were returned to a “state jail” facility. Escapees and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category.

Other admissions and releases: Offenders with unclear or incomplete admission or release information. Other deaths: Unknown cause of death at time of data collection. Custody population, inmates sentenced to less than 1 year: Inmates in a substance abuse program. Unknown race: All racial groups that are not white or black as well as Texas’ “Hispanic” category. Utah Other unconditional releases: Inmates whose sentences were terminated prior to expiration and no supervision was required following their release. Custody population, sentencing: Include parole violators whose parole has not officially been revoked. These parole violators that generally total around 500 offenders are included in Utah’s custody population not their jurisdiction population. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Vermont Other admissions: Readmission of furlough violators. Other conditional releases: Releases to furlough. Other releases: Inmates where type of release was unknown. Total inmates population: Jurisdiction and custody counts include inmates in prisons and jails, which form an integrated system in Vermont. Race, Asians, and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Ethnicity: Vermont’s data system does not record ethnicity. Virginia Other unconditional releases: Include unconditional administrative releases and an undetermined number of commutations and releases by court order.

Conditional releases, supervised mandatory releases, and paroles: Include releases to detainer and transfers to other jurisdictions. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Virginia’s “Hispanic”, “Chinese”, and “Other” race categories. Washington Total population, admissions, and releases: Includes 2 male and 5 female inmates with a year or less maximum sentence who cannot be removed from the appropriate admission and release categories. Escapee and AWOL prisoners: Counted as a single category. Other admissions and releases: An adjustment residual to balance the movement data with the December 31, 1998 population. Other unconditional releases: Vacated sentences. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Inmates of mixed racial origins. West Virginia Admissions, releases, and jurisdiction population: Includes 17 male and 2 female unsentenced inmates held for diagnostic purposes (testing for mental capacity before sentencing) who cannot be removed from the appropriate admission and release categories. Wisconsin Wisconsin changed its jurisdiction population, racial and ethnic composition counts for December 31, 1997. Admission, releases, and jurisdiction population: Jurisdiction population was determined independently of admissions and releases due to the way the older data have been stored. An undetermined number of admissions and releases are not reported, therefore the admissions when added to the population count for January 1, minus the releases, do not equal the December 31, 1998 jurisdiction population. Other admissions: Include returns of alternative to revocation (561 males and 33 females), who are persons temporarily returned to an institution without a formal revocation. Includes returns

pending revocation hearing (1,683 males and 115 females), returns from probation and parole as special placements (17 males and 16 females), and erroneous admissions (2 males and 1 female). Other unconditional releases: Court-ordered releases. Other conditional releases: Include early releases. Other deaths: Unknown cause of death at time of data collection. Other releases: Include releases of alternative to revocation admissions (754 males and 89 females) who are persons who can be temporarily returned to an institution without a formal revocation. Includes releases from probation and parole special placements (19 males and 16 females), releases from holds pending revocation hearing (775 males and 45 females), inmates erroneously released (3 males and 2 females), and releases to mental health facilities under Wisconsin’s predator law (9 males). State prison crowding: Inmates housed in other facilities under contract with the WI. Dept. of Corrections include Texas County Jail Contract: 699 males; Corrections Corp. of America(CCA): TN facilities: 1256 males, OK facilities: 612 males; Federal Contracts: MN facilities: 310 males, WV facilities: 152 females. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Wisconsin’s “Other” race category. Wyoming New court commitments and expirations of sentence: May include a small undetermined number of administrative turnovers (starts and expirations of consecutive sentences). Parole violators only, no new sentences: Include an undetermined number of parole violators with new sentences. Race, Asians and Pacific Islanders: Include an undetermined number of Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders. Unknown race: Wyoming’s “Hispanic” category.

Parole in 1998

Tables By Thomas P. Bonczar, BJS Statistician Assisted by Lauren E. Glaze, BJS Statistician Adults on parole, 1998 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 Characteristics Counts, January 1 and December 31 Status of supervision Adults entering parole, by type of sentence Adults leaving parole by type of discharge Gender and Hispanic origin Race Sentence length Intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, and bootcamp

6.10 Adults on parole by type of release 6.11 Deaths of adults on parole, by cause of death Explanatory notes by jurisdiction Questionnaire 1998 Parole Data Survey

Parole in 1998

Table 6.1. Characteristics of adults on parole, 1998 Number of adults on parole from State or Federal courts 704,964 684,414 425,921 254,850 309 3,334 704,964 572,230 37,199 54,445 38,131 2,959 433,771 176,040 229,887 21,427 6,417 422,773 190,187 175,922 52,915 122,077 930 40,144 3,197 5,450 4,112 3,761 699,714 617,996 81,718 655,104 357,460 289,251 4,176 3,816 401 626,287 128,892 497,395 562,133 20,856 541,277 Percent of those persons with a known status 100 % 100 % 62 37 --100 % 81 5 8 5 -100 % 41 53 5 1 100 % 45 42 13 29 -9 1 1 1 1 100 % 88 12 100 % 55 44 1 1 -100 % 21 79 100 % 4 96

Characteristic Total number of adults on parole Type of parole Discretionary Mandatory Special conditional Other Status of supervision Active supervision Inactive supervision Absconded from supervision Supervised out of State Other Adults entering parole Discretionary parole Mandatory parole Reinstatement Other Adults leaving parole Successful completions Returned to incarceration With new sentence With revocation pending Other Absconder Other unsuccessful Transferred to another State Death Other Gender Male Female Race White Black/African American American Indian/Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Hispanic origin of adults on parole Hispanic Non-Hispanic Length of sentence Less than 1 year One year or more

Note: Detail may not sum to total because of rounding. See the detailed tables, the questionnaire, and the Explanatory notes for definitions, limitations, and exceptions. For every characteristic there were persons of unknown status or type; their numbers are in the detailed tables.Jurisdictions failed to report data for less than 1% of "status of supervision," "adults entering parole," "adults exiting parole," and "gender"; 6% of "race," 11% "Hispanic or Latino origin," and 20% of "length of sentence" of parolees. -- Less than 0.5%.

Table 6.2. Adults on parole, 1998 Percent change in parole population during 1998 1.5 % 5.1 % 1.1 1.6 % 19.0 -3.0 -2.3 5.4 -13.9 -0.2 6.3 -10.8 2.1 4.3 % 0.3 5.3 7.7 -2.0 6.8 22.4 -17.2 -9.3 50.9 66.2 32.2 -6.4 -3.9 % 6.7 11.4 -3.2 -14.6 -12.5 -6.5 6.5 -5.9 -1.5 8.1 -29.6 -20.5 -9.4 -12.5 2.4 -37.4 9.1 6.9 % 4.2 10.8 5.9 25.7 10.0 55.4 -11.7 17.1 9.0 2.7 15.0 -21.9 6.2 Number on parole on 12/31/98 per 100,000 adult residents 352 33 318 422 48 7 96 129 238 436 910 62 154 201 344 97 103 312 211 86 257 51 37 135 203 231 321 208 338 101 1,577 65 364 153 590 404 75 102 62 152 186 793 130 69 346 117 110 466 178 225 145 102 317 144 703 270 9 127

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/b,c State Northeast Connecticut Maine/d Massachusetts/b New Hampshire New Jersey/d New York Pennsylvania/d Rhode Island/c Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana/d Iowa Kansas/d Michigan/c Minnesota Missouri/d Nebraska North Dakota/c Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin/c South Alabama/b,c Arkansas/d Delaware/b,d,e District of Columbia/b,d Florida Georgia/b,c Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi/d North Carolina Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee/c Texas/d Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/d Arizona/c California/d Colorado/c Hawaii/c Idaho Montana/b,d Nevada/d New Mexico/c Oregon Utah Washington/b,d Wyoming/d

Parole population 1/1/98 694,787 63,512 631,275 162,782 996 67 4,596 1,083 16,903 59,670 78,264 526 677 89,860 30,348 4,044 2,037 6,150 14,351 2,446 12,514 688 116 6,803 823 9,540 236,743 6,356 5,719 591 7,761 8,477 21,915 4,233 19,927 15,763 1,378 8,148 1,928 4,813 8,693 109,437 10,710 894 141,890 472 3,378 104,412 4,139 1,827 820 755 3,463 1,626 16,815 3,281 480 422

1998 Entries Exits Reported Imputed/a Reported Imputed/a 434,209 24,895 409,314 72,626 1,449 2 3,718 565 16,281 25,096 24,726 532 257 69,798 23,773 4,681 2,608 4,982 10,503 3,011 5,034 710 338 9,275 825 4,058 99,334 2,423 5,415 : 1,553 4,315 10,360 2,938 13,533 8,459 1,094 6,923 317 939 3,086 32,189 5,115 675 167,556 313 6,207 140,724 4,421 791 832 : 2,606 1,671 7,010 2,686 23 272 434,817 24,895 409,922 72,626 1,449 2 3,718 565 16,281 25,096 24,726 532 257 69,798 23,773 4,681 2,608 4,982 10,503 3,011 5,034 710 338 9,275 825 4,058 99,507 2,423 5,415 173 1,553 4,315 10,360 2,938 13,533 8,459 1,094 6,923 317 939 3,086 32,189 5,115 675 167,991 313 6,207 140,724 4,421 791 832 435 2,606 1,671 7,010 2,686 23 272 423,661 21,238 402,423 69,713 1,260 4 3,443 507 18,627 25,218 19,822 589 243 65,939 23,689 4,467 2,451 5,107 9,523 2,462 7,182 774 279 4,774 560 4,671 109,084 2,059 4,763 192 2,975 5,371 11,749 2,663 14,701 8,694 983 9,331 713 1,393 4,174 29,604 9,125 594 157,687 293 5,843 134,519 3,356 609 378 : 2,014 1,524 6,555 2,195 155 246 424,184 21,238 402,946 69,713 1,260 4 3,443 507 18,627 25,218 19,822 589 243 65,939 23,689 4,467 2,451 5,107 9,523 2,462 7,182 774 279 4,774 560 4,671 109,084 2,059 4,763 192 2,975 5,371 11,749 2,663 14,701 8,694 983 9,331 713 1,393 4,174 29,604 9,125 594 158,210 293 5,843 134,519 3,356 609 378 523 2,014 1,524 6,555 2,195 155 246

Parole population 12/31/98 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448

: Not known. a/Imputed entries and exits reflect reported data except for jurisdictions in which data were not available; see Explanatory notes for details on imputation methods. b/Because of nonresponse or incomplete data, the population on December 31, 1998, does not equal the population on January 1, 1998, plus entries, minus exits. c/See Explanatory notes for more detail. d/Data do not include cases in one or more of the following categories: absconder, out-of-State, inactive, intensive supervision, electronic monitoring, or otherwise may be estimated; see Explanatory notes for more detail. e/Data are for the period beginning March 30, 1998, and ending December 31, 1998.

Table 6.3. Adults on parole, by status of supervision, 1998 Parole population 12/31/98 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine/a Massachusetts New Hampshire/a,b New Jersey/a New York Pennsylvania/a Rhode Island/b Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota/b Missouri/a Nebraska/b North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a Arkansas/a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland/b Mississippi North Carolina/b Oklahoma/a,b South Carolina Tennessee Texas/a Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/a Arizona California/b Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana/a Nevada/a New Mexico/a Oregon Utah Washington/a Wyoming

Active 572,230 63,340 508,890 123,275 995 42 3,667 798 11,452 42,578 62,776 340 627 82,902 28,197 4,258 1,874 4,585 12,292 2,411 9,316 461 108 11,304 783 7,313 167,061 2,643 5,854 418 3,564 4,649 19,100 4,508 16,156 9,284 1,489 5,067 1,048 2,933 6,617 76,352 6,700 679 135,652 302 3,110 108,359 3,678 1,339 1,274 540 1,887 1,446 9,735 3,398 165 419

Number of adults on parole Inactive Absconded Out of State 37,199 584 36,615 11,795 0 0 0 171 0 4,656 6,953 ... 15 0 ... 0 0 0 ... 0 0 ... 0 0 0 0 20,261 814 34 ... 607 956 ... 0 0 2,176 / 297 296 143 301 14,543 0 94 4,559 ... 0 0 0 234 : : 1,173 225 2,804 0 123 0 54,445 2,837 51,608 15,684 92 13 171 0 2,508 5,402 7,483 ... 15 3,844 ... / 115 / 2,341 261 : 42 0 0 34 1,051 26,128 680 365 109 2,266 1,215 : 0 2,307 3,088 / 303 56 667 111 14,914 0 47 5,952 : 371 46 268 209 : 24 346 22 4,393 211 62 0 38,131 ... 38,131 14,443 98 10 651 126 597 6,912 5,956 59 34 6,765 2,235 / 205 1,440 698 159 1,050 77 67 0 271 563 11,441 526 118 45 188 601 1,382 0 296 529 / 73 123 616 576 6,213 0 155 5,482 190 261 2,212 1,258 174 : 103 649 80 338 163 25 29

Other 2,959 0 2,959 116 0 0 0 46 0 0 0 70 0 208 0 0 0 0 0 164 0 44 0 0 0 0 2,582 2,122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 451 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 53 0 0 0 0 53 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

: Not known. ... Not applicable. /Not reported in December 31, 1998 population; see Explanatory notes for more detail. a/Some or all detailed data are estimated for supervision status. b/See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Table 6.4. Adults entering parole, by type of sentence, 1998 Number of adults entering parole Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/e New York/d Pennsylvania/e Rhode Island/d Vermont Midwest Illinois/d Indiana/d Iowa Kansas/d Michigan Minnesota/d Missouri/e Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin/d South Alabama/e Arkansas/e Delaware District of Columbia/d,e Florida Georgia/d Kentucky Louisiana/d Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas/d,e Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/e Arizona/b California Colorado/d Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/e New Mexico Oregon/d Utah Washington/e Wyoming/e Total 434,209 24,895 409,314 72,626 1,449 2 3,718 565 16,281 25,096 24,726 532 257 69,798 23,773 4,681 2,608 4,982 10,503 3,011 5,034 710 338 9,275 825 4,058 99,334 2,423 5,415 : 1,553 4,315 10,360 2,938 13,533 8,459 1,094 6,923 317 939 3,086 32,189 5,115 675 167,556 313 6,207 140,724 4,421 791 832 : 2,606 1,671 7,010 2,686 23 272 Discretionary/a 176,040 24,471 151,569 60,549 1,449 0 3,507 0 11,749 18,408 24,726 453 257 28,675 30 24 2,598 4,534 9,193 0 3,894 710 338 4,765 340 2,249 51,537 2,423 3,554 : 836 4,200 10,360 2,876 889 2,952 1,088 3,873 317 939 3,086 12,138 1,331 675 10,808 71 553 144 3,011 783 832 : 2,384 : 321 2,686 23 : Mandatory/b 229,887 424 229,463 6,596 0 0 0 565 ... 6,031 ... ... 0 37,009 22,632 3,896 0 198 564 2,764 1,140 0 0 3,601 482 1,732 44,588 0 1,629 : 247 0 ... ... 10,320 5,507 ... 3,050 ... 0 : 20,051 3,784 0 141,270 229 5,148 127,174 1,161 0 ... : : 1,671 5,887 0 ... : Reinstatement/c 21,427 0 21,427 4,824 0 2 211 0 4,532 0 ... 79 0 1,542 236 141 10 110 746 0 : ... 0 296 3 0 727 : 232 : 286 115 ... 62 26 0 6 0 ... 0 : 0 0 0 14,334 13 261 13,406 : 8 : : 222 : 424 0 ... : Other 6,417 0 6,417 657 0 0 0 0 0 657 0 0 0 2,565 875 620 0 140 0 240 0 0 0 613 0 77 2,482 0 0 0 184 0 0 0 2,298 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 713 0 245 0 249 0 0 0 0 0 219 0 0 0 Unknown or not reported 438 0 438 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 431 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 159 0 0 272

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Discretionary parole entries are persons entering because of a parole board decision. b/Mandatory parole entries are persons whose releases from prison were not decided by a parole board. Includes those entering because of determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provisions, or emergency releases. c/Reinstatement entries are persons returned to parole after serving time in a prison because of a parole violation. d/See Explanatory notes for more detail. e/Some or all detailed data are estimated for entries.

Table 6.5. Adults leaving parole, by type of discharge, 1998 Number of adults leaving parole Returned to prison or jail With Transferred Successful new With Other to another completion sentence revocation Other Absconded unsuccessful jurisdiction Death 190,187 14,018 176,169 41,171 732 0 2,689 239 8,991 13,986 13,990 377 167 37,672 15,541 2,688 1,307 1,839 4,949 1,154 3,803 460 188 2,432 364 2,947 54,168 1,664 1,909 72 840 1,392 6,094 868 4,234 3,960 820 7,604 539 862 1,387 15,995 5,557 371 43,158 97 4,088 31,192 1,355 265 254 : 1,355 374 3,582 361 108 127 52,915 : 52,915 7,162 221 0 0 253 2,327 2,919 1,345 54 43 10,511 4,834 324 172 326 1,344 139 1,514 : 3 593 0 1,262 17,070 76 499 : 591 2,910 612 95 2,648 1,035 23 93 97 69 : 8,303 0 19 18,172 56 52 16,142 358 0 : : 348 : 703 494 0 19 122,077 4,484 117,593 19,411 301 1 754 0 7,229 7,631 3,334 133 28 12,147 1,968 393 154 2,144 3,111 1,167 963 309 72 1,236 193 437 24,854 177 1,838 : 509 894 4,229 1,175 5,034 1,148 97 1,369 65 425 1,752 4,092 1,852 198 61,181 131 1,072 53,976 1,477 332 124 : 183 634 2,018 1,176 0 58 930 0 930 105 0 0 0 0 0 0 101 4 0 267 0 72 18 176 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 502 0 0 0 170 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 0 301 0 0 0 56 0 17 0 0 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 7 40,144 1,442 38,702 232 0 0 : 0 0 0 215 17 0 1,933 0 507 180 330 0 0 549 ... 3 364 0 0 3,569 86 224 : 807 91 0 : 2,250 ... 0 ... 0 0 111 0 0 0 32,968 0 371 32,306 : : : : : 286 0 0 0 5 3,197 : 3,197 0 0 0 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 109 0 0 0 109 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,825 : 0 73 0 0 0 0 361 2,391 0 0 0 0 : 0 0 0 263 : 0 2 0 0 : : 96 143 0 22 0 0 5,450 : 5,450 375 0 0 : 9 0 0 366 0 0 955 154 440 97 : 0 0 165 ... 0 99 0 0 3,670 : 249 : ... 68 722 482 103 10 0 0 0 0 576 0 1,460 0 450 9 250 : 145 : : : ... ... 15 2 0 29 4,112 394 3,718 651 6 3 : 6 80 364 184 3 5 431 34 43 0 25 119 2 126 5 0 50 3 24 1,671 56 44 2 58 16 92 39 64 150 10 50 12 37 47 925 64 5 965 0 10 731 21 12 : : : 25 116 29 20 1

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/b New York/a Pennsylvania/b Rhode Island/a Vermont Midwest Illinois/a Indiana Iowa Kansas/a Michigan Minnesota/b Missouri/b Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin/a South Alabama/b Arkansas/b Delaware District of Columbia/a Florida/a Georgia/a Kentucky Louisiana/a Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/b South Carolina Tennessee/a Texas/a,b Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/b Arizona/b California/a Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/a New Mexico/a Oregon/a Utah/a Washington/b Wyoming

Total Imputed Reported 424,184 21,238 402,946 69,713 1,260 4 3,443 507 18,627 25,218 19,822 589 243 65,939 23,689 4,467 2,451 5,107 9,523 2,462 7,182 774 279 4,774 560 4,671 109,084 2,059 4,763 192 2,975 5,371 11,749 2,663 14,701 8,694 983 9,331 713 1,393 4,174 29,604 9,125 594 158,210 293 5,843 134,519 3,356 609 378 523 2,014 1,524 6,555 2,195 155 246 423,661 21,238 402,423 69,713 1,260 4 3,443 507 18,627 25,218 19,822 589 243 65,939 23,689 4,467 2,451 5,107 9,523 2,462 7,182 774 279 4,774 560 4,671 109,084 2,059 4,763 192 2,975 5,371 11,749 2,663 14,701 8,694 983 9,331 713 1,393 4,174 29,604 9,125 594 157,687 293 5,843 134,519 3,356 609 378 : 2,014 1,524 6,555 2,195 155 246

Other 3,761 900 2,861 606 0 0 0 0 0 318 287 1 0 1,388 1,158 0 7 158 0 0 62 0 3 0 0 0 540 0 0 45 0 0 0 4 7 0 2 0 0 0 0 289 192 1 327 0 0 153 0 0 0 0 0 62 1 111 0 0

Unknown or not reported 888 0 888 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 526 0 0 516 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 215 0 0 0 0 0 0 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 120 0 27 0

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for exits.

Table 6.6. Adults on parole, by gender and Hispanic origin, 1998 Parole population 12/31/98 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448 Gender Male 617,996 56,193 561,803 143,408 1,070 63 4,153 742 12,959 54,332 69,029 437 623 84,993 27,571 3,920 1,938 5,397 14,038 2,768 9,360 545 151 10,275 947 8,083 198,512 6,100 5,464 540 6,152 6,995 18,279 : 16,911 14,280 1,355 5,164 1,235 3,919 6,871 98,359 6,003 885 134,890 395 3,486 99,665 4,699 1,763 1,153 : 2,838 1,368 15,373 3,410 350 390 Number of adults on parole Hispanic origin NonNot Not Hispanic reported Female reported Hispanic 81,718 10,494 71,224 21,905 115 2 336 399 1,598 5,216 14,139 32 68 8,726 2,861 338 256 628 1,293 227 1,006 79 24 1,029 141 844 24,452 685 907 32 473 425 2,203 : 1,848 1,248 134 576 297 440 734 13,663 697 90 16,141 97 256 10,952 505 246 121 : 1,217 405 1,897 362 25 58 5,250 74 5,176 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,509 0 0 0 0 1 0 4,508 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 128,892 11,571 117,321 29,796 314 : 901 228 2,990 21,107 4,177 79 : 4,298 2,404 : 70 453 328 175 : 54 5 170 22 617 29,381 14 73 21 : 499 : : 15 : : : 98 : 41 28,592 24 4 53,846 20 1,280 44,235 3,606 : 590 : 487 902 1,882 776 21 47 497,395 54,649 442,746 134,761 871 : 3,588 913 11,567 38,441 78,991 390 : 73,790 28,028 : 2,124 5,493 15,003 2,820 : 570 170 11,134 1,066 7,382 139,211 6,621 6,298 551 : 6,922 : : 18,744 : : : 1,434 : 7,564 83,430 6,676 971 94,984 472 2,462 66,382 1,598 : 684 : 3,568 871 15,388 2,978 180 401 78,677 541 78,136 756 0 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 691 15,631 0 4,258 0 79 0 0 10,366 0 0 0 0 928 58,881 150 0 0 6,625 0 20,482 4,508 0 15,528 1,489 5,740 0 4,359 0 0 0 0 2,868 0 0 0 0 2,009 0 667 0 0 0 18 174 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine/a Massachusetts New Hampshire/a,b New Jersey/a,b New York Pennsylvania/a,b Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois/a,b Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri/a Nebraska/a,b North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a,b Arkansas/a,b Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia/a Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi/a North Carolina Oklahoma/a,b South Carolina Tennessee Texas/a,b Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/a,b Arizona California/b Colorado/a,b Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/a,b New Mexico/a,b Oregon Utah Washington/a,b Wyoming

: Not known. a/Some or all detailed data are estimated for gender. b/Some or all detailed data are estimated for Hispanic origin. c/See explanatory notes for more detail.

Table 6.7. Adults on parole, by race, 1998 Number of adults on parole American Native Indian/ Hawaiian/ Alaskan Other Pacific Native Asian Islander 4,176 1,033 3,143 146 3 : 4 0 7 117 8 2 5 856 29 : 29 106 61 197 12 17 26 11 152 216 300 2 5 1 : 6 : : 2 9 : 154 56 3 4 58 0 0 1,841 102 228 765 83 : 192 : 61 145 155 91 19 0 3,816 1,531 2,285 413 4 : 37 23 49 267 28 5 0 178 39 : 5 38 31 : 6 4 0 11 0 44 209 6 19 0 : 10 : : 4 27 : 4 3 1 13 103 19 0 1,485 14 0 1,132 24 : 34 : 81 : 131 62 7 0 401 : 401 34 0 : 0 34 0 0 0 0 0 8 : : 0 : : : 8 0 0 : 0 0 21 0 0 0 : 13 : : 0 : : 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 338 : 0 150 : : : : 33 : 155 : 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a State Northeast Connecticut/a,b Maine Massachusetts/b New Hampshire/c New Jersey/c New York/a,b Pennsylvania/a,b,c Rhode Island/a,b Vermont Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa/a,b Kansas/a Michigan Minnesota/a,b Missouri/c Nebraska/c North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin/a South Alabama/c Arkansas/a,b,c Delaware/a,b District of Columbia Florida Georgia/a,c Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi/c North Carolina Oklahoma/c South Carolina Tennessee Texas/c Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/c Arizona California/b,c Colorado/a,b,c Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/c New Mexico/c Oregon/a,b Utah/a Washington/a,c Wyoming

Parole population 12/31/98 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448

White 357,460 42,667 314,793 67,317 324 : 2,443 856 4,148 8,910 49,679 278 679 38,566 7,912 : 1,776 3,734 7,146 1,663 6,191 463 143 4,511 882 4,145 103,819 2,700 3,154 221 133 2,962 6,863 : 5,531 3,754 418 1,998 889 1,319 3,360 67,315 2,405 797 105,091 314 2,954 77,578 2,342 : 974 : 2,514 1,418 12,980 3,367 287 363

Black/ African American 289,251 20,716 268,535 69,185 540 : 1,098 228 10,353 28,265 28,589 105 7 48,788 22,450 : 311 2,068 8,054 901 4,124 140 6 6,579 54 4,101 117,109 4,057 3,120 329 6,426 4,325 13,619 : 13,176 11,710 1,062 3,517 480 3,005 4,220 43,643 4,242 178 33,453 58 508 27,869 1,140 : 68 : 1,339 210 1,957 234 51 19

Unknown or not reported 49,860 814 49,046 28,218 314 65 907 0 0 21,989 4,864 79 0 5,323 2 4,258 73 79 39 234 25 0 0 192 0 421 6,015 20 73 21 66 105 0 4,508 46 28 9 67 104 31 0 903 34 0 9,490 4 52 3,123 1,615 2,009 6 667 27 0 1,892 18 11 66

: Not known. a/See Explanatory notes for more detail. b/"Unknown or not reported" includes Hispanic parolees of unknown race. c/Some or all detailed data are estimated for race.

Table 6.8. Adults on parole, by sentence length, 1998 Parole population 12/31/98 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448 Number of adults on parole Length of sentence Not One year More than reported or less one year 20,856 13,546 7,310 1,456 0 0 539 0 832 0 : 33 52 1,367 ... 1,258 : 0 ... 0 0 1 108 0 0 : 4,095 150 279 : : 1,520 571 ... 169 80 1 350 0 : ... 0 0 975 392 : 146 0 : 0 ... 0 : 0 : 26 0 220 541,277 49,929 491,348 80,689 1,185 65 3,950 1,141 13,725 59,548 : 436 639 81,231 30,432 3,000 : 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 623 67 11,304 1,088 : 205,143 : 6,092 : : 5,857 19,911 4,508 18,590 15,448 1,488 5,390 1,532 : 7,605 112,022 6,700 0 124,285 : 3,596 110,617 : 2,009 1,274 667 : 1,773 : 3,746 375 228 142,831 3,286 139,545 83,168 0 0 0 0 0 0 83,168 0 0 11,121 0 0 2,194 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,927 18,235 6,635 0 572 6,625 44 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,359 0 0 0 0 27,021 492 0 0 5,204 0 0 0 4,055 0 17,270 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine/a Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey/a New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana/a Iowa Kansas/b Michigan Minnesota Missouri/a Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a Arkansas/a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia/a Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/a South Carolina Tennessee Texas/a Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana/a Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/a Wyoming

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Detailed data are estimated for sentence length. b/See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Table 6.9. Adults on parole under intensive supervision, under electronic monitoring, or in a bootcamp, 1998 Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal/a,b State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania/c,d Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois/c Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri/d,e Nebraska North Dakota/e Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/d,e Arkansas/d,e Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia/b Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas/b,d,e Virginia West Virginia West Alaska/e Arizona/b California Colorado/b Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/d,e New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming Number of adults on parole Intensive Electronic supervision monitoring Bootcamp 40,039 : 40,039 9,387 63 ... 64 131 1,960 ... 7,169 ... ... 6,551 702 155 414 ... 4,276 384 463 32 17 ... 108 : 10,827 83 61 191 313 13 856 364 185 2,838 ... 1,053 85 277 ... 3,528 980 ... 13,274 35 97 11,081 529 74 73 : 392 193 311 445 ... 44 9,596 3,433 6,163 1,138 50 ... 15 40 85 231 646 71 ... 1,055 365 39 18 45 200 56 325 6 1 ... ... : 2,840 13 98 2 ... ... 790 ... 97 73 ... 46 ... : ... 1,576 145 ... 1,130 ... 97 60 : 0 24 : 604 36 220 45 ... 44 784 ... 784 0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 119 ... ... ... ... ... 119 ... ... ... ... ... ... 630 ... ... ... ... ... ... : ... 630 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 35

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Reported data include both probationers and parolees. b/Intensive supervision and electronic monitoring are a combined program; see Explanatory notes for more detail. c/See Explanatory notes for more detail. d/Detailed data are estimated for electronic monitoring. e/Detailed data are estimated for intensive supervision.

Table 6.10. Adults on parole, by type of release, 1998

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire/d New Jersey/e New York/d Pennsylvania/d Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois/d,e Indiana/d Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri/e Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin/d South Alabama/e Arkansas/e Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/e South Carolina Tennessee Texas/e Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California/d Colorado/d Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada/e New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/e Wyoming

Total 704,964 66,761 638,203 165,313 1,185 65 4,489 1,141 14,557 59,548 83,168 469 691 93,719 30,432 4,258 2,194 6,025 15,331 2,995 10,366 624 175 11,304 1,088 8,927 227,473 6,785 6,371 572 6,625 7,421 20,482 4,508 18,759 15,528 1,489 5,740 1,532 4,359 7,605 112,022 6,700 975 151,698 492 3,742 110,617 5,204 2,009 1,274 667 4,055 1,773 17,270 3,772 375 448

Discretionary/a 425,921 65,504 360,417 154,608 1,185 : 4,489 0 14,557 50,228 82,989 469 691 38,908 127 150 : : 14,367 0 9,126 621 175 7,185 619 6,538 143,960 6,765 4,122 291 5,068 7,409 20,482 : 2,727 8,607 1,489 : 1,532 4,359 7,605 68,432 4,097 975 22,941 : 857 350 3,763 2,009 1,274 : 3,617 : 6,924 3,772 375 :

Number of adults on parole Special Mandatory/b condtional/c Other 254,850 1,257 253,593 9,046 0 : 0 1,101 ... 7,766 179 ... 0 45,843 30,293 3,808 : : 963 2,797 1,240 3 0 4,119 469 2,151 72,080 : 2,234 281 1,524 0 0 ... 15,380 6,879 0 : ... 0 : 43,179 2,603 0 126,624 : 2,885 110,267 1,105 0 ... : 268 1,773 10,326 0 0 : 309 ... 309 11 0 : 0 0 0 11 ... 0 0 6 0 0 : : 1 5 : 0 0 0 0 0 122 20 15 : 33 12 : : 0 42 0 : : 0 : 0 0 0 170 : 0 : : 0 : : 170 : 0 0 0 : 3,334 0 3,334 1,583 0 0 0 40 0 1,543 0 0 0 743 12 300 0 0 0 193 0 0 0 0 0 238 652 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 652 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 356 0 0 0 336 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0

Unknown or not reported 20,550 0 20,550 65 0 65 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,219 0 0 2,194 6,025 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10,659 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,508 0 0 0 5,740 0 0 0 411 0 0 1,607 492 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 448

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Discretionary parole includes persons who entered parole as the result of a parole board decision. b/Mandatory parole includes persons whose release from prison was not decided by a parole board. Includes those who entered parole because of determinate sentencing statutes, good-time provisions, or emergency releases. c/Special conditional releases include medical releases, early releases for the terminally ill, and other special releases. d/See Explanatory notes for more detail. e/Some or all detailed data are estimated for type of sentence.

Table 6.11. Deaths of adults on parole, by cause of death, 1998 Number of adults dying while on parole Acquired Immune Death Deficiency Accidental caused by Syndrome injury another (AIDS) Suicide to self person 28 : 28 21 : 0 : : 21 : : 0 0 0 : : 0 : : : : 0 0 : 0 : 7 : 7 : : : : : : : : : : : 0 : : 0 0 0 0 : 0 : : : : : : : : 0 13 : 13 4 : 0 : : 4 : : 0 0 1 : : 0 : : 0 : 1 0 : 0 : 6 : 3 : : : 2 : : : : : 1 : : : : 0 2 0 0 : 2 : : : : : : : : 0 62 : 62 22 : 0 : : 20 : : 1 1 1 : : 0 : : 0 : 1 0 : 0 : 29 ; 8 : : : 17 : : : : : 2 : : : : 2 10 0 0 : 10 : : : : : : : : 0 41 : 41 9 : 0 : : 9 : : 0 0 1 : : 0 : : 0 : 1 0 : 0 : 25 5 10 : : : 7 : : : : : 3 : : : : 0 6 0 2 : 4 : : : : : : : : 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine/a Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri/a Nebraska North Dakota Ohio/a South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama/a Arkansas/a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma/a South Carolina Tennessee Texas/a Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona/a California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington/a Wyoming

Total 4,112 394 3,718 0 651 6 3 : 6 80 364 184 3 5 431 34 43 0 25 119 2 126 5 0 50 3 24 1,671 56 44 2 58 16 92 39 64 150 10 50 12 37 47 925 64 5 965 0 10 731 21 12 : : : 25 116 29 20 1

Illnesses/ natural causes 174 : 174 35 : 3 : : 26 : : 2 4 7 : : 0 : : 2 : 2 0 : 3 : 118 51 15 : : : 43 : : : : : 6 : : : : 3 14 0 8 : 5 : : : : : : : : 1

Other, unknown, or not reported 3,794 394 3,400 560 6 0 0 6 0 364 184 0 0 421 34 43 0 25 119 0 126 0 0 50 0 24 1,486 0 1 2 58 16 23 39 64 150 10 50 0 37 47 925 64 0 933 0 0 731 0 12 0 0 0 25 116 29 20 0

: Not known. ... Not applicable. a/Some or all detailed data are estimated for deaths. b/See Explanatory notes for more detail.

Chapter 6: Parole Explanatory notes Because many jurisdictions update their population counts, the January 1, 1998, numbers may differ from those previously published for December 31, 1997. Federal Data for the Federal system are from the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts as provided to the BJS Federal Justice Statistics Program. Parole includes supervised release, parole, military parole, special parole, and mandatory release. Definitional differences exist between parole reported here and in other BJS data series. “Other” discharges include cases for which specific codes were not assigned. Includes such cases as closings at chief’s discretion, closings because of revocation in another case, and withdrawing of warrants after expiration (table 6.5). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander” parolees (table 6.7). Although no formal intensive supervision program exists at the national level, some individual parole offices that use electronic monitoring may regard such a program to be an intensive supervision program (table 6.9). Alabama Alabama has two reporting agencies: One State and one local. Alabama’s State agency estimated all data. Alaska All data are estimated. Arizona Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 440 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Other” entries include 245 interstate compact cases accepted in Arizona (table 6.4). The intensive supervision and electronic monitoring programs are combined. The 97 parolees in an intensive supervision program are also on electronic monitoring (table 6.9). Arkansas

All data are estimated. Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 313 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Unknown or not reported” race includes Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). California California has two reporting agencies: Department of Corrections and the California Youth Authority (CYA). California’s Youth Authority estimated race and Hispanic origin. Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 4,230 civil narcotic addict outpatients and interstate compact cases supervised for other States by California’s State agency. California State data excludes 19,883 absconders (table 6.3). CYA’s “returned to prison or jail, other” includes parolees committed to other jurisdictions. “Other unsuccessful” discharges include parolees placed on probation or sentenced to jail as a result of a new offense. “Other” discharges include parolees released on a pending court action and others. (table 6.5). CYA’s “unknown or not reported” race includes an unspecified number of Hispanic parolees and unknowns (table 6.7). “Mandatory” release from prison includes a small number of life imprisonment parolees that received a discretionary release from prison (table 6.10). Colorado Growth in the parole population may have been the result of a State law which mandates a period of parole supervision for all persons sentenced to prison for crimes committed on or after July 1, 1993. “Total” entries include 249 interstate compact cases supervised for other States (table 6.4). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 1,598 Hispanics of unknown race (table 6.7). Intensive supervision and electronic monitoring are a combined program. An unknown number of the 529 parolees in an intensive supervision program are also on electronic monitoring (table 6.9). “Other” release type includes interstate compact cases supervised for other States (table 6.10). Connecticut

“Unknown or not reported” race includes 314 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Delaware Entries were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. “Total” entries are estimated (table 6.4). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 21 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 6.7). District of Columbia “Total” entries are estimated. “Other” includes grants to consecutive sentences, detainers, and parolees classified under administrative status (table 6.4). “Returned to prison or jail, other” includes parolees classified under warrant executed status (table 6.5). Florida “Successful completion” includes 189 parolees who were pardoned, deported, or being held by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (table 6.5). Georgia Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 741 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Total” entries and exits include an unspecified number of interstate compact cases which Georgia supervises for other States (tables 6.4 and 6.5). Georgia reported race in two classifications, “White” and “non-White,” and included “nonWhite” under “Black/African American” (table 6.7). The intensive supervision program and the electronic monitoring program cannot be separated. The 790 parolees in electronic monitoring program are included in the 856 involved in an intensive supervision program (table 6.9). Hawaii Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 30 interstate compact cases supervised for another State. Illinois

“Other” entries include transfers from other States and others (table 6.4). “Other” discharges include transfers (not discharged) to the Apprehension Unit and others (table 6.5). Illinois Department of Corrections also had 349 parolees in a Day Reporting Center and 426 in a Community Drug Intervention Program on December 31, 1998 (table 6.9). “Other” release type includes parolees identified as “Sexually Dangerous Persons” (table 6.10). Indiana Data exclude 400 absconders and 300 parolees supervised out-of-State (table 6.3). “Other” entries include transfers from other States (table 6.4). “Other” release type includes releases from other States (table 6.10). Iowa “Unknown or not reported” race includes 70 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Kansas Data exclude 614 absconders (table 6.3). The Kansas Sentencing Guidelines Act with its determinate sentencing structure became effective July 1, 1993. Previously, Kansas had indeterminate sentencing. As a result, a number of entries and exits to parole (reported in these tables) involve offenders with “guidelines” or “new law” sentences (which have determinate periods of post-incarceration supervision). For purposes of these tables, it is not feasible to differentiate movements of “old law” versus “new law” offenders. For example, releases to post-incarceration supervision (for a determinate period under new law) are included with the regular parole releases (for an indeterminate period under old law) in “discretionary release from prison” (table 6.4). Both of these groups of releases are under the same type of post-incarceration supervision by parole officers and are subject to return to prison, as always, for violation of the conditions of release. “Other” entries include releases from pre-revocation and administrative hold (table 6.4). “Returned to prison or jail, other” includes 110 parolees on pre-revocation confinement, 65 parolees on administrative hold, and one parolee released to a Community Corrections program. “Other unsuccessful” discharges include 109 cases closed by an issued warrant. “Other” discharges include 158 cases involving out-of-State offenders and others (table 6.5). “Asian” includes an unknown number of “Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander” parolees (table 6.7).

Maximum sentence to incarceration of “more than a year” includes a relatively small but undetermined number for whom the incarceration portion of the sentence is “a year or less”; Kansas considers all of these to be felons (table 6.8). Louisiana “Other” entries include parolees who were returned after absconding (table 6.4). “Other” discharges include parolees whose court order sentences were vacated (table 6.5). Maine Total population on December 31, 1998, is estimated. Maryland As a result of a change in State law in May 1997, prisoners sentenced to a period of incarceration of a year or less are now classified as having an “expired sentence” and are no longer placed under the supervision of the Division of Parole and Probation. This has accounted for decreases in both the number of entries to post-prison supervision by mandatory release and in the number of successful discharges (such persons generally had short periods of post-prison supervision) during 1997 and 1998 (tables 6.4 and 6.5). “Other” supervision status includes parolees delinquent in custody (table 6.3). Massachusetts “Unknown or not reported” race includes an unspecified number of Hispanic parolees and other parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Michigan Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 755 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. Minnesota “Other” supervision status includes offenders held in local jails for absconding and issuance of a warrant, or held on a detainer or pre-trial status for a new offense (table 6.3). “Other” entries include offenders released to intensive supervision programs and on conditional medical release (table 6.4). “Unknown or not reported” race includes Asian parolees, and Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7).

Mississippi Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 523 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. Data exclude 781 parolees on inactive supervision, 270 parolees supervised out-of-State, and two absconders (table 6.3). Missouri All data are estimated. Montana All data are estimated. Imputation of entries was based on the ratio of 1997 entries to the January 1, 1997 population in Montana. Exits were imputed from the requirement that the beginning of year population, plus entries, minus exits, must equal the end of year population. Nebraska “Other” supervision status includes detainers (table 6.3). Nevada Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 336 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Total” entries are estimated (table 6.4). “Successful completion” includes an unspecified number of “deaths.” “Other unsuccessful” discharges include parolees discharged after the issuance of a warrant (table 6.5). New Hampshire “Other” supervision status includes parolees on administrative home confinement (table 6.3). “Other” release type includes parolees released from administrative home confinement (table 6.10). New Jersey “Total” entries are estimated (table 6.4).

“Total” exits are estimated (table 6.5). New Mexico Data include parolees in the Community Corrections Program, a therapeutic program with a high needs caseloads. “Other” discharges include “Special Actions” (table 6.5). New York “Other” entries include 657 cases which were judicially sanctioned (table 6.4). “Other” discharges include 307 board actions and 11 court orders (table 6.5). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 21,107 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). “Special conditional” releases include parolees released by the Parole Board prior to their eligibility date due to a terminal illness and certain “non-violent” parolees released due to participation in a six month treatment program. “Other” release type includes 1,543 cases which were judicially sanctioned (6.10). North Carolina The active population includes 327 post-release offenders. Post-release supervision is defined by North Carolina as a reintegrative program for serious offenders who have served extensive prison terms. This form of supervision was created by the Structured Sentencing Act of 1993 to replace parole supervision for offenders who had served long prison sentences and needed assistance in re-adjusting to life outside of the correctional institution (table 6.3). North Dakota Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 41 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. Oklahoma Total population on December 31, 1998, is estimated. “Other” supervision status includes nine parolees awaiting transfer to incarceration (table 6.3). “Total” exits are estimated (table 6.5). Oregon

“Other” entries include 219 transitional leave parolees (table 6.4). “Successful completion” discharges include eight dismissals. “Other” discharges include an inmate appeal (table 6.5). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 1,882 Hispanic parolees of unknown race (table 6.7). Pennsylvania “Total” entries are estimated (table 6.4). “Total” exits are estimated (table 6.5). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 4,177 Hispanic probationers of unknown race. “American Indian/Alaska Native” and “Asian” include State data only (table 6.7). Data for the intensive supervision and electronic monitoring programs include county data only. The State operated an intensive supervision and electronic monitoring program but an unknown number of probationers were involved in both programs (table 6.9). Release type of “mandatory release from prison” includes State data only (table 6.10). Rhode Island Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional unspecified number of interstate compact cases supervised for other States. Supervised “out-of-State” includes four parolees serving out-of-State sentences. “Other” supervision status includes 40 persons supervised by U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, 22 inmates held in the Rhode Island Adult Correctional Institution on detention warrants issued by the parole board, six persons serving a U.S. sentence, one person held on a U.S. detention warrant, and one person in the Federal Witness Program (table 6.3). “Reinstatement” includes persons placed on “re-parole” after revocation because either (a) there were no new sentences or (b) all new sentences were six months or less to serve (table 6.4). “Returned to prison or jail, other” includes parolees who completed parole through parole time expiration while held on detention warrants. “Absconder” includes four parolees who absconded from Home Confinement Parole and 13 who absconded from other parole. As of May 5, 1999, 10 of the 17 absconders had been returned to prison; seven were still at large. “Other” discharges include one parolee whose parole supervision date expired while still at the Rhode Island Department of Corrections awaiting discharge to Immigration authorities (table 6.5). “Unknown or not reported” race includes 79 Hispanic probationers of unknown race (table 6.7).

Tennessee Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 450 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Returned to prison or jail, other” includes detainers. “Successful completion” includes 571 parolees with expired sentences (table 6.5). Texas All data are estimated. “Total” entries include an unspecified number of parolees from out-of-State jurisdictions (table 6.4). “Total” exits include and unspecified number of parolees from out-of-State jurisdictions. “Other” discharges are an adjustment needed because interstate compact cases could not be eliminated from entries and exits (table 6.5). The 1,576 parolees in an electronic monitoring program are also included in the 3,528 parolees in an intensive supervision program (table 6.9). Utah “Other” discharges include 110 parolees whose sentence expired or was terminated and one parolee who was deported (table 6.5). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander” parolees (table 6.7). Washington All data are estimated. Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 630 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Unknown or not reported” race includes parolees of mixed races (table 6.7). Wisconsin Total parole population on December 31, 1998 excludes an additional 264 interstate compact cases supervised for other States. “Other” entries include mental health conditional release parolees (table 6.4).

“Returned to prison or jail, other” includes one parolee voluntarily housed in a minimum security facility (table 6.5). “Asian” includes an unspecified number of “Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander” parolees (table 6.7). “Other” release type includes mental health conditional release parolees. These include persons found not guilty by reason of mental disease or defect and who were placed under the supervision of a non-DOC State agency. When released on parole, they are supervised by Wisconsin’s DOC. The population also includes “sexual predators” that completed their sentence but were placed under the care of a non-DOC State agency after being declared “sexual predators” (table 6.10). Wyoming “Total” entries are estimated (table 6.4).

CJ-7
Bureau of Justice Statistics
FORM

OMB No. 1121-0064: Approval Expires 03/01/99

CJ-7

RETURN 810 Seventh Street, NW Washington, DC 20531 TO
Attn: Corrections Unit

(11-24-98)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

1998 Parole Data Survey

BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

Please correct any errors in the mailing address.

GENERAL INFORMATION 

If you have any questions, call the Bureau of Justice Statistics at (202) 616-3615.  Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of Justice Statistics before February 26, 1999,
or FAX (all pages) to (202) 307-1463.

Who is included in this survey? 

INCLUDE all adult parolees conditionally released to parole supervision, whether by parole board decision or by
mandatory conditional release, between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998. 

INCLUDE adult parolees sent to another jurisdiction through an interstate compact.  INCLUDE adult parolees legally your responsibility but supervised outside your jurisdiction.  INCLUDE persons on active and inactive supervision and all parolees regardless of sentence length.  INCLUDE absconders who have not been discharged from parole.
Who is excluded from this survey? 

EXCLUDE juveniles (persons under the jurisdiction of a juvenile court or corrections agency).  EXCLUDE interstate compact cases supervised by your jurisdiction for another jurisdiction.  EXCLUDE adult parolees supervised by your jurisdiction but legally the responsibility of another jurisdiction.
Burden statement We estimate that it will take about 90 minutes per jurisdiction to collect this information. This includes time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, 810 Seventh Street, NW, Washington, DC 20531; and to the Office of Management and Budget, OMB Number 1121-0064, Washington, DC 20503. INSTRUCTIONS 

If the answer to a question is "not available" or "unknown," write DK in the space provided.  If the answer to a question is "not applicable," write NA in the space provided.  If the answer to a question is "none" or "zero," write 0 in the space provided.  When an exact numeric answer is not available, provide an estimate and mark  in the box beside each figure.
For example  

.
Please continue on page 2

ITEMS AND DEFINITIONS 1. On January 1, 1998, what was your agency's adult parole population? Population on January 1, 1998 2. Between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, how many adults entered parole by  A. Discretionary release from prison B. Mandatory release from prison C. Reinstatement of parole D. Other  Specify 1. Include only adult parolees conditionally released to parole supervision, whether by parole board decision or by mandatory conditional release. 

2. Individuals entering parole more than once during the year should be counted as multiple entries. 

   

A. Discretionary releases are persons who entered parole as a result of a parole board decision, Governor's pardon, or commutation of sentence. B. Mandatory releases are persons who entered parole as a result of a determinate sentencing statute or good-time provision. C. Reinstatements are persons returned to parole status, including discharged absconders whose cases were reopened.

E.

Total (Should equal the sum of items 2A through 2D)

3. Between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 1998, how many adult parolees were released from supervision for the following reason  A. Successful completion B. Returned to incarceration 1. With new sentence 2. With revocation 3. Other  Specify C. Absconder D. Transferred to another parole jurisdiction E. F. Death Other discharges  Specify each 1. Successful 2. Unsuccessful 3. Other G. Total (Should equal the sum of items 3A through 3F)

3. Individuals exiting parole more than once during the year should be counted as multiple exits. 

         

A. Successful completions are parolees who served full-term sentences or who were released early due to a parole authority decision, commutation, or pardon. B. 1. Parolees sent back to incarceration after receiving a sentence for a new offense. 2. Parolees sent back to incarceration after violating a condition of their parole but without receiving a new criminal sentence. 3. Parolees sent back to incarceration pending a revocation, trial, or sentencing. C. All discharged absconders who had failed to report and who could not be located. D. Parolees transferred to the jurisdiction of another State while still on parole. Exclude interstate compact cases unless legal responsibility for the parolee is no longer retained by your State. E. Specify type of discharge within the categories of successful, unsuccessful, and other. 1. Other successful discharges are those whose sentence was not completed. 2. Other unsuccessful discharges are those other than absconder or returned to incarceration.

4. On December 31, 1998, what was your agency's adult parole population? (This figure should equal item 1 plus item 2E minus item 3G.) Population on December 31, 1998 

4. The count of adult parolees at yearend 1998. This figure figure should equal the population on January 1, plus the total entering parole in 1998, minus the total released from parole in 1998.

PAGE 2

FORM CJ-7 (11-24-98)

5. On December 31, 1998, how many adult parolees in your jurisdiction were  A. Male B. Female C. Total (Sum of items 5A and 5B should equal item 4.)

9. On December 31, 1998, what was the supervision status of the parolees in your jurisdiction? 

  

Exclude interstate compact cases you supervise
for another State.

A. Active (Those required to regularly contact a supervisory parole authority in person, by mail, or by telephone) B. Inactive (Those excluded from regular reporting but still on parole) 

6. On December 31, 1998, how many adult parolees in your jurisdiction were  A. White (Include whites of Hispanic or Latino origin) B. Black or African American (Include blacks or African Americans of Hispanic or Latino origin) C. American Indian/Alaska Native D. Asian E. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander _ F. Other  Specify _ 

    

     

C. Absconder (Those still on parole but have failed to report and cannot be located) D. Supervised out of State (Active and inactive parolees under your jurisdiction who are supervised by authorities of another State) E. Other  Specify

F.

Total (Sum of items 9A through 9E should equal item 4.)

G. Total (Sum of items 6A through 6F should equal item 4.)

10. On December 31, 1998, how many of the parolees in your jurisdiction were being supervised following  A. Discretionary release from prison 

   

7. On December 31, 1998, how many adult parolees in your jurisdiction were  A. Of Hispanic or Latino origin (i.e., Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or other Spanish culture or origin) B. Not of Hispanic or Latino origin C. Total (Sum of items 7A and 7B should equal item 4.)

B. Mandatory release from prison C. Special conditional release from prison (e.g., medical releases early releases for the terminally ill, other special releases) Other 

 

D. 

Specify

E. 8. On December 31, 1998, how many adult parolees had a maximum sentence to incarceration of  A. A year or less B. More than a year C. Total (Sum of items 8A and 8B should equal item 4.)

Total (Sum of items 10A through 10D should equal item 4) 

 

FORM CJ-7 (11-03-98)

PAGE 3

11. Does your parole agency have an intensive supervision program (ISP)? 

In contrast to routine parole, an ISP emphasizes stringent
conditions, close monitoring, and expanded services.

14. What was the cause of death for adult parolees under your jurisdiction who died between January 1 and December 31, 1998? A . Illnesses/natural causes B. AIDS The immediate cause of death in AIDS mortalities may be Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, or other diseases related to HIV infection.

1 

Yes 

A. How many parolees were in this program on December 31, 1998 

 

 Yes  No

B. Are these parolees included in item 4? 2

C. Suicide D. E. Accidental injury to self Death caused by another person Other causes  Specify 

No program

12. Does your parole agency operate a program involving electronic monitoring of parolees?

F. 

    

Include programs that monitor parolee location by
attached transmitters or other electronic means.

G. Total (Sum of items 14A through 14F should equal item 3E.) 15. Does your parole agency supervise adult parolees other than those reported in item 4?

1 

Yes 

A. How many parolees were in this program on December 31, 1998 

 Yes  No

1 

B. Are these parolees included in item 4? 2

Yes  How many parolees not reported in item 4 were supervised by your agency on December 31, 1998  

No program
2

Please explain

13. Does your agency have any parolees enrolled in a program that approximates a bootcamp? 

 

No

16. Does the information reported in this survey represent the calendar year ending on December 31, 1998? 1 2 Yes No  Specify when your reporting year ends Month Year 

A bootcamp incorporates a highly regimented activity schedule,
drill and ceremony, physical challenge and fitness, discipline, emphasis on personal appearance, and a chain of command.

1 

Yes 
A.

How many parolees were in this program on December 31, 1998? Are these parolees included in item 4? 

DATA SUPPLIED BY

B. 

Yes  No

NAME TITLE PHONE (area code, number, ext.)

2 

No program.

Notes and comments  Please specify the item number

PAGE 4

FORM CJ-7 (11-24-98)

Capital punishment in 1998

Tables By Tracy L. Snell, BJS Statistician

Prisoners removed from death row, 1998 7.13 Means of removal

7.1

Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1998

7.14 Status of prisoners 7.15 Time between sentencing and removal

Prisoners under sentence of death, 7.16 Age 1998 7.17 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.2 Movement of all prisoners 7.3 7.4 Movement of female prisoners Movement of Hispanic prisoners Time between sentencing and yearend Age Legal status at time of capital offense Felony history 7.18 Felony history Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, 1930-98 7.19 Year, region, and jurisdiction 7.20 Race and offense Explanatory notes Questionnaires 7.8

7.5

7.6 7.7

Prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1998 7.9 Age

7.10 Level of education completed 7.11 Legal status at time of capital offense 7.12 Felony history

Capital punishment in 1998

Table 7.1. Summary characteristics of all prisoners present at yearend, received from court, and removed from under a sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death Sentence of death removed in 1998 Present Received By means yearend from court other than 1998 in 1998 Executed execution/a 3,452 285 68 93

Characteristic U.S. total Gender Male Female Race White Black All other races/b Hispanic origin Hispanic Non-Hispanic Not known Education 7th grade or less 8th grade 9th to 11th grade 12th grade Any college Not reported Felony history Prior conviction, total Homicide Other offenses Offense not reported No prior conviction Not reported Age Under 20 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-54 years 55 years or older Median age

3,404 48

277 8

66 2

91 2

1,906 1,486 60

145 132 8

48 18 2

55 36 2

314 2,839 299

38 209 38

8 55 5

7 77 9

206 217 1,111 1,120 297 501

11 25 94 88 21 46

5 8 24 24 5 2

5 6 28 28 7 19

2,060 289 1,674 97 1,107 285

162 23 138 1 98 25

36 3 33 0 30 2

49 9 38 2 36 8

15 267 519 582 711 1,188 170 37

12 72 70 36 45 42 8 29

0 0 6 12 14 34 2 40

1 11 17 6 12 38 8 39

a/Includes deceased from causes other than execution, commutation of sentence, sentence vacated, and conviction vacated. b/Other races present at yearend includes 29 American Indians, 18 Asians, and 13 inmates of unspecified race. Other races admitted includes 3 American Indians, 2 Asians, and 3 inmates of unspecified race. One American Indian and 1 Asian were of unspecified race. One American Indian and 1 Asian were race had their death sentences removed in 1998.

Table 7.2. Movement of all prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death Under death sentence 12/31/97 White Black 1,864 5 1,859 84 2 8 0 74 236 62 30 0 46 9 87 2 1,025 89 19 7 236 58 24 22 3 29 77 81 30 67 262 21 514 102 296 2 19 6 49 4 19 7 9 1 1,408 9 1,399 140 3 6 0 131 244 99 14 0 43 1 87 0 781 69 19 8 130 49 7 48 14 33 95 45 38 30 174 22 234 11 180 2 0 0 36 0 0 2 3 0 Received from court in 1998 White Black Other/b 145 1 144 4 0 1 0 3 12 1 1 1 3 0 6 0 94 8 3 0 16 5 4 2 2 2 9 12 6 1 18 6 34 6 19 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 2 1 132 4 128 9 0 0 1 8 21 6 2 0 3 0 10 0 88 17 1 2 9 6 1 7 0 6 9 3 2 3 19 3 10 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 8 0 8 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Death sentence removed in 1998/a White Black Other/b 55 0 55 3 0 1 0 2 6 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 37 1 1 0 9 6 0 1 0 3 4 1 0 6 5 0 9 1 4 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 36 1 0 0 0 1 7 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 26 4 0 0 7 3 0 3 1 2 2 1 1 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Under death sentence 12/31/98 White Black 1,906 6 1,900 85 2 8 0 75 239 58 30 1 46 9 93 2 1,045 95 20 7 241 56 28 23 5 28 79 89 33 62 257 22 531 103 310 1 19 5 48 4 22 7 10 2 1,486 13 1,473 148 3 6 1 138 256 99 15 0 44 1 97 0 827 82 20 10 131 52 8 52 12 37 102 47 35 33 189 17 242 11 188 2 0 0 35 0 0 2 4 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey New York Pennsylvania/c Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri/d Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware/e Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina/e Oklahoma/f South Carolina Tennessee/f Texas/e Virginia West Arizona/f California/d Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada/g New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Total 3,328 14 3,314 234 5 14 0 215 482 161 44 0 89 11 175 2 1,828 159 38 15 367 108 31 70 17 62 176 136 68 99 439 43 770 120 487 4 19 7 86 4 20 10 12 1

Other 56 0 56 10 0 0 0 10 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 22 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 4 10 0 2 3 0 22 7 11 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Total 285 5 280 14 0 1 1 12 33 7 3 1 6 0 16 0 186 25 4 2 25 11 5 9 2 8 20 15 8 4 39 9 47 6 31 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 3 1

Total 68 0 68 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 55 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 3 4 7 0 20 13 8 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

Executed in 1998 White Black Other/b 48 0 48 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 37 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 18 5 8 4 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 18 0 18 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Total 93 0 93 4 0 1 0 3 13 10 1 0 2 0 0 0 64 5 1 0 16 9 0 4 1 5 6 3 1 6 7 0 12 2 5 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0

Total 3,452 19 3,433 244 5 14 1 224 497 157 45 1 90 11 191 2 1,895 178 40 17 372 109 36 75 17 65 187 144 68 97 451 39 797 120 512 3 19 6 84 4 23 10 14 2

Other/b 60 0 60 11 0 0 0 11 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 23 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6 8 0 2 5 0 24 6 14 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners under sentence of death in 1998: New Hampshire. a/Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included reversal of judgment, commutation, resentencing, order of a new trial, and death. b/Three American Indians, 2 Asians, and 3 inmates of unspecified race were received from court; 1 American Indian and 1 Asian were executed; 1 American Indian and 1 Asian had their death sentences removed; 29 American Indians, 18 Asians, and 13 inmates of unspecified race were under a sentence of death at yearend. c/Race has been changed from white to "other" for 3 inmates. d/One inmate who was previously in the custody of California has been transferred to Missouri where he is under a separate sentence of death. e/Race has been changed from black to white for 1 inmate. f/One inmate who was previously in the custody of Oklahoma has been transferred to Tennessee where he is under a separate sentence of death. g/Total includes one inmate in custody of Nevada whose sentence in Nevada was overturned but is under a separate death sentence in California.

Table 7.3. Movement of female prisoners under sentence of death, by race, 1998 Female prisoners under sentence of death Death sentence Received from removed court in 1998 in 1998/a Total/b White Black Total White Black 8 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas West Arizona California/b Idaho Nevada

Under death sentence 12/31/97 Total White Black 44 5 1 4 3 2 0 1 25 3 0 6 0 1 3 3 2 7 11 1 8 1 1 30 2 1 1 1 0 0 1 19 2 0 4 0 1 3 2 2 5 8 1 6 1 0 14 3 0 3 2 2 0 0 6 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 2 0 1

Under death sentence 12/31/98 Total/b White Black 48 4 0 4 5 3 1 1 26 3 1 4 1 1 3 3 2 8 13 1 10 1 1 29 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 19 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 5 8 1 6 1 0 17 3 0 3 4 3 1 0 7 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 2 0 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no women under sentence of death in 1998: Connecticut, New Hampshire, New York, Kansas, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota, Delaware, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. a/Includes two women who were executed during 1998 (1 each in Florida and Texas). b/Total includes 2 inmates of unspecified race.

Table 7.4. Movement of Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death, 1998 Hispanic prisoners under sentence of death Received Death senUnder death from court Executed tence removed sentence in 1998 in 1998 in 1998* 12/31/98 38 2 2 0 0 0 0 16 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 20 3 17 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 314 17 17 15 8 2 5 151 1 43 1 1 1 3 7 1 93 0 131 20 97 1 8 1 2 2

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Northeast Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Ohio South Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah

Under death sentence 12/31/97 291 15 15 16 9 2 5 146 1 41 1 1 1 4 7 1 88 1 114 20 80 1 8 1 2 2

Note: Hispanic prisoners may be of any race. Unlisted States had no Hispanic prisoners under a death sentence in 1998. *Dispositions of death sentences other than by execution included resentencing and death.

Table 7.5. Time between sentencing and the yearend for prisoners under sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-71 months months months months

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Total

Less than 12 months

More than Median num71 months ber of months

3,452 19 3,433 244 5 14 1 224 497 157 45 1 90 11 191 2 1,895 178 40 17 372 109 36 75 17 65 187 144 68 97 451 39 797 120 512 3 19 6 84 4 23 10 14 2

275 5 270 14 0 1 1 12 31 7 2 1 5 0 16 0 178 25 4 2 24 11 4 9 2 7 17 13 8 4 39 9 47 6 31 0 1 0 2 0 3 0 3 1

254 3 251 13 0 2 0 11 28 7 1 0 9 1 10 0 150 15 3 4 17 11 2 13 0 7 18 11 4 7 34 4 60 9 37 0 1 0 6 0 2 1 3 1

283 4 279 17 0 3 0 14 42 13 2 0 8 2 17 0 157 14 5 0 18 6 2 8 6 9 24 15 8 5 36 1 63 5 40 1 1 2 9 1 2 1 1 0

276 2 274 21 1 2 0 18 40 10 3 0 10 0 17 0 157 15 4 0 27 6 0 10 1 4 22 10 8 3 41 6 56 4 36 1 0 0 10 2 2 0 1 0

482 4 478 41 1 1 0 39 56 16 5 0 13 1 19 2 289 26 11 5 44 10 4 10 0 12 50 16 14 6 70 11 92 19 55 0 2 0 9 0 3 1 3 0

1,882 1 1,881 138 3 5 0 130 300 104 32 0 45 7 112 0 964 83 13 6 242 65 24 25 8 26 56 79 26 72 231 8 479 77 313 1 14 4 48 1 11 7 3 0

81 25 81 84 87 42 * 86 93 105 121 * 71 146 88 * 73 60 57 68 97 98 130 46 38 65 56 91 59 129 73 47 92 95 93 * 114 81 96 * 66 118 36 *

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1998: New Hampshire. *Medians were not calculated on fewer than five cases

Table 7.6. Age of prisoners under sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death Under 20 to 25 to 30 to 35 to 40 to 20 years 24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years 54 years

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

All ages

55 years and older

3,452 19 3,433 244 5 14 1 224 497 157 45 1 90 11 191 2 1,895 178 40 17 372 109 36 75 17 65 187 144 68 97 451 39 797 120 512 3 19 6 84 4 23 10 14 2

15 0 15 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 12 3 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

267 3 264 7 0 0 0 7 31 4 0 0 6 1 20 0 193 23 6 3 16 10 1 14 1 11 14 10 7 4 66 7 33 7 16 1 1 0 4 1 3 0 0 0

519 5 514 34 1 3 0 30 61 22 3 0 8 1 27 0 320 46 8 5 46 14 4 11 4 15 28 22 13 11 81 12 99 6 68 0 1 1 15 1 3 0 2 2

582 5 577 46 1 3 0 42 93 32 12 0 21 0 28 0 313 19 6 3 56 18 3 13 2 12 38 26 22 12 75 8 125 24 73 1 1 2 16 0 3 3 2 0

711 2 709 54 2 2 0 50 110 35 11 0 20 1 43 0 376 29 9 5 89 22 5 19 3 13 39 28 10 18 83 4 169 32 103 0 3 0 19 1 6 3 2 0

1,188 4 1,184 88 1 4 1 82 180 59 18 1 29 6 65 2 597 49 9 1 147 39 23 15 7 10 54 47 16 46 129 5 319 41 218 1 13 3 25 1 7 3 7 0

170 0 170 14 0 2 0 12 21 5 1 0 6 2 7 0 84 9 1 0 17 6 0 2 0 3 13 11 0 6 14 2 51 10 34 0 0 0 4 0 1 1 1 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1998: New Hampshire.

Table 7.7. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners under sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Under sentence for another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Not charged with or sentenced for another crime

Charged with another crime

In prison

Other*

Legal status not reported

1,810 14 1,796 92 5 6 1 80 328 92 31 0 59 9 135 2 985 86 20 9 210 47 26 46 4 47 119 83 37 66 169 16 391 71 225 1 14 0 58 3 10 1 7 1

219 1 218 31 0 0 0 31 18 5 6 0 3 0 4 0 119 12 3 1 30 10 2 8 1 4 9 9 0 3 23 4 50 10 24 0 3 1 8 1 2 1 0 0

1,004 3 1,001 52 0 3 0 49 118 54 7 1 16 2 38 0 551 49 13 7 88 44 8 15 5 13 56 39 30 14 151 19 280 27 206 2 2 4 16 0 9 8 5 1

301 1 300 21 0 0 0 21 9 0 4 0 1 0 4 0 193 19 1 5 37 26 2 1 1 2 29 14 10 3 32 11 77 6 59 1 0 0 7 0 2 0 2 0

550 1 549 27 0 3 0 24 79 45 2 1 7 0 24 0 279 20 9 0 32 12 4 11 2 2 22 19 15 8 116 7 164 10 131 1 2 0 7 0 6 6 1 0

39 0 39 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 23 5 0 1 10 3 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 15 5 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

88 1 87 4 0 0 0 4 26 8 0 0 7 2 9 0 41 5 2 1 6 1 1 0 2 9 3 3 3 2 3 0 16 2 6 0 0 4 1 0 0 2 0 1

26 0 26 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 15 0 1 0 3 2 1 2 0 0 0 3 1 1 0 1 8 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0

419 1 418 69 0 5 0 64 33 6 1 0 12 0 14 0 240 31 4 0 44 8 0 6 7 1 3 13 1 14 108 0 76 12 57 0 0 1 2 0 2 0 2 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoners on death row at yearend 1998: New Hampshire. *"Other" includes mandatory conditional release, bail, temporary leave, work release or furlough, halfway house, house arrest, and jail.

Table 7.8. Felony history of prisoners under sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offenprior felonies homicide offenses ses unreported

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Nebraska Ohio South Dakota South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming

Total

With no prior felonies

Felony history not reported

3,452 19 3,433 244 5 14 1 224 497 157 45 1 90 11 191 2 1,895 178 40 17 372 109 36 75 17 65 187 144 68 97 451 39 797 120 512 3 19 6 84 4 23 10 14 2

2,060 7 2,053 112 1 9 0 102 276 93 22 1 52 6 100 2 1,151 101 28 8 265 72 19 34 8 31 119 86 32 53 268 27 514 57 345 3 12 4 54 1 14 9 14 1

289 2 287 17 0 2 0 15 44 16 3 1 9 3 12 0 150 17 3 0 37 7 5 4 1 4 18 15 3 5 30 1 76 5 54 0 0 4 5 0 0 3 4 1

1,674 4 1,670 83 0 7 0 76 219 75 19 0 38 3 82 2 944 80 24 8 207 63 13 29 7 27 100 64 29 44 223 26 424 48 281 3 12 0 49 1 14 6 10 0

97 1 96 12 1 0 0 11 13 2 0 0 5 0 6 0 57 4 1 0 21 2 1 1 0 0 1 7 0 4 15 0 14 4 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1,107 12 1,095 71 3 3 1 64 187 58 23 0 27 5 74 0 599 47 12 9 81 33 17 38 2 30 67 51 33 31 137 11 238 50 143 0 6 0 28 3 7 0 0 1

285 0 285 61 1 2 0 58 34 6 0 0 11 0 17 0 145 30 0 0 26 4 0 3 7 4 1 7 3 13 46 1 45 13 24 0 1 2 2 0 2 1 0 0

Note: Of 39 jurisdictions with a death penalty statute, the following States reported no prisoner on death row at yearend 1998: New Hampshire.

Table 7.9. Age of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1998 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 55 years Median age years years years years years or older in years 71 3 68 3 0 0 3 7 0 0 0 0 7 47 7 1 0 5 4 1 3 0 3 3 2 2 2 11 3 11 2 7 0 0 2 0 0 31 0 31 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 21 3 1 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 0 5 2 68 0 68 2 1 0 1 7 3 0 0 2 2 46 13 2 2 5 1 1 0 1 1 3 1 3 1 10 2 13 0 11 1 0 0 0 1 31 0 31 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 19 3 1 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 0 5 1 39 1 38 1 0 0 1 7 3 1 0 2 1 21 1 0 0 2 2 1 1 0 1 2 2 1 0 6 2 9 1 7 0 1 0 0 0 21 0 21 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 2 1 12 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 42 0 42 4 0 0 4 2 0 1 0 1 0 29 0 0 0 7 3 0 4 0 0 6 3 0 1 5 0 7 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 21 0 21 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 3 3 0 1 1 0 38 1 37 2 0 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 3 22 1 0 0 2 1 2 0 1 2 2 7 1 0 2 1 6 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 27 1 26 0 0 0 6 0 1 1 1 3 16 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 1 2 6 0 0 1 0 8 0 8 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 28 24 28 34 * * 34 28 31 * * 32 23 28 26 * * 31 30 31 30 * 25 35 37 25 * 27 25 29 33 28 * * * * * 30 * 30 * * * 36 * * * * 36 29 25 * * 33 30 * * * * 39 38 23 * 25 25

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners/a U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

All ages 285 5 280 14 1 1 12 33 7 3 1 6 16 186 25 4 2 25 11 5 9 2 8 20 15 8 4 39 9 47 6 31 1 2 3 3 1 145 1 144 4 1 3 12 1 1 1 3 6 94 8 3 0 16 5 4 2 2 2 9 12 6 1 18 6

Under 20 years 19 0 19 1 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 3 15 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 0 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 3 1

Table 7.9. (cont.) Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 20 to 24 25 to 29 30 to 34 35 to 39 40 to 54 55 years Median age years years years years years or older in years

Region and jurisdiction White prisoners West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Washington

All ages

Under 20 years

34 6 19 1 2 3 2 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

9 2 5 0 0 2 0 0

9 0 7 1 0 0 0 1

6 1 4 0 1 0 0 0

5 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

4 2 2 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

29 33 28 * * * * *

132 4 128 9 1 8 21 6 2 3 10 88 17 1 2 9 6 1 7 6 9 3 2 3 19 3 10 9 1

10 0 10 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 7 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0

38 3 35 2 0 2 6 0 0 0 6 25 4 0 0 3 2 0 3 3 2 0 0 2 5 1 2 2 0

34 0 34 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 1 25 10 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 4 1 3 3 0

16 1 15 1 0 1 4 3 1 0 0 8 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 2 2 0

20 0 20 2 0 2 2 0 1 1 0 15 0 0 0 3 2 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 1

11 0 11 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 2 0

3 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

27 * 27 38 * 35 27 32 * * 20 27 27 * * 30 32 * 24 25 26 * * * 29 * 31 29 *

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1998: Colorado, Connecticut, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Utah. *Medians were not calculated on fewer than 5 cases. aIncludes American Indians, Asians, and Hispanics of unknown race. North Carolina sentenced to death 1 American Indian inmate who was between 25 and 29 years old. North Carolina and California each sentenced to death 1 American Indian between the ages of 30 and 34 years. Pennsylvania and Texas each sentenced to death 1 Asian who was between 20 and 24 years old. Texas and California each sentenced to death 1 Hispanic inmate of unspecified race who was between 25 and 29 years old. California sentenced to death 1 Hispanic inmate of unspecified race between 35 and 39 years old.

Table 7.10. Level of education completed by prisoners received from court under sentence of death, 1998 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death 7th grade 9th to Any or less 8th grade 11th grade 12th grade college

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming

Total number

Not reported

285 5 280 14 1 1 12 33 7 3 1 6 16 186 25 4 2 25 11 5 9 2 8 20 15 8 4 39 9 47 6 31 1 2 3 3 1

11 0 11 3 0 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 1 5 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

25 0 25 2 0 0 2 3 0 1 0 0 2 17 5 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 4 1 1 0 2 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 0

94 0 94 2 0 0 2 12 1 1 0 1 9 60 7 1 0 5 3 2 1 1 2 6 4 2 1 19 6 20 4 13 0 1 0 1 1

88 0 88 5 0 1 4 7 4 1 0 1 1 60 4 2 0 5 4 1 6 1 1 7 8 3 2 15 1 16 0 13 1 0 1 1 0

21 0 21 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 1 14 3 1 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0

46 5 41 2 1 0 1 4 1 0 1 0 2 30 5 0 2 11 1 2 0 0 3 1 1 2 1 1 0 5 0 3 0 0 2 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1998: Colorado, Connecticut, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Utah.

Table 7.11. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1998 Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Charged with Under sentence for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio

Not charged with or sentenced for another crime

Legal status not reported

165 5 160 6 0 1 5 27 6 3 0 4 14 92 8 3 2 19 7 3 7 1 4 12 14 5 3 0 4 35 4 25 0 2 2 2 0

11 0 11 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 9 3 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

50 0 50 3 0 0 3 5 1 0 1 1 2 31 4 1 0 2 3 1 2 1 4 7 0 3 0 0 3 11 2 5 1 0 1 1 1

17 0 17 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 1 0 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

19 0 19 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 1 1 8 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 7 1 4 1 0 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

13 0 13 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 9 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

59 0 59 4 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 10 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 39 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

92 1 91 1 0 1 8 1 1 0 2 4

3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

23 0 23 1 0 1 4 0 0 1 1 2

5 0 5 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 0 11 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6 0 6 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

27 0 27 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 7.11. (cont.) Prisoners under sentence of death who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Charged with Under sentence for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole Escaped In prison

Region and jurisdiction White prisoners South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Washington

Not charged with or sentenced for another crime

Legal status not reported

56 4 3 14 3 2 2 1 2 7 11 4 1 0 2 26 4 17 0 2 2 1 0

3 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 7 2 1 1 0 1 1 1

3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 4 1 1 1 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

24 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

70 4 66 5 1 4 19 5 2 2 10 35 4 0 2 5 4 1 5 2 4 3 1 2 0 2 7 6 1

8 0 8 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 6 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

25 0 25 2 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 19 3 1 0 2 2 0 2 4 4 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 0

11 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0

7 0 7 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

7 0 7 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

29 0 29 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 28 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 19 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1998: Colorado, Connecticut, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Utah. *Includes American Indians, Asians, and Hispanic inmates of unspecified race. North Carolina sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was not charged with or sentenced for another offense and 1 American Indian who was on probation at the time of the capital offense. California sentenced to death 1 American Indian who was on parole at the time of the capital offense. Pennsylvania and Texas each sentenced to death 1 Asian inmate whose legal status at the time of the capital offense was unknown. California sentenced to death 2 Hispanic inmates of unknown race who were not charged with or sentenced for another offense. Texas sentenced to death 1 Hispanic inmate of unknown race whose legal status at the time of the capital offense was unknown.

Table 7.12. Felony history of prisoners received from court under sentence of death, by race, 1998 Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions With Total with Criminal Other Type of offenno prior prior felonies homicide offenses ses unreported felonies

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners* U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming White prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Kansas Missouri Ohio

Total

Felony history not reported

285 5 280 14 1 1 12 33 7 3 1 6 16 186 25 4 2 25 11 5 9 2 8 20 15 8 4 39 9 47 6 31 1 2 3 3 1

162 0 162 5 1 0 4 20 3 1 1 6 9 104 9 2 0 18 4 4 5 1 3 16 7 2 4 23 6 33 3 23 1 2 0 3 1

23 0 23 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 2 14 2 0 0 4 0 2 0 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 6 0 3 0 0 0 2 1

138 0 138 5 1 0 4 17 3 1 0 6 7 90 7 2 0 14 4 2 5 1 1 15 5 1 4 23 6 26 3 19 1 2 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

98 5 93 6 0 1 5 13 4 2 0 0 7 61 5 2 2 2 5 1 4 1 5 4 8 6 0 14 2 13 2 8 0 0 3 0 0

25 0 25 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 11 0 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

145 1 144 4 1 3 12 1 1 1 3 6

85 0 85 1 1 0 10 1 1 1 3 4

15 0 15 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 2

70 0 70 1 1 0 7 1 1 0 3 2

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

45 1 44 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 2

15 0 15 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 7.12. (cont.) Prisoners received from court under sentence of death With prior felony convictions With Total with Criminal Other Type of offenno prior prior felonies homicide offenses ses unreported felonies

Region and jurisdiction White prisoners South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Idaho Nevada Oregon Washington Wyoming Black prisoners U.S. total Federal State Northeast New York Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri Ohio South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West California Washington

Total

Felony history not reported

94 8 3 16 5 4 2 2 2 9 12 6 1 18 6 34 6 19 1 2 3 2 1

51 2 1 9 3 3 0 1 0 9 5 1 1 12 4 23 3 14 1 2 0 2 1

7 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 5 0 2 0 0 0 2 1

44 2 1 7 3 1 0 1 0 9 3 0 1 12 4 18 3 12 1 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

31 2 2 2 0 1 2 1 2 0 7 5 0 6 1 10 2 5 0 0 3 0 0

12 4 0 5 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

132 4 128 9 1 8 21 6 2 3 10 88 17 1 2 9 6 1 7 6 9 3 2 3 19 3 10 9 1

76 0 76 4 0 4 10 2 0 3 5 53 7 1 0 9 1 1 5 3 7 2 1 3 11 2 9 8 1

8 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

67 0 67 4 0 4 10 2 0 3 5 46 5 1 0 7 1 1 5 1 6 2 1 3 11 2 7 6 1

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0

47 4 43 4 1 3 11 4 2 0 5 27 3 0 2 0 5 0 2 3 2 1 1 0 7 1 1 1 0

9 0 9 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported receiving from court no prisoners under sentence of death in 1998: Colorado, Connecticut, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, South Dakota, and Utah. *Includes American Indians, Asians, and Hispanic inmates of unspecified race. North Carolina sentenced to death 2 American Indians who had no prior felony convictions. California sentenced to death 1 American Indian who had previously been convicted of a felony other than homicide. Pennsylvania and Texas each sentenced to death 1 Asian who had no prior felony convictions. California sentenced to death 2 Hispanic inmates of unknown race with no prior felony convictions. Texas sentenced to death 1 Hispanic inmate of unknown race whose felony history was unknown.

Table 7.13. Means of removal for all prisoners who left death row, by race, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row Death by other Sentence than execution/b commuted/c Total White Black Total White Black 13 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 11 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 4 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada Washington

Total 161 4 1 3 18 11 2 5 119 6 2 20 10 4 2 5 9 7 8 6 27 13 20 6 6 1 1 1 4 1

Total White 103 3 1 2 9 5 1 3 74 2 2 11 7 1 0 3 7 4 3 6 23 5 17 5 5 1 1 1 3 1

Black 54 1 0 1 9 6 1 2 42 4 0 8 3 3 2 2 2 1 5 0 4 8 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Executed/a Total White Black 68 0 0 0 5 1 1 3 55 1 1 4 1 0 1 0 3 4 7 0 20 13 8 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 48 0 0 0 3 1 1 1 37 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 3 3 3 0 18 5 8 4 1 0 0 1 1 1 18 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 16 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Sentence vacated/d Total White Black 43 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 37 1 1 14 4 4 1 3 2 0 0 3 4 0 4 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 24 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 20 0 1 8 3 1 0 1 1 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 1 0 6 1 3 1 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Conviction vacated/d Total White Black 36 3 0 3 9 8 1 0 20 2 0 2 5 0 0 2 2 3 1 3 0 0 4 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 19 2 0 2 3 3 0 0 11 0 0 1 3 0 0 2 1 1 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 15 1 0 1 6 5 1 0 8 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a/One American Indian in Florida and one Asian in Oklahoma were executed. b/Eight white inmates died of natural causes in (3 in California, and 1 each in Illinois, Missouri, Alabama, Texas, California, and Nevada); two white inmates committed suicide (in North Carolina); and 1 white inmate in Texas was shot during an escape attempt. Two black inmates died from natural causes (Illinois and Alabama). c/Commutation changed sentences from death to life in prison or a term of years. d/Further legal proceedings may have followed the vacating of sentences and of convictions and may have resulted in new sentences of death. The sentence and conviction of an American Indian in Oklahoma was overturned, and he was awaiting a new trial. A Hispanic inmate of unknown race in Arizona has his sentence and conviction overturned and was subsequently resentenced to life in prison.

Table 7.14. Status of prisoners removed from death row, by race, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row Awaiting Died new trial Total White Black Total White Black 81 0 0 0 8 3 1 4 61 3 1 4 1 0 1 0 5 4 7 0 22 13 12 4 4 0 0 1 2 1 59 0 0 0 5 2 1 2 42 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 5 3 3 0 20 5 12 4 4 0 0 1 2 1 20 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 17 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 2 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 4 4 0 0 10 2 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 5 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Region and jurisdiction U.S. total/a Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois/b Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia/c Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina/b Oklahoma/d South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada/d Washington

Total 161 4 1 3 18 11 2 5 119 6 2 20 10 4 2 5 9 7 8 6 27 13 20 6 6 1 1 1 4 1

Serving reduced sentence Total White Black 49 3 0 3 5 3 1 1 36 1 1 15 1 4 1 3 1 1 0 3 5 0 5 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 24 2 0 2 2 1 0 1 18 0 1 9 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 24 1 0 1 3 2 1 0 18 1 0 6 1 3 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Awaiting new sentence Total White Black 10 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Other Total White Black 6 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. a/Total includes 2 American Indians, 1 Asian, and 1 Hispanic inmate of unknown race. One American Indian in Florida was executed. An American Indian in Oklahoma was awaiting a new trial after his conviction was overturned. One Asian inmate in Oklahoma was executed. One Hispanic inmate of unknown race in Arizona was resentenced to life in prison after his conviction was overturned. b/"Other status" consists of 1 man whose conviction and sentence were overturned. No information on the current status of the man was available at the time of data collection. c/"Other status consists of 1 man whose sentence was overturned and 1 man whose conviction was overturned. No further action was taken in these cases during 1998. d/"Other status consists of 1 man whose sentence and conviction was overturned. No further action was taken during 1998.

Table 7.15. Time between sentencing and removal for prisoners removed from death row, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row Less than 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-71 12 months months months months months

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada Washington

Total

More than 71 months

161 4 1 3 18 11 2 5 119 6 2 20 10 4 2 5 9 7 8 6 27 13 20 6 6 1 1 1 4 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 1 1 0 3 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

19 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 16 3 0 7 0 0 1 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

9 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 6 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

19 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 17 1 0 3 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

105 2 0 2 12 7 1 4 76 2 2 8 8 2 1 3 6 3 7 6 21 7 15 5 5 1 1 1 2 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Table 7.16. Age of prisoners removed from death row, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row 20 to 25 to 30 to 35 to 24 years 29 years 34 years 39 years

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada Washington

All ages

Under 20 years

40 to 54 years

55 years and older

161 4 1 3 18 11 2 5 119 6 2 20 10 4 2 5 9 7 8 6 27 13 20 6 6 1 1 1 4 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

23 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 17 2 0 4 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 1

18 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 15 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

26 1 0 1 3 1 1 1 21 1 0 3 2 2 0 1 1 3 1 0 5 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

72 1 1 0 10 7 1 2 48 1 1 6 3 1 0 3 4 2 7 6 11 3 13 5 4 1 1 0 2 0

10 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 6 0 1 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Table 7.17. Legal status at time of capital offense for prisoners removed from death row, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row who had the following legal status when they committed capital crimes Charged with Under sentence for another crime another crime Total On probation On parole In prison

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada Washington

Not charged with or sentenced for another crime

Legal status not reported

94 2 1 1 10 4 1 5 71 3 2 15 7 2 1 5 7 4 6 4 11 4 11 3 4 1 1 0 1 1

10 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 9 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

42 1 0 1 6 5 1 0 27 2 0 2 2 1 0 0 2 2 0 1 9 6 8 3 1 0 0 1 3 0

14 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 2 3 1 1 0 0 1 0 0

25 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 16 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 1 7 4 4 2 0 0 0 0 2 0

3 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

15 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 12 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 5 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Table 7.18. Felony history of prisoners removed from death row, 1998 Prisoners removed from death row With prior felony convictions Total with Criminal Other Type of offense prior felonies homicide offenses unreported

Region and jurisdiction All prisoners U.S. total Northeast New Jersey Pennsylvania Midwest Illinois Indiana Missouri South Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Arizona California Colorado Idaho Montana Nevada Washington

Total

With no prior felonies

Felony history not reported

161 4 1 3 18 11 2 5 119 6 2 20 10 4 2 5 9 7 8 6 27 13 20 6 6 1 1 1 4 1

85 2 1 1 10 7 2 1 61 3 1 8 5 2 1 1 5 4 2 5 15 9 12 3 4 1 0 1 3 0

12 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 8 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 0

71 1 1 0 9 6 2 1 51 3 1 6 5 2 1 1 4 2 2 4 12 8 10 3 4 1 0 1 1 0

2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

66 2 0 2 7 3 0 4 51 2 1 11 4 2 0 4 4 3 6 1 9 4 6 2 2 0 1 0 1 0

10 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 7 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1

Note: The following States with death penalty statutes reported no prisoners leaving death row in 1998: Connecticut, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

Table 7.19. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by year, region, and jurisdiction, 1930-98 Region and jurisdiction U.S. total Federal State Northeast Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Rhode Island Vermont Midwest Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Ohio South Dakota Wisconsin South Alabama Arkansas Delaware Dist. of Col. Florida Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia West Alaska Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Idaho Montana Nevada New Mexico Oregon Utah Washington Wyoming 1990- 1985- 1980- 1975- 1970- 1965- 1960- 1955- 1950- 1945- 1940- 1935- 19301998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1989 1984 1979 1974 1969 1964 1959 1954 1949 1944 1939 1934 68 0 68 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 55 1 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 3 4 7 0 20 13 0 8 0 4 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 74 0 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 2 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 60 3 4 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 37 9 0 4 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 45 0 45 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 0 0 0 29 1 1 3 0 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 0 3 8 0 7 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 56 0 56 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 11 5 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 41 2 2 1 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 19 5 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 137 0 137 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 2 1 0 0 0 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 112 3 9 4 0 12 4 0 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 52 16 0 11 0 3 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 2 1 88 0 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 81 6 0 0 0 11 11 0 12 0 3 1 0 2 0 29 6 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 29 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 1 0 0 0 9 3 0 6 0 1 2 0 0 0 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 181 1 180 17 1 0 0 0 3 10 3 0 0 16 2 1 2 1 0 0 3 0 0 7 0 0 102 4 9 0 0 12 14 1 1 1 10 1 5 8 1 29 6 0 45 0 4 29 5 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 2 0 304 3 301 51 5 0 0 0 9 25 12 0 0 16 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 12 0 0 183 6 7 0 1 27 34 8 13 4 21 5 3 10 7 25 8 4 51 0 6 35 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 4 2 0 413 6 407 56 0 0 0 0 8 27 19 0 2 42 8 2 1 5 0 0 5 1 0 20 0 0 244 14 11 0 3 22 51 8 14 2 15 14 4 16 1 49 15 5 65 0 2 39 1 0 2 0 9 2 4 2 4 0 639 6 633 74 5 0 3 0 8 36 21 0 1 64 5 5 4 2 0 0 9 2 0 36 1 0 419 21 18 2 13 27 72 15 23 19 26 62 7 29 18 36 22 9 76 0 3 45 7 0 0 0 5 2 6 1 7 0 645 7 638 110 5 0 6 0 6 78 15 0 0 42 13 2 3 3 0 0 6 0 0 15 0 0 413 29 20 2 3 38 58 19 24 26 34 50 6 32 19 38 13 2 73 0 6 35 6 0 0 1 5 0 6 3 9 2 891 9 882 145 3 0 11 1 16 73 41 0 0 113 27 20 7 0 0 0 20 0 0 39 0 0 524 41 33 6 5 29 73 34 19 10 22 80 9 30 31 72 20 10 100 0 10 57 9 0 0 4 3 0 1 2 13 1 776 1 775 155 2 0 7 0 24 80 41 0 1 105 34 11 1 0 0 0 16 0 0 43 0 0 419 19 20 2 15 15 64 18 39 6 26 51 25 37 16 48 8 10 96 0 7 51 16 0 0 1 5 2 1 0 10 3

Total 4,359 33 4,326 610 21 0 27 1 74 329 154 0 4 455 101 47 18 15 0 0 94 7 0 172 1 0 2,713 152 135 20 40 213 389 104 157 71 158 274 73 182 93 461 151 40 548 0 50 297 48 0 4 8 36 8 21 18 50 8

Table 7.20. Prisoners executed under civil authority in the United States, by race and offense, 1930-98 All races Year All years 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977/c 1965-67 1960-64 1955-59 1950-54 1945-49 1940-44 1935-39 1930-34 Total offenses 4,359 68 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 10 181 304 413 639 645 891 776 Murder 3,834 68 74 45 56 31 38 31 14 23 16 11 25 18 18 21 5 2 1 0 2 0 1 10 145 253 348 528 536 797 717 Rape 455 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 28 44 58 103 97 73 52 Other offenses/a 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 7 7 8 12 21 7 Total offenses 2,064 48 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 8 90 135 201 214 276 456 371 White Murder 1,977 48 45 31 33 20 23 19 7 16 8 6 13 11 11 13 4 1 1 0 2 0 1 8 79 128 188 203 255 436 367 Rape 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 4 9 7 12 7 3 Other offenses/b 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 4 9 13 1 Total offenses 2,246 18 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 91 167 209 419 362 421 395 Black Murder 1,810 18 27 14 22 11 14 11 7 7 8 5 12 7 7 8 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 66 123 157 319 276 347 340 Rape 405 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 40 49 96 83 66 49 Other offenses/a 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 3 4 3 8 6 Other races/b Total offenses Murder Rape 49 2 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 6 7 14 10 47 2 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 6 5 14 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0

a/Includes executions for armed robbery (25), kidnaping (20), burglary (11), sabotage (6), aggravated assault (6), and espionage (2). b/Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives. c/No executions from 1968 to 1976.

Chapter 7: Capital Punishment Explanatory notes The statistics reported for capital punishment may differ from data collected by other organizations. The differences occur for a variety of reasons:  Inmates under sentence of death are originally added the National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) counts when they enter correctional facilities rather than when judges pronounce sentence.  Following the year when prisoners are first counted, their admissions or releases as a result of court order are attributed to the year for the sentence or court order. For example, a prisoner sentenced in November 1996 entering prison custody in January 1997 would be counted as an admission in the 1997 report; the 1997 report would count him or her as being under sentence of death at yearend 1996. Similarly, a prisoner whose sentence is overturned in 1995 but who remains in the count until 1997 when the court's decision is reported would be subtracted from the 1995 and 1996 reports.  NPS counts of persons under sentence of death are always for the last day of a calendar year and will differ from more recent counts.  Some figures shown for yearend 1997 are revised from those reported in Correctional Populations in the United States, 1997. The revised figures include 18 inmates who either were reported late to the NPS program or were not in custody of the State correctional authorities at yearend 1997: Alabama (1) Arizona (1) California (2) Florida (1) Illinois (2) Kentucky (1) Louisiana (1) Mississippi (1) Nevada (2) Ohio (2) Texas (3) Wyoming (1). Twenty-seven inmates had sentences to death removed in 1997 but were not reported: Alabama (1) Arizona (1) Federal Bureau of Prisons (1) Florida (4) Georgia (7) Louisiana (1) Mississippi (3)

Nevada (3) Ohio (4) Texas (2)  The data for 12/31/97 also include 2 inmates who were listed erroneously as being removed from death row: Connecticut (1) and Pennsylvania (1).  Race has been changed from that previously reported for 7 inmates: 3 in Pennsylvania (from white to "other") and 1 each in Delaware, North Carolina, Texas, and Arizona (from white to black).

OMB No. 1121-0030: Approval Expires 02/28/2001
FORM NPS-8 (10-22-98)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR THE BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

CENSUS USE ONLY

a. Report year

b. Card____of____Cards

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

REPORT OF INMATE UNDER SENTENCE OF DEATH
NATIONAL PRISONER STATISTICS RETURN TO 1. State Bureau of the Census ATTN: Demographic Surveys Division Washington, DC 20233
Inmate’s Dept. of Corrections ID.

Important – Please read instructions on reverse before completing this form.
11. Date of arrest for
capital offense Month Year

2. Inmate name
Last First Middle Initial


12. Date of conviction for
capital offense Month Year


3. Sex – Mark (X) appropriate box.
1

13. Date of sentence for
capital offense

Month

Year

Male White

2

Female


14a. Inmate status on December 31, ________
Mark (X) appropriate box. 1 Under sentence of death – Continue with item b Sentence of death removed – Skip to items c and d 2
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Other – Specify

4a. Race – Mark (X) appropriate box.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Black American Indian or Alaska Native Asian

14b. Was this inmate on escape or at a mental
hospital on December 31?
1

Month

Year

4b. Hispanic origin – Mark (X) appropriate box.
1

Yes, on escape – Enter month and year of escape Yes, at a mental hospital – Enter month and year of transfer to mental hospital No Month


Year

Hispanic

2

Non-Hispanic Month

3

Not known

2

5. Date of birth

Year


6. Capital offense(s) for which imprisoned
Number of death sentences imposed Murder Kidnap Rape Other – Specify

3

NO FURTHER INFORMATION REQUIRED FOR THIS INMATE

14c. Reason for inmate’s removal from under sentence of
death – Mark (X) appropriate box.
1 2

Month

Year

CENSUS USE ONLY

7. Marital status at time of first imprisonment for
capital offense
1 2 3 4 5

3

Executed – Enter date and skip to item 15 Deceased by other causes – Enter date and skip to item 16 Capital sentence declared unconstitutional by State or U.S. Supreme Court Sentence commuted Conviction affirmed, sentence overturned by appellate or higher court Conviction and sentence over turned by appellate or higher court Other – Specify

– – – – – –

Married – Include common law marriage Divorced or separated Widowed Never married Not known

4 5

8. Highest year of education completed at time of
first imprisonment for capital offense
01 02 03 04 05 06

6

7th grade or less 8th grade 9th grade 10th grade 11th grade 12th grade – (Include GED)

07 08 09 10 11 12

1st year of college 2nd year of college 3rd year of college 4th year of college More than 4 years of college Not Known

7


8

Information not available at this office

14d. Current status of inmate removed from sentence of
death – Mark (X) the one box showing the inmate’s status as of the day you fill out this report, i.e., TODAY.
1 2 3 4 5 6

9. Legal status at time of capital offense
Mark (X) appropriate box.

NOT UNDER SENTENCE
1 2

No charges pending Charges pending On probation On parole On escape Imprisoned Other – Specify legal status UNKNOWN Yes  No  Skip to item 11 Unknown 

Under new sentence of Awaiting retrial to determine guilt Awaiting resentencing only (guilt affirmed) Found not guilty in retrial All charges on capital offense dropped Other – Specify

UNDER SENTENCE
3 4 5 6 7 8

7 8

No action has been taken since removal from sentence of death Information not available at this office

15. Method of execution – Mark (X) one box showing
how the inmate was executed. 01 Lethal injection 02 Electrocution 03 Lethal gas 04 Hanging 05 Firing squad 06 Other – Specify

10a. Prior felony conviction(s) – Mark (X) appropriate box.
1 2 3

10b. Were any of these convictions for criminal homicide?
Yes, prior conviction for Murder 02 Involuntary manslaughter 08 Manslaughter 09 Voluntary manslaughter 03 Vehicular manslaughter
01 04 05

Attempted murder Other – Specify

16. Cause of death other than execution
Mark (X) the appropriate box. 01 Natural causes 02 Suicide 03 Murdered by another inmate 04 Other – Specify

06 07

No Unknown

INSTRUCTIONS Please complete one card for each person who (1) entered your State’s correctional system under sentence of death at any time during the report year, or (2) had received a sentence of death in a previous year but was not previously reported. Attempt to answer all items.

Item b. Card of Cards – Complete this item to insure proper accounting of all persons under sentence of death in your correctional system who have not been previously reported. Item 4a. Race (1) White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East. (2) Black – A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. (3) American Indian or Alaska Native – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition. (4) Asian – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, including Southeast Asia, or the Indian Subcontinent, including Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. (5) Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. (6) Other – Any other race not covered by the above categories. Please specify the race in the space provided. Item 4b. Hispanic Origin – Hispanics are defined as those having an ethnic origin or background in Central America, South America, Mexico, Cuba, Puerto Rico, or Spain. Item 5. Date of Birth – enter two digits for month (January=01, February=02, etc.) and four digits for year. Item 6. Capital offense for which imprisoned – Mark all and only those offenses for which capital punishment was levied during the report year or a previous year but not reported. Enter the number of death sentences the inmate received in the space provided. Item 7. Marital status at time of first imprisonment for capital offense – "Time of first imprisonment" refers to the inmate’s original time of arrival at prison after his first sentencing to death. Separated does not include separation because of imprisonment. Item 8. Highest year of education completed at time of first imprisonment for capital offense – Time frame as in Item 7 above. Include Graduate Equivalent Degree (GED) as "12th grade."

Item 9. Legal status at time of capital offense – If the person was known to be free in all states with no criminal charges pending at the time of the offense(s) in item 6, mark "Not under sentence – no charges pending. Item 10a. Prior felony conviction(s) – If the person was known to have been convicted of any felony(ies) before being convicted of the offense(s) in item 6, mark "Yes" in item 10a and fill item 10b. Item 10b. Prior conviction for criminal homicide – If the prior felony conviction(s) referred to in item 10a was for criminal homicide, mark item 10b "Yes". Also mark one or more of the types of criminal homicide listed. If the person was convicted of a type not listed, mark "other" and specify the type. Item 12. Date of conviction for capital offense – Generally a person will receive only one conviction for a single capital offense or multiple capital offenses. For such a person, enter the month and year he or she was found guilty of the capital offense(s) entered in item 6. If a person was convicted of more than one capital offense and received more than one death sentence, not all on the same date, enter the earliest date (month and year) the person was found guilty. If a person was previously convicted for the offense(s) shown in item 6, and that conviction was subsequently overturned but the person was retried and found guilty, enter the most recent month and year of conviction. Do not for any of the above situations, enter the date an appeal was rejected or the person was admitted to prison. Item 13. Date of sentence for capital offense – Enter the month and year the person was sentenced to death. This date must be the same as or later than the conviction date entered in item 12. Item 14a. Inmate status on December 31, _______ – Indicate whether or not the inmate was under sentence of death at the end of the report year. Item 14b. If inmate was under sentence of death on December 31, indicate if the inmate was on escape or at a mental hospital. Enter the month and year of escape or transfer to mental hospital. Item 14c. Reason for removal from sentence of death – Complete this item only if the sentence of death was removed during the report year, or earlier if removal not previously reported. Mark the box which most accurately describes how the inmate was removed from sentence of death. 14d. Current status of Inmate removed from sentence of death – Mark the one box which most accurately shows the inmate’s legal status as of THE DATE THIS REPORT IS COMPLETED. If "Under new sentence", enter length of new sentence.

FORM NPS-8 (10-22-98)

NPS-8B
RETURN TO DSD – Crime Surveys Branch NPS-8 BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 4700 Silver Hill Rd – Stop 8400 Washington, DC 20233-8400
FORM (10-22-98)

OMB No. 1121-0030: Approval Expires 02/28/2001

NPS-8B

STATUS OF DEATH PENALTY STATUTES NO STATUTE IN FORCE, 1997 National Prisoner Statistics 1998

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

(Please correct any error in name, mailing address, and ZIP Code)

Name and title Report submitted by

Telephone
Area code Number Extension

Date completed

GENERAL INFORMATION

• If you need assistance in completing the questionnaire, please call Patricia Clark, U.S. Bureau of the Census, toll-free at 1–800–221–1829. • Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of the Census in the enclosed envelope before February 12, 1999 or FAX both sides to 1–301–457–3929.

Who receives this form? This form is sent to jurisdictions that had no capital statute in effect on December 31, 1997. What information is collected? Items on the reverse side of this form relate to death penalty statutes in your jurisdiction during the period January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1998. Burden statement Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspects of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, DC 20531; and to the Office of Management and Budget, OMB No. 1121-0030, Washington, DC 20503.

1. National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) records show that at the end of 1997 your State had NO CAPITAL PUNISHMENT STATUTE. At any time in 1998 was such a law established? No – Go to Question 4 Yes
Effective date

4. As of December 31, 1998, does your State CONSTITUTION specifically prohibit capital penalties? No Yes
Date

Citation Citation

Please provide a copy of the law, if possible.

5. As of December 31, 1998, your State – Had a capital punishment statute Had no capital punishment statute 6. For what offenses can the death penalty be imposed in your State?

2. During 1998, was that law explicitly struck by the U.S. or State Supreme Court? No – Go to Question 5 Yes
Wholly struck By U.S. Supreme Court By State Supreme Court Partially struck By U.S. Supreme Court By State Supreme Court
Effective date

7. Does your State provide for automatic appeal upon imposition of the death penalty, irrespective of the defendant’s wishes? No Yes 8. What is the minimum age at which persons can be sentenced to death in your State?

Citation

Please provide a copy of the decision, if possible.
Age

3. In the opinion of the Attorney General, what was the impact on persons sentenced under your State’s statute?
All were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date; that is, legally these persons could not be executed under that sentence. None were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date; that is, legally these persons could still possibly be executed under that sentence. Some were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date while others were not; that is, legally some could still possibly be executed under that sentence while others could not.

9. What methods of execution are authorized in your capital punishment statute?

Mark (X) all that apply.
Lethal injection Electrocution Lethal gas Hanging Firing squad Other – Specify

Page 2

FORM NPS-8B (10-22-98)

NPS-8C
RETURN TO DSD – Crime Surveys Branch NPS-8 BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 4700 Silver Hill Rd – Stop 8400 Washington, DC 20233-8400
FORM (10-22-98)

OMB No. 1121-0030: Approval Expires 02/28/2001

NPS-8C

STATUS OF DEATH PENALTY STATUTES STATUTE IN FORCE, 1997 National Prisoner Statistics 1998

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS ACTING AS COLLECTING AGENT FOR BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

(Please correct any error in name, mailing address, and ZIP Code)

Name and title Report submitted by

Telephone
Area code Number Extension

Date completed

GENERAL INFORMATION

• If you need assistance in completing the questionnaire, please call Patricia Clark, U.S. Bureau of the Census, toll-free at 1–800–221–1829. • Please mail your completed questionnaire to the Bureau of the Census in the enclosed envelope before February 12, 1999 or FAX (both sides) to 1–301–457–3929.

Who receives this form? This form is sent to jurisdictions that had a capital statute in effect on December 31, 1997. What information is collected? Items on the reverse side of this form relate to death penalty statutes in effect in your jurisdiction during the period January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1998. Burden statement Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspects of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to the Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, DC 20531; and to the Office of Management and Budget, OMB No. 1121-0030, Washington, DC 20503.

1. National Prisoner Statistics (NPS) records show that at the end of 1997 your State had a capital punishment statute. During 1998, was that law explicitly struck in whole or in part by the U.S. or the State Supreme Court? No – Go to Question 3 Yes
Wholly struck By U.S. Supreme Court By State Supreme Court Partially struck By U.S. Supreme Court By State Supreme Court
Effective date

3. Continued — During 1998, was the capital punishment statute: Replaced (entirely new statute)
Effective date

Citation

Please provide a copy of the new statute, if possible.

None of the above 4. As of December 31, 1998, your State –

Citation

Had a capital punishment statute Had no capital punishment statute 5. For what offense(s) can the death penalty be imposed in your State?

Please provide a copy of the decision, if possible.

2. In the opinion of the Attorney General, what was the impact on persons sentenced under your State’s statute?
All were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date; that is, legally these persons could not be executed under that sentence. None were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date; that is, legally these persons could still possibly be executed under that sentence. Some were effectively removed from under sentence of death as of the decision date while others were not; that is, legally some could still possibly be executed under that sentence while others could not.

6. Does your State provide for automatic appeal upon imposition of the death penalty, irrespective of defendant’s wishes? No Yes 7. What is the minimum age at which persons can be sentenced to death in your State?
Age

3. During 1998, was the capital punishment statute: Revised or modified
Effective date

8. What methods of execution are authorized in your capital punishment statute?
Citation

Mark (X) all that apply.
Lethal injection Electrocution Lethal gas Hanging Firing squad Other – Specify

Please provide a copy of the revised sections, if possible. If revised more than once, please specify.

Page 2

FORM NPS-8C (10-22-98)

U.S. military corrections in 1998

Tables By Christopher Mumola, BJS Policy Analyst U.S. military confinement facilities, 1998 8.1 Characteristics of facilities and legal status of prisoners by branch of service holding prisoners and type of facility

Admissions, pre-trial confinements and releases 8.9 Admissions, by officer/ enlisted status, and branch of service holding prisoners

8.10 Percent of admissions, by officer/enlisted status, and branch of service holding prisoners 8.11 Number and percent of admissions, by branch of service to which prisoners belonged 8.12 Pre-trial confinements, by officer/enlisted status and branch of service, 1997-98 8.13 Releases, by method of release and branch of service Explanatory notes

Military prisoner characteristics, by branch of service 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Prisoners, 1997-98 Prisoners Percent of prisoners Prisoners, by officer/ enlisted status, gender, race, and Hispanic origin Prisoners, by most serious offense Percent of prisoners, by most serious offense Prisoners, by status of conviction and sentence length

8.6

8.7

8.8

U.S. military corrections in 1998

Table 8.1. Number of military correctional facilities, capacity, and number of prisoners, branch by of service holding prisoners, type of facility, and location, December 31, 1998 Branch of service holding prisoners, type of facility, and location All branches Total/b Inside continental US Local facilities Regional facilities Long term facilities Outside continental US Air Force Total Inside continental US Local facilities Regional facilities Outside continental US Army Total Inside continental US Local facilities Regional facilities Long term facilities Outside continental US Marine Corps Total Inside continental US Local facilities Regional facilities Outside continental US Navy Total Inside continental US Local facilities Regional facilities Outside continental US

Number of facilities

Design capacity/a

Operational capacity

Number of prisoners Total Pretrial Post-trial

69 45 10 1 13

4,870 700 1,773 1,700 697

4,588 694 1,741 1,500 653

2,426 252 1,287 712 175

396 88 256 0 52

2,030 164 1,031 712 123

45 37 2 6

410 316 52 42

403 310 51 42

128 87 20 21

26 18 4 4

102 69 16 17

6 0 3 1 2

2,628 0 583 1,700 345

2,353 0 552 1,500 301

1,155 0 392 712 51

26 0 17 0 9

1,129 0 375 712 42

7 2 3 2

964 48 718 198

964 48 718 198

617 19 543 55

243 5 214 24

374 14 329 31

11 6 2 3

868 336 420 112

868 336 420 112

526 146 332 48

101 65 21 15

425 81 311 33

Note: Local facilities hold unsentenced persons and prisoners with sentences of less than 90 days. Regional facilities hold prisoners with sentences of less than 5 years. The U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the only long-term military confinement facility, holds prisoners with sentences of more than 5 years. This report excludes persons who receive nonjudicial punishment for less serious infractions, based on the Uniform Code of Military Justice; nonjudicial punishment may include reduction in grade, forfeiture of pay, restriction to quarters, extra duty, cancellation of leave, or other penalties. a/The Navy and Marine Corps report the same figures for both design and operational capacity. b/The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.

Table 8.2. Number of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by branch of service, December 31, 1997, and 1998 Prisoners under military jurisdiction Percent Percent of Number change, prisoners, 1998 1997 1997-98 1998 Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy Coast Guard Branch of service holding prisoners Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy

2,426 484 862 682 389 9

2,772 575 1,063 628 490 16

-12.5 % -15.8 -18.9 8.6 -20.6 -43.8

100.0 % 20.0 35.5 28.1 16.0 0.4

2,426 128 1,155 617 526

2,772 103 1,494 571 604

-12.5 % 24.3 -22.7 8.1 -12.9

100.0 % 5.3 47.6 25.4 21.7

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.

Table 8.3. Number of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by branch of service to which prisoners belonged and branch of service holding them, December 31, 1998 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy 128 126 0 1 1 0 1,155 217 759 102 74 3 617 31 35 533 18 0 526 110 68 46 296 6

Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy Coast Guard

Total 2,426 484 862 682 389 9

Note: The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.

Table 8.4. Percent of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by branch of service to which prisoners belonged and branch of service holding them, December 31, 1998 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps 100.0 % 98.4 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.0 128 100.0 % 18.8 65.7 8.8 6.4 0.3 1,155 100.0 % 5.0 5.7 86.4 2.9 0.0 617

Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy Coast Guard Number of prisoners

Total 100.0 % 20.0 35.5 28.1 16.0 0.4 2,426

Navy 100.0 % 20.9 12.9 8.7 56.3 1.1 526

Note: The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.

Table 8.5. Number of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by officer/enlisted status, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, December 31, 1998 All inmates Officers Enlisted Gender Male Female Race/Hispanic origin Black/a Hispanic

Branch of service Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy Coast Guard Branch of service holding prisoners Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy

Total

White/a

Other/b

2,426 484 862 682 389 9

44 14 16 4 10 0

2,382 470 846 678 379 9

2,370 460 841 679 381 9

56 24 21 3 8 0

1,275 311 377 368 215 4

827 120 387 198 121 1

224 31 66 91 34 2

100 22 32 25 19 2

2,426 128 1,155 617 526

44 0 37 5 2

2,382 128 1,118 612 524

2,370 117 1,131 610 512

56 11 24 7 14

1,275 88 544 344 299

827 32 463 172 160

224 4 98 79 43

100 4 50 22 24

a/Non-Hispanic inmates only. b/Includes Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indians, and Alaska Natives.

Table 8.6. Number of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by most serious offense, officer/enlisted status, and branch of service, December 31, 1998 Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Air Marine Coast Force Army Corps Navy Guard 478 241 20 6 71 107 1 34 2 80 5 51 0 0 19 5 0 104 79 21 4 4 1 0 3 37 12 823 458 90 11 164 81 25 73 14 153 11 113 1 1 12 12 3 158 94 61 3 16 1 0 15 33 5 436 167 38 4 43 28 14 38 2 87 21 33 0 0 16 16 1 108 50 55 3 3 2 0 1 70 1 303 148 11 4 54 57 0 21 1 51 11 26 2 1 6 3 2 45 20 25 0 3 2 0 1 51 5 8 5 0 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy 128 23 0 0 2 14 0 7 0 27 1 18 0 0 5 3 0 46 41 2 3 1 1 0 0 20 11 1,129 740 157 22 264 156 28 95 18 170 9 132 1 1 22 2 3 165 103 58 4 20 3 0 17 27 7 366 95 2 2 26 17 10 38 0 86 21 31 0 0 14 19 1 109 57 51 1 3 2 0 1 73 0 425 161 0 1 43 88 2 26 1 88 17 42 2 1 12 12 2 97 42 53 2 2 0 0 2 72 5

Total All offenses Violent offenses Murder/a Negligent manslaughter Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent/b Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offenses Weapons Driving while intoxicated Other public-order Military offenses/c Other offenses 2,048 1,019 159 25 335 275 40 166 19 371 48 223 3 2 53 36 6 417 243 164 10 26 6 0 20 192 23

All inmates Officers 39 23 1 0 7 11 0 4 0 9 1 6 0 0 2 0 0 6 1 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0

Enlisted 2,009 996 158 25 328 264 40 162 19 362 47 217 3 2 51 36 6 411 242 160 9 26 6 0 20 191 23

Note: Counts include both pre- and post-trial prisoners held by the Air Force, but only post-trial prisoners held by the Army, Navy and Marine Corps. Excludes 8 post-trial inmates of unknown service branch held by the Marines for whom offense data was not reported. a/Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. b/Includes kidnaping. c/Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey, false offense statement, conduct unbecoming an officer, and other infractions.

Table 8.7. Percent of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by most serious offense, officer/enlisted status, and branch of service, December 31, 1998 Branch of service to which prisoners belonged/a Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy 100.0 % 50.4 % 4.2 1.3 14.9 22.4 0.2 7.1 0.4 16.7 % 1.0 10.7 0.0 0.0 4.0 1.0 0.0 21.8 % 16.5 4.4 0.8 0.8 % 0.2 0.0 0.6 7.7 % 2.5 % 478 100.0 % 55.7 % 10.9 1.3 19.9 9.8 3.0 8.9 1.7 18.6 % 1.3 13.7 0.1 0.1 1.5 1.5 0.4 19.2 % 11.4 7.4 0.4 1.9 % 0.1 0.0 1.8 4.0 % 0.6 % 823 100.0 % 38.3 % 8.7 0.9 9.9 6.4 3.2 8.7 0.5 20.0 % 4.8 7.6 0.0 0.0 3.7 3.7 0.2 24.8 % 11.5 12.6 0.7 0.7 % 0.5 0.0 0.2 16.1 % 0.2 % 436 100.0 % 48.8 % 3.6 1.3 17.8 18.8 0.0 6.9 0.3 16.8 % 3.6 8.6 0.7 0.3 2.0 1.0 0.7 14.9 % 6.6 8.3 0.0 1.0 % 0.7 0.0 0.3 16.8 % 1.7 % 303 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy 100.0 % 18.0 % 0.0 0.0 1.6 10.9 0.0 5.5 0.0 21.1 % 0.8 14.1 0.0 0.0 3.9 2.3 0.0 35.9 % 32.0 1.6 2.3 0.8 % 0.8 0.0 0.0 15.6 % 8.6 % 128 100.0 % 65.5 % 13.9 1.9 23.4 13.8 2.5 8.4 1.6 15.1 % 0.8 11.7 0.1 0.1 1.9 0.2 0.3 14.6 % 9.1 5.1 0.4 1.8 % 0.3 0.0 1.5 2.4 % 0.6 % 1,129 100.0 % 26.0 % 0.5 0.5 7.1 4.6 2.7 10.4 0.0 23.5 % 5.7 8.5 0.0 0.0 3.8 5.2 0.3 29.8 % 15.6 13.9 0.3 0.8 % 0.5 0.0 0.3 19.9 % 0.0 % 366 100.0 % 37.9 % 0.0 0.2 10.1 20.7 0.5 6.1 0.2 20.7 % 4.0 9.9 0.5 0.2 2.8 2.8 0.5 22.8 % 9.9 12.5 0.5 0.5 % 0.0 0.0 0.5 16.9 % 1.2 % 425

Total All offenses Violent offenses Murder/b Negligent manslaughter Rape Other sexual assault Robbery Assault Other violent/c Property offenses Burglary Larceny/theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Fraud Stolen property Other property Drug offenses Possession Trafficking Other/unspecified Public-order offenses Weapons Driving while intoxicated Other public-order Military offenses/d Other offenses Number of prisoners 100.0 % 49.8 % 7.8 1.2 16.4 13.4 2.0 8.1 0.9 18.1 % 2.3 10.9 0.1 0.1 2.6 1.8 0.3 20.4 % 11.9 8.0 0.5 1.3 % 0.3 0.0 1.0 9.4 % 1.1 % 2,048

All inmates Officers Enlisted 100.0 % 59.0 % 2.6 0.0 17.9 28.2 0.0 10.3 0.0 23.1 % 2.6 15.4 0.0 0.0 5.1 0.0 0.0 15.4 % 2.6 10.3 2.6 0.0 % 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 % 0.0 % 39 100.0 % 49.6 % 7.9 1.2 16.3 13.1 2.0 8.1 0.9 18.0 % 2.3 10.8 0.1 0.1 2.5 1.8 0.3 20.5 % 12.0 8.0 0.4 1.3 % 0.3 0.0 1.0 9.5 % 1.1 % 2,009

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding. Counts include both pre- and post-trial prisoners held by the Air Force, but only post-trial prisoners held by the Army, Navy and Marine Corps. Excludes 8 post-trial prisoners of unknown service branch held by the Marines for whom offense data were not reported. a/Excludes 8 prisoners held for the Coast Guard. b/Includes nonnegligent manslaughter. c/Includes kidnaping. d/Includes desertion, AWOL, disrespect, insubordination, failure to obey, false offense statement, conduct unbecoming an officer, and other infractions.

Table 8.8. Number of prisoners under military jurisdiction, by sentence length, office/enlisted status, and branch of service, December 31, 1998 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy

Branch of service All branches All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted Air Force All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted Army All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted Marine Corps All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted Navy All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted Coast Guard All inmates Convicted One year or more Less than 1 year Unconvicted

Total

All Inmates Officers Enlisted

2,426 2,026 1,454 572 400

44 39 31 8 5

2,382 1,987 1,423 564 395

128 106 24 82 22

1,155 1,129 985 144 26

617 366 206 160 251

526 425 239 186 101

484 458 306 152 26

14 14 10 4 0

470 444 296 148 26

126 106 24 82 20

217 216 184 32 1

31 29 13 16 2

110 107 85 22 3

862 823 652 171 39

16 14 12 2 2

846 809 640 169 37

0 0 0 0 0

759 735 624 111 24

35 28 6 22 7

68 60 22 38 8

682 435 292 143 247

4 4 3 1 0

678 431 289 142 247

1 0 0 0 1

102 102 102 0 0

533 300 182 118 233

46 33 8 25 13

389 302 198 104 87

10 7 6 1 3

379 295 192 103 84

1 0 0 0 1

74 73 72 1 1

18 9 5 4 9

296 220 121 99 76

9 8 6 2 1

0 0 0 0 0

9 8 6 2 1

0 0 0 0 0

3 3 3 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

6 5 3 2 1

Note: The Coast Guard does not operate confinement facilities.

Table 8.9. Number of admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type of admission, officer/enlisted status, and branch of service holding prisoners, 1998 Number of admissions All inmates Air Officers Enlisted Force Army 57 57 0 0 57 0 4,095 3,855 1,250 1,225 1,380 40 708 630 122 217 291 0 856 772 67 145 560 40

Type of admission Total New court commitments From summary court From special court From general court Parole violators returned Transfers from other military confinement Escapees returned

Total 4,152 3,912 1,250 1,225 1,437 40

Marine Corps 1,486 1,486 751 528 207 0

Navy 1,102 1,024 310 335 379 0

172 28

0 0

172 28

52 26

42 2

0 0

78 0

Table 8.10. Percent of admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type of admission, officer/enlisted status, and branch of service holding prisoners, 1998 Percent of admissions Air Force Army 100.0 % 89.0 17.2 30.6 41.1 0.0 100.0 % 90.2 7.8 16.9 65.4 4.7

Type of admission Total New court commitments From summary court From special court From general court Parole violators returned Transfers from other military confinement Escapees returned Number of admissions

Total 100.0 % 94.2 30.1 29.5 34.6 1.0

All inmates Officers Enlisted 100.0 % 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0

Marine Corps 100.0 % 100.0 50.5 35.5 13.9 0.0

Navy 100.0 % 92.9 28.1 30.4 34.4 0.0

100.0 % 94.1 30.5 29.9 33.7 1.0

4.1 0.7 4,152

0.0 0.0 57

4.2 0.7 4,095

7.3 3.7 708

4.9 0.2 856

0.0 0.0 1,486

7.1 0.0 1,102

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

Table 8.11. Admissions to U.S. military confinement facilities, by type of admission, and branch of service to which prisoners belonged, 1998 Number of admissions Marine Coast Army Corps Navy Guard 969 910 216 126 568 21 1,394 1,387 676 541 170 5 735 655 236 261 158 3 16 16 0 8 8 0 Percent of admissions Marine Army Corps Navy 100.0 % 93.9 22.3 13.0 58.6 2.2 100.0 % 99.5 48.5 38.8 12.2 0.4 100.0 % 89.1 32.1 35.5 21.5 0.4

Type of admission Total New court commitments From summary court From special court From general court Parole violators returned Transfers from other military confinement Escapees returned

Total 4,152 3,912 1,250 1,225 1,437 40

All inmates Officers Enlisted 57 57 0 0 57 0 4,095 3,855 1,250 1,225 1,380 40

Air Force 1,038 944 122 289 533 11

Air Force 100.0 % 90.9 11.8 27.8 51.3 1.1

Coast Guard 100.0 % 100.0 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0

172 28

0 0

172 28

56 27

38 0

2 0

76 1

0 0

5.4 2.6

3.9 0.0

0.1 0.0

10.3 0.1

0.0 0.0

Note: Detail may not add to total because of rounding.

Table 8.12. Number of pre-trial confinements in U.S. military confinement facilities, by officer/enlisted status and branch of service, 1997 and 1998 Number of pre-trial confinements 1998 1997 Officers Enlisted Total Officers

Total Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy Coast Guard Branch of service holding prisoners Total Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy

Enlisted

2,628 180 185 1,579 678 6

15 3 5 2 5 0

2,613 177 180 1,577 673 6

2,777 151 199 1,608 817 2

14 6 2 2 4 0

2,763 145 197 1,606 813 2

2,628 198 123 1,546 761

15 3 1 7 4

2,613 195 122 1,539 757

2,777 160 145 1,607 865

14 4 1 6 3

2,763 156 144 1,601 862

Table 8.13. Number of releases from U.S. military confinement facilities, by method of release, officer/enlisted status, and branch of service, 1998 Branch of service holding prisoners Air Marine Force Army Corps Navy 585 324 303 5 16 17 2 13 2 243 216 27 1 0 0 0 1 1,195 643 606 0 37 145 75 33 37 405 111 294 2 2 0 0 0 2,991 1,918 1,834 5 79 933 13 47 873 140 139 1 0 0 0 0 0 1,665 779 776 0 3 761 72 0 689 125 103 22 0 0 0 0 0 Branch of service to which prisoners belonged Air Marine Coast Force Army Corps Navy Guard 989 490 471 5 14 178 70 32 76 318 230 88 3 2 0 0 1 1,212 666 621 0 45 174 56 11 107 372 183 189 0 0 0 0 0 2,873 1,864 1,785 5 74 848 10 47 791 161 138 23 0 0 0 0 0 1,339 633 631 0 2 646 25 2 619 60 16 44 0 0 0 0 0 23 11 11 0 0 10 1 1 8 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0

Method of release All methods Unconditional Expiration of sentence Clemency Other unconditional Conditional releases Parole Restoration to duty Other conditional Transfers To other military branch To Federal civilian facility Other* Escape from confinement Suicide Medical Unspecified

Total 6,436 3,664 3,519 10 135 1,856 162 93 1,601 913 569 344 3 2 0 0 1

All inmates Officers Enlisted 77 16 12 0 4 38 2 10 26 23 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,359 3,648 3,507 10 131 1,818 160 83 1,575 890 546 344 3 2 0 0 1

*No 1998 releases from military confinement facilities occurred as the result of death other than suicide.

Chapter 8: U.S. military corrections Explanatory notes In 1994 the U.S. Department of Defense Corrections Council established an annual military confinement report. The council, comprising representatives from each branch of military service, adopted a standardized questionnaire with a common set of definitions. With the Corrections Council, the Bureau of Justice Statistics produced a series of tables that provide a unified profile of persons in the custody of U.S. military authorities. The annual confinement report provides yearend counts of persons in U.S. military confinement facilities inside and outside the continental United States, by branch of service, gender, race, and Hispanic origin, conviction status and sentence length, and offense. It also provides counts of the number of persons admitted to confinement and the number released during the calendar year, by branch of service, type of commitment, and type of release. The confinement report also includes the number of facilities and their design and rated capacities, by level. Information on Air Force confinement facilities was reported for the first time in 1997. With the full participation of all military services, the annual confinement report now provides a complete enumeration of U.S. military confinement facilities, both inside and outside the continental United States.