U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics
Federal Justice Statistics: Reconciled Data

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002
With trends 1982-2002

Federal criminal case processing, 1994-2002
140,000

120,000

Suspects investigated Suspects arrested

100,000

Defendants charged
80,000

Offenders convicted
60,000

Offenders sentenced to prison
40,000

20,000

0 1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs 810 Seventh Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20531 John Ashcroft Attorney General

Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities Deborah J. Daniels Assistant Attorney General World Wide Web site: http//www.ojp.usdoj.gov

Bureau of Justice Statistics Lawrence A. Greenfeld Director World Wide Web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs

For information contact National Criminal Justice Reference Service 1-800-851-3420

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002
With trends 1982-2002 Federal Justice Statistics: Reconciled Data

January 2005, NCJ 207447

U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics Lawrence A. Greenfeld, Director

This Bureau of Justice Statistics Report was prepared by the Urban Institute under the supervision of Steven K. Smith and Mark Motivans of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). This report was prepared under BJS grant number 2001-BJ-CX-K027. Principal staff at the Urban Institute were Laura Winterfield, William Adams, Avi Bhati, Kamala Mallik Kane, Barbara Parthasarathy, Juliet Scarpa, and Yan Yuan. Layout and design were provided by Mick Schommer. Tom Hester of BJS provided editorial review. This report is made possible through the cooperation of the following Federal agencies and their staffs: The United States Marshals Service (USMS), the Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC), the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). The staff who provided expert advice about the source records include: Joe Briggs (USMS); Steven Schlesinger and Catherine Whitaker (AOUSC); Siobhan Sperin and Barbara Tone (EOUSA); and Sue Allison and Nancy Miller (BOP). BJS authorizes any person to reproduce, publish, translate, or otherwise use all or any part of the material in this publication; citation to source, however, is appreciated. An electronic version of this report and the data underlying graphics may be found on the BJS Internet Home Page <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/>. The BJS-sponsored Federal Justice Statistics Resource Center (FJSRC) Internet Home Page <http://fjsrc.urban.org> provides online access to the Federal Justice database. Users may download data from the Federal Justice database for independent analysis or use the online query system to quickly obtain customized statistics. To order additional copies of this report or CD-ROMs containing the Federal Justice database, call the National Criminal Justice Reference Service Clearinghouse at 1-800-732-3277.

Office of Justice Programs Partnerships for Safer Communities http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov

ii

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Contents
Highlights, 1 Introduction, 3 Federal criminal case processing, 2002, 5
Tables and figures

Methodology, 17
The Federal justice database Table construction and interpretation Offense classifications Classification level Estimations Statistics appearing in Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Appendix, 25
Tables

Contents

iii

Tables
Federal criminal case processing, 2002, 5
October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002 1. Suspects arrested for Federal offenses and booked by USMS, by offense
2. 3. Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense Disposition of suspects in matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense Disposition of defendants in cases terminated in U.S. district courts, by offense Sanctions imposed on offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense Criminal appeals filed, by type of criminal case and offense Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense Federal prison admissions and releases, by offense A.7. Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 A.8. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 A.9. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts: Percent convicted, by offense, 1994-2002 A.10. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 A.11. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to prison, by offense, 1994-2002 A.12. Criminal appeals filed, by offense, 1994-2002 A.13. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to probation only, by offense, 1994-2002 A.14. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Mean number of months of imprisonment imposed, by offense, 1994-2002 A.15. Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense, 1994-2002 A.16. Population at the end of the year in Federal prisons, by offense, 1994-2002

4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

Methodology, 17
M.1. Breakout of main category offenses M.2. Source agencies for data tables in Federal Criminal Case Processing

Appendix, 25
A.1. Suspects arrested for Federal offenses and booked by USMS, by offense, 1994-2002 A.2. Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002 A.3. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002 A.4. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number prosecuted before U.S. district court judge, by offense, 1994-2002 A.5. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. magistrates, by offense, 1994-2002 A.6. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number declined prosecution, by offense, 1994-2002

iv

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Figures
Highlights, 1
Figure H.1. Federal criminal case processing, October 1, 2001 September 30, 2002 Figure H.2. Number of offenders under Federal correctional supervision, September 30, 2002

Federal criminal case processing, 2002, 5
Figure 1. Number of suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by selected offenses, 1982-2002 Number of defendants in criminal cases terminated in U.S. district court, by selected offenses, 1982-2002 Defendants convicted in U.S. district court: Percentage sentenced to prison, by selected offenses, 1982-2002 Number of offenders under Federal supervision, by type of supervision, 1987-2002 U.S. district court commitments and first releases from Federal prison, by expected or actual time in prison, 1986-2002

Figure 2.

Figure 3.

Figure 4.

Figure 5.

Contents

v

Highlights
• During 2002, U.S. attorneys initiated investigations involving 124,335 suspects for possible violations of Federal law. Almost a third (31%) of those investigated were suspected of a drug violation. • Between 1994 and 2002, investigations initiated by U.S. attorneys have increased 25% — from 99,251 to 124,335. Investigations for immigration violations increased from 5,526 to 16,699; for drug offenses, investigations increased from 29,311 to 38,150. • U.S. attorneys declined to prosecute a smaller proportion of those investigated, as declinations of matters concluded decreased from 36% during 1994 to 27% during 2002. • During 2002, 124,074 suspects were arrested by Federal law enforcement agencies for possible violation of Federal law. Just over 27% of all arrests were for drug offenses, 21% for immigration offenses, 18% for supervision violations, 14% for property offenses, 6% for weapon offenses, 4% for violent offenses, and 3% to secure and safeguard a material witness. • Between 1994 and 2002, the number of defendants charged in criminal cases filed in U.S. district court increased 41%, from 62,327 to 87,727. The number of defendants charged with an immigration offense increased from 2,453 to 13,101, while the number charged with a drug offense increased from 20,275 to 30,673. • During 2002 criminal cases involving 80,424 defendants were concluded in U.S. district court. Of these, 89% were convicted. Almost all (96%) of those convicted pleaded guilty or no contest. • Drug prosecutions have comprised an increasing proportion of the Federal criminal caseload — from 21% of defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district court during 1982 to 36% during 2002. • Since implementation of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, the proportion of defendants sentenced to prison increased from 54% during 1988 to 75% during 2002. The proportion of drug offenders sentenced to prison increased from 79% to 91%. • Prison sentences imposed increased slightly from 55.1 months during 1988 to 57.1 months during 2002. For drug offenses, prison sentences increased from 71.3 months to 76.0 months; for weapon offenses, sentences imposed increased from 52.3 months to 83.8 months. • Time expected to be served in prison, on average, increased from 26.9 months for offenders admitted during 1988 to 46.1 months for offenders admitted during 2002. For drug offenses, the amount of time an incoming offender could expect to serve increased from 39.3 months to 62.4 months; for
Federal criminal case processing, October 1, 2001 September 30, 2002

Suspects investigated Suspects arrested Defendants prosecuted Offenders convicted Offenders sentenced to prison* Criminal appeals filed
0

124,335 124,074 87,727 71,798 53,682 11,569
25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000

Figure H.1.
Number of offenders under Federal correctional supervision, September 30, 2002
Prison Supervised release Probation Parole
0

143,031

73,229

30,577

3,561
25,000 50,000 75,000 100,000 125,000 150,000

Figure H.2.
*Prison includes offenders given life and death sentences, and includes new law offenders given prison-community split sentences (prison and conditions of alternative community confinement). Also included are offenders given mixed sentences of prison plus probation, applicable only to offenders sentenced pursuant to laws applicable prior to the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984.

weapon offenses, expected time served increased from 32.4 months to 64.5 months. • During 2002 the U.S. Court of Appeals received 11,569 criminal appeals, of which 9,764 were guidelines-based appeals. Fifty-eight percent of these appeals challenged both the conviction and the sentence imposed. • During 2002, 107,367 offenders were under Federal community supervision. Supervised release has become the primary form of supervision in the Federal system: 68% of offenders were on supervised release compared to 28% on probation, and 3% remaining on parole. • On September 30, 2002, 143,031 offenders were serving a prison sentence in Federal prison; 57% were incarcerated for a drug offense; 11% for an immigration offense; 10% for a violent offense; 10% for a weapon offense; 7% for a property offense; and 6% for all other offenses.

Highlights

1

Introduction
Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002, fourth in an annual series, provides statistics that describe defendants processed at different stages of the Federal criminal justice system for the 12-month period ending September 30, 2002. Also included are figures describing trends in Federal criminal case processing during the 1982-2002 period.
The data presented are compiled from the BJS Federal justice database. The Federal justice database is comprised of data provided by the U.S. Marshals Service, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Executive Office for the U.S. Attorneys, the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts, the U.S. Sentencing Commission, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). The Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts provides data describing the Federal court docket — criminal and appellate — as well as pretrial services, probation, parole, and supervised release. The Federal justice database may be obtained electronically from the Federal Justice Statistics Resource Center website at http://fjsrc.urban.org or on CD-ROM from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service Clearinghouse. For more detailed information on obtaining the Federal justice database, see page ii. Statistics presented in this report include the number of suspects arrested by Federal law enforcement agencies for violations of Federal law, the number of suspects investigated by U.S. attorneys for violations of Federal law, the outcome of U.S. attorney investigations (prosecution or declination), the number of defendants prosecuted in U.S. district courts, the outcome of criminal cases (convicted or not convicted), sanctions imposed on defendants convicted (type of sentence imposed and length of imprisonment), the number and type of criminal appeals filed, and the number of offenders under Federal correctional supervision — prison, probation, parole, and supervised release. A related publication, the Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, provides more detail on many of the statistics presented in this report — including statistics describing 40 offense categories and statistics on case processing matters not covered in this report, such as pretrial release and demographic characteristics of offenders. Several case processing statistics presented in this report have previously been reported by the individual agencies. However, because these agencies use different criteria to collect, tabulate, and report on case processing events, statistics published by each of the agencies may not be directly comparable. In this report, BJS has attempted to reconcile differences in data collection and reporting to present comparable statistics across stages of the Federal criminal justice system. For a description of the reconciliation effort and the methodology employed, see Comparing Case Processing Statistics (NCJ 169274) and Reconciling Federal Criminal Case Processing Statistics (NCJ 171680). Since many terms and concepts used in this report have specialized meanings — either because they refer to specific provisions of Federal law or they refer to procedures used by agencies supplying the data — readers are encouraged to reference the glossary of the Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics for definitions of concepts. Modifications to Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002 Although not shown separately in the tables, the FY 2002 data marked the introduction of two new detailed offense categories, “wildlife offenses” and “environmental offenses.” According to the reporting practices of this report, these two detailed offenses are grouped under the major offense category, “Public-order offenses, Other” in the tables.

Introduction

3

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

Tables
October 1, 2001 – September 30, 2002
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Suspects arrested for Federal offenses and booked by USMS, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Disposition of suspects in matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Disposition of defendants in cases terminated in U.S. district courts, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Sanctions imposed on offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Criminal appeals filed, by type of criminal case and offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Federal prison admissions and releases, by offense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

7. 8. 9.

Figures
1. Number of suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by category of offense, 1982-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Number of defendants in criminal cases terminated in U.S. district court, by category of offense, 1982-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Defendants convicted in U.S. district court: Percentage sentenced to prison, by category of offense, 1982-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number of offenders under Federal supervision, by type of supervision, 1987-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 U.S. district court commitments and first releases from Federal prison, by expected or actual time in prison, 1986-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.

3.

4. 5.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

5

6

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 1. Suspects arrested for Federal offenses and booked by the U.S. Marshals Service, by offense, October 1, 2001 September 30, 2002
Most serious offense All offensesa Violent offensesb Property offenses Fraudulentb Otherb Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Supervision violations Material witness Unknown or indeterminable offense
Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.
a

Number 124,074 4,723 17,268 13,976 3,292 33,730 8,772 524 8,248 7,488 25,270 21,777 3,918 1,128
b

Percent 100% 3.8 14.1 11.4 2.7 27.4 7.1 0.4 6.7 6.1 20.6 17.7 3.2 0.9

In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; and "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

7

Table 2. Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Suspects in criminal matters received by U.S. attorneys Percent Number 124,335 100% 6,392 27,321 24,019 3,302 38,150 23,472 4,738 18,734 11,200 16,699 1,101
c

Most serious offense investigateda All offensesb Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
Based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.
a

5.2 22.2 19.5 2.7 31.0 19.0 3.8 15.2 9.1 13.6 0.9

In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; and "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Number of suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by selected offenses, 1982-2002

Number of suspects

140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000
50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 Violent 0 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Property Property Drug Immigration* Weapon* Violent All offenses

Drug

Note: Data for 1982 through 1993 are estimated from calendar year data; see Methodology. Beginning in 1994, data are reported on the Federal fiscal year running from October 1 through September 30. *Figure 1 displays data for “Weapon” and “Immigration” offenses beginning in 1994. Public-order offenses are not shown.

Figure 1.

8

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 3. Disposition of suspects in matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense, October 1, 2001 September 30, 2002
Total number of suspects 124,081 6,330 29,083 25,543 3,540 38,424 23,139 4,947 18,192 10,126 16,197 782 Suspects in criminal matters concluded Concluded Prosecuted before by U.S. magistratec U.S. district court judgeb Number Percent Number Percent 76,314 61.5% 14,093 11.4% 3,402 15,634 13,919 1,715 29,411 6,816 1,240 5,576 7,105 13,693 253
e

Most serious offense investigateda All offensese Violent offensesf Property offenses Fraudulentf Otherf Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
a

Declined prosecutiond Number Percent 33,674 27.1% 2,577 11,678 10,430 1,248 7,076 8,699 3,089 5,610 2,848 545 251 40.7 40.2 40.8 35.3 18.4 37.6 62.4 30.8 28.1 3.4 32.1

53.7 53.8 54.5 48.4 76.5 29.5 25.1 30.7 70.2 84.5 32.4

351 1,771 1,194 577 1,937 7,624 618 7,006 173 1,959 278

5.5 6.1 4.7 16.3 5.0 32.9 12.5 38.5 1.7 12.1 35.5

Based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. b Includes suspects whose cases were filed in U.S. district court before a district court judge. c Includes defendants in misdemeanor cases that were terminated in U.S. district court before a U.S. magistrate. d Includes suspects whose matters were declined for prosecution by U.S. attorneys upon review.

Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. f In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; and "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

9

Table 4. Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Most serious offense chargeda All offensesb Felonies Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanorsc Unknown or indeterminable offenses
Based on the offense carrying the most severe statutory maximum penalty. b Includes defendants for whom an offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.
a
c

Defendants in cases commenced Percent Number 87,727 100% 76,163 3,308 16,126 13,511 2,615 30,673 28,406 2,267 4,851 1,021 3,830 8,104 13,101 11,493 71 86.8 3.8 18.4 15.4 3.0 35.0 32.4 2.6 5.5 1.2 4.4 9.2 14.9 13.1 0.1

In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

10

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 5. Disposition of defendants in cases terminated in U.S. district courts, by offense, October 1, 2001 September 30, 2002
Number of Percent defendants convicted 80,424 89.3% 70,225
f

Most serious offense chargeda All offensese Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentf Otherf Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
a

Defendants in cases terminated in U.S. district courts Number convicted Number not convicted c Total Total Pleab Dismissedd Acquitted Trialc 71,798 69,072 2,726 8,626 7,852 774 64,540 2,696 13,405 11,205 2,200 27,065 25,174 1,891 4,073 986 3,087 5,833 11,468 7,196 62
e

91.9 92.1 90.8 90.9 90.1 92.4 92.4 92.4 87.7 87.3 87.8 89.0 95.3 71.0 91.2

62,113 2,522 12,903 10,781 2,122 26,086 24,252 1,834 3,845 935 2,910 5,406 11,351 6,900 59

2,427 174 502 424 78 979 922 57 228 51 177 427 117 296 3

5,685 231 1,362 1,119 243 2,235 2,080 155 572 143 429 723 562 2,935 6

5,146 197 1,235 1,018 217 2,050 1,909 141 507 120 387 611 546 2,701 5

539 34 127 101 26 185 171 14 65 23 42 112 16 234 1

2,927 14,767 12,324 2,443 29,300 27,254 2,046 4,645 1,129 3,516 6,556 12,030 10,131 68

f

Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Based on the offense carrying the most severe statutory maximum penalty. b Includes nolo contendere. c Includes bench and jury trials. d Includes defendants in cases dismissed for lack of evidence or lack of Federal interest.

Includes defendants for whom an offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. f In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Number of defendants in criminal cases terminated in U.S. district court, by selected offenses, 1982-2002
Number of defendants

90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 Property

All offenses

Drug

Property Immigration* 10,000 5,000 0 Drug Violent 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Weapon* Violent

Note: Data for 1982 through 1993 are based on a 12-month calendar year reporting period ending December 31. Beginning in 1994, data are reported on the Federal fiscal year running from October 1 through September 30. Figure 2 displays data by major offense category, but does not show the felony/misdemeanor distinction. Therefore, the 2002 data points will not match the data displayed in table 5, nor will the data points on the trend lines match data displayed in Appendix table A.8. *Figure 2 displays data for weapon and immigration offenses beginning in 1994.

Figure 2.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

11

Table 6. Sanctions imposed on offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Offenders convicted and sentenced Number Imprison- Mixed mentb sentencec Probationd Fine only Othere 53,266 416 11,774 2,897 3,232 51,886 2,394 7,674 6,593 1,081 23,789 21,955 1,834 3,034 639 2,395 5,073 9,922 1,353 27
f

Most serious offense of convictiona All offensesg Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulenth Otherh Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
a

Total 71,798 63,238

Months of imprisonment imposedf Mean Median 57.1 mo 33 mo 58.4 88.6 25.1 23.5 34.8 76.0 75.7 79.6 38.4 25.9 41.8 83.8 27.9 9.6 52.3 36 60 15 15 18 57 57 60 24 18 27 51 24 4 37

360 14 72 61 11 162 152 10 19 2 17 61 32 55 1

7,818 118 4,349 3,542 807 1,345 1,175 170 1,343 630 713 340 323 3,925 31

257 4 111 99 12 35 31 4 62 41 21 11 34 2,638 2

2,719 43 812 737 75 863 822 41 152 82 70 70 779 513 0

h

2,578 13,101 11,107 1,994 26,234 24,174 2,060 4,630 1,403 3,227 5,563 11,132 8,499 61

h

Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. b Includes offenders given life and death sentences, and includes new law offenders given prison-community split sentences (prison and conditions of alternative community confinement). c Includes offenders given mixed sentences of prison plus probation; applicable only to offenders sentenced pursuant to laws applicable prior to the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. d Includes offenders given probation plus conditions of confinement, such as home confinement or intermittent confinement. e Includes offenders who had no sentence imposed, those with sealed sentences, and those who were deported.

Calculations exclude offenders given life or death sentences, and old law offenders given mixed sentences of prison plus probation. For new law offenders given prison-community split sentences, only the prison portion of the sentence is included in calculations. g Includes offenders for whom offense categories could not be determined or for whom a sentence was unknown. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. h In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Defendants convicted in U.S. district court: Percentage sentenced to prison, by selected offenses, 1982-2002
Percent of offenders
100%
Weapon* Weapon* Drug Immigration* Violent

90% 80% 70% 60%

Violent Immigration* Drug

All offenses

All offenses Property

50%
Property

40%
3 0 %

0%
1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001

Note: Data for 1982 through 1993 are based on a 12-month calendar year reporting period ending December 31. Beginning in 1994, data are reported on the Federal fiscal year running from October 1 through September 30. Figure 3 displays data by major offense category, but does not show the felony/misdemeanor distinction. Since table 6 and Appendix tables A.10 and A.11 show felonies and misdemeanors separately, the percentages displayed in figure 3 cannot be calculated from numbers appearing in the tables. *Figure 3 displays data for weapon and immigration offenses beginning in 1994.

Figure 3.

12

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 7. Criminal appeals filed, by type of criminal case and offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Number of criminal appeals filed Guidelines-based appeals Sentence Conviction Sentence and only conviction only Total 9,764 3,032 1,014 5,693 498 1,443 1,172 271 4,089 731 101 548 1,201 1,531 271
c

Most serious offense of convictiona All offensesb Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
a b

Total 11,569 606 1,726 1,389 337 4,689 876 128 642 1,386 1,679 607

Preguideline 1,805 108 283 217 66 600 145 27 94 185 148 336

Other 25 2 5 4 1 6 2 0 2 4 0 6

158 454 370 84 1,333 199 30 140 314 475 99

49 191 156 35 407 90 12 71 152 87 38

289 793 642 151 2,343 440 59 335 731 969 128

Based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. Includes offenders for whom offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; and "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

13

Table 8. Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Offenders under active supervisiona Post-incarceration supervision Probation Parole Supervised release Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 30,577 100% 3,561 100% 73,229 100% 21,290 527 11,506 9,310 2,196 3,850 3,487 363 3,657 1,426 2,231 889 727 9,287
c

Most serious offense of convictionb All offensesc Feloniesd Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulente Othere Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
e e

Total Number 107,367 97,518 6,281 29,268 24,439 4,829 44,980 40,414 4,566 9,039 2,570 6,469 5,662 2,095 9,849

69.9 1.7 37.8 30.6 7.2 12.6 11.5 1.2 12.0 4.7 7.3 2.9 2.4 30.5

3,555 1,236 300 146 154 1,594 1,436 158 263 29 234 155 4 6

99.9 34.7 8.4 4.1 4.3 44.8 40.4 4.4 7.4 0.8 6.6 4.4 0.1 0.2

72,673 4,518 17,462 14,983 2,479 39,536 35,491 4,045 5,119 1,115 4,004 4,618 1,364 556

99.3 6.2 23.9 20.5 3.4 54.0 48.5 5.5 7.0 1.5 5.5 6.3 1.9 0.8

a Includes offenders under active supervision at the close of the fiscal year. This population includes offenders under the three major forms of supervision: probation, supervised release, and parole. Included under parole are two less common types of old law release: mandatory release and special parole. Excluded from the number of offenders under active supervision reported in the table are offenders released to military parole and offenders under community supervision prior to sentencing (such as during pretrial release or pretrial investigation). b Based on the offense with the longest sentence imposed.

Includes offenders for whom offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. d Includes 193 total offenders, 134 offenders under probation, 3 under parole, and 56 under supervised release whose felony offense category could not be determined. e In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Number of offenders under Federal supervision, by type of supervision, 1987-2002
Number of offenders

120,000

100,000

80,000
Supervised release Parole

60,000

40,000
Probation

20,000

0 1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Note: Data for 1987 through 1994 are based on a count of the supervised population as of June 30. Beginning in 1995, data are based on a count as of September 30.

Figure 4.

14

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 9. Federal prison admissions and releases, by offense, October 1, 2001 - September 30, 2002
Most serious original offense of convictiona
All offensesf Violent offensesg Property offenses Fraudulentg Otherg Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Prisoners admitted Population at start of year District courtb All otherc 135,986 50,440 17,437 13,319 10,072 7,654 2,418 76,941 76,416 525 7,744 1,145 6,599 12,077 14,859 974 2,219 6,984 5,854 1,130 22,681 22,484 197 3,540 750 2,790 4,181 10,299 536 2,638 4,080 2,699 1,381 5,800 5,470 330 1,719 297 1,422 1,359 1,407 434

Prisoners released District courtd All othere 44,339 16,493 2,010 7,019 5,794 1,225 18,917 18,723 194 3,368 684 2,684 2,651 9,864 510 2,617 4,017 2,615 1,402 5,453 5,051 402 1,684 291 1,393 1,241 1,130 351

Population at Net change end of year 143,031 7,045 13,549 10,100 7,798 2,302 81,052 80,596 456 7,951 1,217 6,734 13,725 15,571 1,083 230 28 144 -116 4,111 4,180 -69 207 72 135 1,648 712 109

Note: The universe for this table includes sentenced offenders in BOP custody and offenders in contract and private facilities, but not those committed for violations of the District of Columbia criminal code unless they were committed by a Federal district court judge. See Methodology for more information. a Based on the offense having the longest sentence. b Offenders committed from U.S. district courts. This number will not equal the number of defendants sentenced to prison reported in table 6, due to the delay between the time an offender is sentenced in court and when that offender actually reports to a BOP facility. c Includes other commitments, such as offenders committed from other courts and violators of conditions of supervised release. d Includes prisoners released for the first time from a U.S. district court commitment.

e Includes prisoners released from commitments other than a first release from a U.S. district court commitment. f Includes prisoners for whom an offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. g In this table, "Violent offenses" may include nonnegligent manslaughter; "Fraudulent property" excludes tax fraud; and "Other nonfraudulent property" excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

U.S. district court commitments and first releases from Federal prison, by expected or actual time in prison, 1986-2002
Number of months
60

50

40

Expected time to be served for offenders committed to prison

30

20

Average time served by offenders released from prison

10

0

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

Note: Beginning in 2000, average time served is calculated for offenders in BOP custody and offenders in contract and private facilities, but not those committed for violations of the District of Columbia criminal code.

Figure 5.

Federal criminal case processing, 2002

15

Methodology
The Federal justice database defendants, Class A misdemeanant defendants, and those defendants charged with petty offenses and handled by a U.S. district court judge. The universe of incarcerated offenders includes all sentenced offenders under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons regardless of the source of their commitment (e.g., U.S. district court, State court, or military court, or return from a violation of conditions of supervision) or length of sentence. This may include some offenders who were convicted of immigration offenses who were committed for petty offenses. It does not include those offenders who were convicted of violations of the District of Columbia criminal code unless they were committed by a Federal district court judge. The universe of supervised offenders includes persons entering and exiting terms of Federal supervision, and persons under Federal supervision during the fiscal year. Supervision types include probation, parole, and supervised release. Included amongst parole supervisees are those under two less common types of "old law" supervision (sentenced prior to the implementation of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984): mandatory release and special release. Excluded from the supervised population counts are offenders supervised under military laws (military parole) and convicted organizations under supervision. The universe of suspects, defendants, and offenders varies from table to table in this report, depending on the definition of the statistic reported and the source of the data. according to fiscal year include some pertinent records in later years' files. For example, tabulations of suspects in matters concluded during fiscal year 2002 have been assembled from source files containing records of 2002 matters concluded which were entered into the data system during fiscal years 2001 or 2002. In the figures showing trends in Federal criminal case processing, information is presented for a period between 1982 and 2002. Data from the EOUSA are estimated from 1982 through 1993, as data prior to 1993 included appeals information not included in the subsequent years. Because of changes in the reporting and collection of data over time, data collected prior to 1994 from AOUSC and EOUSA were reported on a calendaryear basis; data collected from 19942002 are on a fiscal-year basis. The figures are marked and noted according to the period of measurement. In figure 4, data collected from FPSIS reflect the supervised population as of June 30 for the period of 1987-1994, and the population as of September 30 for the period of 1995-2002. In figure 5, data collected from BOP, presented from 1985-2002, are reported on a fiscal-year basis. Table construction and interpretation

Source of data The source of data for all tables in Federal Criminal Case Processing is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) Federal justice database. The database is presently constructed from source files provided by the U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA), the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts (AOUSC), the United States Sentencing Commission (USSC), and the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). AOUSC also maintains the data collected by the U.S. Court of Appeals and the Federal Probation and Supervision Information System (FPSIS). Federal law prohibits the use of these files for any purpose other than research or statistics. A description of the source agency data files is provided in table M.2 at the end of this section. Data universe The universe of the BJS Federal justice database includes criminal suspects investigated for violations of Federal criminal law, criminal suspects arrested for violations of Federal criminal law, defendants in cases filed in U.S. district courts, and offenders entering Federal corrections and correctional supervision.
The universe of criminal suspects arrested is all suspects arrested by the Federal law enforcement agencies (including the USMS), state agencies, and self-reported arrests and transferred to the custody of the U.S. Marshals Service for processing, transportation, and detention. The universe of criminal suspects is limited to those whose matters were investigated by U.S. attorneys and in which the investigation took at least one hour of a U.S. attorney’s time. The universe of defendants in Federal criminal courts is limited to those defendants whose cases were filed in a U.S. district court, whether before a U.S. district court judge or a U.S. magistrate. This includes all felony

Universe in each table The universe in table 1 is suspects arrested for violations of Federal criminal law and transferred to the custody of the U.S. Marshals Service.
The universe in tables 2 and 3, and figure 1 is suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys. A person appearing in multiple matters will be counted separately for each matter. Matters include criminal proceedings handled exclusively by U.S. attorneys, or in which U.S. attorneys provided assistance and spent at least one hour of time. The universe in tables 4, 5, and 6, as well as figures 2 and 3, is defendants adjudicated and sentenced in U.S. district court. Included are defendants

Reporting period Wherever possible, matters or cases have been selected according to some event which occurred during fiscal year 2002 (October 1, 2001, through September 30, 2002). Some data files provided by source agencies are organized according to a calendar year time frame; these have been combined and divided into fiscal years for purposes of this report. Files organized by their source agencies

Methodology

17

charged with felonies, Class A and B misdemeanors, and petty offenses if the petty offenses are handled by U.S. district court judges. Defendants who appear in more than one case are counted separately for each distinct case in which they appear. Defendants may have been charged under "old law" (pre-Sentencing Reform Act) or "new law" (post-Sentencing Reform Act) standards. The universe in table 7 is criminal appeals filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals. Appeals filed include both Preguidelines- and Guidelines-based appeals. The Sentencing Reform Act allowed for the appeal of sentences imposed, where previously only the conviction could be appealed. The universe in table 8 and figure 4 is offenders entering, exiting, or under active supervision. Active supervision includes supervisees who report regularly to their supervising officers. Excluded are offenders released to military parole and offenders who are under community release prior to sentencing. The universe in table 9 and figure 5 is sentenced Federal offenders committed into Federal prison facilities — regardless of the court from which they were committed and regardless of the length of sentence. Federal prison facilities include BOP facilities, as well as private and contract facilities. The universe includes primarily offenders committed from U.S. district courts by U.S. district court judges, but also includes those committed by U.S. magistrates, military courts, and some State courts. In addition, it includes offenders who violated conditions of supervised release and who were returned to prison for their violations rather than from a court commitment. It does not include offenders committed for violations of the District of Columbia criminal code unless they were committed by a Federal district court judge.

case. For example, if a single person is involved in three different criminal cases during the time period specified in the table, he or she is counted three times in the tabulation. Similarly, if a single criminal case involves a corporate defendant and four individual defendants, it counts five times in the tabulation. In tables 8 and 9, the unit of analysis for incarceration, probation, parole, or other supervised release is a person entering custody or supervision, or a person leaving custody or supervision. For example, a person convicted in two concurrent cases and committed once to the custody of the BOP in the indicated time period is counted as one admission to a term of incarceration. A person who leaves a BOP facility, reenters, and leaves again in the same fiscal-year period would be counted as one admission and two releases. A person who terminates probation twice in the indicated time period, such as with a violation and again after reinstatement, is counted as two terminations of probation.

form the BJS categories shown in this report’s tables.* For data from USMS (table 1) offense categories are based on the FBI’s National Crime Information Center (NCIC) offense classifications, which are converted into U.S. Marshals’ four digit offense codes. These offense codes are then aggregated into the offense categories shown in table 1. For data from EOUSA (tables 2 and 3, figure 1), which include U.S. Code citations but do not include the AOUSC offense classifications, U.S. Code titles and sections are translated into the AOUSC classification system and then aggregated into the offense categories used in the tables. Offense categories for prisoners in table 9 are based on combinations of offense designations used by BOP. They are similar to the categories in other tables but may not be directly comparable.

Interpretation The data presented in this report are a statistical presentation of offenders processed in the Federal criminal justice system. The tables presented describe the number of offenders processed and the outcome of that processing at each stage of the Federal criminal justice system. Because many tables represent different crosssections of offenders, comparisons across tables are not necessarily valid.
Offense classifications

Felony/misdemeanor distinctions Felony and misdemeanor distinctions are provided where possible. Felony offenses are those with a maximum penalty of more than 1 year in prison. Misdemeanor offenses are those with a maximum penalty of 1 year or less. Felonies and misdemeanors are further classified using the maximum term of imprisonment authorized. Section 3559, U.S. Code, Title 18 classifies offenses according to the following schedule: Felonies Class A felony — life imprisonment, or if the maximum penalty is death.
Class B felony — 25 years or more. Class C felony — less than 25 years but more than 10 years. Class D felony — less than 10 years but more than 5 years. Class E felony — less than 5 years but more than 1 year.

Procedure The offense classification procedure used in this report is based on the classification system followed by the AOUSC. Specific offenses in the AOUSC classification are combined to
*These categories correspond to the BJS crime definitions and, to the extent possible, are organized and presented consistent with BJS publications on State criminal justice systems.

Unit of analysis The unit of analysis in tables 1 through 7 is a combination of a person (or corporation) and a matter or

Misdemeanors Class A misdemeanor — 1 year or less but more than 1 month.

18

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Class B misdemeanor — 6 months or less but more than 30 days. Class C misdemeanor — 30 days or less but more than 5 days. Infraction — 5 days or less, or if no imprisonment is authorized. In this report, felony and misdemeanor distinctions are provided where the data permit these distinctions. Tables 1, 2, and 3 do not use this distinction because many suspects cannot be so classified at the investigation stage in the criminal justice process. Table 7 does not use this distinction because the Court of Appeals data do not allow for such a breakout. Table 9 does not use this distinction because BOP offense categories do not allow for such a breakout. None of the figures showing trend data report this distribution. Figures 2 and 3 display data by major offense category but do not show the felony/misdemeanor distinction. Therefore, the data points for major offense categories represented on the trend lines will not match the data in Appendix tables A.7, A.9, and A.10, respectively, nor will the 2002 data points match the data for major offense categories in tables 5 and 6. Classification level Offenses in the tables in this report are classified, at the most general level, into felony and misdemeanor

categories. Felonies are then broken out by six main level offense classifications: violent, property, drug, public-order, weapon, and immigration offenses. Property and publicorder offenses are broken out into two sublevels. The main-level and subgroup categories are composed of individual offense types. Where the data source allows, drug offenses are broken out into the individual offense level. “Other public-order offenses” include a limited breakout at the individual offense type level. Table M.1 shows a list of specific offenses under each offense category.

includes destruction of property and trespass. "Tax law violations" includes tax fraud. "Obscene material" denotes the mail or transport thereof. "All other felonies" includes felonies with unclassifiable offense type. "Misdemeanors" includes misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels. "Drug possession" also includes other drug misdemeanors.

Offense categories For offenses referred to in table M.1, the following conditions apply:
"Murder" includes nonnegligent manslaughter. "Sexual abuse" includes only violent sex offenses. Beginning in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses, such as prostitution, were included in a separate category, “Nonviolent sex offenses.” Therefore, the 2002 tables are not directly comparable with the appendix tables in this report, or with older editions of this report. "Fraud" excludes tax fraud. "Larceny" excludes transportation of stolen property. "Other property felonies" excludes fraudulent property offenses, and

Most serious offense selection Where more than one offense is charged or adjudicated, the most serious offense (the one that may or did result in the most severe sentence) is used to classify offenses. The offense description may change as the criminal justice process proceeds. Tables indicate whether investigated, charged, or adjudicated offenses are used.
In tables 2 and 3, the most serious offense is based on the criminal lead charge as determined by the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the criminal proceeding. In tables 4 and 5, the most serious offense charged is the one that has the most severe potential sentence.

Table M.1. Breakout of main category offenses
Violent offenses Murder Negligent manslaughter Assault Robbery Sexual abuse Kidnaping Threats against the President Felonies Public-order offenses Property offenses Drug Weapon offenses offenses Fraudulent Other Regulatory Other Tax law violations Agriculture Embezzlement Burglary Trafficking Bribery Antitrust Larceny Fraud Possession Perjury, contempt, Food and drug Motor vehicle Other drug Forgery and intimidation theft offenses Transportation Counterfeiting National defense Arson and Civil rights explosives Communications Racketeering/ extortion Transportation Custom laws of stolen Gambling Postal laws property Nonviolent sex Other regulatory Other property offenses offenses offenses Obscene material Wildlife offenses Environmental All other felonies Immigration offenses

Misdemeanors Larceny Drug possession Immigration Traffic offense Other misdemeanors Fraudulent property

Methodology

19

For table 6, conviction offenses are based on the disposition offenses having the most severe penalty. In table 7, an offense is classified into the category that represents the underlying offense of conviction, based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. In table 8, the most serious offense of conviction is either the one having the longest sentence imposed, or, if equal sentences were imposed or there was no imprisonment, it was the offense carrying the highest severity code as determined by AOUSC’s offense severity code ranking. In table 9, prisoners are classified according to the offense which bears the longest single incarceration sentence. Estimations Several methods were used to estimate the trend data in this report.

defendants plus appellants in the EOUSA data was equal to the observed ratio of appellants to appellants plus defendants in the AOUSC data, or:

Sentencing Reform Act (a "new law" prisoner). For prisoners in category (a) actual time served is recorded. For those prisoners in category (b), an estimate of time to be served is used, based on the mean time served by similar prisoners in previous entering years (1985-98). For prisoners in category (c) sentenced to more than 1 year, time to be served is 87% of the sentence imposed, which is the minimum sentence to be served under the Sentencing Reform Act. For prisoners in category (c) sentenced to 1 year or less, time to be served is equal to the sentence imposed. Statistics appearing in Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002 The statistics appearing in this report are as follows:

AAO (AAO+DAO)

=

AEO (AEO+DEO)

where: AAO = number of AO appellants DAO = number of AO defendants AEO = number of EO appellants DEO = number of EO defendants Solving for AEO yields:

AEO =

AAO x (AEO+DEO) (AAO+DAO)

Estimated number of suspects in criminal matters Because of a change in the reporting protocol for information received from the EOUSA effective with fiscal year 1994 data, it was necessary to estimate certain statistics for years 19821993. Prior to 1994, reports of the number of suspects in criminal matters included appellants in Federal criminal appeals. Because full-source agency data prior to 1994 could not be accessed, an estimation procedure was used to estimate the number of appellants within main offense categories and then subtract them from the number of suspects in criminal matters which included appellants. The procedure is described in the following paragraphs.
The objective was to estimate the number of appellants included in reports of the number of suspects in criminal matters. This is denoted below as AEO. Using existing data on appellants derived from alternative sources, such as AOUSC reports, an estimator was developed based on the assumption that the ratio of appellants to

Solving for AEO yields the estimator above. This estimator was used to produce estimates each year between 1982 and 1993 using data from these years. The estimated number of appellants in suspects in criminal matters was subtracted from the reported number to derive the estimated number of suspects in criminal matters. These were used in figure 1. These estimates were done at the level of offense category (violent, property, drugs, and public-order).

Table 1. Suspects arrested This is the number of suspects arrested by Federal law enforcement agencies for violations of Federal law and transferred to the custody of the U.S. Marshals Service for booking and pretrial detention. Not included are suspects arrested by Federal agencies and transferred directly to the custody of a State prosecutor. Table 2. Suspects in matters investigated by U.S. attorneys This is the number of suspects in criminal matters whom U.S. attorneys spent at least one hour investigating. It excludes suspects whose matters were immediately declined or whose matters were received via transfer from another district. An immediate declination is one in which a U.S. attorney declines to prosecute a criminal matter without investigating the matter. Suspects may include persons, corporations, or other legal entities. Matters are limited to criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys or matters in which U.S. attorneys assisted in the investigation. Suspects appearing in more than one matter are counted separately for each matter.

Estimated expected time to be served for offenders entering prison The methodology for estimating expected time to be served to first release for prisoners entering the BOP system from a district court commitment involves grouping prisoners by their fiscal year of entry. Once this grouping has occurred, each prisoner is classified into one of the following categories:
a) a prisoner who has been released in 2002; b) a prisoner still incarcerated at the end of 2002 who was sentenced prior to the passage of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (an "old law" prisoner); c) a prisoner still incarcerated at the end of 2002 who was sentenced after to the passage of the

20

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table 3. Suspects in matters concluded by U.S. attorneys This is the number of suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, regardless of the year in which the criminal matter was opened. A matter is defined as concluded when a U.S. attorney files a case in a U.S. district court before a U.S. district court judge, when a U.S. attorney declines to prosecute the matter, or when a misdemeanor case is concluded before a U.S. magistrate. The table excludes suspects whose matter was declined immediately or whose matter was concluded by transfer. Suspects in matters concluded may include persons, corporations, or other legal entities and are limited to the suspects investigated or prosecuted by U.S. attorneys, or in which U.S. attorneys assisted in the investigation or prosecution. Suspects appearing in more than one matter are counted separately for each matter. Table 4. Defendants in cases commenced This is the number of defendants in cases proceeded in U.S. district court, either before a U.S. district court judge or a U.S. magistrate. Proceedings are initiated on or after the date a case is filed in a U.S. district court. Included in the count are defendants in cases handled by U.S. district court judges plus Class A misdemeanors, whether handled by a U.S. district court judge or a U.S. magistrate. Also included are defendants in cases involving petty offenses (Class B or C misdemeanors) if they were handled by U.S. district court judges. These cases included all cases commenced regardless of the source of prosecution — U.S. attorneys or Department of Justice. Excluded from this count are defendants whose cases were opened by transfer from another district (e.g., a Rule 20 or Rule 40 transfer). Defendants appearing in more than one case are counted separately in each case.

Table 5. Defendants in cases terminated This is the number of defendants whose cases were terminated in U.S. district court. A case is terminated if a defendant is found not guilty, the charges are dismissed, or when a defendant is sentenced, if he or she was convicted. Included in the count are defendants in cases handled by U.S. district court judges plus Class A misdemeanors, whether handled by a U.S. district court judge or a U.S. magistrate. Also included are defendants in cases involving petty offenses (Class B or C misdemeanors) if they were handled by U.S. district court judges. These cases included all cases commenced regardless of the source of prosecution — U.S. attorneys or Department of Justice. Excluded from this count are defendants whose cases were opened by transfer from another district (e.g., a Rule 20 or Rule 40 transfer). Defendants appearing in more than one case are counted separately in each case.
Defendants are classified as convicted if they pleaded guilty, nolo contendere, or if they are found guilty at trial. Defendants convicted by trial included those found guilty by reason of insanity. Defendants not convicted includes defendants whose cases were dismissed and those who were acquitted or found not guilty at trial.

appearing in more than one case are counted separately in each case. The sanctions shown in table 5 include imprisonment only, mixed sentences of prison plus supervision, probation, and fine only. Imprisonment is limited to defendants receiving terms of imprisonment but no probation, including life and death sentences, but excluding suspended sentences or sentences to fewer than 4 days. New law offenders receiving prisoncommunity split sentences (prison and conditions of alternative community confinement) are also included. Mixed sentences include defendants given sentences of both prison and probation (applies to offenders sentenced under "old law" standards only). Probation includes defendants given sentences of probation. Defendants who received probation plus conditions of confinement such as intermittent confinement, home detention, or community confinement are classified under probation. Fine only includes defendants who received only a fine. Other sentences include sealed sentences, prison sentences of 4 days or less, deportations, and cases in which the defendant was convicted but not given a sentence. The statistics on mean and median prison sentences are based on the number given prison exclusive of life and death sentences. For offenders given prison-community split sentences, only the prison sentence length is included in the calculation.

Table 6. Defendants sentenced This is the number of defendants sentenced in U.S. district court. Included are defendants sentenced in cases handled by U.S. district court judges plus Class A misdemeanors, whether handled by a U.S. district court judge or a U.S. magistrate. Also included are defendants sentenced for petty offenses (Class B or C misdemeanors) if they were handled by U.S. district court judges. These cases included all cases commenced regardless of the source of prosecution — U.S. attorneys or Department of Justice. Excluded from this count are defendants whose cases were opened by transfer from another district (e.g., a Rule 20 or Rule 40 transfer). Defendants

Table 7. Criminal appeals filed This table reports the number of criminal appeals filed in the U.S. Court of Appeals. Prior to implementation of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, only criminal convictions could be appealed. However, the Sentencing Reform Act provided for the appellate review of sentences imposed given that the sentence was (1) imposed in violation of the law; (2) imposed as the result of an incorrect sentencing guideline application; (3) outside the recommended guideline sentencing range; or (4) imposed for an offense for which no sentencing guideline exists and is plainly unreasonable. Both

Methodology

21

the defendant and the Government have the right to appeal an imposed sentence (18 U.S.C. § 3742).

Table 8. Offenders under Federal supervision This table reports the number of offenders under active supervision at the close of the fiscal year. It includes offenders under three forms of supervision: probation, supervised release, and parole. Included in parole supervisees are those under two less common types of "old law" (sentenced prior to the implementation of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984), mandatory release and special release. The unit of analysis is a unique person released on supervision. Table 9. Prisoners This table reports the number of sentenced Federal offenders committed into the custody of the BOP, released from this custody, or in Federal prison. "Into the custody of" includes prisoners in BOP facilities, contract facilities, and private facilities. Contract facilities generally house offenders prior to release from prison. Sentenced offenders include felony, misdemeanor, and petty offenders sentenced to prison for Federal offensesregardless of the judge — U.S. district court judge or U.S. magistrate — who sentenced the offender. Table 9 does not include those offenders who were convicted of violations of the District of Columbia criminal code unless they were committed by a Federal district court judge. The unit of analysis is a unique person in Federal prison. The unit of count for prisoner movements is based on admissions and releases into and from Federal prison. A unique person may appear more than once in a column showing admissions and releases if that person was admitted or released from Federal prison more than once during the reporting period.
Included in the counts of district court commitments are offenders sentenced from district courts. This includes some offenders sentenced by U.S. magistrates. Other admissions include offenders committed from

other courts and offenders returning to prison for violations of conditions of supervised release. A first release is defined as a release from a district court commitment. Other releases include releases of offenders who were serving terms for violating conditions of supervised release — offenders who were committed on other than a district court commitment.

22

Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table M.2. Source agencies for data tables in Federal Criminal Case Processing
Data source agency — data files Description of data files contents Table 1 Appendix table A.1 Tables

United States Marshals Service (USMS) Contains information about the arrests made by Federal law enforce— Prisoner Tracking System ment agencies (including the USMS), State agencies, and self-reported arrests. The Prisoner Tracking System contains information on offenders transferred to the custody of the U.S. Marshals Service for processing, transportation, and detention. Executive Office for U.S. Attorneys (EOUSA) — Central System and Central Charge Files Contains information on the investigation and prosecution of suspects in criminal matters received and concluded, criminal cases filed and terminated, and criminal appeals filed and handled by U.S. attorneys. The central system files contain defendant-level records about the processing of matters and cases; the central charge files contain the records of the charges filed and disposed in criminal cases. Data are available on matters and cases filed, pending, and terminated.

Tables 2, 3 Appendix tables A.2, A.3, A.4, A.5, A.6

Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts Contains information about the criminal proceedings against defen(AOUSC) — Criminal Termination Files dants whose cases were filed in U.S. district courts. Includes information on felony defendants, Class A misdemeanants — whether handled by U.S. district court judges or U.S. magistrates — and other misdemeanants provided they were handled by U.S. district court judges. The information in the data files cover criminal proceedings from case filing through disposition and sentencing. Data are available on criminal defendants in cases filed, pending, and terminated.

Tables 4, 5, 6 Appendix tables A.7, A.8, A.9, A.10, A.11, A.13, A.14

AOUSC: Court of Appeals

Contains information on criminal appeals filed and terminated in U.S courts of appeals. Records of appeals filed, pending, or terminated include information on the nature of the criminal appeal, the underlying offense, and the disposition of the appeal. Contains information about supervisions provided by probation officers for persons placed on probation or supervised release from prison. The files contain records of individuals entering, or currently on supervision, as well as records of offenders terminating supervision.

Table 7 Appendix table A.12

AOUSC — Federal Probation Supervision Information System (FPSIS)

Table 8 Appendix table A.15

Bureau of Prisons (BOP): Extract from BOP’s online Sentry System

The data extracts contain information on all offenders committed to or released from prison over a specific period of time plus information about the offenders in prison when the data extracts are made. The information covers the time that offenders enter prison until their release from the jurisdiction of the BOP.

Table 9 Appendix table A.16

Methodology

23

Appendix

Tables
A.1. Arrests for Federal offenses, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.2. Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.3. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.4. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number prosecuted before U.S. district court judge, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.5. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. magistrates, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . A.6. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number declined prosecution, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.7. Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.8. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . A.9. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts: Percent convicted, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.10. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . A.11. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to prison, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.12. Criminal appeals filed, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . A.13. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to probation only, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.14. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Mean number of months of imprisonment imposed, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.15. Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A.16. Population at the end of the year in Federal prisons, by offense, 1994-2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 27 28

28 29

29

30 30

31 31

32 32

33

33 34 34

Appendix

25

Table A.1. Suspects arrested for Federal offenses and booked by USMS, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Supervision violations Material witness Unknown or indeterminable offenses
a

b

1994 81,742 3,918 15,731 12,074 3,657 23,674 11,690 535 11,155 3,917 8,778 12,940 886 208

1995 84,336 3,845 16,436 12,959 3,477 24,174 10,430 702 9,728 3,756 10,601 13,719 1,143 232

1996 85,718 4,462 16,365 12,870 3,495 24,821 9,696 656 9,040 3,148 12,027 13,364 1,617 218
c

1997 91,747 4,736 16,288 12,912 3,376 26,843 9,324 749 8,575 3,235 14,994 13,995 2,169 163

1998 104,636 4,934 16,966 13,363 3,603 30,137 9,355 775 8,580 3,555 20,944 15,206 3,398 141

1999a 109,857 4,276 16,749 13,260 3,489 31,992 9,962 752 9,210 4,284 22,851 15,652 4,016 75

2000a 115,589 4,250 16,842 13,432 3,410 32,630 10,063 621 9,442 5,203 25,205 17,133 4,203 60

2001a 118,896 4,843 16,824 13,397 3,427 33,589 9,156 687 8,469 6,007 24,794 18,978 3,679 1,026

2002a 124,074 4,723 17,268 13,976 3,292 33,730 8,772 524 8,248 7,488 25,270 21,777 3,918 1,128

Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Table A.2. Suspects in criminal matters investigated by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense investigated All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 99,251 5,570 32,579 28,491 4,088 29,311 19,143 5,059 14,084 5,996 5,526 1,126

1995 102,220 5,720 31,759 27,836 3,923 31,686 19,036 5,371 13,665 5,376 7,256 1,387

1996 97,776 6,570 28,962 25,245 3,717 30,227 18,918 5,154 13,764 4,462 7,122 1,515
c

1997 110,034 7,354 29,916 25,854 4,062 34,027 22,857 5,423 17,434 4,870 9,366 1,644

1998 115,692 7,527 30,125 26,328 3,797 36,355 21,244 6,541 14,703 4,907 14,114 1,420

1999a 117,994 5,768 28,011 24,200 3,811 37,313 22,816 6,332 16,484 6,982 15,539 1,565

2000a 123,559 6,036 28,423 24,679 3,744 38,959 24,180 5,737 18,443 8,589 16,495 877

2001a 121,818 6,225 28,608 25,275 3,333 37,944 23,980 5,411 18,569 8,989 15,378 694

2002a 124,335 6,392 27,321 24,019 3,302 38,150 23,472 4,738 18,734 11,200 16,699 1,101

Note: Most serious offense investigated is based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Appendix

27

Table A.3. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense investigated All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 94,980 5,339 31,752 28,038 3,714 27,697 18,313 4,990 13,323 5,992 5,299 588

1995 102,309 5,399 33,888 29,861 4,027 31,261 18,469 5,264 13,205 5,732 6,660 900

1996 98,454 6,107 31,038 27,294 3,744 30,708 17,960 4,843 13,117 4,673 6,929 1,039
c

1997 99,459 6,570 28,633 25,157 3,476 32,072 17,462 4,582 12,880 4,646 8,774 1,302

1998 106,022 6,865 27,461 23,712 3,749 33,991 18,659 5,427 13,232 4,742 13,249 1,055

1999a 113,933 5,631 28,314 24,575 3,739 36,765 20,906 5,698 15,208 5,919 15,201 1,197

2000a 117,450 5,641 27,713 24,186 3,527 37,009 22,375 5,840 16,535 7,753 16,110 849

2001a 118,978 5,845 28,120 24,786 3,334 37,543 22,784 5,484 17,300 8,715 15,350 621

2002a 124,081 6,330 29,083 25,543 3,540 38,424 23,139 4,947 18,192 10,126 16,197 782

Note: Most serious offense investigated is based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Table A.4. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number prosecuted before U.S. district court judge, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense investigated All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 50,802 3,256 14,680 12,683 1,997 19,427 6,585 1,297 5,288 3,821 2,789 244

1995 55,703 3,223 15,918 13,858 2,060 21,445 6,746 1,509 5,237 3,758 4,305 308

1996 56,938 3,784 15,270 13,337 1,933 21,548 7,209 1,396 5,813 2,935 5,830 362

1997 60,383 4,153 14,544 12,663 1,881 24,400 6,309 1,332 4,977 3,192 7,243 542

1998 64,993 4,294 14,353 12,408 1,945 26,266 5,930 1,571 4,359 3,347 10,505 298

1999a 68,384 3,327 14,032 12,319 1,713 28,372 6,476 1,648 4,828 4,149 11,794 234

2000a 73,090 3,403 14,675 12,988 1,687 28,917 7,401 1,862 5,539 5,026 13,414 254

2001a 72,648 3,493 14,733 13,044 1,689 29,583 6,502 1,557 4,945 5,599 12,488 250

2002a 76,314 3,402 15,634 13,919 1,715 29,411 6,816 1,240 5,576 7,105 13,693 253

Note: Most serious offense investigated is based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. Number of suspects includes suspects whose cases were filed in U.S. district court before a district court judge. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined.

See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

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Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table A.5. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. magistrates, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense investigated All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 9,754 264 1,781 1,536 245 1,821 3,432 198 3,234 189 2,217 50

1995 10,710 295 2,043 1,743 300 2,456 3,514 224 3,290 190 1,989 223

1996 8,684 295 1,771 1,511 260 2,262 3,216 275 2,941 137 775 228

1997 10,007 352 1,919 1,635 284 1,903 4,167 266 3,901 153 1,229 284

1998 12,243 305 2,171 1,651 520 1,561 5,205 386 4,819 116 2,374 511

1999a 14,545 308 2,321 1,678 643 2,132 6,074 445 5,629 110 2,935 665

2000a 13,916 329 1,978 1,368 610 1,966 6,915 637 6,278 161 2,199 368

2001a 14,080 306 1,667 1,185 482 1,736 7,653 560 7,093 178 2,339 201

2002a 14,093 351 1,771 1,194 577 1,937 7,624 618 7,006 173 1,959 278

Note: Most serious offense investigated is based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. Number of suspects includes defendants in misdemeanor cases which were terminated in U.S. district court before a U.S. magistrate. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined.

See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Table A.6. Suspects in criminal matters concluded by U.S. attorneys: Number declined prosecution, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense investigated All offenses Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 34,424 1,819 15,291 13,819 1,472 6,449 8,296 3,495 4,801 1,982 293 294

1995 35,896 1,881 15,927 14,260 1,667 7,360 8,209 3,531 4,678 1,784 366 369

1996 32,832 2,028 13,997 12,446 1,551 6,898 7,535 3,172 4,363 1,601 324 449

1997 29,069 2,065 12,170 10,859 1,311 5,769 6,986 2,984 4,002 1,301 302 476

1998 28,786 2,266 10,937 9,653 1,284 6,164 7,524 3,470 4,054 1,279 370 246

1999a 31,004 1,996 11,961 10,578 1,383 6,261 8,356 3,605 4,751 1,660 472 298

2000a 30,444 1,909 11,060 9,830 1,230 6,126 8,059 3,341 4,718 2,566 497 227

2001a 32,250 2,046 11,720 10,557 1,163 6,224 8,629 3,367 5,262 2,938 523 170

2002a 33,674 2,577 11,678 10,430 1,248 7,076 8,699 3,089 5,610 2,848 545 251

Note: Most serious offense investigated is based on the decision of the assistant U.S. attorney responsible for the matter. Number of suspects includes suspects whose matters were declined for prosecution by U.S. attorneys upon review. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes suspects whose offense category could not be determined. offense category.

See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

Appendix

29

Table A.7. Defendants in cases proceeded against in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense All offenses Felonies Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanorsc Unknown or indeterminable offenses
b

1994 62,327 47,341 3,222 13,155 10,301 2,854 20,275 20,052 223 4,679 1,256 3,423 3,557 2,453 14,980 6

1995 63,547 50,483 2,838 13,837 10,909 2,928 20,983 20,191 792 4,747 1,265 3,482 4,212 3,866 13,036 28

1996 65,480 52,656 3,457 14,130 11,525 2,605 21,677 20,522 1,155 4,351 1,123 3,228 3,651 5,390 12,774 50

1997 69,351 57,022 3,603 13,890 11,371 2,519 24,693 23,403 1,290 4,273 1,117 3,156 3,837 6,726 12,267 62

1998 78,172 64,769 3,763 14,955 12,401 2,554 28,021 26,318 1,703 4,489 1,359 3,130 4,287 9,254 13,254 149

1999a 80,031 67,442 2,976 14,779 12,028 2,751 29,306 27,296 2,010 4,907 1,245 3,662 4,924 10,550 12,474 115

2000a 83,251 71,072 3,135 15,237 12,659 2,578 29,455 27,734 1,721 5,136 1,264 3,872 6,073 12,036 12,104 75

2001a 82,614 70,837 3,178 14,764 12,293 2,471 30,301 28,315 1,986 4,595 1,218 3,377 6,495 11,504 11,703 74

2002a 87,727 76,163 3,308 16,126 13,511 2,615 30,673 28,406 2,267 4,851 1,021 3,830 8,104 13,101 11,493 71

Note: Most serious offense charged is based on the offense carrying the most severe statutory maximum penalty. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes defendants whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Table A.8. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense charged All offensesb Felonies Violent offenses
c

1994 61,404 47,292 3,227 13,182 10,193 2,989 20,219 20,056 163 4,620 1,383 3,237 3,673 2,371 14,111 1

1995 56,480 44,462 2,864 12,426 9,817 2,609 18,189 17,823 366 4,098 1,181 2,917 3,674 3,211 11,989 29

1996 61,434 49,283 3,091 12,816 10,260 2,556 20,305 19,486 819 4,117 1,151 2,966 3,843 5,111 12,115 36
c

1997 64,956 53,097 3,241 13,725 11,152 2,573 22,374 21,379 995 4,107 1,069 3,038 3,485 6,165 11,795 64

1998 69,769 57,054 3,470 13,493 10,965 2,528 24,317 22,952 1,365 4,010 1,104 2,906 3,901 7,863 12,611 104

1999a 75,723 62,839 3,093 14,055 11,587 2,468 27,008 25,334 1,674 4,837 1,306 3,531 4,087 9,759 12,793 91

2000a 76,952 65,656 2,964 14,080 11,590 2,490 27,274 25,579 1,695 4,690 1,229 3,461 5,049 11,599 11,214 82

2001a 77,145 66,112 2,977 13,950 11,563 2,387 28,227 26,501 1,726 4,402 1,166 3,236 5,814 10,742 10,952 81

2002a 80,424 70,225 2,927 14,767 12,324 2,443 29,300 27,254 2,046 4,645 1,129 3,516 6,556 12,030 10,131 68

Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanorsc Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Note: Most serious offense charged is based on the offense carrying the most severe statutory maximum penalty. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes defendants whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

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Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002

Table A.9. Defendants in cases terminating in U.S. district courts: Percent convicted, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense charged All offenses Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
c c b

1994 82.6% 86.2 87.9 87.3 87.7 85.9 85.9 86.0 78.5 81.0 81.3 80.8 85.2 92.2 70.4

1995 84.2% 86.6 88.7 87.5 88.0 85.6 85.6 85.5 88.3 83.3 79.8 84.7 84.8 93.6 75.2

1996 86.4% 89.0 88.1 89.5 89.6 89.5 88.3 88.3 88.2 84.5 82.5 85.2 87.5 96.1 75.6
c

1997 87.1% 89.8 89.9 89.7 89.8 89.3 89.3 89.3 89.0 85.9 85.7 85.9 87.6 95.9 74.8

1998 87.4% 90.1 90.3 90.0 90.0 90.1 89.5 89.4 91.3 87.2 84.9 88.1 87.5 94.7 75.2

1999a 87.2% 90.5 89.9 90.4 90.6 89.9 89.9 89.8 91.2 86.2 83.7 87.1 88.6 95.4 71.2

2000a 88.6% 91.5 90.3 91.0 91.0 90.9 91.2 91.3 90.7 87.3 86.6 87.6 88.4 95.9 71.6

2001a 88.8% 91.5 90.3 90.6 90.8 89.7 91.6 91.5 92.8 87.1 84.8 88.0 90.0 95.1 73.0

2002a 89.3% 91.9 92.1 90.8 90.9 90.1 92.4 92.4 92.4 87.7 87.3 87.8 89.0 95.3 71.0

Note: Most serious offense charged is based on the offense carrying the most severe statutory maximum penalty. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes defendants whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Table A.10. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Felonies Violent offensesc Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanorsc Unknown or indeterminable offenses 1994 50,701 39,624 2,704 11,113 8,671 2,442 16,400 16,197 203 4,023 1,309 2,714 3,232 2,152 11,072 5 1995 47,556 37,713 2,423 10,569 8,484 2,085 14,778 14,322 456 3,836 1,177 2,659 3,062 3,045 9,818 25 1996 53,076 42,992 2,660 11,125 9,055 2,070 17,365 16,485 880 3,880 1,169 2,711 3,033 4,929 10,054 30
c

1997 56,570 46,878 2,876 12,010 9,919 2,091 19,115 18,057 1,058 3,962 1,211 2,751 2,871 6,044 9,636 56

1998 60,958 50,494 3,078 11,862 9,752 2,110 20,867 19,417 1,450 3,958 1,187 2,771 3,160 7,569 10,375 89

1999a 66,055 55,864 2,715 12,232 10,203 2,029 23,476 21,698 1,778 4,661 1,410 3,251 3,423 9,357 10,118 73

2000a 68,156 59,123 2,557 12,454 10,396 2,058 24,206 22,275 1,931 4,585 1,376 3,209 4,196 11,125 8,961 72

2001a 68,533 59,363 2,604 12,349 10,359 1,990 25,088 23,248 1,840 4,347 1,410 2,937 4,925 10,050 9,100 70

2002a 71,798 63,238 2,578 13,101 11,107 1,994 26,234 24,174 2,060 4,630 1,403 3,227 5,563 11,132 8,499 61

Note: Most serious offense is based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes offenders whose offense category could not be determined or whose sentence was unknown. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Appendix

31

Table A.11. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to prison, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
c c

1994 33,022 31,070 2,518 6,411 4,868 1,543 14,973 14,841 132 2,410 644 1,766 2,901 1,857 1,948 4

1995 31,805 29,759 2,209 6,215 4,928 1,287 13,502 13,133 369 2,279 572 1,707 2,803 2,751 2,039 7

1996 36,373 34,345 2,419 6,559 5,322 1,237 15,984 15,248 736 2,427 540 1,887 2,773 4,183 2,020 8

1997 39,431 37,747 2,619 7,110 5,871 1,239 17,637 16,718 919 2,456 603 1,853 2,663 5,262 1,679 5

1998 43,041 41,420 2,808 7,114 5,860 1,254 19,280 18,013 1,267 2,424 506 1,918 2,914 6,880 1,590 31

1999a 47,659 46,070 2,489 7,204 6,067 1,137 21,694 20,117 1,577 3,065 627 2,438 3,191 8,427 1,556 33

2000a 50,451 49,070 2,360 7,462 6,272 1,190 22,352 20,633 1,719 2,989 647 2,342 3,834 10,073 1,356 25

2001a 51,057 49,509 2,399 7,744 6,537 1,207 23,074 21,422 1,652 2,686 597 2,089 4,541 9,065 1,515 33

2002a 53,682 52,246 2,408 7,746 6,654 1,092 23,951 22,107 1,844 3,053 641 2,412 5,134 9,954 1,408 28

Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Note: Most serious offense of conviction is based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. Number of offenders includes offenders given life and death sentences, and includes new law offenders given prison-community split sentences (prison and conditions of alternative community confinement). Number of offenders also includes offenders given mixed sentences of prison plus probation, applicable only to offenders sentenced pursuant to laws applicable prior to the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes offenders whose offense category could not be determined

or whose sentence was unknown. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Table A.12. Criminal appeals filed, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses
c

1994 10,674 856 1,949 1,410 539 5,102 1,037 288 749 1,141 261 328

1995 10,162 700 1,767 1,323 444 4,499 886 220 666 1,034 277 999

1996 10,889 685 2,093 1,581 512 5,099 985 196 789 1,183 353 491

1997 10,521 739 1,972 1,519 453 4,750 1,050 224 826 1,135 417 458
c

1998 10,535 742 1,947 1,439 508 4,845 878 178 700 982 693 448

1999a 10,251 559 1,739 1,338 401 4,513 954 162 792 1,070 934 482

2000a 9,162 490 1,482 1,164 318 3,843 827 150 677 872 1,179 469

2001a 11,281 591 1,681 1,299 382 4,529 1,024 144 880 1,266 1,654 536

2002a 11,569 606 1,726 1,389 337 4,689 876 128 642 1,386 1,679 607

Note: Appeals were classified into the offense category that represents the offense of conviction. Offenses represent the statutory offense charged against a defendant in a criminal appeal. aStarting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” bIncludes offenders whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

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Table A.13. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Number sentenced to probation only, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
c c

1994 12,781 7,677 164 4,327 3,477 850 1,204 1,139 65 1,469 575 894 296 217 5,103 1

1995 11,602 7,030 198 3,987 3,217 770 992 926 66 1,428 531 897 221 204 4,556 16

1996 11,789 7,138 209 4,035 3,238 797 1,011 888 123 1,278 542 736 229 376 4,631 20
c

1997 12,046 7,387 223 4,275 3,475 800 1,054 940 114 1,343 522 821 182 310 4,612 47

1998 12,108 7,208 235 4,044 3,249 795 1,092 952 140 860 582 278 208 769 4,844 56

1999a 12,408 7,491 182 4,171 3,340 831 1,134 981 153 1,405 665 740 190 409 4,879 38

2000a 11,937 7,477 149 4,166 3,372 794 1,130 971 159 1,373 619 754 297 362 4,416 44

2001a 11,473 7,386 160 3,805 3,102 703 1,249 1,105 144 1,481 712 769 326 365 4,051 36

2002a 11,774 7,818 118 4,349 3,542 807 1,345 1,175 170 1,343 630 713 340 323 3,925 31

Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Note: Most serious offense of conviction is based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. Number of offenders includes offenders given probation plus conditions of confinement, such as home confinement or intermittent confinement. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes offenders whose offense category could not be determined or whose sentence was unknown. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category.

In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Table A.14. Offenders convicted and sentenced in U.S. district courts: Mean number of months of imprisonment imposed, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Felonies Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentc Otherc Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanors
c c

1994 62.6 mo 65.6 92.3 26.4 20.0 46.2 83.9 84.2 45.6 36.3 32.2 37.9 83.2 22.9 12.3

1995 63.3 mo 66.8 98.5 27.3 21.9 47.5 87.1 87.7 66.4 36.7 27.8 39.7 95.0 24.0 9.8

1996 61.7 mo 64.6 92.7 24.1 21.1 37.0 84.8 85.1 77.1 43.2 26.7 48.0 100.3 22.9 11.1

1997 59.3 mo 61.5 86.1 24.4 22.1 35.2 81.1 81.3 77.7 41.8 26.5 46.8 102.1 23.0 10.1

1998 58.9 mo 60.6 84.4 25.6 22.4 40.4 78.7 78.3 84.3 43.3 27.8 47.4 101.3 26.4 11.6

1999a 58.1 mo 59.6 88.1 24.1 22.4 33.0 75.4 74.8 83.4 47.0 26.3 52.4 99.5 30.7 10.8

2000a 56.8 mo 58.0 86.6 24.3 22.5 33.4 75.6 75.2 81.1 42.5 28.0 46.5 92.2 29.5 10.3

2001a 56.7 mo 58.0 90.7 24.2 22.3 34.9 73.9 73.6 78.9 39.4 23.6 43.9 87.3 29.2 10.0

2002a 57.1 mo 58.4 88.6 25.1 23.5 34.8 76.0 75.7 79.6 38.4 25.9 41.8 83.8 27.9 9.6

Note: Most serious offense of conviction is based on the disposition offense with the most severe sentence. Calculations exclude offenders given life or death sentences, and old law offenders given mixed sentences of prison plus probation. For new law offenders given prison-community split sentences, only the prison portion of the sentence is included in calculations. a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes offenders whose offense category could not be determined or whose sentence was unknown. See Methodology for a listing of detailed

offense categories within each major offense category. c In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Appendix

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Table A.15. Offenders under Federal supervision, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious offense of conviction All offensesb Felonies
c d

1994 87,689 74,597 4,873 28,525 22,609 5,916 28,238 26,841 1,397 7,884 2,275 5,609 3,924 1,083 13,092

1995 85,662 74,260 4,753 27,512 21,989 5,523 29,343 26,865 2,478 7,844 2,192 5,652 3,731 959 11,402

1996 88,189 76,851 5,036 27,208 22,034 5,174 31,859 28,517 3,342 7,578 2,104 5,474 3,832 1,180 11,338

1997 90,751 79,804 5,270 27,585 22,621 4,964 33,743 29,942 3,801 7,629 2,187 5,442 3,908 1,405 10,947

1998 92,813 81,828 5,577 27,519 22,678 4,841 35,402 31,416 3,986 7,756 2,196 5,560 4,038 1,272 10,985

1999a 96,502 85,759 5,439 28,262 23,381 4,881 37,929 33,774 4,155 8,383 2,331 6,052 4,123 1,334 10,743

2000a 99,500 89,048 5,807 28,771 23,904 4,867 39,700 35,437 4,263 8,499 2,417 6,082 4,522 1,537 10,452

2001a 103,348 93,113 6,163 28,851 23,947 4,904 42,333 38,001 4,332 8,773 2,604 6,169 4,977 1,807 10,235

2002a 107,367 97,518 6,281 29,268 24,439 4,829 44,980 40,414 4,566 9,039 2,570 12,938 5,662 2,095 9,849

Violent offenses Property offenses Fraudulentd Otherd Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Misdemeanorsd

Note: Most serious offense of conviction is based on the offense with the longest sentence imposed. Number of offenders includes offenders under active supervision at the close of the fiscal year. This population includes offenders under the three major forms of supervision: probation, supervised release, and parole. Included under parole are two less common types of old law release: mandatory release and special parole. Excluded from the number of offenders under active supervision reported in the table are offenders released to military parole and offenders under community supervision prior to sentencing (such as during pretrial release or pretrial investigation). a Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” b Includes offenders whose offense category could not be determined.

See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. c Includes offenders whose felony offense category could not be determined. A felony offense category could not be determined for 70 offenders during 1994, 118 during 1995, 158 during 1996, 264 during 1997, 264 during 1998, 289 during 1999, 212 during 2000, 208 during 2001, and 193 during 2002. d In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing; and "Misdemeanors" include misdemeanors, petty offenses, and unknown offense levels.

Table A.16. Population at the end of the year in Federal prisons, by offense, 1994-2002
Most serious original offense of conviction All offenses
d

1994 84,362 11,179 7,888 5,725 2,163 50,579 50,197 382 4,516 878 3,638 6,774 2,486 940

1995 88,658 11,409 7,842 5,823 2,019 52,782 52,401 381 4,789 894 3,895 7,446 3,420 970

1996 92,672 11,523 7,781 5,807 1,974 55,194 54,870 324 5,055 919 4,136 7,696 4,476 947

1997 98,944 11,658 8,151 6,148 2,003 58,610 58,201 409 5,661 1,013 4,648 8,082 5,454 1,328

1998a 108,925 12,656 8,627 6,465 2,162 63,011 62,564 447 6,101 1,059 5,042 8,742 7,430 2,358

1999b 119,185 13,355 8,682 6,553 2,129 68,360 67,835 525 6,806 1,048 5,758 9,494 10,156 2,332

2000b, c 129,329 12,973 9,849 7,497 2,352 73,389 72,775 614 7,527 1,205 6,322 10,652 13,676 1,263

2001b,c 136,395 13,385 9,988 7,605 2,383 77,210 76,695 515 7,609 1,148 6,461 12,150 15,012 1,041

2002b,c 143,031 13,549 10,100 7,798 2,302 81,052 80,596 456 7,951 1,217 6,734 13,725 15,571 1,083

Violent offensese Property offenses Fraudulente Othere Drug offenses Trafficking Possession and other Public-order offenses Regulatory Other Weapon offenses Immigration offenses Unknown or indeterminable offenses

Note: Most serious offense is based on the offense having the longest sentence. a The yearend population for 1998 was adjusted to reflect an additional 1,013 prisoners reported in the Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 1998. b Starting in 1999, nonviolent sex offenses were reclassified from “Violent offenses” to “Public-order offenses.” c Starting in 2000, the universe for this table includes offenders in BOP custody and offenders in contract and private facilities, but not those committed for violations of the District of Columbia criminal code. See

Methodology for more information. d Includes prisoners whose offense category could not be determined. See Methodology for a listing of detailed offense categories within each major offense category. e In this table, “Violent offenses” may include nonnegligent manslaughter; “Fraudulent property” excludes tax fraud; and “Other nonfraudulent property” excludes fraudulent property and includes destruction of property and trespassing.

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