U.S.

Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Bureau of Justice Statistics

State Court Organization 1998
Victim-offender relationship in violent crimes (rape/sexual assault, robbery, and assault) by sex of victim

Courts and judges Judicial selection and service Judicial branch Appellate courts Trial courts The jury The sentencing context Court structure

PART II: Judicial selection and service

How judges are selected and their terms of service on the bench differ sharply between the federal and state courts, and the differences among states are often nearly as significant. All federal judges are nominated by the President and serve “during good behavior” once confirmed by the U.S. Senate unless they resign or are impeached and convicted by the U.S. Congress. State court judges are likely to face an election as a part of their selection process and to serve fixed terms, which for COLR justices range between six and 14 years (15 years in the District of Columbia). Only Rhode Island offers appellate judges lifetime appointments, while the judges of the New Hampshire and Massachusetts Supreme Courts serve until age 70. Judicial selection occurs for three purposes in the state courts: to fill an unexpired term upon the retirement, resignation, or death of an incumbent judge; to select for a full term (often referred to as the initial selection); and at the end of a term. Table 4 describes the various ways in which appellate justices and judges are selected, while Table 7 describes procedures for selecting trial court judges. The resulting national picture can be summarized by reference to the nature of the selection 1 process for general jurisdiction judges shown below. Initial Term Appointment: 648 (52.1%) Partisan Election: 421 (33.9%) Non-partisan Election: 174 (14.0%) Subsequent Terms Appointment: 199 (16.4%) Partisan Election: 326 (26.7%) Non-partisan Election: 174 (14.3%) Retention Elections Only: 518 (42.6%)

All appellate courts and most trial courts have a chief judge. Table 4 explains how chief justices and chief judges of COLRs and IACs are selected in each state. The length of their term in office and whether they can succeed themselves can be found in Table 5. How trial court chief judges (sometimes styled presiding judges) are selected is also detailed in Table 5. The judges in a district or circuit typically select one of their peers to serve as the chief judge for a fixed number of years, but the appointment may be made at the state level by the governor, Chief Justice of the COLR, or the COLR collectively. In some instances a specific individual is elected or appointed as the chief judge and holds that title throughout his or her tenure. In other trial courts, seniority establishes who is the chief judge. Qualifications for service as a judge are stated in the constitutions and statutes of the various states. Tables 6 and 8 indicate the qualifications in terms of residency, age, and legal credentials that are mandated for appellate and trial court judgeships, respectively. In addition to specifying the legal credentials, if any, necessary to qualify for judicial selection, many states require judges to participate in some form of legal education beyond the Continuing Legal Education expected of all members of the state bar. Mandatory judicial education is accomplished through a wide range of judicial branch and private entities and is paid for by a variety of funding sources (Table 10). Eighteen states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Navajo Nation make formal provisions for an ongoing evaluation of judicial performance. States with retention elections for judges are the most likely to evaluate performance, but states with nonpartisan elections do so as well (Michigan, Minnesota, and Tennessee), as do many with a system of judicial appointments (Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont). Table 11 indicates for these and other states with performance evaluation structures the implementing authority, the body responsible for operating the program, the evaluation procedures, the evaluating committee duties, and evaluation committee membership. Formal judicial discipline is accomplished through regional judicial councils in the federal system (under The Judicial Councils Reform and Judicial Conduct and Disability Act of 1980). The Councils investigate complaints of any “conduct prejudicial to the effective and expeditious administration of the business of the courts.” However, the Councils’ disciplinary powers stop short of removal from office. Removal is the sole

One marker for examining the diverse selection methods adopted by the states is the “Missouri Plan.” In 1940 the State of Missouri amended its constitution to establish a statewide nominating committee for appellate judgeships and circuit-level commissions for general jurisdiction trial court judgeships. A judge, representatives of the state bar association, and nonlawyers appointed by the governor make up the commissions. The governor must appoint one of a commission’s three nominees to fill a vacancy. The new appointee then faces a retention election in one year’s time, running against his or her own record, and then further retention elections at 12year intervals. Thirty-nine states use some form of judicial nominating commission in judicial selection, which became popular in the 1970s (Table 9), although only 16 combine such a commission with retention elections on the Missouri model.
American Bar Association, Report and Recommendations of the Task Force on Lawyers' Political Contributions: Part Two. Washington, DC: ABA, 1998.
1

Judicial selection and service 19

prerogative of the U.S. Congress. A Council can certify a finding that impeachment is warranted to the U.S. House of Representatives. Judicial conduct organizations are the main arbiters of what constitutes judicial misconduct and disability in the states. Conduct organizations investigate complaints against members of the judiciary, and typically include a mix of judges, lawyers, and ordinary citizens. The adjudicatory function is usually exercised by the COLR, although sometimes the original conduct organization both investigates and adjudicates complaints. In such instances there is a right of appeal to the state’s COLR. The name and composition of the states' conduct organizations are shown in Table 12. The table also indicates which court or other entity adjudicates complaints, hears appeals, has final disciplinary authority, and at what point reprimands are made public. Select Bibliography: American Bar Association, Report and Recommendations of the Task Force on Lawyers’ Political Contributions: Part Two. Washington, DC: ABA, 1998. Philip J. Dubois, From Ballot to Bench: Judicial Elections and the Quest for Accountability. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1980. Doris Marie Provine, Judging Credentials: Nonlawyer Judges and the Politics of Professionalism, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Judith Rosenbaum, Practices and Procedures of State Judicial Conduct Organizations, Chicago: American Judicature Society, 1990. Lyle Warrick, Judicial Selection in the United States: A Compendium of Provisions, Second Edition, Chicago: American Judicature Society, 1993. Mary Volcansek, Judicial Impeachment: None Called for Justice, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993 [offers a general historical account, but focuses on federal impeachment proceedings during the 1980s and its relationship to judicial discipline in the federal court system]. Table 11: Susan Keilitz and Judith White McBride, “Revised Chart for ‘Judicial Performance Evaluation Comes of Age,’ ” State Court Journal Vol. 16, No. 3, Summer, 1992. [Supporting text can be found in the State Court Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, Winter, 1992.

20 State Court Organization, 1998

Table 4. Selection of Appellate Court Judges
Method of selection for unexpired term Alabama Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals, Gubernatorial appointment Court of Civil Appeals Alaska Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Same as full term Method of selection for full term Partisan election Geographic basis for selection Statewide

Method of retention Partisan election

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Partisan election

Retention election

1

Statewide

Arizona Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment

Retention election

Statewide (Supreme Court) County/region within division (Court of Appeals) Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Court of Appeals) Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Courts of Appeal) Statewide

Arkansas Supreme Court, Court of Appeals California Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Colorado Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Partisan election

Gubernatorial appointment

Unopposed retention election

Unopposed retention election Retention election

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Legislative appointment
2

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Legislative appointment
2

Connecticut Supreme Court, Appellate Court Delaware Supreme Court

Legislative appointment

2

Statewide Statewide

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate

District of Columbia Court of Appeals

Presidential appointment from Presidential appointment from Judicial nominating judicial nominating commission judicial nominating commission commission or Presidential appointment with senate confirmation with senate confirmation with senate confirmation Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Retention election

District of Columbia

Florida Supreme Court, District Courts of Appeal

Regional (5) Statewide (2) Regional based on District Courts of Appeal (Supreme Court) District (District Courts of Appeal) Statewide

Georgia Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate for a full term Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Nonpartisan election

Nonpartisan election

Hawaii Supreme Court, Intermediate Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Nonpartisan election

Judicial nomination Statewide commission reappoints

Idaho Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Nonpartisan election

Statewide

Judicial selection and service 21

Table 4. Selection of Appellate Court Judges

Method of selection for unexpired term Illinois Supreme Court, Appellate Court Court selection (Supreme Court) COLR selection (Appellate Court) Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Method of selection for full term Partisan election

Method of retention Retention election

Geographic basis for selection District

Indiana Supreme Court, Tax Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Retention election

Statewide (Supreme Court, Tax Court) District (Court of Appeals) Statewide

Iowa Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Nonpartisan election Supreme Court selection
3

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Nonpartisan election Nonpartisan election Gubernatorial appointment

Retention election

Kansas Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Retention election

Statewide

Kentucky Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Louisiana Supreme Courts, Court of Appeals Maine Supreme Judicial Court

Nonpartisan election Nonpartisan election Gubernatorial reappointment Retention election

District District Statewide

Gubernatorial appointment

Maryland Court of Appeals, Court of Special Appeals Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, Appeals Court
4

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with approval by 5 Governor’s council Nonpartisan election

Circuit

6

Statewide

Michigan Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment

Nonpartisan election

Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Court of Appeals) Statewide District Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Court of Appeals) Statewide

Minnesota Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Mississippi Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Missouri Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Nonpartisan election Nonpartisan election Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Nonpartisan election Nonpartisan election Retention election

Montana Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Nonpartisan election

Nonpartisan election (if unopposed, retention election)

22 State Court Organization, 1998

Table 4. Selection of Appellate Court Judges
Method of selection for unexpired term Nebraska Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Method of selection for full term Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Geographic basis for selection Statewide: chief justices; district: associate justices (Supreme Court) All by district (Court of Appeals) Statewide

Method of retention Retention election

Nevada Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Same as full term

Nonpartisan election

Nonpartisan election

New Hampshire Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment with Gubernatorial reappointment approval of elected executive council Gubernatorial appointment with consent of senate (Supreme Court) Chief Justice designation of Superior court judge (Superior Court, Appellate Division) Gubernatorial reappointment with consent of senate (Supreme Court) Annual assignment by the Chief Justice (Superior Court, 7 Appellate Division) Nonpartisan retention election Gubernatorial reappointment with consent of senate Gubernatorial reappointment Partisan election Nonpartisan election

Statewide

New Jersey Supreme Court, Superior Court-Appellate Division

Gubernatorial appointment

Statewide

New Mexico Supreme Court, Court of Appeals New York Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment

8

Partisan election

Statewide

Supreme Court, Appellate Divisions North Carolina Supreme Court, Court of Appeals North Dakota Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment

Statewide
9

Statewide

Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating 10 commission or elections Gubernatorial appointment

Partisan election Nonpartisan election

Statewide Statewide

Ohio Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Nonpartisan election

Nonpartisan election

Statewide (Supreme Court) Appellate District (Court of Appeals) District

Oklahoma Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals, Gubernatorial appointment Court of Civil Appeals from judicial nominating commission Oregon Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Pennsylvania Supreme Court, Superior Court, Commonwealth Court Rhode Island Supreme Court Gubernatorial appointment

Retention election

See full term

Nonpartisan election

Nonpartisan election Retention election

Statewide Statewide

Gubernatorial appointment with Partisan election consent of senate Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Life tenure

Life tenure

Statewide

Judicial selection and service 23

Table 4. Selection of Appellate Court Judges

Method of selection for unexpired term South Carolina Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Legislative election

Method of selection for full term Legislative election

Method of retention Legislative election (Supreme Court) Legislative reelection (Court of Appeals) Retention election

Geographic basis for selection Statewide

South Dakota Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

Retention election

Initial District RetentionStatewide

Tennessee Supreme Court, Court Appeals, Court of Criminal Appeals

Retention election

Nonpartisan election

Statewide

Texas Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals, Gubernatorial appointment Court of Appeals

Partisan election

Partisan election

Statewide (Supreme Court, Court of Criminal Appeals) District (Courts of Appeals) Statewide

Utah Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Legislative appointment Gubernatorial appointment

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Legislative appointment Nonpartisan election

Retention election

Vermont Supreme Court

Legislative election

Statewide

Virginia Supreme Court, Court of Appeals Washington Supreme Court, Courts of Appeals

Legislative appointment Nonpartisan election

Statewide Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Courts of Appeals) District Statewide (Supreme Court) District (Court of Appeals)

West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals Wisconsin Supreme Court, Court of Appeals

Gubernatorial appointment

11

Partisan election Nonpartisan election

Partisan election Nonpartisan election

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Nominated and appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate

Wyoming Supreme Court

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission Nominated and appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate

Retention election

Statewide

Federal U.S. Supreme Court, U.S. Courts of Appeals

United States (U.S. Supreme Court) Circuit (U.S. Courts of Appeals)

24 State Court Organization, 1998

Table 4. Selection of Appellate Court Judges
FOOTNOTES:
Alaska: 1 Judge must run for retention election at the next general election, immediately following the third year from the time of initial appointment.
2

Connecticut: Governor nominates from candidates submitted by the Judicial Selection Commission. Louisiana: Person selected by the supreme court is prohibited for running for that judgeship; election held within one year to serve remainder of term.

3

Massachusetts: There are no unexpired judicial terms. A judicial term expires upon the death, resignation, retirement or removal of an incumbent. 5 The governor’s council is made up of nine people elected by geographical area and presided over by the lieutenant governor. 6 There is no retention process. Judges serve during good behavior to age 70.
4 7

New Jersey: All superior court judges, including appellate division judges, are subject to gubernatorial reappointment and consent by the senate after an initial 7-year term. New Mexico: The governor shall select a candidate from a list submitted by the appellate judges’ nominating commission created by the constitution. New York: Presiding justice of each appellate division must be a resident of the department. North Dakota: The governor may appoint from a list of names or call a special election at his discretion. West Virginia: Appointment effective only until the next election year; appointee must run for election to any remaining portion of the unexpired term.

8

9

10

11

Judicial selection and service 25

Table 5. Terms of Appellate Court Judges
Term of office for chief justice/judge 6 years Indefinite Indefinite 3 years 2 years Chief justices/judges—can they succeed themselves? Yes Yes Yes No Yes

Length of term Alabama Supreme Court Court of Criminal Appeals Court of Civil Appeals Alaska Supreme Court Court of Appeals Arizona Supreme Court Court of Appeals Arkansas Supreme Court Court of Appeals California Supreme Court Courts of Appeal Colorado Supreme Court Court of Appeals Connecticut Supreme Court Appellate Court Delaware Supreme Court District of Columbia Court of Appeals Florida Supreme Court District Courts of Appeal Georgia Supreme Court Court of Appeals Hawaii Supreme Court 6 years 6 years 6 years 10 years 8 years

Selection of chief justice/judge Popular election Court selection Seniority Court selection Supreme court, chief justice appointment Court selection Court selection Popular election Supreme court, chief justice appoints Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment Court selection Supreme court, chief justice appoints Legislative appointment Supreme court’s chief justice appoints Gubernatorial appointment Judicial nominating commission appointment Court selection Court selection Court selection Rotate by seniority
1

6 years 6 years 8 years 8 years

5 years 1 year 8 years 4 years

Yes Yes Yes Yes

12 years 12 years 10 years 8 years

12 years 12 years Indefinite At pleasure

Yes Yes Yes Yes

8 years 8 years

8 years Indefinite

Yes Yes

12 years 15 years

12 years 4 years

Yes Yes

6 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 10 years

2 years 2 years 4 years 2 years

Yes Yes No Yes Yes

Intermediate Court of Appeals Idaho Supreme Court Court of Appeals Illinois Supreme Court Appellate Court

10 years

10 years Judicial Selection Commission nominates, governor appoints with consent of senate 10 years Judicial Selection Commission nominates, governor appoints with consent of senate Court selection Supreme court, Chief Justice appointment Court selection Court selection 4 years 2 years

Yes

6 years 6 years

Yes Yes

10 years 10 years

3 years 1 year

Yes Yes

26 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S =None stated

Table 5. Terms of Appellate Courts Judges
Term of office for chief justice/judge 5 years 3 years ~ Chief justices/judges—can they succeed themselves? Yes Yes ~

Length of term Indiana Supreme Court Court of Appeals Tax Court Iowa Supreme Court Court of Appeals Kansas Supreme Court Court of Appeals Kentucky Supreme Court Court of Appeals Louisiana Supreme Court Courts of Appeal Maine Supreme Judicial Court Maryland Court of Appeals Court of Special Appeals Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Appeals Court Michigan Supreme Court Court of Appeals Minnesota Supreme Court Court of Appeals Mississippi Supreme Court Court of Appeals Missouri Supreme Court Court of Appeals Montana Supreme Court Nebraska Supreme Court Initial=2 yrs Retention=10 yrs Initial=2 yrs Retention=10 yrs Initial=2 yrs Retention=10 yrs 8 years 6 years 6 years 4 years 8 years 8 years 10 years 10 years 7 years 10 years 10 years Until age 70 Until age 70 8 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 8 years 8 years

Selection of chief justice/judge Judicial nominating commission appointment Chief judge by full court selection ~

Court selection Court selection Rotation by seniority Supreme court appointment Court selection Court selection Seniority Seniority Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment Gubernatorial appointment
2 2

8 years or duration of term 2 years Indefinite Indefinite 4 years 4 years Duration of service Duration of service 7 years Indefinite Indefinite To age 70 To age 70 2 years 2 years 6 years 3 years Duration of service 4 years

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ~ ~ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Court selection Appointed by supreme court Popular election Gubernatorial appointment Seniority Appointment by Supreme Court Chief Justice Court selection Court selection Popular election Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission

12 years 12 years 8 years More than 3 years for first election; every 6 years thereafter More than 3 years for first election; every 6 years thereafter

2 years 4 2 years 8 years Duration of service

Yes Yes

3

Yes Yes

Court of Appeals

IAC by majority vote; upon ratification of selection by Supreme Court

2 years as presiding

Yes

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 27

Table 5. Terms of Appellate Court Judges
Term of office for chief justice/judge 2 years Until age 70 Chief justices/judges—can they succeed themselves?
5

Length of term Nevada Supreme Court New Hampshire Supreme Court 6 years Until age 70

Selection of chief justice/judge Rotation Gubernatorial appointment with approval of elected executive council Gubernatorial appointment with consent of senate Designation by Chief Justice

~

New Jersey Supreme Court Superior Court, Appellate Division New Mexico Supreme Court Court of Appeals New York Court of Appeals Supreme Court, Appellate Divisions North Carolina Supreme Court Court of Appeals North Dakota Supreme Court Ohio Supreme Court Courts of Appeals Oklahoma Supreme Court Criminal Appeals Court of Civil Appeals Oregon Supreme Court Pennsylvania Supreme Court Superior Court Commonwealth Court Rhode Island Supreme Court

7 years, followed by tenure Annual assignment by 6 Chief Justice 8 years 8 years 14 years

Duration of service At the pleasure of the Chief Justice

Yes ~

Court selection Court selection

2 years 2 years 14 years Duration of service

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission 5 years or duration Gubernatorial appointment from judicial screening commission 8 years 8 years Popular election Supreme court, chief justice appointment Selection by the judges of the supreme and district courts Popular election Selected by Judges of District Court selection Court selection Court selection Court selection Rotation by seniority Court selection Court selection Gubernatorial appointment from the judicial nominating commission Legislative election Legislative election Court selection Court selection Court selection Court selection

8 years -At the pleasure of the chief ~ justice of the Supreme court 5 years or until term expires, Yes whichever occurs first 6 years Calendar year 2 years 2 years 1 year 6 years Duration of term 5 years 5 years Life Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes – No No ~

10 years

6 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 6 years 10 years 10 years 10 years Life

South Carolina Supreme Court Court of Appeals South Dakota Supreme Court Tennessee Supreme Court Courts of Appeal Court of Criminal Appeals

10 years 6 years 8 years 8 years 8 years 8 years

10 years 6 years 4 years 4 years 1 term 1 term

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

28 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S =None stated

Table 5. Terms of Appellate Courts Judges
Term of office for chief justice/judge 6 years 6 years 6 years 4 years 2 years Chief justices/judges—can they succeed themselves? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
7

Length of term Texas Supreme Court Court of Criminal Appeals Courts of Appeals Utah Supreme Court Court of Appeals Vermont Supreme Court 6 years 6 years 6 years Initial=3 yrs; Retention=10 yrs Initial=3 yrs; Retention=6 yrs 6 years

Selection of chief justice/judge Partisan election Partisan election Partisan election Court selection Court selection

Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission with consent of senate Seniority Court selection Court selection Presiding chief judge by court selection; however, position rotates among the 3 divisions; chief judge by division judges Rotation by seniority Seniority Supreme court appointment Court selection

6 years

Yes

Virginia Supreme Court Court of Appeals Washington Supreme Court Courts of Appeals

12 years 8 years 6 years 6 years

Indefinite 4 years 4 years 1 year for presiding judge and 2 years for chief judge

~ Yes Yes Not the presiding judge

West Virginia Supreme Court Wisconsin Supreme Court Court of Appeals Wyoming Supreme Court Federal U.S. Supreme Court

12 years 10 years 6 years 8 years Life

1 year Until declined 3 years At the pleasure of the court

No ~ Yes ~ ~

U.S. Courts of Appeals U.S. Court of Veterans Appeals

Life 15 years

Life Nominated and appointed by the President with advice and consent of Senate 8 Seniority 7 years or until age 70 15 years Nominated and appointed by president with advice and consent of Senate

No Yes

FOOTNOTES:
Connecticut: 1 Governor nominates from candidates submitted by Judicial Selection Commission.
2

New Jersey: 6 All Superior Court judges, including Appellate Division judges, are subject to gubernatorial reappointment and consent by the senate after an initial 7-year term.
7

Massachusetts: Chief Justice, in the appellate courts, is a separate judicial office from that of an Associate Justice. Chief Justices are appointed, until age 70, by the Governor with the advice and consent of the Executive (Governor’s) Council. Missouri: Selection is typically rotated among the judges. Two years in western and southern districts; one year in eastern district. Nevada: Not immediately; later, as part of rotation.

Utah: Presiding judge can serve no more than two successive terms. Federal: The chief judge is the active circuit judge who is senior of those judges who (1) are 64 years or under, (2) have served for one or more years as a circuit judge, and (3) have not served previously as chief judge. Per 28 U.S.C. § 45(a).

8

3 4

5

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 29

Table 6. Qualifications to Serve as an Appellate Court Judge
Local residency Alabama Supreme Court Court of Criminal Appeals Court of Civil Appeals Alaska Supreme Court Court of Appeals Arizona Supreme Court Court of Appeals Arkansas Supreme Court Court of Appeals California Supreme Court Courts of Appeal Colorado Supreme Court Court of Appeals Connecticut Supreme Court Appellate Court Delaware Supreme Court District of Columbia Court of Appeals Florida Supreme Court District Courts of Appeal Georgia Supreme Court Court of Appeals Hawaii Supreme Court Intermediate Court of Appeals Idaho Supreme Court Court of Appeals Illinois Supreme Court Appellate Court Indiana Supreme Court Court of Appeals Tax Court Iowa Supreme Court Court of Appeals Kansas Supreme Court Court of Appeals N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S No No No 90 days 2 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes Yes N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S
2

State residency 1 year 1 year 1 year 5 years 5 years 10 years 5 years 2 years 2 years N/S N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes District Yes 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 years 2 years Yes Yes N/S N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S

Minimum age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 30 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30

Maximum age 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 70 70 N/S 74 70 70 N/S 4 N/S 70 70 N/S N/S 75 75 75 75 N/S 72 72 70 70
6 6 4 1

Legal credentials Licensed attorney Licensed attorney Licensed attorney 8 years practice 8 years practice 10 years state bar 5 years state bar 8 years practice 8 years practice 10 years state bar 10 years state bar 5 years state bar 5 years state bar 10 years state bar 10 years state bar "Learned in law" 5 years state bar 10 years state bar 10 years state bar 7 years state bar 7 years state bar 10 years state bar 10 years state bar 10 years state bar 10 years state bar Licensed attorney Licensed attorney 10 years state bar 5 10 years state bar 5 years state bar Licensed attorney Licensed attorney 10 years active and continuous 7 practice 10 years active and continuous 7 practice
5

30 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S =None stated

Table 6. Qualifications to Serve as an Appellate Court Judge
Local residency Kentucky Supreme Court Court of Appeals Louisiana Supreme Courts Courts of Appeal Maine Supreme Judicial Court Maryland Court of Appeals Court of Special Appeals Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Appeals Court Michigan Supreme Court Court of Appeals Minnesota Supreme Court Court of Appeals Mississippi Supreme Court Court of Appeals Missouri Supreme Court Court of Appeals Montana Supreme Court Nebraska Supreme Court Court of Appeals Nevada Supreme Court 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years N/S 6 months 6 months N/S N/S N/S Reside within district N/S Varies District Resident District Resident N/S Yes State residency 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years N/S 5 years 5 years N/S N/S N/S N/S Minimum age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 N/S N/S N/S N/S Maximum age N/S N/S 70 70
8

Legal credentials 8 years state bar/licensed attorney 8 years state bar/licensed attorney 5 years state bar 5 years state bar “Learned in law” State bar member State bar member N/S N/S State bar member, practice at least 5 years State bar member

N/S 70 70 70 70 70 70

N/S N/S 5 years 5 years State voter for 9 years State voter for 9 years 2 years 3 years N/S 2 years

N/S N/S 30 30 30 30

70 70 N/S N/S 70 70

State bar member State bar member 5 years state bar 5 years state bar State bar member State bar member

N/S Yes Yes N/S

N/S 30 30 25

N/S N/S N/S N/S

5 years state bar 5 years practice 5 years practice State bar member

New Hampshire Supreme Court New Jersey Supreme Court Superior Court, Appellate Division New Mexico Supreme Court Court of Appeals New York Court of Appeals Supreme Court, Appellate Divisions

N/S N/S N/S

N/S N/S N/S

N/S N/S N/S

70 70 70

N/S Admitted to practice in state for at least 10 years. Admitted to practice in state for at least 10 years. 10 years active practice and/or judgeship in any court of the state 10 years active practice and/or judgeship in any court of the state 10 years state bar 10 years state bar

N/S N/S

3 years 3 years

35 35

N/S N/S

N/S Yes, for presiding judge

Yes Yes

N/S 18

70 9 70

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 31

Table 6. Qualifications to Serve as an Appellate Court Judge
Local residency North Carolina Supreme Court Court of Appeals North Dakota Supreme Court Court of Appeals Ohio Supreme Court Courts of Appeals Oklahoma Supreme Court Court of Criminal Appeals Court of Civil Appeals Oregon Supreme Court Court of Appeals Pennsylvania Supreme Court Superior Court Commonwealth Court Puerto Rico Supreme Court Court of Appeals Rhode Island Supreme Court South Carolina Supreme Court Court of Appeals South Dakota Supreme Court Tennessee Supreme Court Court of Appeals Court of Criminal Appeals Texas Supreme Court Court of Criminal Appeals Courts of Appeals Utah Supreme Court Court of Appeals Vermont Supreme Court Virginia Supreme Court Court of Appeals Washington Supreme Court Courts of Appeals West Virginia Supreme Court Wisconsin Supreme Court Court of Appeals Wyoming Supreme Court N/S N/S N/S N/S No District 1 year 1 year 10 N/S N/S No No No N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes Yes 13 Yes 13 Yes N/S N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 1 year 1 year N/S 10 days 10 days N/S
12

State residency N/S N/S Yes N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S 3 years 3 years 1 year 1 year 1 year 5 years 5 years N/S 5 years 5 years Yes 5 years 5 years 5 years Yes Yes Yes 5 years 3 years 5 years N/S N/S 1 year 1 year 5 years 10 days 10 days 3 years

Minimum age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 21 32 32 N/S 35 30 30 35 35 35 30 25 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 N/S N/S 30

Maximum age 72 72 N/S N/S 70 70 N/S N/S N/S 75 75 70 70 70 70 70 N/S 72 72 70 N/S N/S N/S 75 75 75 75 75 70 70 16 70 75 75 N/S N/S N/S 70
15

Legal credentials State bar member State bar member License to practice law License to practice law 6 years practice 6 years practice 5 years state bar 5 years state bar 11 State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member 10 years state bar 10 years state bar License to practice law 8 years state bar 8 years state bar State bar member Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law 14 14 State bar member State bar member 5 years state bar 5 years state bar 5 years state bar State bar member 5 years state bar 10 years state bar 5 years state bar 5 years state bar 9 years state bar
14

32 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S =None stated

Table 6. Qualifications to Serve as an Appellate Court Judge
Local residency Federal U.S. Supreme Court N/S 17 U.S. Courts of Appeals U.S. Court for Veterans Claims ~ FOOTNOTES:
Alabama: 1 The age prohibition of §6.16 is not a qualification for office, but only deals with retirement. Florida: Initial appointment: must be resident of district at the time of original appointment. 3 Must reside within the territorial jurisdiction of the court.
2 4

State residency N/S N/S ~

Minimum age N/S N/S ~

Maximum age N/S N/S ~

Legal credentials N/S N/S State or federal bar

New York: 9 Up to 76 if certified for continuing service.
10 11

Oklahoma: Must be a qualified elector in district. Appellate judges must be member of the state bar and have at least 4 years’ experience as a practicing attorney or as judge of a court of record.

Georgia: There is a maximum retirement age in order to be eligible for certain benefits. Indiana: In the supreme court and court of appeals, 5 years’ service as a general jurisdiction judge may be substituted. Kansas: May complete term in which age 70 is attained. Relevant legal experience, such as being a member of a law faculty or sitting as a judge, may qualify under the 10-year requirement. Louisiana: 75 for judges who began serving under old constitution.

Tennessee: One justice from each of three divisions and two seats at large. 13 Must reside in the grand division served.
12 14

5

Texas: Ten years practicing law or a lawyer and judge of a court of record at least 10 years.

6 7

Virginia: Applies only to those justices elected or appointed to an original or subsequent term commencing after July 1, 1993. 16 Unless ‘grandfathered.’
15 17

8

Federal: Circuit residency is required 28 U.S.C. § 44(c), except in D.C. Judges in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the federal circuit must reside within 50 miles of D.C.

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 33

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 6 \UV <HV <HV <HV 6WDWXWHV DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLYH UXOHV 6WDWXWHV DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLYH UXOHV 6WDWXWHV DQG DGPLQLVWUDWLYH UXOHV a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Alabama * &LUFXLW &RXUW / 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW4 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW5 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ &LUFXLW &RXQW\

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV 9 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 0DMRULW\ YRWH RI FLUFXLW MXGJHV5

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / 3UREDWH &RXUW Alaska * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

*RYHUQLQJ *RYHUQLQJ PXQLFLSDO PXQLFLSDO ERG\ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ7 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ8 $GPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH DSSRLQWV LQ HDFK MXGLFLDO GLVWULFW 1RQ0SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQV<

5H0 0XQLFLSDOLW DSSRLQWPHQW \ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ &RXQW\

7 \UV6 9 \UV

4 \U <HV $GPLQLVWUDWLYH FLUFXLW MXGJH Z2 DGYLFH DQG FRQVHQW RI PDMRULW\ RI FLUFXLW FRXUWW MXGJHV 0D\RU $W <HV SOHDVXUH a a

<HV a

'LVWULFW9

9 \UV

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

4 \U

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV/ $GPLQLVWUDWLYH 5XOHV a

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

'LVWULFW:

7 \UV

a

a

a

a 0DJLVWUDWHV

6DPH DV IXOO 'LVWULFW WHUP

$W SOHDVXUH

a

a

a

a

Arizona * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW;

/ -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

&RXQW\ ERDUG DSSRLQWPHQW 9DULHV

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV

1RQ0 &RXQW\ SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQV25H WHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQV43 3DUWLVDQ 3UHFLQFW HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV 0XQLFLSDOLW \

7 \UV

6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

&RQVWLWXWLRQ/ &RXUW 5XOHV/ $GPLQ1 2UGHU RI 6XSUHPH &RXUW $GPLQLVWUDWLYH 2UGHU RI 6XSUHPH &RXUW $GPLQLVWUDWLYH 2UGHU DQG /RFDO 'HOHJDWLRQ a

7 \UV 9DULHV±5 \U1 PLQLPXP 7 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV 5 \UV 7 \UV 5 \UV 5 \UV

43

5 \UV /RFDOO\ GHFLGHG

<HV /RFDOO\ GHFHGHG

<HV <HV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

Arkansas * &LUFXLW &RXUW * &KDQFHU\23UREDWH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / &RXQW\ &RXUW / 3ROLFH &RXUW / &RXUW RI &RPPRQ 3OHDV / &LW\ &RXUW California * 6XSHULRU &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW44 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW44 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW &LW\ FRXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

3DUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG &RXQW\ &LW\

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

a a a a a a a

a a a a a a a a a a a a a

a a a a a a

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ45 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ45

9 \UV 9 \UV

1RW OHVV <HV WKDQ 4 \HDU 4 \HDU <HV

<HV <HV

6WDWXWH DQG 5XOHV RI &RXUW 6WDWXWH DQG 5XOHV RI &RXUW

34 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ46 *RYHUQLQJ PXQLFLSDO ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW /HJLVODWLYH DSSRLQWPHQW47 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH *HQHUDOO 9DULHV \ 4 \U $W <HV SOHDVXUH $W <HV SOHDVXUH $W <HV SOHDVXUH $W <HV SOHDVXUH a a <HV &KLHI -XVWLFH

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Colorado * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ &RXQW\

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

* 'HQYHU 3UREDWH &RXUW 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP * 'HQYHU -XYHQLOH &RXUW 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP * :DWHU &RXUW 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP /HJLVODWLYH DSSRLQWPHQW47 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

6XSUHPH FRXUW/ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 6XSUHPH FRXUW/ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 6XSUHPH FRXUW/ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 'LVWULFW FRXUW MXGJHV DSSRLQWPHQW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &KLHI &RXUW $GPLQLVWUDWRU DSSRLQWPHQW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

<HV

&KLHI -XVWLFH

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

<HV

&KLHI -XVWLFH

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

<HV

&KLHI -XVWLFH

/ &RXQW\ &RXUW

&RXQW\

7 \UV

1R

&KLHI -XVWLFH

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW Connecticut * 6XSHULRU &RXUW / 3UREDWH &RXUW Delaware * &RXUW RI &KDQFHU\

5H0 0XQLFLSDOLW DSSRLQWPHQW \ /HJLVODWLYH 6WDWH DSSRLQWPHQW
47

9DULHV

a

a

; \UV ; \UV

$W <HV SOHDVXUH a a

1R47 a

48

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

a

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

* 6XSHULRU &RXUW / -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH &RXUW

6DPH DV &RXUW 6DPH DV &RXUW RI RI &KDQFHU\ &KDQFHU\ 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP 0DJLVWUDWH 6FUHHQLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 7RZQ &RXQFLO VHOHFWLRQ

*XEHUQDWRULDO 6WDWH UHDSSRLQWPH QW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

45 \UV

45 \UV

<HV

<HV

&RQVWLWXWLRQ

6DPH DV &RXUW RI &KDQFHU\ UH0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU

5HVLGHQW= &RXQW\> 6WDWH &RXQW\

45 \UV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

45 \UV 7 \UV

<HV <HV

<HV <HV

&RQVWLWXWLRQ &RQVWLWXWLRQ

7\UV> *XEHUQDWRULDO UHDSSRLQW1 DSSRLQWPHQW 9 \U WHUP

/ )DPLO\ &RXUW

/ &RXUW RI &RPPRQ 3OHDV

/ $OGHUPDQ*V &RXUW District of Columbia

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 9DULHV

6DPH DV 6XSHULRU &RXUW

&RXQW\ +&KLHI -XGJH VWDWHZLGH,

45 \UV1

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

45 \UV

<HV

<HV

&RQVWLWXWLRQ

6DPH DV 6XSHULRU &RXUW

&RXQW\

45 \UV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

45 \UV

<HV

<HV

&RQVWLWXWLRQ

9DULHV

7RZQ

9DULHV

a

a

a

a

a

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 35

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" 2IILFH 7 \UV <HV <HV

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 7HUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ IRU )XOO 7HUP 3UHVLGHQWLDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ
49

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU /HQJWK RI 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP 6HOHFWLRQ 'LVWULFW RI 48 \UV &KLHI MXGJH &ROXPELD DSSRLQWPHQW

:KDW LV WKHLU VRXUFH RI DXWKRULW\" $SSRLQWPHQW RI WKH &KLHI -XGJH

Florida * &LUFXLW &RXUW

/ &RXQW\ &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LUFXLW HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

&LUFXLW DQG FRXQW\ FRXUW VHOHFWLRQ

5 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH ) )ORULGD 5XOHV RI &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

a

Georgia * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

/ / / / / / / /

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ -XYHQLOH &RXUW4: 6XSHULRU &RXUW MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW &LYLO &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 6WDWH &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 3UREDWH &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 0DJLVWUDWH &RXUW 9DULHV 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW RI 0D\RUDO &ROXPEXV $SSRLQWPHQW &RXQW\ 5HFRUGHU*V &W1 9DULHV 0XQLFLSDO &RXUWV DQG $SSRLQWHG E\ &LW\ &RXUW RI $WODQWD PXQLFLSDO DXWKRULW\ 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LUFXLW HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

9DULHV

9DULHV

<HV

/RFDO &RXUW 5XOHV

6XSHULRU &RXUW MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW

6XSHULRU &RXUW MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ4; 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ4; 9DULHV 9DULHV (OHFWHG (OHFWHG 9DULHV $SSRLQWHG E\ PXQLFLSDO DXWKRULW\

&RXQW\2 FLUFXLW &RXQW\ &RXQW\ &RXQW\

7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 9DULHV $W SOHDVXUH

9DULHV 6HQLRULW\ 6HQLRULW\ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 0RVW DUH HOHFWHG a 6HQLRULW\ *HQHUDOO\ QR DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

9DULHV 9DULHV 9DULHV a 7 \UV a

9DULHV 9DULHV <HV a <HV a

9DULHV a a a <HV a a a

/RFDO &RXUW 5XOHV a a a a a a a

&RXQW\ 0XQLFLSDOLW \ 9DULHV &RXQW\ $SSRLQWHG 0XQLFLSDOLW E\ PXQLFLSDO \ DXWKRULW\ &LUFXLW

6HQLRULW\ <HV a a

Hawaii * &LUFXLW &RXUW4<

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW4<

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH $SSRLQWPHQW E\ &KLHI -XVWLFH IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DQG FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

-XGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ UHDSSRLQWV -XGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ UHDSSRLQWV

43 \UV

$W <HV SOHDVXUH

<HV

+DZDLL UHYLVHG VWDWXWHV2RUJ1 FKDUWV 6XS1 &W1 5XOHV DQG +56 93704

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

$W <HV SOHDVXUH

<HV

Idaho * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 0DJLVWUDWH &RPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW53 &2/5 VHOHFWLRQ

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

0DJLVWUDWH 'LYLVLRQ

0DJLVWUDWH &RPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW53 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

7 \UV

0DMRULW\ RI RWKHU GLVWULFW MXGJHV ZLWKLQ WKH GLVWULFW MXGJHV RU PDMRULW\ RI VXSUHPH FRXUW MXVWLFHV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

9DULHV 4< <HV

a

a

a

a

a

a

Illinois * &LUFXLW &RXUW

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

&LUFXLW2 &RXQW\54

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ 9 \HDUV +DVVRFLDWH MXGJHV 7 \UV,

9DULHV

<HV

<HV

6WDWH &RQVWLWXWLRQ

36 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
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a 9DULHV 9DULHV a 9DULHV 9DULHV 9DULHV a 9DULHV 9DULHV a 9DULHV 9DULHV 9DULHV a a 9DULHV 9DULHV a a 9DULHV 9DULHV 9DULHV 9DULHV

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Indiana * 6XSHULRU &RXUW * &LUFXLW &RXUW * 3UREDWH &RXUW / &RXQW\ &RXUW / &LW\ &RXUW / 7RZQ &RXUW / 6PDOO &ODLPV &RXUW RI 0DULRQ &RXQW\ Iowa * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ56 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ56 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ &RXQW\ &RXQW\ &RXQW\ &RXQW\ 0XQLFLSDOLW \ 0XQLFLSDOLW \ 7RZQVKLS

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV 9 \UV 9 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV 9DULHV 7 <HDUV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV 9DULHV a 9DULHV 9DULHV a 9DULHV

/ 'LVWULFW $VVRFLDWH / 0DJLVWUDWHV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 'LVWULFW MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW57 &RXQW\ MXGLFLDO PDJLVWUDWH DSSRLQWPHQW FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW58 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ 4: GLVWULFWV> SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 47 GLVWULFWV /RFDO JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW5:

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

5HWHQWLRQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ 5HDSSRLQWH &RXQW\ G E\ FRXQW\1 -XGLFLDO PDJLVWUDWH FRPPLVVLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 4: GLVWULFWV> SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 47 GLVWULFWV 'LVWULFW

7 \UV 5 \UV

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK 6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSURYDO59 a a

5 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWRU\ DQG 5XOH a a

a a

a a

a a

Kansas * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ 4: GLVWULFWV> *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW LQ 47 GLVWULFWV /RFDO JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW5: *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

7 \UV

6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW

5 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH> 6XSUHPH &RXUW 5XOHV> 'LVWULFW &RXUW 5XOHV

/RFDO &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ UH0 DSSRLQWPHQW5:

9DULHV

/RFDO JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW

$W <HV SOHDVXUH

<HV

$SSRLQWLQJ DXWKRULW\

.HQWXFN\ * &LUFXLW &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LUFXLW HOHFWLRQ

; \UV

&LUFXLW &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ5;

*HQHUDOO <HV \ 5 \UV

<HV

&RXUW 5XOH

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

'LVWULFW &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ5;

*HQHUDOO <HV \ 5 \UV

<HV

&RXUW 5XOH

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 37

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 9DULHV a a 9DULHV 9DULHV a a 9DULHV 9DULHV a a a &RXUW 5XOH +/RFDO 5XOH, a a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Louisiana * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV 9 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 9DULHV

6XSUHPH &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ5< / -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH 6XSUHPH &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ5< / 0D\RU*V &RXUW +0D\RU RU PD\RU SUR WHPS, / &LW\ DQG 3DULVK &RXUWV 6XSUHPH &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ5< 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG E\ OHJLVODWXUH DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG E\ OHJLVODWXUH

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ :DUGV HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ +0D\RU &LW\ VHUYHV DV MXGJH, 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ RU HOHFWLRQ SDULVK

Maine * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

5H0DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ 3UREDWH &RXUW / $GPLQLVWUDWLYH &RXUW

5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 5H0DSSRLQWPHQW E\ 5H0 JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG DSSRLQWPHQW E\ OHJLVODWXUH E\ JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG E\ OHJLVODWXUH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 5H0DSSRLQWPHQW E\ 5H0 JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG DSSRLQWPHQW E\ OHJLVODWXUH E\ JRYHUQRU> FRQILUPHG E\ OHJLVODWXUH &RQWHVWHG HOHFWLRQ

6WDWHZLGH

: \UV

6XSUHPH &RXUW/ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 6XSUHPH &RXUW/ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

<HV $W SOHDVXUH RI &KLHI -XVWLFH <HV $W SOHDVXUH RI &KLHI -XVWLFH a : \UV a a

1R

a

6WDWH ) 'LVWULFW63

: \UV

1R

a

&RXQW\ 6WDWH

: \UV : \UV

a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

a a

a a

Maryland * &LUFXLW &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH DQG FRQWHVWHG HOHFWLRQ 4 \HDU ODWHU *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

&LUFXLW

48 \UV

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

/ 2USKDQ*V &RXUW Massachusetts * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

0DQGDWRU\ 'LVWULFW JXEHUQDWRULD O UH0 DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 3DUWLVDQ 2USKDQV HOHFWLRQ 1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

43 \UV

&KLHI -XGJH ± E\ VHQLRULW\> &LUFXLW2&RXQW\ $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH DSSRLQWPHQW E\ 6XSUHPH &RXUW¶V &KLHI -XVWLFH &KLHI -XGJH DSSRLQWPHQW E\ 6XSUHPH &RXUW¶V &KLHI -XVWLFH64 8QNQRZQ

$W a SOHDVXUH

65

a

$W a SOHDVXUH

65

a

7 \UV

8QNQRZ 8QNQRZQ Q 8 \UV <HV

65

a

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

38 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 7HUP 7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1 $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" 2IILFH 8 \UV <HV <HV

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ / %RVWRQ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSURYHG E\ *RYHUQRU*V &RXQFLO

*HRJUDSKLF 0HWKRG RI %DVLV IRU /HQJWK RI 0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP 6HOHFWLRQ 1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH $JH :3 $SSRLQWHG E\ SURFHVV1 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

:KDW LV WKHLU VRXUFH RI DXWKRULW\" 6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

Massachusetts, continued / -XYHQLOH &RXUW 7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

/ +RXVLQJ &RXUW

7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

/ /DQG &RXUW

7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

/ 3UREDWH DQG )DPLO\ &RXUW

7KHUH DUH QR XQH[SLUHG MXGLFLDO WHUPV1

1R UHWHQWLRQ 6WDWH SURFHVV1

$JH :3

$SSRLQWHG E\ 6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW66

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWHV2FRXUW UXOHV

Michigan * &LUFXLW &RXUW +LQFOXGHV &RXUW RI &ODLPV DQG )DPLO\ 'LYLVLRQ, / 'LVWULFW &RXUW / 3UREDWH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

5 \UV

<HV

<HV

0LFKLJDQ &RXUW 5XOH ;2443 a a a

*XEHUQDWRULDO 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW DSSRLQWPHQW HOHFWLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW DSSRLQWPHQW HOHFWLRQ *RYHUQLQJ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ1 'LVWULFW PXQLFLSDO ERG\ HOHFWLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

5 \UV 5 \UV 5 \UV

<HV <HV <HV

<HV <HV <HV

Minnesota * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

9 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

5 \UV

<HV

67

67

Mississippi * &LUFXLW &RXUW / &KDQFHU\ &RXUW / &RXQW\ &RXUW / )DPLO\ &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / -XVWLFH &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW 'LVWULFW &RXQW\ &RXQW\ 0XQLFLSDOLW \ 'LVWULFW LQ FRXQW\

7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV

6HQLRULW\ 6HQLRULW\

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 7 \UV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH /RFDOO\ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH GHWHUPLQH MXGJH G 7 \UV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

'XUDWLRQ a RI WHUP 'XUDWLRQ a RI WHUP a a a a a a a a

<HV <HV a a a a

6WDWXWRU\ 6WDWXWRU\ a a a a

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 39

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 5 \UV <HV <HV &RQVWLWXWLRQ

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Missouri * &LUFXLW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW LQ SDUWLVDQ FLUFXLWV +73, *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ QRQSDUWLVDQ FLUFXLWV +8, *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW LQ SDUWLVDQ FLUFXLWV +73, *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ QRQSDUWLVDQ FLUFXLWV +8, /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ &RXQW\ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW /RFDO JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW &LW\ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ FRXQWLHV ZLWK QRQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ +8 PHWURSROLWDQ FLUFXLWV, 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 73 FLUFXLWV *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ LQ FRXQWLHV ZLWK QRQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ +8 PHWURSROLWDQ FLUFXLWV, 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 73 FLUFXLWV /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

&LUFXLW 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ IRU 8 PHWURSROLWDQ FLUFXLWV/ SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 73 FLUFXLWV

a $VVRFLDWH &LUFXLW &RXUW

&RXQW\ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ IRU 8 PHWURSROLWDQ FLUFXLWV/ SDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ LQ 73 FLUFXLWV

7 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH

a

a

a

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW Montana * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

&LW\

9DULHV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH 9DULHV 9DULHV

a

a

a

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

9DULHV

<HV 0 /LPLWHG &RQVWLWXWLRQ

* :RUNHUV* &RPSHQVDWLRQ &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

* :DWHU &RXUW

/ -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRUL 6WDWH DO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 6WDWH &KLHI &KLHI -XVWLFH -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW IURP UHDSSRLQWPH MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ QW IURP FRPPLVVLRQ MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH

a

a

a

7 \UV

7 \UV &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH

<HV

<HV 0 /LPLWHG 6WDWXWH

7 \UV 7 \UV

a a

a a

a a

/ &LW\ &RXUW

7 \UV

a

a

a

Nebraska * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ 6HSDUDWH -XYHQLOH &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

9 \UV68

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

4 \U

<HV

a

a

'LVWULFW

9 \UV68

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

4 \U

<HV

a

a

40 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 4 \U <HV <HV &RXUW 5XOH

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Nebraska, continued / :RUNHU*V &RPSHQVDWLRQ / &RXQW\ &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ 'LVWULFW

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV68

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

9 \UV68

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

4 \U

<HV

<HV

&RXUW 5XOH

Nevada * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ -XVWLFH &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ &RXQW\ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

9DULHV

9DULHV

9DULHV

<HV

6WDWXWH +156 61358,

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 7RZQVKLS HOHFWLRQ

9 \UV

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

&LW\ FRXQFLO DSSRLQWPHQW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ RU DSSRLQWPHQW HOHFWLRQ RU DSSRLQWPHQW a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH $SSRLQWPHQW E\ PD\RU RU JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\69 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ PD\RU RU JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ RI PXQLFLSDOLW\6
:

9DULHV

(OHFWHG E\ -XVWLFHV 4 \HDU RI WKH 3HDFH LQ LQGLYLGXDO WRZQVKLSV KDYLQJ WKUHH RU PRUH -XVWLFHV RI WKH 3HDFH 9DULHV 9DULHV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH +-& 5&3 ;7,

<HV

9DULHV

,QGLYLGXDO &LW\ &KDUWHUV

New Hampshire * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

6WDWH

8QWLO DJH :3

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

'LVWULFW

8QWLO DJH :3

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

'LVWULFW2 0XQLFLSDOLW \ &RXQW\

8QWLO DJH :3 8QWLO DJH :3

$JH :3 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO $JH :3 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR DSSURYDO E\ H[HFXWLYH FRXQFLO a a

a

<HV

&KLHI -XVWLFH

a

<HV

/DZ

a

a

a

/ 3UREDWH &RXUW

a

a

a

a

a

New Jersey * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

6WDWH

:6;

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

$W a SOHDVXUH

<HV

&RXUW 5XOH

/ 7D[ &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

6WDWH

:6;

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

$W a SOHDVXUH

<HV

6WDWXWH

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

0XQLFLSDOLW \20XOWL0 PXQLFLSDOLW \

6 \UV

*RYHUQLQJ ERG\6:

6 \UV

<HV

6<

6<

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 41

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 6 \UV 9DULHV 6 \UV a a <HV <HV <HV a a <HV <HV <HV a a 6WDWXWH 3ROLF\ 'LUHFWLYH 6WDWXWH a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ New Mexico * 'LVWULFW &RXUW / 0DJLVWUDWH &RXUW / %HUQDOLOOR &RXQW\ / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / 3UREDWH &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW73 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW73 $SSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ &RXQW\ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ UHWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ UHWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ 'LVWULFW &RXQW\ &RXQW\ &LW\ &RXQW\

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV 7 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ (OHFWLRQ E\ GLVWULFW MXGJHV 'LUHFWRU RI $2& DSSRLQWPHQW (OHFWLRQ E\ PHWURSROLWDQ MXGJHV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

New York * 6XSUHPH &RXUW

* &RXQW\ &RXUW

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW / &LW\ &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 74 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV²PRVW HOHFWHG

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

47 \UV

1R $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH 1R $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1R $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH 1R $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH 1R $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJH a

a

a

a

a

&RXQW\

43 \UV

a

a

a

a

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV00PRVW HOHFWHG /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

9 \UV a a a a

<HV a a a a

1R a a a a

a a a a a

/ &ULPLQDO &RXUW RI 1<& 0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW / &LYLO &RXUW RI 1<& 0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW75 / 7RZQ DQG 9LOODJH 7RZQ ERDUG2YLOODJH PD\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW / &RXUW RI &ODLPV *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO VFUHHQLQJ FRPPLWWHH ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / 6XUURJDWHV* &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO VFUHHQLQJ FRPPLWWHH ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / )DPLO\ &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO VFUHHQLQJ FRPPLWWHH ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH2%\ PD\RU LQ 1HZ <RUN &LW\

0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW 3DUWLVDQ &LW\ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ 7RZQ RU HOHFWLRQ YLOODJH 5H0 6WDWH DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU

&LW\+ZLWK 43 \UV VRPH H[FHSWLRQV, &LW\ 43 \UV 43 \UV75 7 \UV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO VFUHHQLQJ FRPPLWWHH ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

< \UV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

%DODQFH <HV RI WHUP

<HV

,QKHUHQW

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

&RXQW\

43 \UV +H[FHSW 1<& LV 47,

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

a

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ2DSSRLQWPHQ W E\ PD\RU LQ 1HZ <RUN &LW\

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ2UHD SSRLQWPHQW E\ PD\RU LQ 1HZ <RUN &LW\

&RXQW\ RXWVLGH 1<&

43 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

a

42 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW
76

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ North Carolina * 6XSHULRU &RXUW / 'LVWULFW &RXUW North Dakota * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ

/HQJWK RI 7HUP

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ

$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH <HV <HV 6WDWXWH 6WDWXWH

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

$V RI 4<<;/ 6WDWH 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

; 6HQLRULW\ RI VHUYLFH ; \UV <HV +UHVLGHQW,/ ZLWKLQ GLVWULFW 7 +VSHFLDO, 7 \UV &KLHI -XVWLFH $W <HV DSSRLQWPHQW SOHDVXUH 9 \UV (OHFWHG E\ GLVWULFW MXGJHV 6 \UV <HV

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

<HV

/DZ

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW Ohio * &RXUW RI &RPPRQ 3OHDV / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH (OHFWHG E\ FRXUW MXGJHV (OHFWHG E\ FRXUW MXGJHV a a a

a

a

a

a

9 \UV

4 \HDU 4 \HDU

<HV <HV

<HV <HV

/ &RXQW\ &RXUW / &RXUW RI &ODLPV / 0D\RUV &RXUW Oklahoma * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\2FLW\ 9 \UV HOHFWLRQ 2 SDUW RI FRXQW\ *XEHUQDWRULDO 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\2 9 \UV DSSRLQWPHQW HOHFWLRQ SDUW RI FRXQW\ 77 &KLHI -XVWLFH &KLHI -XVWLFH &KLHI a DVVLJQPHQW DVVLJQPHQW -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 9DULHV> XVXDOO\ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ &LW\29LOODJH a HOHFWHG HOHFWLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ 7 \UV

6WDWXWH DQG UXOHV RI VXSHULQWHQGHQFH 6WDWXWH DQG UXOHV RI VXSHULQWHQGHQFH a a a

a a a

a a a

a a a

a $VVRFLDWH

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ a 6SHFLDO 6HOHFWLRQ E\ 'LVWULFW &RXUW -XGJH LQ HDFK -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW 1RW RI &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ 5HFRUG ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW / 0XQLFLSDO &ULPLQDO &RXUW RI 5HFRUG / :RUNHUV* &RPSHQVDWLRQ &RXUW &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 'LVWULFW HOHFWLRQ

7 \UV

6HOHFWHG E\ 'LVWULFW 9DULHV DQG $VVRFLDWH 'LVWULFW MXGJHV ZLWKLQ HDFK MXGLFLDO DGPLQLVWUDWLYH GLVWULFW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH a MXGJH

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH

a

a

a

6DPH DV XQH[SLUHG WHUP

6DPH DV XQH[SLUHG WHUP

'LVWULFW

$W SOHDVXUH

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

&LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ

0XQLFLSDOLW\ 5 \UV &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW 0XQLFLSDOLW\ 5 \UV &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW 6WDWH 9 \UV 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ JRYHUQRU IURP -XGLFLDO 1RPLQDWLQJ &RPPLVVLRQ

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &LW\ JRYHUQLQJ ERG\ DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

a

a

a

9DULHV

8QNQRZQ

a

5 \UV

<HV

a

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 43

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH a a a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Oklahoma, continued / &RXUW RI 7D[ 5HYLHZ 6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP 6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ

/HQJWK RI 7HUP

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ

6XSUHPH -XGLFLDO &RXUW 'LVWULFW DSSRLQWPHQW

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH 7HUP LV MXGJH IRU UHPDLQGHU RI VHUYLFH DV 'LVWULFW &RXUW MXGJH 9 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV 9 \UV 9DULHV &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

Oregon * &LUFXLW &RXUW * 7D[ &RXUW / &RXQW\ &RXUW / -XVWLFH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW &RXQW\ FRPPLVVLRQ DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW &LW\ FRXQFLO DSSRLQWPHQW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LUFXLW HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 6WDWH HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ &LW\ FRXQFLO &LW\ FRXQFLO 0XQLFLSDOLW DSSRLQWPHQW UH0 \ DSSRLQWPHQW 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ &RXQW\

5 \UV a a a a

<HV a a a a

<HV a a a a

6WDWXWH a a a a

Pennsylvania * &RXUW RI &RPPRQ 3OHDV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO $GYLVRU\ &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / 3KLODGHOSKLD 0XQLFLSDO *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO $GYLVRU\ &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / 'LVWULFW -XVWLFH &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO $GYLVRU\ &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / 3KLODGHOSKLD 7UDIILF *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP -XGLFLDO $GYLVRU\ &RPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH / 3LWWVEXUJK &LW\ 0D\RUDO 0DJLVWUDWHV DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FLW\ FRXQFLO*V FRQVHQW

43 \HDUV

6HQLRULW\ +LI ; RU PRUH MXGJHV/ FRXUW VHOHFWLRQ,

8 \UV

1R

<HV

6WDWXWH 75 3D1&161 †658

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

&RXQW\

43 \HDUV

6HQLRULW\ +LI ; RU PRUH MXGJHV/ FRXUW VHOHFWLRQ,

8 \UV

1R

<HV

6WDWXWH 75 3D1&161 †658

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

0DJLVWHULDO 9 \UV 'LVWULFW

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

6WDWXWH 75 3D1&161 †658

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

&RXQW\

9 \UV

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

8 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH 75 3D1&161 †658

0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW

0D\RUDO &LW\ RI DSSRLQWPHQW 3LWWVEXUJK

7 \UV

0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW

4 \U

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH 75 3D1&161 †658

Puerto Rico &RXUW RI )LUVW ,QVWDQFH= * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ

*XEHUQDWRUL 6WDWHZLGH DO UHDSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ

45 \UV

a

a

a

a

a

44 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO &RXUW W\SH= 8QH[SLUHG * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ 7HUP / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Puerto Rico, continued * 'LVWULFW &RXUW85 a * 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ Rhode Island * 6XSHULRU &RXUW $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH a a a a a a a a

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ IRU )XOO 7HUP a *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ

/HQJWK RI 7HUP ; \UV85 ; \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ a a

a 6WDWHZLGH *XEHUQDWRUL 6WDWHZLGH DO UHDSSRLQWPHQW Z2VHQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ a 6WDWH

/ 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ )DPLO\ &RXUW

/ 3UREDWH &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 7RZQ &RXQFLO $SSRLQWHG &LW\ FRXQFLO DSSRLQWHG *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH /HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ /HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW &RXQFLO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 7RZQ FRXQFLO UHDSSRLQWHG /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

/LIH

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

/LIH

a

<HV

6WDWXWH

a

6WDWH

/LIH

/LIH

a

<HV

6WDWXWH

a

6WDWH

/LIH

/LIH

a

<HV

6WDWXWH

/ 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / $GPLQLVWUDWLYH $GMXGLFDWLRQ &RXUW

7RZQ &RXQFLO 5HDSSRLQWH G /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG a

7RZQ

9DULHV

a

a

a

a

7RZQ 6WDWH

5 \UV 9DULHV

a a

a a

a a

a a

South Carolina * &LUFXLW &RXUW / )DPLO\ &RXUW / 0DJLVWUDWH &RXUW

/HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ

/ 3UREDWH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW South Dakota * &LUFXLW &RXUW

/HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ /HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ /HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ *XEHUQDWRULDO *XEHUQDWRUL DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK DO FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH DSSRLQWPHQW ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ &RXQFLO DSSRLQWPHQW &RXQFLO DSSRLQWPHQW

&LUFXLW &LUFXLW &RXQW\

9 \UV 9 \UV 7 \UV

&KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW

9 PRQWKV 9 PRQWKV 9 PRQWKV

<HV <HV <HV

<HV <HV <HV

&KLHI -XVWLFH &KLHI -XVWLFH &KLHI -XVWLFH

&RXQW\ 'LVWULFW

7 \UV 507 \UV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &KLHI -XVWLFH DSSRLQWPHQW78

a a

a a

a a

a a

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &LUFXLW HOHFWLRQ

; \UV

$W a SOHDVXUH

a

a

a /DZ 0DJLVWUDWHV

$SSRLQWPHQW E\ &LUFXLW &RXUW DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH ZLWK DSSURYDO RI 6XSUHPH FRXUW

a &OHUN20DJLVWUDWHV

'LYLVLRQ RI &LUFXLW &RXUW

a

&LUFXLW 5H0 DSSRLQWPHQW E\ &LUFXLW &RXUW DGPLQL0 VWUDWLYH MXGJH ZLWK DSSURYDO RI 6XSUHPH &RXUW a &LUFXLW

7 \UV

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

a

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 45

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH 4 \U 4 \U 4 \U a a a 9DULHV <HV <HV <HV a a a 9DULHV a a a a a a a a a a a a a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Tennessee * &LUFXLW &RXUW * &KDQFHU\ &RXUW * &ULPLQDO &RXUW * 3UREDWH &RXUW / -XYHQLOH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW / *HQHUDO 6HVVLRQV &RXUW

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

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ (VWDEOLVKHG E\ RUGLQDQFH 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ 'LVWULFW 'LVWULFW 'LVWULFW 9DULHV &RXQW\ 0XQLFLSDOLW \ &RXQW\

/HQJWK RI 7HUP ; \UV ; \UV ; \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

/RFDOO\ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH GHWHUPLQH MXGJH G ; \UV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH ; \UV ; \UV 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 9DULHV

Texas * 'LVWULFW &RXUWV

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV

'LVWULFW

7 \UV

9DULHV

5 \UV

<HV

<HV

7H[DV *RYW1 FRGH †:713<5 7H[DV *RYW1 FRGH †:713<5 a 9DULHV

/ &RQVWLWXWLRQDO &RXQW\ &RXUW DQG &RXQW\ &RXUWV DW /DZ / -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW Utah * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 9DULHV

&RXQW\ 3UHFLQFW 1RQH

7 \UV 7 \UV 9DULHV

9DULHV79 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 9DULHV

5 \UV a 9DULHV

<HV a <HV

<HV a 9DULHV

/ -XVWLFH &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH7: $SSRLQWPHQW E\ ORFDO JRYHUQPHQW H[HFXWLYH ZLWK FRQILUPDWLRQ E\ ORFDO JRYHUQPHQW OHJLVODWLYH ERG\1 *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH7: *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

3UHVXP S0WLYHO\ 5 \UV a

<HV

<HV

8WDK &RGH $QQ1 :;:;0605< &RGH RI -XGLFLDO $GPLQ 60437 a

/ -XYHQLOH &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

&RXQW\= 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ 0XQLFLSDO= 5HDSSRLQWP HQW E\ FLW\ H[HFXWLYH 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

&RXQW\2 0XQLFLSDOLW \

7 \HDUV

a

a

a

'LVWULFW

9 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

3UHVXP SWLYHO\ 5 \UV

<HV

<HV

8WDK &RGH $QQ1 :;:;0605< &RGH RI -XGLFLDO $GPLQ 60437

Vermont * 6XSHULRU &RXUW

6DPH DV IXOO WHUP

/HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ

6WDWH

9 \UV

6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW7;

7 \UV

<HV

<HV

6WDWXWH ) 6XSUHPH &RXUW $GPLQ1 2UGHU

46 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ ZLWK FRQVHQW RI VHQDWH $GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH a a 2QH DGPLQLVWU DWLYH MXGJH IRU 6XSHULRU/ 'LVWULFW/ DQG IDPLO\ FRXUW a a a a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Vermont, continued * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ /HJLVODWLYH HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ 6WDWH

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 9 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 6XSUHPH &RXUW DSSRLQWPHQW7;

* )DPLO\ &RXUW / 3UREDWH &RXUW Virginia * &LUFXLW &RXUW / 'LVWULFW &RXUW

6XSHULRU2'LVWUL FW MXGJHV *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW

6HUYH DV )DPLO\ &RXUW MXGJHV 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

a 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

a 'LVWULFW

a 7 \UV

a 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

a a

a a

,QWHULP DSSRLQWPHQWV *RYHUQRU /HJLVODWLYH DSSRLQWPHQW DSSRLQWPHQW &LUFXLW FRXUW /HJLVODWLYH MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW DSSRLQWPHQW *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW &RXQW\ DSSRLQWPHQW &LW\ DSSRLQWPHQW

/HJLVODWLYH &LUFXLW DSSRLQWPHQW /HJLVODWLYH 'LVWULFW DSSRLQWPHQW

; \UV 9 \UV

5 \UV 5 \UV

<HV <HV

/LPLWHG /LPLWHG

6WDWXWH 6WDWXWH

Washington * 6XSHULRU &RXUW / / 'LVWULFW &RXUW 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 0D\RUDO2FLW\ FRXQFLO 0D\RUDO2FLW\ DSSRLQWHG FRXQFLO DSSRLQWHG )XOO WLPH 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW MXGJHV PXVW VWDQG IRU QRQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 3DUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

6XSHULRU 'LVWULFW 0XQLFLSDOLW \

7 \UV 7 \UV 7/ XQOHVV PD\RU FKDQJHV

9DULHV &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ &RXUW VHOHFWLRQ

9DULHV 0D[= 4 \U 0D[= 4 \U

9DULHV <HV <HV

<HV <HV <HV

&RXUW 5XOH &RXUW 5XOH &RXUW 5XOH

West Virginia * &LUFXLW &RXUW / / 0DJLVWUDWH &RXUW 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 6XSHUYLVLQJ MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

'LVWULFW &RXQW\ 0XQLFLSDOLW \

; \UV 7 \UV

&RXUW VHOHFWLRQ 6XSHUYLVLQJ MXGJH DSSRLQWPHQW

$W <HV SOHDVXUH $W <HV SOHDVXUH a a

a a a

a a a

/RFDOO\ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH GHWHUPLQH MXGJH G 9 \UV 1RW OHVV WKDQ 5 RU PRUH WKDQ 7 \HDUV 9 \UV &2/5 DSSRLQWPHQW7< /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG84

Wisconsin * &LUFXLW &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ 0XQLFLSDOLW HOHFWLRQ \

5 \UV

<HV83

<HV

/RFDOO\ /RFDOO\ /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQ GHWHUPLQH GHWHUPLQHG HG G

6XSUHPH &RXUW 5XOH /RFDOO\ GHWHUPLQHG

Wyoming * 'LVWULFW &RXUW

/ -XVWLFH RI WKH 3HDFH &RXUW / 0XQLFLSDO &RXUW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 0D\RUDO DSSRLQWPHQW

*XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

'LVWULFW

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a

a

a

a

1RQSDUWLVDQ HOHFWLRQ 1RQSDUWLVDQ &RXQW\ HOHFWLRQ 0D\RUDO /RFDOO\ 0XQLFLSDOLW DSSRLQWPHQW GHWHUPLQHG \

7 \UV 9DULHV

1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

a a

a a

a a

a a

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Judicial selection and service 47

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
$GPLQLVWUDWLYH -XGJHV &DQ HDFK 'R WKH\ KDYH :KDW LV WKHLU 7HUP RI 6XFFHHG $GPLQLVWUDWLYH VRXUFH RI +LPVHOI" $XWKRULW\" DXWKRULW\" 2IILFH a a a a

&RXUW W\SH= * JHQHUDO MXULVGLFWLRQ / OLPLWHG MXULVGLFWLRQ Wyoming, continued / &RXQW\ &RXUW

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ WR )LOO 8QH[SLUHG 0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 7HUP IRU )XOO 7HUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP 6DPH DV IXOO WHUP *XEHUQDWRULDO DSSRLQWPHQW IURP MXGLFLDO QRPLQDWLQJ FRPPLVVLRQ

0HWKRG RI 5HWHQWLRQ 5HWHQWLRQ HOHFWLRQ

*HRJUDSKLF %DVLV IRU 6HOHFWLRQ &RXQW\

/HQJWK RI 7HUP 7 \UV

0HWKRG RI 6HOHFWLRQ 1R DGPLQLVWUDWLYH MXGJH

Federal 86 'LVWULFW &RXUW

86 0DJLVWUDWH

86 %DQNUXSWF\

a 3UHVLGHQWLDO DSSRLQWPHQW VXEMHFW WR 6HQDWH FRQILUPDWLRQ $SSRLQWHG E\ 86 &LUFXLW 'LVWULFW &RXUW 3DQHOV -XGLFLDO &RXQFLO UHFDOO86 $SSRLQWHG E\ 86 $G KRF $SSHOODWH &RXUW UHFDOO87 3DQHOV

'LVWULFW

/LIH

6HQLRULW\88

: \UV

1R

a

a

'LVWULFW

; \UV IXOO0 WLPH/ 7 \UV SDUW0WLPH 47 \UV

89

a

a

a

a

'HVLJQDWHG E\ D PDMRULW\ RI WKH 'LVWULFW MXGJHV RI WKH FRXUWV

a

a

a

a

FOOTNOTES:
Alabama: 1 The counties of Baldwin, Jefferson, Madison, Mobile and Tuscaloosa use gubernatorial appointment from the recommendations of judicial nominating commission. 2 If court cannot agree, Supreme Court decides. 3 Length of term is 2 years, if position is part-time. Alaska: Judge must run for retention at next general election immediately following the third year from time of initial appointment. 5 Judges must run for retention at first general election held more than one year after appointment. 6 Judges selected on a statewide basis but run for retention on a district-wide basis. 7Gubernatorial appointment from judicial nominating commission. The judge must run for retention at first general election held more than one year after appointment.
4

Connecticut: 14 Governor nominates from candidates submitted by Judicial Selection Commission. 15 The Chief Court Administrator appoints an Administrative Judge for each Judicial District. The Administrative Judges serve at the pleasure of the Chief Court Administrator and may succeed themselves. Sec. 51-5a(3) of the Connecticut General Statutes is the source of the authority for their appointment. Their jurisdiction is the Judicial District.
16

Arizona: In the two most populous counties (Maricopa and Pima), such appointments are from a list submitted by the Judicial Nominating Commission. The method for submitting names for the other 13 counties varies. 9 Maricopa and Pima counties use the Gubernatorial appointment process for all vacancies. The other 13 counties hold non-partisan elections. 10 There is one justice of the peace per precinct. In counties having four or more justices of the peace, a presiding justice of the peace is chosen by a vote of the justices of the peace in that county, with the advice and consent of the Presiding Judge of the Superior Court in that county.
8 11

District of Columbia: Judicial Nomination Commission nominates for presidential appointment. If the Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure evaluates a sitting judge as "well qualified" the judge is automatically reappointed for a new term of 15 years. If the commission evaluates the judge as "qualified" the President may renominate him/her subject to Senate confirmation; if the commission evaluates the judge unqualified the judge is ineligible for reappointment. (Please note: There are two entities involved in judicial appointments and reappointments in D.C.: The Judicial Nomination Commission and the Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure.)

Georgia: In one county election. Associate judges (formerly referees) must be a member of the state bar or a law school graduate. They serve at the pleasure of the judge(s). Most juvenile courts have only one judge, therefore no presiding judge. Otherwise, seniority. 18 In 29 of 159 counties probate judges are selected in non-partisan elections.
17

Arkansas: In circuit and chancery courts the office can be held till December 31 following the next general election, and then partisan election for remainder of term.

Hawaii: 19The family courts are a division of circuit courts. Family court judges are either circuit court judges assigned to the family court or are district court-level judges (district/family judges). Idaho: The Supreme Court appoints the administrative judge for up to two years if District Court judges unable to elect. 20 The Magistrate Commission consists of the administrative judge, 3 mayors and 2 electors appointed by the Governor; and 2 attorneys, nominated by the District Bar and appointed by the State Bar. There is one commission in each district.
19 21

California: 12 If unopposed for reelection, incumbent’s name does not appear on ballot unless a petition was filed 83 days before the election date requesting the name to appear. An unopposed incumbent is not declared elected until the election date. This is for the general election. Different timing for primary elections. See Elec. Code §8203.
13

Colorado: The mayor appoints Denver County Court judges.

Illinois: Unit less than county in Cook County.

48 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not Applicable

Table 7. Selection and Terms of Trial Court Judges
Indiana: 22 Until gubernatorial appointment or next general election. 23 Nominating commissions are used in Superior Courts in Allen and St. Joseph counties. Non-partisan elections in Vanderburgh and in some Lake county courts. Iowa: The District Court chief judge serves the entire court, including the District Associate judges and the judicial magistrates. 25 The county judicial magistrate appointing commission consists of 3 members appointed by county board and 2 elected by county bar, presided over by a District Court judge. 26 Shall supervise all judicial officers and court employees serving within the district. Fix the times and places of holding court, and shall designate the respective presiding judges, supervise the performance of all administrative and judicial business of the district, allocate the workloads of District Associate judges and magistrates, and conduct judicial conferences to consider, study, and plan for improvement of the administration of justice.
24 27

New Jersey: 36 In multimunicipality joint or countywide municipal courts, selection is by governor with senate's consent. 37 In municipalities with more than one judge, the governing body may appoint a “chief” judge. Regional Presiding Judges (Superior or Municipal Court Judges) are selected by the Chief Justice to assist in the administrative operations of the municipal courts in any of the 15 judicial administrative districts (i.e., vicinages). There are currently 9 Presiding Judges-Municipal Courts representing 12 the state’s 15 vicinages. 38 On reappointment till age 70. 39 The position of Presiding Judge-Municipal Court is established by Statute (N.J.S.A. 2B:12-9). Presiding Judges exercise the powers delegated to them by the Chief Justice and the Rules of Court. New Mexico: 40 The Governor must select a candidate from a list submitted by the district or metropolitan judges committee created by the constitution. New York: Appointment by Chief Executive Officer of county with confirmation by Board of Supervisors of district. 42 Housing judges are appointed for five year terms by the chief administrator of the courts.
41 43

Kansas: In two counties the municipal court judges are selected and appointed by the District Court judges. Kentucky: In addition, there are 16 chief regional judges (8 circuit, 8 district), selected by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for regional administration of cases. Louisiana: Depending upon the amount of time remaining, selection may be by nonpartisan election following Supreme Court appointment. Maine: At least one judge must be appointed from each of the thirteen districts who is a resident of the county in which the district lies.

28

North Carolina: Partisan election (resident judges), gubernatorial appointment (special judges). Ohio: Temporary assignment by chief justice of Supreme Court. South Dakota: The circuit court presiding judge serves the entire court, including the law magistrates division. Texas: There is a local administrative judge for statutory county courts (CCL) but no Constitutional County courts. Utah: Initial term of appointment is until the next general election, immediately following the third year from the time of initial appointment. Vermont: Administrative Judge for trial courts.

29

44

30

45

Maryland: Administrative judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of District Court with the approval of the Chief Justice of Court of Appeals. 32 Presiding judge for trial assigned by county administrative judge. Unsure whether “presiding” judge is administrative position. Maryland has 3 chief judges (COA; CSA; District Court). Chief judges by seniority and circuit/county administrative judges.
31 33

46

47

Massachusetts: The administrative head of the trial court is the “Chief Justice for Administration and Management.” Each department has a Chief Justice appointed by the “CJAM” to a 5 year term. Minnesota: In each judicial district, the Chief Judge, subject to the authority of the Chief Justice, shall exercise general administrative authority over the courts within the judicial district. The Chief Judge shall make assignments of judges to serve on the courts within the judicial district, and assignments may be made without the consent of the judges affected. The Chief Judge may assign any judge of any court within the judicial district to hear any matter in any court of the judicial district. When a judge of a court is assigned to another court the judge is vested with the powers of a judge of the court of assignment. A judge may not be assigned to hear matters outside the judge’s judicial district pursuant to this subdivision. Nebraska: The initial term is for at least 3 but not more than 5 years.

48

34

Wisconsin: The chief judge of a district can appoint a presiding judge in each multi-judge circuit. 50 Restricted to three successive terms. 51 There is only 1 multi-judge Municipal Court.
49 52

Puerto Rico: The 1994 Judiciary Act states that upon expiration of a district court judge term the position becomes a superior court judge position.

35

Federal: May be recalled by the Circuit Judicial Council with consent of the Chief Justice for a maximum of up to one year. 54 Ad hoc recall may be for a fixed (renewable) period of three years. 55 The office is filled by the judge in regular active service who, at the time of vacancy: (1) is senior in commission, (2) is under the age of 65, (3) has served at least one year as a District judge, and (4) who has not previously served as chief judge. 56 A “chief” or “administrative” magistrate judge position has not been formally established by statute or regulation.
53

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 49

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction Alabama G Circuit Court L District Court L Municipal Court L Probate Court Alaska G Superior Court L District Court 4 ~ Magistrates Arizona 5 G Superior Court L Justice of the Peace Court L Municipal Court Arkansas G Circuit Court G Chancery/Probate Court L Municipal Court L County Court L Police Court L Court of Common Pleas L City Court L Justice of the Peace Court California G Superior Court L Municipal Colorado G District Court G Denver Probate Court G Denver Juvenile Court G Water Court L County Court L Municipal Court Connecticut G Superior Court L Probate Court Delaware G Court of Chancery G Superior Court L Justice of the Peace Court L Family Court L Court of Common Pleas L Alderman's Court District of Columbia G Superior Court Florida G Circuit Court L County Court Local Residency 1 yr 1 yr Yes 2 1 yr N/S N/S N/S 1 yr Yes Varies N/S N/S Yes Yes N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S 54 days Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S No 7 Yes No Yes Yes 8 Yes Yes N/S 90 days State Residency 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 2 Citizen 5 yrs 5 yrs 6 mos 5 yrs Yes Varies 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes Yes N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 5 yrs Yes N/S District residency Yes Yes Minimum Age N/S N/S 18 2 N/S N/S 21 21 30 18 Varies 28 28 25 25 N/S 25 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 18 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Maximum Age 70 70 70 70
1

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications Yes Yes Yes 2 No Yes Yes No Yes No Varies Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S 6 No No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes 9 No Yes Licensed attorney Licensed attorney Licensed attorney N/S 5 yrs practice 3 ~ N/S Admitted to the practice of law in Arizona 5 years N/S Varies 6 yrs practice/bench 6 yrs practice/bench 3 yrs practice/bench N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 10 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar N/S N/S N/S Member of the bar No "Learned in Law" "Learned in Law" N/S 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar No 5 yrs state bar
10

70 70 N/S 70 70 Varies N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 72 72 72 N/S 72 72 70 70 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 74

Yes 12 Yes

11

N/S N/S

70 70

Yes Yes

5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar

50 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction Georgia G Superior Court L Juvenile Court L Civil Court L State Court L Probate Court L Magistrate Court L Municipal Court of Columbus L County Recorder's Courts L Municipal and City Courts of Atlanta Hawaii G Circuit Court L District Court Idaho G District Court ~ Magistrates Division Illinois G Circuit Court Indiana G Superior Court G Circuit Court G Probate Court L County Court L City Court L Town Court L Small Claims Court of Marion County Iowa G District Court ~ Magistrates Kansas G District Court L Municipal Court Kentucky G Circuit Court L District Court Louisiana G District Court G Family and Juvenile Court L Justice of the Peace Court L Mayor's Court L City and Parish Courts Maine G Superior Court L District Court L Probate Court L Administrative Court Maryland G Circuit Court L District Court L Orphan's Court Local Residency N/S N/S Varies Yes 2 yrs 1 yr Yes Varies Varies N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs N/S 2 yrs N/S N/S N/S N/S 6 mos 6 mos 1 yr State Residency 3 yr 3 yr Varies 3 yr N/S N/S N/S Yes N/S Yes Yes 1 yr 1 yr Yes 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs 2 yrs N/S 2 yrs N/S Yes Yes Yes 5 yrs 5 yrs N/S Minimum Age 30 30 Varies 25 15 25 25 25 Varies Varies N/S N/S N/S 30 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 18 N/S 18 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 N/S Maximum Age N/S N/S N/S 14 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Varies 70 70 N/S N/S 75 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 72 72 70 N/S
19 13

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications Yes Yes Yes Yes Varies No Yes Yes Varies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 18 Yes Yes No Yes 21 Varies Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
20

7 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar Varies 5 yrs state bar 16 Not required of all 17 N/S 5 yrs state bar Varies Varies 10 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 10 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 5 yrs state bar N/S 8 yrs state bar 2 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar N/S N/S 5 yrs state bar "Learned in the Law" State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member N/S

N/S N/S 70 70 70 N/S 70 N/S N/S N/S N/S 70 70 N/S

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 51

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction Massachusetts G Superior Court L District Court L Boston Municipal Court L Juvenile Court L Housing Court L Land Court L Probate and Family Court Michigan G Circuit Court G Court of Claims L District Court L Probate Court L Municipal Court Minnesota G District Court Mississippi G Circuit Court G Chancery Court L County Court L Family Court L Municipal Court L Justice Court Missouri G Circuit Court ~ Associates L Municipal Court Local Residency N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes N/S N/S N/S Yes N/S Yes Yes Circuit County Determined by municipality N/S N/S N/S 1 yr Yes County Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S 30 days Varies N/S N/S N/S N/S
26

State Residency N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs Yes Yes State votes for 3 yrs Yes Yes

Minimum Age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 26 26 26 26 N/S 18 30 25 21

Maximum Age 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 70 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 70 70 23 75

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 22 Yes No Yes Yes Varies N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice N/S N/S State bar member State bar member State bar member if population of 24 7,500 or more

Montana G District Court G Workers' Compensation Court G Water Court L Justice of the Peace Court L Municipal Court L City Court Nebraska G District Court L Separate Juvenile Court L Worker's Compensation Court L County Court Nevada G District Court L Justice Court L Municipal Court New Hampshire G Superior Court L District Court L Municipal Court L Probate Court New Jersey G Superior Court L Tax Court L Municipal Court

2 yrs N/S 2 yrs N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 2 yrs 6 months Varies N/S N/S N/S N/S
26

N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 30 30 25 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 70 70 70 70 70 70 N/S

Yes Yes Yes 25 No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Varies Varies N/S Yes Yes N/S Yes Yes Yes

5 yrs state bar N/S 5 yrs state bar N/S 2 yrs state bar N/S 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice 5 yrs practice N/S Varies Varies N/S State bar member State bar member N/S 10 yrs practice law 10 yrs practice law 5 yrs practice law

N/S N/S

N/S Yes

52 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction New Mexico G District Court L Magistrate Court L Bernalillo County Metropolitan L Municipal Court L Probate Court New York G Supreme Court G County Court L District Court L City Court L Criminal Court of NYC L Town and Village L Court of Claims L Surrogates' Court L Family Court North Carolina G Superior Court L District Court North Dakota G District Court L Municipal Court Ohio G Court of Common Pleas L Municipal Court L County Court L Court of Claims L Mayors Court Oklahoma G District Court Associate Special Municipal Criminal Court Municipal Court Not of Record Workers' Compensation Court Court of Tax Review Local Residency Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S County Yes Yes Yes Yes N/S County Yes ~ Yes Yes Yes County Territorial Territorial N/S N/S District County N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes N/S N/S 1 yr N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
28

State Residency 3 yrs Yes 3 yrs Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ~ ~ N/S N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 6 mos, if elected 6 mos, if elected Yes Yes Yes N/S N/S Yes 3 yrs N/S 3 yrs N/S 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr Yes

Minimum Age 35 18 N/S 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Maximum Age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 70 70 70 70 70 N/S 70 70 70 72 72 N/S N/S 70 70 70 No No N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 75 75 75 75 75 70 70 70 70 70
27

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes ~ 29 ~ Yes 30 N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No
29

6 yrs active practice N/S 3 yrs active practice and state bar member N/S N/S 10 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 10 yrs state bar N/S 10 yrs state bar 10 yrs state bar 10 yrs state bar State bar member State bar member State bar member 30 N/S 6 yrs practice 6 yrs practice 2 yrs practice 31 ~ N/S ~ ~
32 33

L L L L

N/S 33 ~ N/S N/S N/S State bar member 3 yrs state bar N/S N/S N/S State bar member State bar member Not required Not required Not required

Oregon G Circuit Court G Tax Court L County Court L Justice Court L Municipal Court Pennsylvania G Court of Common Pleas L Philadelphia Municipal Court L District Justice Court L Philadelphia Traffic Court L Pittsburgh City Magistrates Puerto Rico Court of First Instance: G Superior Court 34 L District Court L Municipal Court

N/S N/S N/S

N/S N/S N/S

N/S N/S N/S

70 70 70

Yes Yes Yes

7 yrs state bar 34 ~ 3 yrs State bar member

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 53

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction Rhode Island G Superior Court L District Court L Family Court L Probate Court L Municipal Court L Workers' Compensation Court L Administrative Adjudication Court South Carolina G Circuit Court L Family Court L Magistrate Court L Probate Court L Municipal Court South Dakota G Circuit Court ~ Law Magistrates ~ Lay Magistrates ~ Clerk/Magistrates Tennessee G Circuit Court G Chancery Court G Criminal Court G Probate Court L Juvenile Court L Municipal Court L General Sessions Court Texas G District Courts L Constitutional County Court L County Courts at Law L Justice of the Peace Court L Municipal Court Utah G District Court L Justice Court L Juvenile Court Vermont G Superior Court G District Court G Family Court L Probate Court L Environmental Court Virginia G Circuit Court L District Court Washington G Superior Court L District Court L Municipal Court West Virginia G Circuit Court L Magistrate Court L Municipal Court Local Residency N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S County elector N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr 1 yr State Residency N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs Citizen N/S Yes Yes Yes Yes 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs Minimum Age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 32 32 21 21 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 Maximum Age N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 72 72 72 N/S N/S 70 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member State bar member 8 yrs state bar 8 yrs state bar No No No State bar member State bar member H.S. graduate or GED H.S. graduate or GED Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law Qualified to practice law w/grandfathering provisions Qualified to practice law w/grandfathering provisions Qualified to practice law w/grandfathering provisions Yes No 36 Yes No Varies State bar member N/S State bar member
37 35

2 yrs N/S 2 yrs N/S Varies Yes 6 mos Yes N/S
38 39

N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 3 yrs 3 yrs 3 yrs 5 yrs 5 yrs ~ 1 yr 5 yrs Yes Yes 1 yr 1 yr N/S Yes Yes Yes

25 N/S 25 N/S Varies 25 25 25 N/S N/S ~ N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 30 21 N/S

75 N/S N/S N/S Varies 75 75 75 70 70 ~ 70 70 70 70 75 75 N/S N/S N/S N/S

Yes No Yes No Varies Yes No Yes Yes Yes ~ No Yes

N/S N/S Yes Yes 1 yr 1 yr County Yes Yes No

5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar ~ N/S 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar 5 yrs state bar State bar member N/S N/S 5 yrs state bar N/S N/S

Yes 40 Yes Yes 41 Yes 41 Yes Yes

40

42

No

54 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Table 8. Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judge
Court Type G = General jurisdiction L = Limited jurisdiction Wisconsin G Circuit Court L Municipal Court Wyoming G District Court L Justice of the Peace Court L Municipal Court L County Court Federal US District Court Judges US Magistrate Judges US Bankruptcy Judges FOOTNOTES:
Alabama: 1 The age prohibition of §6.16 is not a qualification for office, but only deals with retirement. 2 One of probate judgeships in Jefferson County requires that judge be learned in the law, a minimum age of 25 and resident of county for one year. Alaska: District Court: trial judge must have three years practice or have served as a magistrate for seven years. 4 Magistrates serve in district court.
3 5

Local Residency 10 days 10 days

State Residency 10 days 10 days

Minimum Age N/S N/S

Maximum Age N/S N/S

Law Degree Other Legal Qualifications Yes Locally determined Yes No No Yes N/S N/S N/S 5 yrs state bar Locally determined

N/S N/S N/S N/S Yes ~ Yes
43

2 yrs Yes N/S N/S ~ ~ ~

28 N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S

70 N/S N/S N/S N/S 44 70 N/S

N/S N/S N/S N/S N/S 45 5 yrs state bar and 5 yrs practice N/S

43

Kansas: 19 Judge may complete term in which he/she attains age 70. 20 District court: a law degree is required for 149 of 218 judgeships. The remaining sixty-nine judgeships are district magistrate judges, not required to have a law degree, but must be certified by the supreme court if not an attorney. 21 Municipal courts require admission to practice law in Kansas in first class cities (24); other municipal judges and district magistrate judges are required to be certified as qualified to serve by the supreme court, if not admitted to practice law in Kansas.
22

Arizona: The tax court is a department of the Superior Court; it is not a separate court. Colorado: County Court: a law degree is required in metropolitan areas. Connecticut: Probate Court: must be an elector of a town within the district. Delaware: There are local residency requirements for the Chief Judge of family court. Alderman's Court: in the city of Newark, a law degree is required. District of Columbia: Superior court: judge must also be an active member of the unified District of Columbia bar and have been engaged, during the five years immediately preceding the judicial nomination, in the active practice of law in the District, or the faculty of a law school in the District, or employed as an attorney by the United States, or District of Columbia government. Florida: Circuit court: must reside within the territorial jurisdiction of the court. County court: judges must reside within the territorial jurisdiction of the court.

Mississippi: For cities over 10,000 population.

6

Missouri: Maximum age reduced to 70 effective 8/28/93. 24 If not an attorney, must complete course prescribed by supreme court.
23 25

7

8 9

Montana: Justice of the peace court: although a law degree is not required, the judges may be attorneys, must have served in judicial capacity for at least 5 years; and passed the certification exam (the requirement of passing the certification exam may be waived by the supreme court). New Jersey: Superior court: out of a total of 416 authorized judgeships (including thirty-three in the appellate division), there are 274 restricted superior court judgeships that require residence within the particular county of assignment at time of appointment and reappointment; there are 142 unrestricted judgeships for which assignment of county is made by the chief justice. New York: Supreme court: the maximum age of 70 may be extended up to three intervals of two years each.

10

26

11 12

27

Georgia: Superior court: there is no maximum age stated; however, judges who are members of the 1976 retirement plan and serve beyond age 75 may not be eligible for retirement benefits. 14 State court: no maximum age stated; however, if a member of the Trial Judges Retirement Plan after 1/1/80 and serves beyond age 70, benefits are forfeited. 15 The minimum age requirement for probate judges is 25. If law practice is required, the minimum age is 30. 16 Where the population exceeds 96,000, the probate judge must have practiced law for seven years. 17 Magistrate court: the laws of local application may provide for additional legal qualifications.
13 18

North Carolina: Yes, resident judges. No, special judges. 29 Law degree not required if elected prior to January 1, 1981.
28 30

North Dakota: Municipal court: a law degree and state bar membership is required in cities with over 3,000 population. Ohio: Must be incumbent or retired judges, justices of supreme court, court of appeals, or court of common pleas.

31

Indiana: Small Claims Court of Marion County: a law degree is required unless a nonattorney judge has been grandfathered in.

Oklahoma: District court: judges must be a state bar member for four years or a judge of court of record. 33 Associate judges and municipal court of records: judges must be a state bar member for two years or a judge of court record.
32

Legend: N/S=Not stated, ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 55

Table 8—Qualifications to Serve as a Trial Court Judges

Puerto Rico: 34 The 1994 Judiciary Act states that upon expiration of a district judge term the position turns into a superior court judge until district court judges positions are all converted into superior judges positions. Texas: District court: judges must have been a practicing lawyer or a judge of a court in this state, or both combined, for four years. 36 County court at law: judges must be a licensed attorney in this state who has practiced law or served as a judge at a court in this state, or both combined, for at least four years, unless otherwise provided for by law.
35

Vermont: Required only for superior court judges; not for assistant judges. 38 Must reside in geographic unit. 39 Superior or district court judges are assigned to serve as family court judges; qualifications are the same.
37 40

Virginia: Circuit/district courts: judges must have a law degree or have completed an approved three-year course of study under the supervision of a practicing attorney. Washington: Statute allows non attorneys to serve in districts less than 5,000 population, after being certified on a qualifying examination. West Virginia: Magistrate court: all magistrates must take a course in rudimentary principles of law before assuming duties.

41

42

Federal: District residency is required, except in the District of Columbia, and the Southern and Eastern Districts of NY. 44 For initial appointment, must not be 70 years or older. However, a magistrate judge may continue to serve and be reappointed after age 70 upon a majority vote of the active district judges of the court, which is taken when the judge reaches age 70 and upon each anniversary thereafter. 45 The bar requirement may be waived for a part-time magistrate judge if the appointing court and the Judicial Conference of the US determine that no qualified individual who is a member of the bar is available to serve at a specific location.
43

56 State Court Organization, 1998

Table 9. Judicial Nominating Commissions
Name of Commission Judicial Commission Offices Encompassed Jefferson County Circuit Court, Madison County Circuit and District Court, Tuscaloosa County Circuit and District Court, Mobile County Circuit and District Court Authorization Jefferson County Authorization: 2 Constitutional Amendments; Madison County Authorization: Constitutional Amendments and Local Act; Mobile County Authorization: Constitutional Amendment; Tuscaloosa County Authorization: Local Act Constitutional and Statutory Year Established Jefferson County, 1950; Madison County, 1973; Mobile County, 1982; Tuscaloosa County, 1990 Interim Yes Full No Retention No

Alabama

Alaska

Judicial Council

Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Superior Court, and District Court

1959

~

Yes

No

Arizona

Commission on Appellate Court Appointments, Maricopa County Commission on Trial Court Appointments; Pima County Commission on Trial Court Appointments Appellate Court Nominating Commission, Judicial District Nominating Commission

Constitutional Arizona Supreme Court Court of Appeals Superior Court in Maricopa County Superior Court in Pima County

1974

Yes

Yes

No

Colorado

Constitutional Appellate Court Nominating Committee: Supreme Court and Court of Appeals; Judicial District Nominating Committee: District and County Courts (except Denver County Court) Supreme, Appellate, and Superior Courts Constitutional

1966

~

Yes

No

Connecticut Delaware

Judicial Selection Commission Judicial Nominating Committee Magistrates Screening Committee

1986 1979

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Executive order Judicial Nominating Committee: All, including Chief Magistrate (not JOP); Magistrate Screening Committee: Justices of the Peace (except Chief Magistrate) Court of Appeals and Superior Statutory Court Appellate: Constitutional; Appellate Court Nominating Circuit Constitutional Committee, Supreme Court and District Court of Appeal Circuit, County Court Nominating Committee Circuit Judicial Executive Order Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Superior, State Court: All where Governor appoints or fills vacancies Supreme Court, Intermediate Court of Appeals, Circuit, Family, and District Courts Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and District Court Judges Constitutional

District of Columbia Florida

Judicial Nomination Commission Supreme Court Nominating Committee; District Courts of Appeal Nominating Committee; Circuit Judicial Nominating Committee Judicial Nominating Commission

1973 Appellate: 1973; Circuit: 1973

~

Yes

Yes

Appellate: Appellate: Appellate: Yes; Circuit: Yes; Circuit: No; Circuit: No No Yes

Georgia

1973

Yes

No

1

No

Hawaii

Judicial Selection Commission Judicial Council

1978

~

Yes

Yes

Idaho

Statutory

1967

Yes

No

2

No

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 57

Table 9. Judicial Nominating Commissions
Name of Commission Judicial Nominating Commission Judicial Nominating Commission and District Judicial Nominating Commission Offices Encompassed Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Tax Court JNC: Supreme Court and Court of Appeals DJNC: District Court Authorization Constitutional JNC: Constitutional, DJNC: Constitutional and statutory Year Established 1970 1962 Interim ~ Yes Full Yes Yes Retention No No

Indiana Iowa

Kansas

Appellate: Supreme Court and Both: Constitutional and Appellate: Supreme Statutory, Statutory (IAC) Court of Appeals; DJNC: Court and Court of and Trial Courts District Court Appeals Nominating Commissions; Trial Court: District Judicial Nominating Commission Judicial Nominating Commission Appellate Judicial Nominating Commission and Trial Courts Judicial Nominating Commission Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Circuit Court, and District Court Appellate Court Nominating Commission: Judges of the Court of Appeals and Court of Special Appeals; Trial Courts Judicial Nominating Commission: Judges of the Circuit Courts and the District Court Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court, Appeals Court, and Trial Court of the Commonwealth; some clerkmagistrates District Court Constitutional

Appellate: Appellate: 1959 (Supreme Ct), 1976 Yes; Trial (Court of Appeals); Court: Yes Trial Court: 1975

Appellate: Yes; Trial Court: Yes

Both: No

Kentucky

Ratified: Nov. 1975 Effective: 1/76 1970
3

Yes

No

No

Maryland

Executive order

Yes

Appellate: Yes; Trial: Yes

Appellate: No; Trial: Circuit: Yes District: No

Massachusetts

Judicial Nominating Commission

Executive order

Temporarily 1972 Permanently 1975

~

Yes

~

Minnesota Missouri

Judicial Nominating Committee Appellate Judicial Commission; and Circuit Judicial Commission Judicial Nominating Committee

Statutory

~ Appellate: 1940; Circuit: varies 1973

Yes ~

No

4

No No

Appellate: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court of Appeals; Circuit: Circuit Court Supreme Court, District Court, Statutory (from earlier Workers' Compensation Court, survey) and Water Court

Yes

Montana

Yes

Yes, Workers' Compensati on Court and Water Court only Yes No Yes

Yes, Workers' Compensati on Court and Water Court only No No No

Nebraska Nevada New Mexico

Judicial Nominating Commission Commission on Judicial Selection

All Nebraska courts Supreme Court and District Court

Constitutional Constitutional Constitutional

1962 1976 1988

~ Yes Yes

Supreme Court, Court of Appellate Judges Nominating Commission; Appeals, District Courts, and Metropolitan Court District Judges Nominating Committee; Metropolitan Court Judges Nominating Committee Court of Appeals Nominating Commission State Judicial Screening Committee Departmental Judicial Screening Committee Court of Appeals Court of Claims Appellate Divisions of Supreme Court and Supreme Court

New York

Constitutional and Statutory Executive Order Executive Order

1978 1983 1983

No Yes Supreme Court only

Yes Yes

No Yes

Appellate Yes Division only

58 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Table 9. Judicial Nominating Commissions
Name of Commission Offices Encompassed County Judicial Screening County, Surrogates', and Committee Family (outside NYC) Courts Authorization Executive Order Year Established 1983 Interim Full Retention No Yes County, Surrogates', Family (outside NYC) No Yes Yes (Criminal, Family only) Yes Yes No No No No

New York, continued

Mayor's Committee on the Criminal, Civil, and Family Judiciary Courts North Dakota Oklahoma Judicial Nominating Committee Judicial Nominating Committee Supreme and District Courts Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Court of Criminal Appeals, District Court, and Workers' Compensation Court

Executive Order (mayor)

~

Constitutional: Supreme Court and District Courts Constitutional: Supreme Court and Court of Criminal Appeals; Statutory: Court of Appeals, District Court, and Workers' Compensation Court Executive Order 1995-1 (dated 2/27/95) ~ ~ Constitutional Statutory

1981 1967

Pennsylvania

Office of General Counsel Office of General Counsel Appellate Court Judges for Governor Judicial Judicial Advisory Commission Advisory Commission Trial Court Judges Judicial Nominating Commission Judicial Merit Selection Commission Judicial Qualifications Committee Judicial Section ~ Supreme Court of Appeals, Circuit and Family Supreme and Circuit Courts Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Court of Criminal Appeals

When need arises

Yes

No

No

Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee

~ ~ 1980 1971

~ ~ Yes Yes

~ ~ No No

~ ~ No No

Utah

Appellate Court Supreme Court, Court of Nominating Commission, Appeals, District Court, and Trial Court Nominating Juvenile Court 5 Commission Judicial Nominating Commission Governor's Advisory Committee on Judicial Selection

Constitutional (statutory for 1984 composition)

Yes

Yes

No

Vermont

Constitutional and Supreme, Superior, District, and Environmental Courts and Statutory Family Court magistrates Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, and Circuit Court Executive Order

1967

Yes

Yes

No

Wisconsin

~

Yes

No

No

Judicial Nominating Supreme, District, and County Constitutional Committee Court Note: Only those states with Judicial Nominating Commissions appear on this table. FOOTNOTES:
Georgia: 1 Frequently the governor makes an initial appointment for a new judgeship, dependent upon the legislation. Idaho: 2 If a new position is created, applicants are screened by the judicial council.

Wyoming

1972

Yes

Yes

No

Maryland: 3 The first nominating commissions were established in 1970; however, additional commissions have been instituted since that time and the commissions restructured. Minnesota: 4 If a new position is created, applicants are screened by the judicial council. Utah: 5 There is a trial court nominating commission for each of eight judicial districts.

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 59

Table 10. Provisions for Mandatory Judicial Education

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

General Jurisdiction Judges Initial/Pre-Bench Education Mandated Required Hours Sources of Funding Required s s None S s None S 3 s s 60 S/M/T 6 s None S s s7 s
13

Continuing Education Annual Mandated Hours Sources of Funding None S None S1 16 S/M/T 12 S None 15 249 30 None 10 12 32 None None 36 15 12 2518 15 None 28 None 12 15 12 15 15 None 12 12 15 15 1222 1524 15 20 12 4525 None None 10 1529 None 15 16 30 64 12 15 15 30 15 S/M S S S ~ S/F S S S ~ S/M/T S S/F S T ~ S S S S S/F S S S M/F S S S/F/T S S S S/M/T S ~ ~ S S S/T S S S/M30 S S S S S S S

168 None 1019 None None 80 12 None

S S S ~ ~ F S ~ ~ S S S S S ~ ~ S S S S F S ~ S F S S ~ N/S S S S ~ ~ S S S S ~ S S30 S S S S S S ~

s8 s s s s s s s s s s s
20

s s

s
16 17

None None None None None 25 None None None None 56 None N/S None None None 120 None 70 None 35 1523 40 None None None

s s
19 20

s
21

s
21

s s s

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s32 s s s

s s s s s s

s s s28 s

40 None None 17 None None 30

s s s s32 s s

None 100 86 None None 30 None

60 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend:~=Not Applicable, N/S=None Stated, S=State, M=Local, F=Fees, T=Tuition, s=Yes

Table 10. Provisions for Mandatory Judicial Education

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Limited Jurisdiction Judges Initial/Pre-Bench Education Mandated Required Hours Sources of Funding Required s s None S s None S 4 s s 75 S/M/T s None S s s7 s s ~ s s 168 None 20 375 ~ 80 N/S15 None ~
16

Continuing Education Annual Mandated Hours Sources of Funding None S None S2 16 S/M/T 12 S None 15 15 30 ~ 10 N/S15 32 None ~ 36 15 12 2518 15 None 28 None 12 ~ 18 15 None None 1 12 6 15 1222 1524 8 20 None None 32 None 10 15 None 15 16 30 64 12 15 None 12 15
29

S S ~10 S ~ F S/M/F ~ ~ ~ S/M S S S ~ ~ S S S ~ F S ~ S F S S/M S/F S S M S ~ ~ S S S S ~ S/M S30 S S S S S M ~

s s8 s s ~ s s s s ~ s s s s s
20

S/M S ~10 S ~ M/F S/M/F S S ~ S/M/T S S S T ~ S S S ~ F S M S M/F S S/M S/F S S M S/M/T ~ ~ S S S S/T S S/M S/M30 S/T S S S S M S

s s s

None ~ None 13 None 25 None

20

s
21

s ~ s

None None None 56 ~ 32 None None None 80 None 24 40 35 1523 16 None None None 16027 None None 22 None None 30

s
21

s ~ s s s s s s s s s s

s s s s s s s

26

s s s28 s

s s s s s s s s s s32 s s s

s s s s32 s s

None 100 86 None None 12 None

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S=None Stated, S=State, M=Local, F=Fees, T=Tuition, s=Yes

Judicial selection and service 61

Table 10. Provisions for Mandatory Judicial Education

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Appellate Court Judges Initial/Pre-Bench Education Mandated Required Hours Sources of Funding Required None ~ s None S s s ~ ~5 6 s None S s
7 11 13 14

Continuing Education Annual Mandated Hours Sources of Funding None ~ None S 16 S/T 12 S None 15 None 30 None 10 12 None S S ~ S ~ F S ~ S ~ S/T S S S T ~ S S S S S/F S S S S S S S/F/T S S S S/M/T S T ~ S S S/T S S S/M S S S S ~ S S

None None None None None 40 None None None None None None None None None

S ~ ~ ~ ~ F ~ ~ ~ ~ S ~ S ~ ~ ~ S S ~ S S/F S ~ S ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S ~ ~ ~ S S S ~ S S ~ S ~ S ~ S ~

s8
12

s
14

s

s s

s s s s s s
20

16

None None 36 15 12 2518 15 None 28 None 12 15 12 15 15 None 12 12 15 15 1222 1524 15 20 12 45 None None 10 15 None 15 16 30 64 12 None None 30 15
29

20

s
21

s

None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None

s
21

s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s s31 s

s s28 s

None None None 6 None None 30 None

s

50 None None None None None

s s

62 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend:~=Not Applicable, N/S=None Stated, S=State, M=Local, F=Fees, T=Tuition, s=Yes

Table 10. Provisions for Mandatory Judicial Education
FOOTNOTES:
Alaska: 1 Court conducts annual judicial training at the Judicial Conference—Mandatory. CLE credits given if curriculum is co-developed with Alaska Bar Association. New judges are sent to National Judicial College, if funding is available, in first year of appointment to the bench. 2 Magistrates have in-state training course and annual conference. Arizona: One program—several days. One program—several days. 5 Done individually—varies.
3 4 6

Massachusetts: 21 The Judicial Institute, a statutory body integrated into the organization of the Administrative Office of the Trial Court, conducts educational and training programs. The Judicial Institute is funded by state appropriations. The Flaschner Institute, a non-governmental charitable corporation supported by contributions, grants and contracts, also conducts educational programs for MA judges. While no requirement for on-going judicial education exists, judges are mandated to participate in specified programs and courses developed and identified on the basis of current and future needs of the system. The number of mandated programs varies each year.
22

Arkansas: AOC provides pre-bench training and all judges attend, but it is not required.

New York: Biannual cycle—24 hours are required every two years.

Colorado: Initial/pre-bench education is a one-time training. 8 Continuing education is the requirement of the Colorado Bar Association, which requires forty-five hours every three years for all members.
7

Connecticut: There is no credit based requirement in Connecticut. 10 Funding comes from a probate administration fund. This is public money. 11 Although not mandatory, many new appellate judges participate in initial appellate conferences/seminars. 12 Although not mandatory, many of the appellate judges attend the annual New England Appellate Judges Conference.
9 13

North Carolina: Every judge in the general jurisdiction court and the limited jurisdiction court is required to attend a course of instructional orientation for new judges within the first year after appointment or election, which counts toward the thirty-hour biennial continuing education requirements. 24 Every justice or judge is required to complete thirty hours biennially of continuing legal or judicial education and at least twenty hours of it shall be judicial education.
23

Delaware: Delaware is currently developing a pre-bench orientation program for newly appointed judges. District of Columbia: By statute, the Chief Judge of the Appellate Court is required to hold an annual judicial training conference. Georgia: Varies. Indiana: Initial or pre-bench education is not required, but is provided through the Indiana Judicial Center. Iowa: Offered but not required by law or rule. Most all new judges attend the two-day in-state program and a three-week course at the National Judicial College. Kentucky: In a two-year period. Louisiana: Strongly encouraged, but not mandatory. Maine: Although neither pre-bench or continuing education is required, our Judicial Education Committee budgets for our judges to attend courses at the National Judicial College and elsewhere and offers a number of seminars for the education of judges.

Oregon: Same for all lawyers/judges: a mandatory CLE requirement through state bar and rules approved by state Supreme Court. No separate “judge” CLE requirement. 26 No, none mandatory; but AOC offers a two-week “New Judge Orientation” program that is strongly encouraged and most attend.
25 27

Pennsylvania: Four-week certification course and test must be completed. Members of the Pennsylvania Bar are exempt from the course and the test. Rhode Island: The pre-bench requirement is attendance at the National Judicial College. South Carolina: Annual Judicial Conference (8 hours). Texas: There is a $1.00 assessment in all criminal convictions. This money goes into a fund, Fund 540, which is specifically allocated for Judicial and Court Support Personnel Training. The Court of Criminal Appeals includes in its appropriations request to the legislature, a line item for Fund 540. These funds are then available, through a grant application process, to various judicial education entities in the state. Vermont: Continuing education for appellate court judges, while not mandated, is available and provided on an as-needed basis. Washington: Education requirements are set forth in judicial association by-laws. No sanctions exist for non-compliance.

14

28

15

29

16

30

17

18

31

19

32

20

Legend: ~=Not Applicable, N/S=None Stated, S=State, M=Local, F=Fees, T=Tuition, s=Yes

Judicial selection and service 63

Table 11. Judicial Performance Evaluation
Name/ Authorization Alaska Judicial Council/ Statutes: §22.05.100 §22.07.060 §22.10.150 §22.15.155 Arizona Const. Art.6, Section 42 Evaluation Procedures Uses evaluation forms completed by court participants. Only judges up for retention election are evaluated. Evaluation Committee Duties Membership 7 members: 3 state bar The judicial council will conduct an appointed attorneys; 3 nonevaluation of each judge in time for inclusion in the election pamphlet when a attorneys, and the Chief Justice of the Supreme judge is up for retention election. These pamphlets are mailed to every registered Court. Alaskan voter. Develop, review, and recommend written performance standards by which judicial performance is to be evaluated. Create and supervise a system of periodic review of judges. Identify areas in need of improvement. Request public comment on performance of all judges. Prepare a report for voters. Develops techniques, guidelines, and forms for judicial evaluation and dissemination of information to public; develops and distributes surveys to court participants, and promulgates rules for effectuating duties. Performs judicial evaluations. Colo. Rev. Stat. §§13-5.5103, 105. Seeks qualified candidates for the Governor to consider nomination; evaluates incumbent judges who seek reappointment. The Commission’s jurisdiction embraces four areas: (1) a judge’s conduct warranting disciplinary action, (2) involuntary retirement of a judge due to a physical or mental disability, (3) evaluation of a judge at the end of his/her term and who seeks reappointment to another term, (4) fitness review of a judge who retires and wishes to continue his/her judicial service as a senior judge. 30 members: includes the public, lawyers, and judges.

Alaska

Arizona

Anonymous survey forms distributed to court participants seeking evaluation of a judge’s abilities and skills (includes anonymous narrative comments). Also public comment and hearings, all of which result in a factual report issued in the judge’s election year. State Commission (for appellate judges) or District Commission (for trial judges) prepares evaluation profile on each judge standing for re-election and provides this to the public.

Colorado

State Commission on Judicial Performance/ §13-5.5-101

10 members each: 4 attorneys, 6 non-attorneys. 4 year terms.

Connecticut

Judicial Selection Commission/ §51-44a D.C. Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure/Title 11 Appx. IV433

Investigation and interview of judge’s skills resulting in a recommendation for reappointment or a hearing to further examine judge’s abilities. Written evaluation when active associate judge declares himself/herself a candidate, and requests reappointment to another fifteen year term. Committee must determine if he/she is well qualified (automatic reappointment); qualified (subject to nomination and approval); or unqualified.

12 members; six attorneys and six non-attorneys appointed by legislative leaders. 7 members. All serve 6 year terms except the President’s appointee who serves a 5 year term. 1 member is appointed by the President of the U.S.; 2 are appointed by the Mayor, 1 of which must be an attorney; 1 is appointed by the City Council of D.C.; and 1 is appointed by the Chief Judge of the U.S. District Court for D.C. All must be residents of D.C. ~

District of Columbia

Florida

Joint project of the state judiciary and the Florida Bar; authorized by the supreme court Judicial Performance Committee (Supreme Court, Rule 19)

A confidential means by which attorneys can communicate perceived strengths and weaknesses of judicial performance, thereby assisting the judges in eliminating weaknesses and enhancing strengths. Participation is voluntary Confidential attorney-completed questionnaires.

Committee developed the process only. The evaluation forms go directly to the judge, no committee reviews the evaluations. The evaluations are confidential under Florida Rule of Judicial Administration 2.051(c)(4). To improve individual judges’ performance; the provide information for retention and appointment decisions; to facilitate the effective assignment of judges; to improve judicial education programs; to help the chief justice with administrative responsibilities.

Hawaii

Supreme Court special committee on judicial performance; 13 members appointed by the chief justice.

64 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: N/S=Not Stated

Table 11. Judicial Performance Evaluation
Name/ Authorization Planning and Oversight Committee for a Judicial Performance Evaluation Program/SCR58 Judicial Administration Section Council/ State Bar Association Evaluation Procedures Must be confidential. Details of evaluation procedure determined by contractee (currently Loyola University). Evaluation Committee Duties Membership N/S Improvement of Judiciary as a whole through confidential evaluation. Contracts out actual evaluation (currently Loyola University).

Illinois

Maryland

Exit polling of attorneys

Development and Implementation of an evaluation process

Eighteen members of the State Bar Association

Massachusetts

Supreme Judicial Anonymous questionnaires given to Court/ 211§26 to court participants in a representative sample of cases. Completed 26b evaluation shall be available to judge and discussed with him.

Design and implement program for performance evaluation of judges. Evaluate judges with 4 years experience once every 12-18 months, evaluate judges with > 4 years experience every 18-36 months. Design programs for judges who do not meet standards. Develop standards for evaluating courts.

Supreme Judicial Court and Chief Justice for administration and management.

Michigan

Supreme Court/ §600.238

Trial Court Performance Standards Commission appointed by Supreme Court to develop performance standards.

N/S

Minnesota

Joint Supreme Court, Conference of Chief Judges, and Minnesota District Judges Association Committee State Bar Association Trial Court Administrative Judge

Each judicial district has developed an The joint committee offers technical assistance to judges and districts. individualized process with varying procedures. All processes are voluntary. The Appellate Court review process is expected to be implemented in July 1999.

Trial and appellate court judges

Nebraska New Hampshire

Survey of attorneys Anonymous questionnaires given to court staff and constituents supplemented with self-assessment questionnaires. Administrative Judge reviews results with Judge being evaluated. During review period for a judge (about 9 months), anonymous surveys are sent to all attorneys who appeared before that judge and to appellate judges who have heard a case from that judge. Evaluates judges every 3 years.

N/S Design and implement periodic judicial performance evaluations; confer with evaluated judge, including recommended changes, training, and education

N/S Administrative Judge

New Jersey

Judicial Performance Committee/ RGA 1:35A-1

Administer the Judicial Performance Program; evaluate judges and educational programs to enable judges to improve their performance.

At least 6 judges, 3 attorneys, 2 members of public with additional number of people fixed by Supreme Court 3-year terms. 9 members: supreme court judge; 1 member experienced in administrative/ managerial matters; and at least 1 non-attorney; 3 year terms.

Puerto Rico

Judicial Evaluation Commission

Performs evaluations; surveys attorneys, peers, jurors, presiding judge, selfevaluation. Report is discussed with judge. Report submitted to judge and used for self-improvement. Makes recommendations on renomination, promotion to the Governors, and continuing education of judges. Evaluates the work, productivity and judiciary load of the courts. Implement and administer the judicial performance evaluation program. Goals are to improve judiciary and judicial education programs.

Rhode Island

Judicial Performance Evaluation Committee

All judges evaluated biannually employing “acceptable, professionally recognized methods of data collection.”

6 judges; 3 members of state bar; 2 members of public familiar with judicial system; 2 -year terms.

Legend: N/S=Not Stated

Judicial selection and service 65

Table 11. Judicial Performance Evaluation
Name/ Authorization Judicial Evaluation Commission expires 6/30/2002/ §17-4-201; §429-223 Evaluation Procedures All appellate judges evaluated using results of evaluation surveys, personal information in a self-reporting form, and any other comments/information. Final report of less than 600 words per judge published not less than 180 days before the qualifying deadline in a general circulation daily newspaper in specified parts of the state. Trial judges evaluated for self-improvement only. Surveys attorneys and jurors, combines results with case under advisement, rating compliance with education standards, the code of judicial conduct and the code of judicial administration, as well as physical and mental competency to produce evaluation for certification. Evaluation Committee Duties Membership 12 members: 4 state court Perform evaluations; submit reports to judges; 2 non-lawyers; 3 public; conduct public interviews; submit copies of evaluations to judges and allow members appointed by speaker of senate; 3 response. members appointed by speaker of house of representatives

Tennessee

Utah

Utah Judicial Council with Standing Committee on Judicial Performance Evaluation/ CJA R3-111 CJA R3-110 §78-3-21 Judicial Performance Evaluation Committee/ Supreme Court charge and designation

Determine if each judge meets standards of performance, certify each judge who is entitled; notify judges not entitled to certification; hold hearings with requesting judges provide information to Office of Lt. Governor for publication in voter information pamphlet; provide information to appointing authority for municipal judges. Certify commissioners and remove those not entitled from office; Administer Judicial Evaluation Program.
2

14 members: Chief Justice of Supreme Court; 12 members to be elected by judges of various courts; and 1 member of Board of Commissioners. 3-year terms.1

Vermont

Under development

2,3

2

Note: Only those states with judicial performance evaluation appear on this table. FOOTNOTES:
Utah: 1 The evaluation of judges and court commissioners is conducted by the Utah Judicial Council. The Standing Committee on Judicial Performance Evaluation (SCJPE) administers the program and recommends policies and procedures for the program. The membership of the SCJPE is 2 lawyers, one of whom serves as chair, 3 members of the public, 1 court commissioner and one judge from each of five levels of court. Vermont A pilot program was implemented. The Judicial Performance Evaluation Committee is now reviewing the results of the pilot program. 3 The pilot program used attorney questionnaires, litigant exit surveys, selfassessment, and caseload management reports.
2

66 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: N/S=Not Stated

Table 12. Judicial Discipline: Investigating and Adjudicating Bodies
Number of: Lay Persons 2 Appeals from Adjudication Are Filed with: Supreme Court Name of Final Disciplining Body Court of the Judiciary Point at Which Reprimands Are Made Public Filing of complaint with Court of the Judiciary Filing of recommendation with Supreme Court Commission on Judicial Conduct determines if there is probable cause to bring formal charges. At disposition of case Upon filing of record by committee with Supreme Court Adjudication Public censure is issued at least 10 days after notice to the judge, provided that if the judge appeals, there is an automatic stay of disclosure. Upon issuance of opinion and imposition of sanction

Alabama

Investigating Body Judicial Inquiry Committee

Judges 3

Lawyers 2

Adjudicating Body Court of the Judiciary

Alaska

Committee on Judicial Conduct

3

3

3

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

Arizona

Commission on Judicial Conduct

6

2

3

Commission on Judicial Conduct

No appeal

Supreme Court

Arkansas

Judicial Discipline and Disability Committees Committee on Judicial Performance Committee on Judicial Discipline Judicial Review Council

3

3

3

Commission

Supreme Court

Supreme Court Supreme Court

California

5

2

2

Supreme Court

No appeal

Colorado Connecticut

4 3

2 3

4 6

Commission on Judicial Discipline Judicial Review Council; Supreme Court Council on Probate Judicial Conduct

No appeal Supreme Court

Supreme Court Supreme Court

Council on Probate Judicial Conduct

2

1

2

Supreme Court

Supreme Court

Delaware

Preliminary Committee of the Court on the Judiciary Investigatory Committee of the Court on the Judiciary

0

4

2

Court on the Judiciary

No appeal

Court on the Judiciary

7

0

0

District of Columbia

Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure

1

1

4

1

2

1

Commission on Judicial Disabilities and Tenure

Federal judge panel 3 appointments by chief justice of Supreme Court No appeal

Committee on Judicial. Disabilities and Tenure Supreme 5 Court

Filing of order with D.C. Court of 2 Appeals

Florida

Judicial Qualifications Commission

6

3

2

5

Judicial Qualifications 4 Commission

Filing of formal charges by Committee with Supreme Court Clerk Formal Hearing

Georgia

Judicial Qualifications Commission

2

3

2

Supreme Court

No appeal

Supreme Court

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 67

Table 12. Judicial Discipline: Investigating and Adjudicating Bodies
Number of: Lay Persons 4 Appeals from Adjudication Are Filed with: ~ Name of Final Disciplining Body Supreme Court Point at Which Reprimands Are Made Public Imposition of public discipline by Supreme Court Filing with Supreme Court Filing of complaint by Judicial Inquiry Board to Courts Commission Institution of Formal Proceedings Application by the commission to the Supreme Court Reprimand is published by Supreme court if approved by Supreme Court. Application of judge under investigation After final disposition by Supreme Court Filing of report to Supreme Judicial Court Filing of record by Committee to Court of Appeals After final disposition of complaint Filing of formal complaint by commission with Supreme Court Filing of formal charges by Committee with Supreme Court Recommendation of Commission to Supreme Court

Hawaii

Investigating Body Commission on Judicial Conduct

Judges 0

Lawyers 3

Adjudicating Body Supreme Court

Idaho Illinois

Judicial Council Judicial Inquiry Board

2 2

2 3

3 4

Supreme Court

No appeal

Supreme Court Courts Commission

Courts Commission No appeal

Indiana

Judicial Qualifications Committee Commission on Judicial Qualifications Commission on Judicial Qualifications

1

3

3

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court Supreme Court

Iowa

1

2

4

Supreme Court

~

Kansas

4

3

2

Supreme Court

Supreme Court

Supreme Court

Kentucky

Judicial Retirement and Removal Commission Judiciary Commission Committee on Judicial Responsibility and Disability Commission on Judicial Disabilities

3

1

2

Judicial Retirement and Removal Commission Supreme Court

Supreme Court

Judicial Retirement and Removal Commission Supreme Court Supreme Judicial Court

Louisiana

3

3

3

No appeal

Maine

2

2

3

Supreme Judicial Court

No appeal

Maryland

4

2

1

Court of Appeals

~

Court of Appeals Supreme Judicial Court Supreme Court

Massachusetts Commission on Judicial Conduct Michigan Judicial Tenure Commission

3

3

3

Supreme Judicial Court Supreme Court

~

5

2

2

Supreme Court

Minnesota

Board of Judicial Standards

3

2

4

Supreme Court

No appeal

Supreme Court

Mississippi

Commission on Judicial Performance

4

1

2

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

68 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Table 12. Judicial Discipline: Investigating and Adjudicating Bodies
Number of: Lay Persons 2 Appeals from Adjudication Are Filed with: Supreme Court Name of Final Disciplining Body Supreme Court Point at Which Reprimands Are Made Public Filing of recommendation by Committee to Supreme Court Filing of record by Committee with Supreme Court Filing of complaint instigating formal hearing Upon filing of report by Committee and service upon judge Final written opinion and judgment ordering disciplinary action or if subject of the complaint has received a total of three or more private reprimands, or other informal adjustments during the four years preceding the filing of the most recent complaint Filing of presentment by Committee with Supreme Court Filing of record by Commission with Supreme Court Completion of service of record on respondent

Missouri

Investigating Body Commission on Retirement, Removal and Discipline Judicial Standards Commission Commission on Judicial Qualification Commission on Judicial Discipline

Judges 2

Lawyers 2

Adjudicating Body Commission on Retirement, Removal and Discipline Supreme Court

Montana

2

1

2

No appeal

Supreme Court Supreme Court

Nebraska

4

3

3

Supreme Court

No appeals

Nevada

2

2

3

Commission on Judicial Discipline

Supreme Court

Commission on Judicial Discipline

New Hampshire

Committee on Judicial Conduct

4

2

3

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

New Jersey

Advisory Committee on Judicial Conduct Judicial Standards Commission Commission on Judicial Conduct

2 (retired)

3 (min)

4 (max)

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

New Mexico

2

2

5

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

New York

4

1

2

Commission on Judicial Conduct

Court of Appeals Commission on Judicial Conduct and Court of Appeals No appeals Supreme Court

North Carolina

Judicial Standards Commission

3

2

2

Supreme Court

Upon recommendation of Commission to Supreme Court At formal hearing

North Dakota

Commission on Judicial Conduct

2

1

4

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 69

Table 12. Judicial Discipline: Investigating and Adjudicating Bodies
Number of: Lay Persons 4 Appeals from Adjudication Are Filed with: Supreme Court Name of Final Disciplining Body Supreme Court Point at Which Reprimands Are Made Public Adjudication

Ohio

Investigating Body Board of Commissioners on Grievance and 6 Discipline Court on the Judiciary Trial Division Council Council on Judicial Complaints

Judges 7

Lawyers 17

Adjudicating Body Board of Commissioners on Grievance and Discipline Court on the Judiciary Trial Division Council on Judicial Complaints

Oklahoma

8

1

0

Court on the Judiciary Division no appeal

0

2

1

Court on the Judiciary Appellate Division

Filing with clerk of the Appellate Court

Oregon

Commission of Judicial Fitness and Disability

3

3

3

Supreme Court Commission on Judicial Fitness and Disability

Commission on Judicial Fitness and Disability w/Supreme Court Supreme Court

Recommended by Commission to Supreme Court

Pennsylvania

Judicial Inquiry and Review Board

3

1

1

Judicial Inquiry and Supreme Court Review Board

Recommended by Judicial Inquiry and Review Board Filing of formal complaint by Attorney General with Discipline Commission When Supreme Court affirms a recommendation for reprimand or removal Adjudication

Puerto Rico

Disciplinary and Service Commission

~

5

1

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court

Rhode Island

4 (+3 from Commission on General Judicial Tenure and Assembly) Discipline

3

3

Supreme Court

No appeals

Supreme Court

South Carolina

Board of Commissioners on Judicial Standards Judicial Qualifications Commission Court of the Judiciary

8

2

2

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court Supreme Court Court of the Judiciary

South Dakota

2

3

2

Supreme Court

No appeals

Filing with the Supreme Court Filing of complaint in Appellate Court Clerk's office Convening of formal hearing by the Commission on Judicial Conduct

Tennessee

9

3

2

Court of the Judiciary

Supreme Court, then General Assembly

Texas

State Commission on Judicial Conduct

5

2

4

Supreme Court Supreme Court, Commission on Judicial Conduct, or review tribunal consisting of Justices of Courts of Appeals

Supreme Ct. Committee on Judicial Conduct, or review tribunal consisting of Justices of the Courts of Appeals Supreme Court Supreme Court

Utah Vermont

Judicial Conduct Commission Judicial Conduct Board

1 2

3 2

2

7

Supreme Court Supreme Court

No appeal Supreme Court

After final disposition Filing of formal charges by Board with Supreme Court

3

70 State Court Organization, 1998

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Table 12. Judicial Discipline: Investigating and Adjudicating Bodies
Number of: Lay Persons 2 Appeals from Adjudication Are Filed with: Supreme Court Name of Final Disciplining Body Supreme Court Point at Which Reprimands Are Made Public Filing of formal complaint by Committee with Supreme Court Beginning of fact finding hearing by Committee

Virginia

Investigating Body Judicial Inquiry and Review Commission Commission on Judicial Conduct

Judges 3

Lawyers 2

Adjudicating Body Supreme Court

Washington

3

2

6

Supreme Court

No appeal

Committee on Judicial Conduct or Supreme Court Supreme Court of 8 Appeals

West Virginia

Judicial Investigation Committee and Judicial Hearing Board Judicial Commission

2 (+ one magistrate + one family law master) 2

2

3

Judicial Hearing Board (JHB)

JHB recommends to 8 SCA

Upon decision by Supreme Court of Appeals

Wisconsin

2

5

Supreme Court

9

No appeal

Supreme Court

Filing of petitioner formal complaint by Judicial Commission w/Supreme Court Filing with Supreme Court After final disposition(a)

Wyoming

Judicial Supervisory Commission Chief judges and judicial councils of 10 respective circuits

2

2

3

Supreme Court

~

Supreme Court Judicial councils of respective circuits and judicial conference of 10 US

Federal

Varies

0

0

Chief judges and Judicial councils judicial councils of of respective 10 respective circuits circuits and judicial conference of 10 US

FOOTNOTES
District of Columbia: 1 Plus 3 alternates, 1 from each category.
2

Only in cases involving removal or suspension wherein the Chief Justice appoints a 3 member federal judge panel to review commission's recommendations.

Wisconsin: 9 The Judicial Conduct and Disability Panel, through an ad hoc 3-judge panel (2 must be Court of Appeals, 1 can be a retired, reserve judge or Court of Appeals judge) appointed as a hearing examiner, makes a report to the Supreme Court.
10

Florida: 3 Two judges of each of the District Courts of Appeal, Circuit, and County courts.
4

5

The Judicial Qualifications Commission investigates and recommends to the Supreme Court for discipline or removal. The Supreme Court power of removal is alternative and cumulative to the power of impeachment and suspension by the Governor and senate. Ohio: Initial review by panel of 3 commissioners. Utah: Supreme Court, at its discretion, may include 2 members of House, and 3 special members. West Virginia: Same for both the Commission and Judicial Hearing Board.

Federal: The Chief Judge of the federal judicial circuit renders the initial determination whether a complaint will be dismissed or investigated. The judicial council for the circuit reviews chief judge dismissals and adjudicates whether and what discipline is appropriate regarding an investigated complaint. The Judicial Conference of the United States, through a standing committee, reviews circuit judicial council resolutions following investigation.

6

7

8

Legend: ~=Not applicable

Judicial selection and service 71