You are on page 1of 9

Computers in Industry 21 (1993) 121-129 121


Knowledge Engineering

A shielded metal arc welding expert system

V i v e k Goel, T. W a r r e n L i a o a n d K w a n S. L e e
Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Department, Louisiana State Unirersity, Baton Rouge, l~4 70803-0409, USA

Received June llJ, 1992; accepted July 15, 1992

Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) has been the welding duces a high resistance to the flow of current, and
industry's mainstay and heavily used in construction. SMAW this resistance generates an intense arc heat. The
is governed by a large variety of factors, and so it is very
filler wire (electrode) forms molten droplets that
difficult to gain expertise in SMAW procedures. This paper
presents an expert system to help plan and train shielded deposit into the weld. The flux forms a gas that
metal arc welding (SMAW) operations. The expert system has shields the molten weld pool. The arc force pro-
been implemented in Prolog. It accumulates most of the vides the digging action for penetration into the
available information on the SMAW process including edge base metal. This process continues as the weld
preparation, electrode selection, economic evaluation, analy-
sis of weld defectsl and trouble-shooting. The expert system
widens and the electrode continues across the
also includes an explanation subsystem, which will show the joint. Transformers, motor generators and recti-
reasoning process to reach a conclusion. fiers are used as the power sources for SMAW.
There are many kinds and sizes of electrodes,
and unless the correct one is selected it is diffi-
Keywords: Shielded metal arc welding; Expert system; Knowl-
edge representation; Planning; Training
cult to do a good welding job.
SMAW is governed by a large variety of fac-
tors, and so it is very difficult to gain expertise in
1. Introduction SMAW procedures. A novice usually learns the
knowledge from the instructor, experienced
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) has been welders, welding manuals and handbooks, or trial
the welding industry's mainstay and will remain a and error. The ignorance of the optimal method
factor in many areas of welding for years to come. may result in the applications of inappropriate
S M A W is used very heavily in construction be- technology. The important knowledge in SMAW
cause of its quality, portability, and versatility. includes the selection of proper electrode and
S M A W can weld most of the metals such as parameters, adoption of proper welding tech-
stainless steels and carbon steels, and with special niques, recognition of weld defects and the means
electrodes, can weld high-carbon steels, copper, to avoid them, setting up and trouble-shooting
brass, and even aluminum. the welding equipment, etc.
The heat for S M A W comes from an arc which Reeves et al. [1] used expert systems for weld
develops across an air gap between the end of an process control and used sensor fusion output in
electrode and the base metal. The air gap pro- conjunction with a rule base to reconcile compet-
ing goals such as cost, quality and productivity in
order to make effective decisions during arc-on
Correspondence to: Dr. T. Warren Liao, Industrial and Manu-
facturing Systems Engineering Department, Louisiana State time. Their expert system is excellent for applica-
University, 3128 CEBA, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-6409, USA. tion in a shipyard. They concluded that as compe-
Fax: + 1-504-388 5990. tent welders become more and more scarce, an

0166-3615/93/$06.00 1993 - Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. All rights reserved

122 KnowledgeEngineering Computers in Industry

expert system can be used to extract their knowl- his paper provides useful insight into the prob-
edge in a form suitable for control purposes. The lems that are encountered during the develop-
same is true for process planning and training of ment of expert systems. He has highlighted the
inexperienced welders. need for standardization of methods used in the
Sicard and Levine [2] developed an expert development of expert systems. Singh and Goel
robot welding system, which can be used for [6] have also developed an expert system ap-
automation of welding processes like gas tungsten proach for shielded metal arc welding and have
arc welding (GTAW). They concluded that a so- discussed the various problems that are faced by
phisticated expert system should be able to guide the process planners in planning for SMAW.
the user in the preparation and planning phase of In this research, a system that encodes rele-
the welding process. The system must also be vant knowledge in SMAW was developed and
able to plan the welding task in accordance with implemented using an expert system approach.
user specifications. Lucas [3] and Kerth [4] have The expert system developed can be used, usually
also given the advantages of using expert systems by a welding engineer, to plan for SMAW jobs.
for welding. The expert system can also serve as a training
Taylor [5] has also used the knowledge-based and learning tool to help an instructor effectively
approach for the automated generation of proce- conduct the training courses and to shorten the
dures in the submerged arc welding domain, and training period. Using the expert system, the in-
experienced welding operators may know about
the applicability of SMAW for a certain job, the
selection of welding parameters, consumable and
procedures for a SMAW operation, the calcula-
~ael received a Bachelor's De-
Industrial Engineering in 1989 tion of cost and time for that SMAW operation,
Master's Degree in Welding the preparation of the edge for a joint to be
~ering in 1991, from the Uni-
of Roorkee, India. He is cur- welded, the analysis of weld defects and trouble-
pursuing a PhD in the Indus- shooting, etc.
agineering Department, Louisi-
ate University, Baton Rouge, The remaining of the paper is organized as
He worked for Bharat Petrole- follows. The reasons for selecting an expert sys-
~rporation Ltd., India for one
?Iis research interests include tem approach are given in the next section. Sec-
t expert system applications in tion 3 discusses the knowledge acquisition pro-
..... ial engineering.
cess and knowledge representation scheme in
T. Warren Liao is currently an assis- building the expert system. The overall structure
tant professor of industrial and manu- and capability of the expert system is presented
facturing systems engineering at
Louisiana State University. His cur- in Section 4. The working of the expert system is
rent research interests are in the area then demonstrated, followed by the conclusion.
of metal cutting (particularly grind-
ing), CAD/CAM integration, design
of cellular manufacturing systems, A!
applications in manufacturing, and
mechatronics, Dr. Liao received his 2. Why expert system?
MS and PhD in industrial engineering
from Lehigh University. He is mem-
ber of SME, IIE, ASME, and IEEE. An approach utilizing an algorithmic language
such as PASCAL or FORTRAN, tO search a tabular
Kwan S. Lee is currently an associate database, would seem to be feasible at first and
professor at Louisiana State Univer-
sity. He has a wide range of interests also easier to implement. But this approach could
covering the research areas of manu- have the following problems:
facturing, ergonomics, safety, quality
control and total quality manage- (1) N o flexibility: The conventional program can
ment. Dr. Lee has more than 60 pub- be modified or updated by the original pro-
lications and has been very active in
establishing safety standards and er- grammer only, and hence the program is dif-
gonomic guidelines for machines for ficult for researchers or industrial collabora-
AMT, NSCM and ASTM. He is a
professional engineer and a member tors to extend. There is no mechanism for
of WSO, NFS, IFIESR and Er- discussing the knowledge with the user or
gonomics society.
expressing the knowledge in a natural way.
Computers in Industry I~ Goel et a L / SMA W expert system 123

(2) No fuzzy logic: The conventional program I MONITORING]

cannot be applied to problems that require I SUBSYSTEM1
decisions to be made with incomplete data.
(3) No explanation facility: The conventional pro-
gram cannot explain their line of reasoning
for decisions etc. I

An expert system approach for SMAW, on the

other hand, is advantageous because of the fol-
lowing factors: 11 Trouble
(1) the number and complexity of the factors
which influence the decision making process; Cause
(2) the flexibility required from the system;
(3) the reasoning capabilities required for the
selection approach; Remedy
(4) the opportunity of capturing, representing and Level

preserving the knowledge and expertise for Fig. 1. Hierarchical model of the monitoring subsystem.
SMAW process in a declarative manner and
using it for different purposes such as training
inexperienced process planners;
(5) the variables are "typed" or "declared" which The lower levels contain the knowledge in the
provides more secure development control form of rules, causes, remedies etc.
and better debugging, and minimizes memory
requirement; 3.1. Sample rules for the expert system
(6) modular programming can be done;
(7) predicates for random file access are pro- A few examples of these rules are given below:
CHECK SMAW. This subsystem checks whether
shielded metal arc welding is applicable for the
job under consideration. For example,
3. Knowledge acquisition and knowledge repre- (1) IF Production_Volume < 8
sentation AND Seam Length < 10 meters
AND Many ranges of weld sizes exist
A number of manuals and handbooks were AND Initial Equipment Cost is required
consulted to acquire heuristics for checking the to be less
applicability of SMAW for a certain job [7,8], to AND Arc Visibility is required for the job
understand the criteria used for selecting welding AND Skilled Operator is available
parameters [7,8], to obtain standard time data THEN SMAW process is suitable for the
from the handbook of standard data for arc weld- job.
ing [9], and to gather rules of edge preparation (2) IF P r o d u c t i o n Volume > 8
[10]. A number of experienced welders were also AND Seam Length > 10 meters
interviewed for the knowledge and expertise re- AND Many ranges of weld sizes do not
quired in analyzing and trouble-shooting weld exist
defects for the expert system [11]. AND Initial Equipment Cost is required
The acquired knowledge was classified into to be medium
various subclasses for use in the various modules. AND Arc Visibility is not required for the
The knowledge thus organized was then repre- job
sented by a set of if-then rules. These sets of AND Skilled Operator is available
rules were then arranged in a hierarchical form THEN Submerged Arc Welding is suitable
for each module. A typical hierarchical model for for the job.
the monitoring subsystem is shown in Fig. 1. Each
subsystem is divided into five operating levels. ELECT-SEL. This subsystem selects a suitable
124 KnowledgeEngineering (bmputers in Industry

electrode based on the job parameters. For exam- The data for arc time, auxiliary time, and number
ple, of electrodes per meter are available from stan-
(1) IF Strength desired > High dard data tables [3] and have been stored in the
AND Bead Shape desired = Convex knowledge base of the expert system.
AND Positions of Welding = All
AND Deposition Rate = High EDGE PREP. The objective of this subsystem is
AND Penetration Desired = Moderate to ensure that the degree of penetration is opti-
AND Base Metal Composition = High mum and thus to ensure that a sound weld is
Sulfur ensured. The main factors influencing the edge
AND Hydrogen Content desired = Low preparation which have been considered while
THEN Use E7015 electrode. preparing the subsystem are listed below:
(2) IF Strength desired > Medium (1) type and thickness of workpieces;
AND Bead Shape desired = Flat (2) type of joint;
AND Positions of Welding = All (3) welding position and accessibility;
AND Deposition Rate = Moderate (4) degree of penetration required;
AND Penetration Desired = Moderate (5) control on distortion of workpiece; and
THEN Use E6010 electrode. (6) economy of edge preparation method and
consumption of weld metal.
ECON_EVAL. This subsystem calculates the cost This subsystem recommends the geometry of the
and time taken to complete a welding job. The edge on the input job variables. The output is the
calculation is based on the standard data stored geometry of the joint.
in the program. This subsystem takes the elec-
trode specification, diameter, type of weld (butt, TROUB_sn. This subsystem is useful for solving
fillet, etc.), leg length/plate thickness (in butt problems that may be encountered during the
weld) and position of welding as the input data welding process. The problems may be related to
and matches this information with that contained the welding set, spattery arc, etc. The expert
in the knowledge base and performs the neces- system diagnoses the causes of the trouble and
sary computations for time and cost calculation suggests some remedies for them. For example
using the following equations: IF There is loud crackling from the arc
AND The flux melts too rapidly
Total Time = Length of bead
AND The bead is wide and thin
(Arc Time + Auxiliary Time), AND Spatter is taking place in large beads
Total Cost = Total Time THEN The cause may be moisture contamination
(Overhead Cost + Labor Cost) of electrode
AND The remedy is to use dry electrodes.
+ Number of Electrodes/meter DEVECW_AN. This subsystem analyzes the vari-
Length x Electrode Cost. ous defects in the weldments and finds the causes


t" ...... !1



Fig. 2. Architecture of the expert system.

C~mputers in Industry V. Goel et al. / SMA W expert system 125

and remedies of those defects. For instance, rial, shape, environmental conditions for the job,
IF Porosity is observed in the weldment service requirements, etc.; this type of data is
AND Surface holes are observed different for each problem. The second is the
THEN The cause may be dirt on the workpiece information which is inferred and computed by
AND The remedy may be to clean the workpiece. the system.

Inference engine. The working of the inference

4. The expert system engine is controlled by the rules developed for
the various subsystems of the expert system. The
In this section, the system architecture and purpose of the inference engine is to match the
capability are presented. The expert system has relevant information on the knowledge base with
been implemented in TURBO PROLOG 2.0, sup- that of the job and draw inferences regarding the
plied by Borland International. The hardware electrode to be used, the welding parameters,
used was an IBM compatible P C / A T with 1 MB cost, time and edge design, etc. Weld defects
RAM, 1.2 MB floppy disc and 20 MB hard disc. analysis and trouble-shooting modules constitute
a monitoring subsystem for helping the welder to
4.1. Architecture of the expert system achieve optimality of the welding process.

The system was based on the conventional Explanation subsystem. The reasons for the de-
concepts of the expert system in which the user cisions made by the inference engine are stored
interface, knowledge base, working data base and in this subsystem. Whenever the user wants to see
inference engine are developed. The structure of the explanation for any module, the F1 key is
the expert system is shown in Fig. 2. pressed, and the explanation subsystem activates
the reasoning process in the expert system which
User interface. The system can be used in the is displayed to the user.
menu mode or the sequential mode. In the menu
mode, all the subsystems are displayed in a pop-up 4.2. Capability and salient features of the expert
menu format, and the user can use any of the system
subsystems by selecting that particular choice. In
the sequential format, the user is asked about the Currently, the expert system developed can be
job parameters and the system performs all the used for planning and training in the shielded
operations interactively with the user having the metal arc welding domain of mild steels. But the
overall control.

Table 1
Knowledge base. The fixed knowledge base is
System specifications of the expert system
comprised of three forms of information: (1) data
files which hold different material properties, Scope
Welding process Shielded metal arc welding
electrode properties, welding times for different
Steel types Mild steel
electrodes, welding costs, procedures; (2) other Plate thickness 3 ram-70 mm
data held as facts or in rule-based forms; and (3) Joint types Butt, fillet
information contained in a installation data file Electrode diameter Up to 15 mm
that is fed at the time of installing the expert Consumable All types of MS electrodes
system in any company; the type of information Main outputs
contained in this file would include for example Type of electrode All types
power tariffs, labor costs, overheads, electrode Welding current 40 A-300 A
inventory, etc. Travel speed 2.5-25 m m / s
Edge preparation Single/double Square edge
Complete welding
Working data base. This holds two forms of in- procedure
formation. The first type of information relates to Specifications
data about the type of job to be welded or which Trouble-shooting Weld defects and
will be used for selection purposes, e.g. job mate- general problems
126 KnowledgeEngineering Computers in Industry

system is extendable for any type of metal with welding applications within the company. Initial
suitable addition of knowledge. The specifica- electrode selection is done from the electrodes
tions of the current system are given in Table 1. available in the core file. This approach main-
The expert system takes into consideration a tains the principle of minimum inventory by
number of factors such as the nature of the job, avoiding the introduction of unnecessary elec-
parent metal composition, current range for the trodes into the system.
welding set, and many such factors. It then calcu- (3) Given a set of jobs, the system selects the
lates the following variables for the job on hand: minimum number of electrodes necessary for
(1) electrode specifications; welding the given set of jobs. That is, if the core
(2) cost of the job; file is not defined by the user, then the system
(3) time required for the job; develops it.
(4) welding parameters for the job; (4) The system permits the user to override
(5) joint design for the job. the decisions made by the system and carry on
The expert system also trains the welders in the consultation even if the recommendations
knowing about the various defects and the means made are not accepted.
to avoid them. Trouble-shooting can also be (5) Electrode selection for a particular weld-
learned by using this expert system. ing operation is based on the suitability of the
The expert system has the following salient electrodes as determined by their manufacturers.
features: (6) The system selects the electrode, parame-
(1) The system has been developed in a modu- ters and procedures according to the criteria of
lar mode. The modular method provided higher minimum cost per piece and is capable of trou-
efficiency and ease of development; updating and ble-shooting. (For instance, the system can advise
maintenance was also facilitated. on remedial action in case of excessive spatter or
(2) The system permits the user to define a other welding defects or problems.)
core file consisting of electrodes suitable for the (7) The system can be used for providing

IJob Variables]

Parameter Selection Subsystem

Electrode Current Speed IEdge
Selection Selection Selection Design

Monitorinc Subsystem
Trouble Defect
Shooting Analysis

ECOnomic Evaluation Subsystem !

I [ Job
for Ico,tof l ec=odel.-ight
IJob Consumed,, IDepsitedt, 1

Welding Process

Fig. 3. Working of the expert system.

Computers in Industry V, Goel et al. / SMA W expert system 127

M o n i t o r i n g Subsystem for defects/ difficulties~

e n c o u n t e r e d during w e l d i n g

Type of d e f e c t / d i f f i c u l t y
Weld defect T r o u b l e - s h o o t i n g ---7
Undercuts Welding set does n o t |
Spatter start |
Arc Blow V a r i a b l e / S l u g g i s h arc I
i o o , , o , , .oooooo
. . . .

I n f e r e n c e b a s e d on k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g
remedies for defect / d i f f i c u l t y

Probable Causes
Weld defect -- Trouble-shooting --
Undercuts Welding set does not
i. Excessive current start
2. High speed of travel i. Line switch not
o o o , . , o turned on
o , . . o . , o o , , ,

1 Remedies
Weld defect --Trouble-shooting --
Undercuts Welding set does not
I. Reduce current start
~. Reduce speed of travel i. Turn on the Line
,, ,oo.o switch
o , o o o o o . o , o o .

Fig. 4. Working of the moniloring subsystem.

training to SMAW operators as it has been de- electrodes and weight deposited during the weld-
signed to be user friendly. ing. Now, the parameters selected are used for
performing the actual welding and the monitoring
subsystem monitors the welding process and if
5. Working of the expert system any abnormality is observed then the parameter
selection subsystem is used again for selection of
The working of the whole expert system is another set of welding parameters, and thus the
shown in Fig. 3. The user provides the input data welding process can be optimized.
via the user interface, and the parameter selec- The working of the monitoring subsystem has
tion subsystem computes the various parameters been shown in Fig. 4. The monitoring subsystem
like the electrode, current, speed, edge prepara- helps the welders in achieving optimality of the
tion design, etc. for the job on hand. Then, the welding process. Whenever any abnormality is
economic evaluation subsystem serves the pur- observed in the welding process, the monitoring
pose of finding out the time for preparation of subsystem rectifies it by diagnosing the defect/
the job and the cost along with the number of trouble and suggesting remedies for the same.
128 Knowledge Engineering Computers in Industry

Depending on the type of defect/difficulty that [5] Andrew Taylor, "An investigation of knowledge based
is observed in the welding process, the system models for automated procedure generation in arc weld-
ing domain", Int. J. Prod. Res., VoL 27, No. 11, 1989, pp.
draws an inference based on the knowledge about 1855-1862.
the defect and finds out the probable causes for [6] C.K. Singh and Vivek Goel, "EX.-SMAW: A knowledge-
the defect/difficulty and the system then sug- based tool for shielded metal arc welding", Proc. Int.
gests a remedy which is implemented by the Con/'. on Systems and Signals, New Delhi, India, Decem-
parameter selection subsystem. The expert sys- ber 12-14, 1991.
[7] J.P. Stewart, The Welder's Handbook, Reston Publ., 1981,
tem has been run for a variety of jobs, and some pp. 16-100.
of the sample sessions for various subsystems are [8] The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding, The Lincoln
given in the Appendix. Electric Company, 1973.
[9] Standard Data for Arc Welding, Welding Institute, UK,
6. Conclusions [10] Joint Preparations for Fusion Welding of Steels, Welding
Institute, UK, 1977.
[11] Vivek Goel, " A knowledge based approach for the selec-
This paper presents a SMAW expert system to
tion of parameters and economic evaluation of shielded
help plan and train SMAW operations. The time metal arc welding", M.E. Dissertation, University of
required for planning for a variety of jobs is Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 1991.
shortened as manual planning may require
searching through huge standard data tables and
also SMAW manuals. The time and cost estima- Appendix--Sample run of the system
tion becomes less tedious since the search for
relevant standard data from tables is eliminated. Since all the modules in the expert system
The customer can be informed about the esti- were developed independently and then put to-
mated time and costs for the completion of the
job within a short span of time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Training through the use of this expert system Job d a t a | CHECK SMAW
Fi~_data I P~oduction Volume: 8
may help the welder to avoid the non-optimal Ch~k Sm~t Seam Length: i0
Elect --Sal !I Many ranges of weld sizes: Yes
selection of parameters. This model can assist a Edge_Prep { Initial equipment cost should be
Econ Eval [ less= Yes
welder in achieving optimality of the welding Defect an i Arc visibility required: Yes
TroubSh ! Is the operator skilled: Yes
process for a welding job. This model is one of a uit Chipping hamm~mr/ deslagging
very. small number of systems under development equipment is available: Yes

at the present time. The development of this CONSULTATION:

Seam Length i s n o t suitable for SMAW
expert system also highlights the need for stan- You may use some other process profitably
Do you still want to continue? Yes
dardization of methods for implementing expert
systems. The expert system as outlined above can SMAW IS APPLICABLE FOR !'
help the welding industry a great deal if imple- ]i HIGHER SEAM LENGTH
mented properly. Fig. A.I. A sample dialogue of the CrIECK SMAWmodule.

References ===Choose~
Job d a t a ~ ENTER THE JOB DATA:
Firm data I Type of Weld: FILLET
[1] R.E. Reeves, T.D. Manley, A. Potter and D.R. Ford, Check SMAW[ Position of Welding: FLAT
Length of Weld (Meters}: I0
"Expert system technology--An avenue to an intelligent Edge_Prep 1 Strength: Moderate
weld process control system", Weld. J., June 1988, pp. Econ_Eval 1 Bead Shape desired: Flat
Defect An I Deposition Rate: Fast
33-41. Troub Sh 1 Penetration Desired: Deep
[2] Pierre Sicard and Martin D. Levine, "Mars: An expert Quit -
robot welding system", in: Machine Intelligence and =CONSULTATION
Knowledge Engineering for Robotic Applications, NATO Use E6010 electrode of diameter 3.25 ~
Current: 80-120 A
ASI Series, Vol. F33, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987. Polarity: DCRP
[3] W. Lucas, "Expert systems for welding", Weld. Des. Fabr, Technique: Stringer Bead, Whip-and-pause motion
Visual Inspection~ Beads should be smooth and
Vol. 60, No. 7, 1987, pp. 47-50. clear of any visible porQsity, slag, or cracks.
[4] R.J. Kerth, "Knowledge based expert welding", Robots 9 Light spatter is acceptable but large spatter
should be removed with chipping ham~mer.
Conf. Proc., June 2-6, 1985, Robotics International of
the Society of Mechanical Engineers, Dearborn, MI. Fig. A.2.. A sample dialogue of the ELE{7t"_. 8EI. module.
Compute~ in Industo' V. Goel et al. / SMAWexpert system 129

===Choose ~Choose~
Firm data Type of Weld: Butt Firm_data [ i- UNDERCUTS
Chee~ S~W{ Position of Welding: FLAT Check_SMAW[ 2- WELD SPATTER
Elect_sel ] Thickness of plate (mm): I0 Elect sel I 3- ROUGH WELDING
Edge Prep ] Edge_Pre~ 4- ARC BLOW
Econ Eval I Econ Eval 5- POROSITY
Defect_An I Defe~t An 6- SURFACE HOLES
----J 9- QUIT
Use Square Butt Joint with integral backing Causes: i- Work piece may be diry
Maintain Root Gap = 3 - 7 mm Remedy: i- Remove scale, dirt, rust, paint, and
And use backing strip moisture from the joint
Cause: 2- Steel may have low carbon content or
manganese content or a high sulfur or
phosphorus content
Remedy : 2-Use low Hydrogen electrodes. Minimize
admixture of base metal
Cause : 3- Too long an arc length
Fig. A.3. A sample dialogue of the EDGE PREP module. Remedy: 3- Try using a shorter arc length
especially for low hydrogen electrodes

Fig. A.6. A sample dialogue of the DEVEC'T AN module.

===Choose- F
Job data I Input data:
Firm_data I Labor Cost: $20
Check SMAW I Overhead Cost: $10
Elect Sel [ Electrode Cost: $2.10 gether into one integrated system, each module
Edge Prep I AWS Specification selected by system: can be run separately. A sample run of all the
Econ--Eval E6010
Defect An Diameter of electrode: 4 ~un modules is shown in Figs. A 1 - A 7 .
]Troub Sh ! Type of Weld: Fillet
Quit ] Position of Welding: Flat
Length of Weld Bead: I0 meters

Output data: -- EX-SMAW
Total Time for Welding: 83.1 min ~hoose~
Recommended Current for Welding: 120 A Job_data TROUBLE SHOOTING:
Weight of metal deposited: 1 . 5 3 k g Firm_data i- Welding Set does not start
Total Cost of Welding: $129.75 C h e c k SMAW 2- Welding Set starts but blows fuse
No.of runs recommended: 1 Elect--sel 3- Welder welds but soon stops welding
Electrodes consumed: 42.0 Edge_Prep [ 4- Variable or sluggish welding arc
Econ Eval 5- Welding arc is loud and sDatterv
Defect An 6- Polarity switch does not turn
Fig. A.4. A sample dialogue of the ECON _ EVAL module. Troub Sh 7- Welder won't shut off
Quit 8- Arcing at ground clamp

Causes: l- Current Setting is high
Remedy: l- Check setting and output with Ammeter
===Choose- Causes: 2- Polarity may be wrong
Job data CHECK SMAW Remedy: 2- Change the polarity
Firm data Production Volume: 8
Check SMAW Seam Length: 10
Elect Many ranges of weld sizes: Yes Fig. A.7. A sample dialogue of the TROUB Sit module.
Edge Prep Initial equipment cost should be
Econ Eval less: Yes
Defect An Arc visibility required: Yes
Troub Sh Is the operator skilled: Yes
Quit - Chipping hammer/ deslagging
equipment is available: Yes

SMAW is not applicable because
Seam Length > 10

Press any key to return to main menu ......



Fig. A.5. A sample dialogue of the EXPLANATION module.