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Technology Study Report

Bearing Industry

- : Prepared By : -
MSME - Development Institute, Government of India
Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises
Bais Godam, Jaipur 302 006 (Raj.)
Ph. 0141-2212098, 2213099, Fax. 2210553
e mail-






1.1 Introduction
1.2 Industry Overview
1.3 Global Collaboration
1.4 Status of Bearing and Bearing Component Cluster at Jaipur
1.5 Raw Material
1.6 Plant and Machinery in SME Sector
1.7 Manufacturing Process





a. Technology Providers
b. Quality Standards (BIS)
c. Chemical Composition of Through-Hardening Bearing Steels Composition


This Technology Study Report on Indian bearings industry covers overview

of the industry, Present status of Technology being used by the MSME sector in
manufacturing the product, Technological Gap, Modernisation & technological Up
gradation aspect of bearing Industry & highlighting benefit of proposed technology
over the existing technology and its viability in keeping view of the competitive
markets as well as international competitiveness. The report is useful for bearings
and component manufacturers, end user industries like automobile, machine tools,
steel and equipment manufacturers ring, bearing component manufacturers, raw
materials suppliers like steel industry, commercial and investment banks,
investors, business analysts, consultants and students.


Technology Study Report is prepared as per guide line given by DC(MSME). The
interaction with following prominent Bearing & Bearing component Manufacturers were
carried out to know more about present status as well as latest proven technology has
been adopted by MSME & Large Bearing Manufacturers. Some advance plant &
machinery suppliers were also contacted over phone or through internet.

Contact Person Collaborations/ Products

Advance Technology
Mr. K. N. Kansara Nadella - France Rollers
LTD. (A Unit of Sewaram Kansara NTN - Japan SPHERICAL,
Group), E-36,M.I.A. Phase II, NEEDLE, TAPER)
Basni, Jodhpur - 342005 (INDIA)
Phone : +91-291-2745500,
2745501, Fax : +91-291-
2435187, 2745502
Email :
Web :
Mr. Rohit Saboo, President & ( a. ) BRENCO Ball Bearing ,
CEO Incorporated , U.S.A. Steel Ball,
Email : Since 1982-For Tapered Roller
Mr. Devendra Mishra Vice Cartridge Tapered Bearing, Railway
President Manufacturing Roller Bearings for Bearing (Roller Railway wagons and Bearing in Axle
NAIONAL ENGINEERING Locomotives. Box, Spherical
INDUSTRIES Ltd. Roller Bearing,
Khatipura Road,Jaipur -302 006 (b) NTN Corporation , Cartridge Tapered
Phone : 2223221 Japan Roller Bearing),
Fax : 0141-2221926.2222259 Since 1985-For Ball Large Diameter
E-mail : Bearings, Cylindrical & Bearing
Spherical Roller
Since 1997-For
Tapered Roller
Bearings. (c)
Izumi Kinzoku Kogyo
Co. Ltd., Japan
Since 1996 - For re-
retrofitting and
overhauling of grinding
and super finishing
machines for bearing

Mr. Vinod Agarwal, M.D. Hatebur Hotmatic Forged & Turned

Mr Namit Agarwal ,Director hotformers Bearing Race
Agrasen Engineering Industries (AMP 30 S)
Limited & Hatebur Coldmatic
F-198/199, Road No, 9F coldformers
Vishwakarma Industrial Area, Installation of Auto
Phone +91-141- 2330614 Turning Lines for Small
E-mail : DGBB from Tubes - , Production capcity 120,000 per day, SOP
. Mr. M.R.I. SHAIKH Hatebur Hatebur Hotmatic
( Indian Representative of M/S Umformmaschinen hotformers ,a fully-
Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG) AG automated Forging
CHRYSTEC MACHINE TOOLS Postfach 916 &Hatebur
PVT LTD, General Guisan- Coldmatic
103 Winner's Court, Lulla Nagar Strasse 21 coldformers
Pune 411040 CH-4153 Reinach produce precision
Maharastra, India Switzerland and complex parts
00912030527484 Tel.: +41 61 716 21 11 formed directly
Mobile: +91 (0) 9892249582 Fax: +41 61 716 21 31 from wire.

Mr. M.K. Banthia, Director Ball Bearing Cage Ball Bearing

MANU YANTRALAYA production line Cages, Sheet
G-1/800, Sitapura Industrial Area, (Transfer Press) in Metal Components
Jaipur - 302 022, India Technical Collaboration and Dust Shields
TEL : +91-141-277 1412 with M/s Toho
FAX : +91-141-277 1410 Industrial Co. Ltd.,
E-mail : Japan was set up in 2000.
Mr. :- Pramod Mathur, Director Transfer Press Dust shield
A-1, Industrial Estate, Bais MACHINE
Godam, Jaipur-302006(INDIA) INDUSTRIAL CO.,
Phone:- +91-141- 2214246, LTD.
2213017, Fax:- =91-141-2211288 186 Chang Shui Road,
E-mail:- Chang Hua, Taiwan 500 R.O.C.

Mr. Anil Agrawal , MD Conventional Lathes, Bearing Race

Low cost automated Turning
M/s Supersonic Turners Pvt. hydraulic lathes,
Ltd. Auto lathes (Ace
Works 1 & H.O. ,F-393(A), Road Machines) Perma line

No. : 9F2,VKI Area, Jaipur-302

013 (Raj.) India

Works 2 : G-846, Road No. : 14,

VKI Area, Jaipur 302 013
(Raj.) India
Mr. Suryakant Gadia Conventional Set-Up KNK Bearing
M/S K.N.K.Bearings Pvt.Ltd., Suitable for Batch Type
114-115,Jhotwara Industrial Area Production
Jaipur, ( Raj.)

Chapter - 1



The technology used is conventional type in unorganized sector. But the

organized sector players are using state of the Art Technology to manufacture the
bearings as per the global standards. The unorganized sector players are also
gradually switching over to technology up gradation.

The cluster units at Jaipur for bearing and Bearing component

manufacturing units are employing conventional technology, but with the cluster
level intervention the units have initiated technology. upgradation by employing
CNC Machine for turning, grinding, finishing, testing, etc.

The machining operation involved in manufacture of antifriction bearings

include forging of the rings, turning, heat-treatment, face and outer dia -grinding,
Bore and track grinding, finish and super finishing grinding , Demagnetizing,
cleaning, inspection assembly and packaging, etc.

The Product

The Bearing is a machine element used in rotating parts of virtually every

machine. Bearing permit smooth low friction rotary or linear movement between
two surfaces. It employs either a sliding or a rolling action. If we could reduce
friction by only 10% in all the rolling bearing in use today, it would mean an energy
saving equivalent to the combined out put of Not less than 25 large Nuclear Power
Stations. Bearing can be broadly classified into two segments:-


Antifriction Bearings

Bimetal bearings (also known as engine bearings) are primarily used in engines
of automobiles or machines. The bearings are meant to reduce the friction

between the moving parts of the engine crankshaft or crank shaft or associated
support surfaces.

Antifriction Bearings include Ball Bearings and Roller Bearings. Roller bearings
can further be subdivided into tapered roller. Cylindrical roller, Needle roller, thrust
bearings and other special application bearings. The main components of an
antifriction bearing are the inner race (ring), the other race (ring) the rolling
elements, cages (retainers) and seals. The following are the major types of

a. Ball bearing

b. Cylindrical roller bearing

c. Taper roller bearing

d. Needle roller bearing

Further classification of these major categories is given below:

 Single row deep groove ball bearings

 Maximum capacity type ball bearings

 Single row angular contact ball bearings

 Duplex angular contact ball bearings

 Double row angular contact ball bearings

 Four point contact ball bearings

 Self aligning ball bearings

 Radial Ball Bearings

 Ball and Roller Bearings

 Ball Bearings

 Thrust Ball Bearings

 Roller Bearings

 Radial " Roller Bearings

 Thrust Roller Bearings


 Single direction thrust ball bearings with flat back face

 Single direction thrust ball bearings with seating ring

 Double direction thrust ball bearings with flat back face

 Double direction thrust ball bearings with seating ring

 Double direction angular contact thrust ball bearings

 Single row cylindrical roller bearings

 Double row cylindrical roller bearings

 Single row tapered roller bearings

 Double row tapered roller bearings

 Spherical roller bearings

 Cylindrical roller thrust bearings

 Needle roller thrust bearings

 Tapered roller thrust bearings

 Spherical roller thrust bearings


The bearing Industry in India can be divided into three segments; the
organized sector, comprising 12 leading manufacturers, located at Rajasthan,
Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and
Jharkhand primarily cater to the OEM Segment which are predominantly
automotive, Railway and other Industrial users. The unorganized sector includes
the small scale manufacturers and manufacturers of spurious bearings. The
unorganized sector contributes to about 18% of the total Industry turn over. The
unorganized sector players have a strong regional presence and mainly cater to
the needs of the replacement markets. The Indian bearing Industry is estimated at
Rs. 100 billion. The domestic Industry caters to the 74 % of total demand for
common varieties & sizes. The organized sector units contribute around 53% of
the Industry sales. The imports are about 26% of the total demand of the industry,

while about 18% import comes through official channels. There is also estimated
8% illegal imports. Legal imports generally represent the specialized / super
precision bearings not manufactured in India. Illegal imports generally represent
the entry of spurious imports of bearings. The legal imports are about Rs.1 8.00
billion while the spurious imports is about Rs. 8.00 billion.

The small scale units manufacturing bearing are mainly concentrated in

Rajasthan and Gujarat having 15 and 50 units respectively. The bearing
manufacturing units are also present in Delhi, Punjab, and Maharastra. The state
of Rajasthan has major concentration of about 100 bearing components
manufacturing units with 1000 to 1200 Vendors carrying out turning job work.
There are substantial No. of component manufacturing units in Gujarat,
Maharastra, West Bengal and Punjab also. The bearing component manufacturing
units are the vendors of organized sector, and unorganized sector bearing
manufacturing units for supply of inner & outer races, balls, rollers, cages, seals,
retainers & rivets. These components are also exported to Europe, United States
of America and other global customers.
There are about 450 to 500 number of spurious bearing assembling units situated in the
State of Punjab, Delhi and Gujarat, eating the market of organized & unorganized sector

A number of global bearing manufacturers have established their units in

India through joint ventures or 100% ownership and more are expected to follow
suit.The Big player of bearing sector are present in U.S.A, Russia, Japan, China
and eastern Europe. Some of leading bearing manufacturer are : -

- NSK Japan

- NTN Japan

- KOYA Seiko Japan

- FAG Germany

- SKF Sweden

- NRB France

- Timken USA

International Bearing Market


All the manufacturers in the organised sector have entered into collaboration
agreements for supply of complete process know how as well as supply of major
manufacturing machinery. The collaboration agreements are still valid and the industry
gets all assistance for process, know-how product development,customer development,
tool design, production control techniques etc from them. Most of the big player are
having either technical or financial Collaboration with leading Auto Manufacturer.
International Collaboration gives Access to best technology in the world.



SKF India SKF Sweden

FAG Bearing India FAG, Germany


NRB Nadella, France

ABC Bearing Ltd. NSK Japan


Bimetal Bearing Ltd. Clevite Corporation USA

Gabriel India Suspension Italy


The Indian Bearing Industry, especially the companies having technical and
financial collaboration with Global player are expected to garner higher price in
export market

In view of the growing industrial and automobile sector, the growth in this
industry is going to be substantial . The requirement of bearings increasing day by
day in India in both the OEM and replacement market and increasing number of
small manufacturing industries developing in Jaipur (Rajasthan) Rajkot and
Surrender Nagar (Gujarat) and Punjab have come up in unorganized sector.
These industries are manufacturing from complete bearings to components and
supplying to leading players.

The following are the major manufacturers of bearings in India:

1. Associated Bearing Company Ltd., Pune (Maharashtra)

2. Asian Bearings Company Ltd., Hosur (Tamil Nadu)

3. Karnataka Ball Bearing Corporation Ltd., Mysore (Karnataka)

4. HMT Ltd., Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)

5. Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd., (Bearings Division) Kharagpur

(West Bengal)

6. Shriram Bearings Ltd., Ranchi (Bihar)

7. National Engineering Industries Ltd., Jaipur (Rajasthan)

8. FAG Precision Bearings Ltd., Vadodara (Gujarat)

9. Antifriction Bearing Company Ltd. Bharuch (Gujarat) Lonavala


10. Union Bearings Manufacturing Co., Porbunder (Gujarat)

11. Needle Roller Bearing Co. Ltd., Thana/Jalna (Maharashtra)

12. Shriram Needle Industries Ltd., Ranchi (Bihar)

13. Deepak Insulated Cables Ltd., Mysore (Karnataka) (Needle Bearings


14. Austin Engg Company Limited Junagadh , Gujarat


15. Karnataka Ball Bearing Co Ltd., Mysore

16. Mysore Kirloskar Ltd, Harihar (Karnataka)

17. Needle Roller Bearings Ltd, Thane

18. Needle Roller Bearings Ltd., Waluj

19. SKF India Limited, Chinchwad , Pune

20. SKF India Limited, Bommasandra, Bangalore

21. Timken India Limited, Jamshedpur

22. ZKL Bearings India Pvt. Ltd.,

23. NTN (India) Limited

Market share of Big Bearing manufacturer companies in India


25.00 21.40

Market share in %



10.00 8.45

5.00 3.16
2.90 2.60
1.60 1.50
1.34 1.30 1.25 1.19 0.96 0.93 0.77 0.73 0.63 0.55
SKF Bearings India

FAG Bearings India

National Engineering industries

Timken India

NRB Bearings

Tata bearings

HMT Bearings


ABC Bearings Ltd.

Sujana Industries

Kirloskar Oil Engines

Bimtel bearings

ARB Bearings


Mipco Seamless Rings






Name of Companies

The Government of India has set up bearings cluster for development of

unorganized segment in Small and Medium sector and understand the market and
quality linkage and make them competitive and prepare them with the best benchmarking
practices in the sector.


Bearing in India started with the setting up of manufacturing unit in JAIPUR

by the Birla Group in 1946 under the name of "National Bearing Company Ltd."

The Ist Bearing was manufactured in 1950 with a modest start of 30

thousand Bearing in 19 Sizes. The Bearing Races (Soft) was Manufactured by the
Tiny Unit in the Small Scale Sector at Jaipur during 1970 on Job Work basis. with
a view to utilize the end piece of the Stainless steel tube which could not be fed to
the Multi operation of National Engineering Industries Jaipur. There after there is a
continuous growth of this Industry and now it has grown to a level that Almost All
the Leading Manufacturer of the country are procuring Soft Bearing. races from
JAIPUR. The National Engineering Industries procure lakhs of Ring every month
from these Bearing Race Manufacturing Unit. The other leading manufacturer like
S.K.F., FAG, TATA Bearing, ABC are also procuring the Bearing races from
Jaipur. In addition to above , the Small Scale Units manufacturing Bearing in the
state of Rajasthan, Delhi, Gujrat and Punjab also purchasing Bearing Races and
components from Jaipur. Apart from Bearing Races there are Bearing
manufacturing SSI Units, Ball manufacturing Unit, and cage manufacturing unit
present in Cluster.

In the Jaipur Cluster, There are Approx 11 No. of SSI Bearing Manufacturing
Unit, about 90 No. of Outer & Inner Soft Races Manufacturing SSI Units and about
2000 No. of outer /Inner Races turning Tiny/Artisan units. Apart from above there
is one large scale bearing manufacturing unit at JAIPUR namely M/s. NEI Ltd.
owned by Birla Group.

The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units of Cluster are producing 36 Lacs of

Bearing worth of Rs. 8 Crore and The Bearing Races 50 Lacs Quantity and other
Bearing components having the Approx worth of Rs. 100 Crore are produced In

the Cluster. The Bearing and Bearing components units at Jaipur Cluster are
engaged in manufacturing of outer & Inner Races, Cages Dust shield, Balls, & Ball

The Detail of type and size of Bearing Races are as under:-

S.No. Type of Bearing Races Inner Dia Range

1. Ball Bearing Races 10mm to 80mm

2. Taper Roller Bearing Races 17mm to 100 mm

3. Cylindrical Roller Bearing Races 20mm to 75 mm

4. Special type of Bearing Races

for Transport Vehicles (Thrust Bearing) 20mm to 75 mm

5. Axle Box Bearing Races for Railway

passenger coaches and wagon 100mm to 200mm

1.5 Raw Material

. The raw material used in the Manufacturing of bearing Races is SAE 52100 high
Carbon Chrome bearing steel, which has composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6
As per BIS specification). The raw material for Bearing Races is in the form of
Rods & Seamless Hollow Tubes. This is a Spherodised Annealed Steel. Alloy
Steel wire rods are used for the manufacture of rollers & balls. The cages and
retainers are made out of plain carbon steel of 1008 & 1015 grade.Other materials
like stainless steels are also used as per the customers requirements .
Approximate required composition for BEARING RACEs are:-

Constitute % Composition

Carbon 0.95 to 1.1

Chromium 1.4 to 1.6

Manganese 0.50 max.

Silicon 0.15 to 0.35

Sulphur 0.025 (Max.)

Phosphorous 0.05

Oxygen Content Note more than 15 ppm


The Material for manufacturing cages is CRCA Strips of

C2015 Bearing grade steel having carbon percentage at

0.08% max. and Magnesium ranging from 0.25% to 0.45%


Steel Balls of grade 20, 16 &10 with close tolerance,

smooth surface made by using SAE 52100 High Carbon

Chrome Bearing Steel.



The plant and machinery in Different Category of Units are as


Activity Plant & Machines presently in use Approx.

Cost ( Rs. In
Lakh )
Manufacturing Bearing Bar turning Machine 12-15
Races By Bar Route & Centre Lathe 8-10
Seamless tube Method Lathe Addahs 0.50
(Drilling and trepanning Low cost automated hydraulic lathes 8-10
Operation are not Tools cutter Grinder 12
required ) CNC Machine for 15-20
Races Turning/Machining.
Auto lathes (Ace Machines) Perma 6-8x4
Forging Bearing Race
Shearing Gas cutting and hacksaw machines 10-13
and modern shearing machines for
raw material cutting
Heating Induction Heating Furnace for 15-2-0
Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - For all
Oil Fired furnace 12-15
Forging,Trimming 300 tone power press 20-25
200 tone power press 15-20
100 tone power press 10-15
50 tone power press 7-10
Screw press having capacity : 350 22-25
Rolling Hydraulic ring rolling machine 25-30
capacity to roll up to 300 mm.
Tempering With the help of oil fired furnace / 6-10
electrically heated furnace forgings is
treated with sperodise anealing to
remove residual stresses
Die Making Special die sinking machine ,EDM 6-10
Inspection Hardness testing machine 0.50
Laboratory for testing of final 2-5
products of forging with chemical
composition and micro examination

Heat Treatment : Hardening & Tempering


1 - Heating 850 C Natural salt bath Pit type furnace 0.65-2

(Austenitizing) to alter the with pre-heating Furnace
structure of the material

2 - Quenching 40 C Mar quenching processes

Rapid cooling to fix the
structure of the material
and thus increase
3 - Tempering 170 C" Electric Furnace 3-4
Reheating" to reduce the
effects of thermal shock
(quenching) inside the
structure and stabilise the
Washing Races Tumbling Barrel 0.1-.0.15
Blackening of Races Quenching oil Tank with Cooling 0.1-0.12
Grinding Followed by The Machinery being used for
Honing of Outer & Inner Grinding & honing by the
Races SSI Bearing Manufacturing Units are
Imported & Second Hand
Face Grinding Face Grinder ( Rowland ,USA)-1No 8-10
Centreless Ginding Centreless Grinder ( WMW, USA) 1- 5.3 -8
Centreless Grinder ( ,Lidkoping USA) 3.45- 6
Bore Grinding Bore Grinder (Jung Germany)1 -No 0.5-3
Bore Grinder (UVA, USA)1 -No
Outer Track Grinding Outer Track Grinder ( Heald, USA)-1 3.48-5
Outer Track Grinder 5.22-7
( Bryant,USA,1No
Inner Track Grinding Inner track Grinder( Norton) 1 -No 1- 3
Inner track Grinder( Newall,USA) 1 -
Duplex Machine 1.5-2
Honing of Track Honing Machine 5Nos 1.40-4
Washing of Races Washing Machine (Self Fabricated) 1-1.4
Lapping Machine Lapping M/c 12-15

Cages & Shields Steel Cages are manufactured by 15-20

Manufacturing Unit using Bearing Grade
Blanking, Bending, Steel Sheet. These sheets are
Drawing, Piercing, stamped with the help of Hydraulic
Cleaning, Inspection Presses and various dies to provide
the desired form and size of
Steel Cage
Pinning ( Pinning in Pinning Press (Electro Magnetic 0.1-0.2
cages) Process ,20 Ton -1 No

Riveting cages in Riveting Press ,Hydraulic 20 ton,1- 0.2-0.3

Bearing No1
Ball Manufacturing Unit
Cold Heading Cold Header Machine 10-12
Flashing Ball Flash removing M/c. 4-6
Heat Treatment Hardening followed by Tempering on 20-25
Rotary type furnace
Tumbling Tumbler 2-3
Ball Grading Ball Grading M/c. 3-5
Rough Lapping Lapping M/c. 4-6
Abrasive Lapping Abrasive Lapping M/c. 2-3
Oil Lapping with the help of H.S. Diesel oil and 3-6
Chromium Oxide
Caustic Soda Washing
Assembly of Outer &
Inner Races with Balls /
Roller & Cage
duly suited and locked by
power press
Marking Machine and 3-4

Cleaning, Checking & Final Inspection

Measuring & Inspection Tools and Gauge, Comparators, Dial 7-10

Gauges, Demagnetisers, Micrometer,
Slip gauge, Surface Plate,Telescope
Gauge, Cylindrical Gauges etc
Testing Laboratory Equipment 2-3
Load ,RPM, Noise, Load ,RPM, Noise, Temperature etc 1-2
Temperature etc Checking For final inspection Set-up
Checking For final
Packing Sleeve packaging machine/Shrink 0.7-1

Work Shop M/c Tools Surface Grinder/Duplex Grinder 7

Bench Drilling machine 0.1

Pedestal Grinder 0.15

Tool post Grinder 0.1

Electric Arc Welding M/c 0.5
Fitter Bench & Measuring 8-10
Instruments, Gauges, Fixtures etc.

Material Handling Chain Pulley & Hoist 0.5-.7

Electric D.G.Set 20 KVA 3-4
Air Pipe line Compressor 1-1.2
Centralised Cooling Centralised Cooling Tank with 0.6-0.8
Tank with filtration filtration System ( Superior )

1.7 Manufacturing Process

These are following three methods which are being used by units manufacturing
bearing races (Soft Turned).


Bar route method is considered to be most economical method

manufacturing of soft turned Bearing Races. The following steps are involved in
this method. For the Inner Diameter upto 25mm , this method is more economical
as compared to the other method. That is why this method is more popular and it's
estimated that 70% of Bearing Races soft turning upto 25 mm I.D. size and 50%
Races of the total quantity of soft races manufactured by using this manufacturing
technology. Beyond 25mm I.D. this method is not much cost effective

Bar Turning

Drilling, Parting & Trepanning

(Trepanning is the operation in which the outer race & inner race is parted off from

a single piece of Bar).

Inner Diameter Machining & Facing

Outer Diameter Machining & Facing

Radius Formation

Track Formation

Ready for Dispatch for further operation.

Seamless Tube Method:-


In the Seamless Tube Method the Drilling and trepanning operation are not
required , the remaining operations are as follows :-


I.D. Machining & Width Machining

Outer Dia Machining & Facing

Track and Radius Formation

Ready for dispatch for further operation

This process technology is preferably being used for the outer Dia of 25mm or
higher size. Apart 40% of the total volume of Soft Races turning is being produced
by using above mentioned method in the cluster.

Forging Method:-

Bearing Races are manufactured by Hot Forging Method. The operation of Drilling,
parting, and trepanning are not required while using Forging Method. The Metallic
closed Dies are used in Hot Forging Method. This method is more suitable and
economical for outer Dia of 30 mm and above size. In the cluster Approx. 10% of
Bearing Races are produced by using Forging Method. The Forged Bearing Races
are machined/finished as Indicated in the earlier method.

Further Operation for Bearing Manufacturing

The Bearing Outer & Inner Races manufactured by using any one of the
method mentioned above are then supplied to large scale and small scale Bearing
manufacturing Unit. The further sequence of operation for manufacturing of
Bearing are as under

Hardening & Tempering of Outer & Inner Races.

Grinding Followed by Honing of Outer & Inner Races

Assembly of Outer & Inner Races with Balls / Roller & Cage duly suited and

locked by power press.

Cleaning, Checking & Final Inspection


Ready for dispatch


Heat Treatment

Heat Treatment increases material hardness.

At each of the three steps, different processes are available, depending on the product.

Heating 850 C- Austenitizing) to alter the structure of the material.

Quenching 40 C- Rapid cooling to fix the structure of the material

and thus increase hardness

Tempering 170 C "Reheating" to reduce the effects of thermal shock (quenching)

inside the structure and stabilise the material.


Various Machines are used to perform Grinding operations:

Surface grinding

Outer ring outer diameter grinding

Inner ring inner diameter grinding

Inner ring outer diameter grinding (raceway)

Outer ring inner diameter grinding (raceway)

Super-finishing : Improves the condition of raceway surfaces by polishing with a

grinding rod.

Manufacturing Process of Other Bearing Component


Steel Ball :-

Steel Ball with Close tolerance and desired surface finish are produced by using
SAE-52100 Steel Rod. The process flow diagram for

Ball Flashing Operation Deburring Machine Rill Filing Machine

Wire is fed from de-coilers into cold Header Machines when ere it cut into Blanks,
then pressed into balls between hemispherical dies.

Manufacturing of steel ball is as under:-

Flow chart

Cold Heading (on Cold Header Machine)

Flashing (on Ball Flash removing M/c.)

Heat Treatment (Hardening followed by Tempering on Rotary type furnace)

Tumbling (on tumbler)

Ball Grading (on Ball Grading M/c.)

Rough Lapping (on Lapping M/c.)

Abrasive Lapping (on Abrasive Lapping M/c.)

Oil Lapping (with the help of H.S. Diesel oil and Chromium Oxide)

Caustic Soda Washing





Steel Cage's:-

Steel Cages are manufactured by using Bearing Grade Steel Sheet. These sheets
are stamped with the help of Hydraulic Presses and various dies to provide the
desired form and size of Steel Cage.

The Process flow diagram for manufacturing of Bearing Cages is as under:







Ready for dispatch

Cages Manufacturing Process


Metal Shields - Bearing Metal Shields is protective closures which retains lubricants and assist
in preventing contaminants from reaching internal surfaces.


Shields - The aperture usually found in the top cover housing is sealed to form a barrier to
assist prevention of airborne contamination into the contact area

Shielded Bearings - A shielded bearing has a metallic shield on the backside and
Shielded bearings are not sealed bearings. With the shielded type of bearing, grease may
enter the bearing readily, but dirt is restricted by the close fitting shields. If there is no
shield on the backside of this bearing, the excess grease can escape into the inner
bearing cap of the equipment bearing housing.

Assembly : Assembly of various items, performing additional functions (greasing,

marking, etc.) During each of these steps, the bearing manufacturing process layout is
carried out in compliance with total quality (self-inspection, SPC and TPM).




The following section present on Analysis of Business operation for the Bearing
and Bearing Component Cluster Jaipur. The following factors have been taken into
consideration in the Analysis.

Raw Material

Technology (Machinery & Production)

Quality Standard

Product & Marketing

Entrepreneur & their Enterprises.

Finance & working capital.

Man Power Requirement

Infrastructural Facilities.

Business Development Service.

The raw material SAE 52100 Spherodised bearing steel only available from few Indian

Indian Seamless Metal Tube, PUNE

Indian Seamless Steel & Alloy, PUNE

Mahindra Ugine Steel Company Khapoli.

Internationally, the accent is on achieving higher and higher quality levels of bearings.
Higher precision, minimum handling damages and maximum cleanliness are the thrust
areas for development. Individual units have their own grading of quality. SKF, for
example, designates t, as Q77, Q66, Q55, where Q66 is reported as the prevalent level
and Q55 as the level aimed at International manufacturers are moving towards special
bearings, and sub assemblies involving bearings, where production of small batch
quantities becomes more attractive.

High rates and consistency of productivity have been achieved by the manufacturers
abroad by line manufacture. The market demands there, permit mass production
techniques and thereby bring in economies in production.

- As regards materials, closer grade and specification ratings are emphasised.

- Upgrading of technology has generally come not from within or from market forces
but usually from the collaborator's insistence, if the latter has stakes, either financial or
through its name.

The following testing facilities are not available in most of the cluster units.

Chemical examination of steel.

Non Destructive Testing of Material.


The Machinery and equipment used by majority of SSI units for manufacturing of Bearing
Races are of sub standard and obsolete. Even the SSI Bearing manufacturing units are
using the second Hand Imported Grinding & Honing Machine which are having Lesser
Tolerance Accuracy so the bearing manufactured by these units are not preferred by
International Industrial Buyer.

The Product require high degree of precision the manufacturer are unable to
maintain Accuracy with in 2 microns. In accordance with the standard of International
Market. The existing plant & machinery can give accuracy with 4 microns.

The profile cutting operation of Bearing Races is not properly done due to Non
Availability of optical profile grinder.

Therefore lot of technological intervention need to be done in the area of

Machinery and Production in order to make final product as per International Standard.

The following observation need technological Intervention:-

(1). Use of Kerosene for Splash Cleaning for Assembled Bearing and Swab Cleaning
of Individual Parts.

(2). Inspection of Contamination level of the Bearing not inspected.

(3). Dust free Room/Assembly shop of Bearing not maintained.

(4) Erroneous measurement of parallelism, concentricity, flatness, taper, straightness,

radial and Axial clearance.

(5) Non Uniform Temp. in Shaker Hearth Furnace

(6) Mar Quenching Oil is being used for Quenching, but Mar Quenching Salt is not the

(7) Blackening Salt is full of Contamination.

(8) Sampling System is Erroneous.

(9) Roundness Testing is used for setting parameter of M/c.

(10) Micro Structure Like Type of Martensite, Retained Austenite, Benetic Structure , is
not being inspected.

(11) Sub-Zero Treatment is not being done in the cluster

(12) Micro Hardness measurement is not practice .

(13) Speed, Feed and Depth of cut for Turning and grinding are not optimum .

(14) Precision Measuring Instrument are all shop made.

(15) Fatigue Testing of Bearing not being carried out.

(16) No phosphating of Inner and outer ring .

(17) Go-No-Go gauges practice is not existed.

(18) Forging Dies are made of H 11 & H13 Hot Die Steel and Hot H21 & H 23 material.

The Quality of Bearing Races is concerned SSI Units have to follow the relevant
specification, drawing and other instruction provided by the purchaser. The system of
100% inspection is being followed without any process wastage. However some of the
Bearing manufacturer permit 1% process wastage. In the event of rejection the unit has
to make payment for loss of the raw material the Bearing Manufacturer.

The main defects of Ball Bearing Races are Track Centre out (for which Unit is 100
Micron) eccentricity in outer Dia and Track Dia or Base and Track Dia. The Radius form
on Outer Dia and base of race is not proper which Account for major rejection.

The gauge calibration facility are not available as the gauge are required to be calibrated
periodically in order to ensure the quality of product. The most of SSI/Artisan Unit of
Cluster do not have the well organized marketing channel and Demand forecasting
system and are facing marketing problem due to lack of availability of sufficient fund and
other resources required for Advertisement & Publicity, Credit required by the buyers,
Branding, Market Assessment etc.

Most of Artisan Units are having defective Product pricing system. The units are cutting
prices due to cut throat competition.

The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units are only supplying to replacement market.
There is very vast scope to supply OEM & Other sector if they produce standard quality of

The Problem of duplicating and Reconditioning of old Bearing are another

Constraint in the Industry.

SSI Bearing Manufacturing Units are also facing challenge from Indian Large
Scale Bearing Manufacturer like SKF, NEI, TATA Bearing etc. as large scale unit have
made Huge Investment for Product Technologies, Collaboration from world leader of
Bearing Industry. Large Scale units have employed the professionally qualified work force
and producing at higher volume as compared to SSI Units, and hence taken a lead in all
the functional Area of Manufacturing, R & D, Marketing etc. More over these units are
using latest and Innovative technique to have their higher productivity, quality and
profitability. The SSI Units are far away and yet to adopt these technique tool for their
betterment 25 % of total demand for bearing industry is met by imports. While a part of
the imports come through official channels, there is also a huge volume of illegal imports.
legal Imports generally represent the specialized bearings not manufactured in India.
There are a large variants of imported bearings, each holding a small market share in
India. Though, the quality of bearings manufactured by large players in India is
comparable to world standards, domestic manufacture is not viable due to the small size
of the market segment.

It becomes uneconomical to manufacture such type of bearings as it includes huge

capital expenditure. Illegal imports generally represent the entry of spurious imports of
bearings. In the past, the Indian bearings industry was highly protected on account of
very high import duties ranging from 150% to 240% ad valorem. As a result, illegal
imports via smuggling and under invoicing of imports was the order of the day, accounting
for a high 45-50% of total imports. While duty rates have come down over the last few
years, a few countries like China, Russia, Eastern Europe dump their excess production
at a very low rate. This leads to a huge price differential between domestic and imported
bearings (almost 40-50%), encouraging imports.

Most of the unit, the enterprise structure is proprietary or partnership type. The
proprietor/ partner himself look after the Management Aspect and Keep over all control of
the functioning of the unit and in most of the cases they do not posses the required
technical/Managerial back ground.

Technological Awareness of Entrepreneur are not upto the level. It need to be improved
so they can successfully compete the era of liberalization and globalization.

Finance is the most critical problem of the Industry in term of shortage of finance,
delayed payments, difficulties in getting bank finance and additional requirement of credit.

Units require to maintain large inventory and it's the experience of manufacturer that the
working capital need are not fully realized by the bank & financial institution and it directly
affect their market.

The SSI Units faces common problem regarding availability of skilled man power, A
worker After working for a period of few year in this Industry leave the Job to start his own
turning unit or to get higher wages from another unit.

There is no regular training facilities available where the manufacturer and worker
undergo need based training.

The SSI Units also faces problem about less availability of trained man power such as
turner, tool maker etc.

- The Tiny/Artisan Units are scattered in Different Area. They are functioning under
rented shop and due to availability of lack of space, the placement of machinery &
handling of material with in the unit is not proper.

- Due to frequent power cuts production is hampered.

- There is dearth of quality BDS in the Area of technology, Marketing, Export, Health
& Safety etc.

Networking among R & D Centre, Technical Training Centre, Testing Centre are not
present in cluster.

Chapter 3


The reflections of technological achievement are seen in the quality of the product.
The bearings manufactured by the Indian industry have to improve considerably to meet
international standards. If the roots of the problem are to be identified, one comes to the
following conclusions:

Machine Tools - precision, productivity

Materials - quality, consistency

Operations - process mastery, assembly, quality control Skill

These broad areas can be identified as "Technology Gaps" in bearing manufacture.

Although considerable efforts have been made in these directions, the gaps have not yet
been bridged.

Technology Gaps:

Activity Plant & Machines Proposed plant and

presently in use Machinery

Manufacturing Bearing Bar turning Machine . Installation of Auto

Races By Bar Route & Turning Lines for Small
Seamless tube Method Centre Lathe DGBB from Tubes -
(Drilling and trepanning Production capcity
Operation are not Lathe Addahs 120,000 per day,
required )
Low cost automated
hydraulic lathes
Tools cutter Grinder

CNC Machine for

Races Turning

Auto lathes (Ace

Machines) Perma line
Investment Range Investment Range : Investment Range :
Rs. 10-20 Lakh Rs. 100-200 Lakh
Forging Bearing Race
Gas cutting and hacksaw Automatic Hot & Cold
machines and modern Forming machines
shearing machines for
raw material cutting

Induction Heating
Furnace for The outstanding features
Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - of the forging shop
For all include:
Oil Fired furnace Automatic bar
300 tone power press loading
200 tone power press Induction heating
100 tone power press Laser sensor
50 tone power press assisted ESA
Hydraulic ring rolling technology for
machine capacity to roll precise bar feed
up to 300 mm. diameter control and auto
Screw press having Bar End Ejection
capacity : 350 tone On line control &
Special die sinking monitoring of
machine forging
Bar shearing machine temperature
Hardness testing Highly sensitive
machine equipments press load
Laboratory for testing of monitoring system
final products of forging High speed forging
with chemical process
composition and micro eliminating risk of
examination cracks due to
temperature drop.
Auto monitoring
system for yield &
tool life.

With the help of oil fired

furnace / electrically
heated furnace forgings
is treated with sperodise
anealing to remove
residual stresses
Investment Range Investment Range : Investment Range :
Rs. 200-250 Lakh Rs. 1400-1700 Lakh

Heat Treatment :
Hardening & Tempering
1 - Heating 850 C Natural salt bath Pit Temperature Controlled
(Austenitizing) to alter the type furnace with pre- Energy Efficient Heating
structure of the material. heating Furnace Funace
Liquid carburising
Gas carburising

2 - Quenching 40 C Mar quenching

Rapid cooling to fix the processes
structure of the material
and thus increase
3 - Tempering 170 C
"Reheating" to reduce the
effects of thermal shock
(quenching) inside the
structure and stabilise the
Investment Range Rs. 0.6-2 Lakh Rs.20-30 Lakh

Grinding Followed by The Machinery being Automatic Lines,

Honing of Outer & Inner used for Grinding &
Races honing by the
(Surface grinding, Outer SSI Bearing
ring outer diameter Manufacturing Units are
grinding, Inner ring inner Imported & Second Hand
diameter grinding, Inner Machinery.
ring outer diameter
grinding (raceway), Outer Bore Grinding Machine
ring inner diameter
grinding (raceway), Track Grinding Machine
Superfinishing (Internal Grinding
Improves the condition of Machine)
raceway surfaces by Center less Grinder
polishing with a grinding (External Grinding
rod. Machine )
Honing Machine

Investment Range 100-200 Lakh 800-1000 Lakh

Cages & Shields Steel Cages are Press Section
Manufacturing Unit: manufactured by using (Blanking Transfer
Blanking, Bending, Bearing Grade Press M/S Chandra
Steel Sheet. These Industries &M/S Manu
Drawing, Piercing, sheets are stamped with Yantralaya have adopted
Cleaning, Inspection the help of Hydraulic transfer Presses and
Presses and various dies have good market share
to provide the desired in SME manufacturers in
form and size of India.
Steel Cage

Investment Range 50100 Lakh 100-200 Lakh


Cold Heading (on Cold Automatic Lines M/S

Header Machine) Kansara Engineers Pvt.
Flashing (on Ball Flash Ltd. (A Unit of Sewaram
removing M/c.) Kansara Group), E-
Heat Treatment 36,M.I.A. Phase II, Basni,
(Hardening followed by Jodhpur - 342005
Tempering on Rotary (INDIA) has adopted
type furnace) automatic line and have
Tumbling (on tumbler) good market share in
Ball Grading (on Ball SME manufacturers in
Grading M/c.) India
Rough Lapping (on
Lapping M/c.)
Abrasive Lapping ( on
Abrasive Lapping M/c.)
Oil Lapping (with the help
of H.S. Diesel oil and
Caustic Soda Washing
Inspection Grading Machine


Assembly of Outer & Hydraulic power press AUTO INNER & OUTER
Inner Races with Balls / DIAMETER
Roller & Cage INSPECTION,
duly suited and locked by AUTO IR & OR ULTRASONIC
Automatic Lines(AUTO

Pinning Press
Marking Machine Laser Marking M/C

Cleaning, Checking & Tools and Gauge,

Final Inspection Comparators, Dial
Gauges, Demagnetisers, composition of raw
material Including
Slip gauge, Surface
Plate,Telescope Gauge, Microscopic
Cylindrical Gauges etc

Ultrasonic Testing

Oxygen contain

R.A. Value
measurement for

Calibration Testing
Testing Nominal Laboratory
Load ,RPM, Noise, Load ,RPM, Noise, AUTO DOUBLE SIDE
Temperature etc Temperature etc
Checking For final Checking For final DOUBLE SIDE SENSITIVITY
inspection inspection Set-up INSPECTION MACHINE, AUTO
Packing Sleeve packaging
machine/Shrink Packing

Packing Sleeve packaging


Work Shop M/c Tools Surface Grinder/Duplex CNC M/ C Tools

Bench Drilling machine
Pedestal Grinder
Tool post Grinder
Electric Arc Welding M/c
Fitter Bench & Measuring
Instruments, Gauges,
Fixtures etc.

Chapter 4



Bearing Steel :

The most common material used in the manufacture of bearing rings, balls
and rollers is Alloy steel conforming to specifications SAE 52100. This material has
become standard material for the industry all over the world. While the basic
material remains the same, the steel manufacturers all over the world have been
improving this material in order to improve the life span and quality of the bearing.
The Indian steel manufacturers although manufacturing steel to specifications SAE
52100, are not able to meet the requirement of the bearing manufacturers in so far
as purity and oxygen content is concerned. Therefore, bearing Steel
Manufacturers should be equipped with Vacuum Degassing & Vacuum Oxygen
De-Carburising Equipment (LEYBOLD HERAEUS, Germany.) In order to
maintain Oxygen content < 15ppm . The tubes are tested to ensure that the steel
is free from injurious imperfections such as piping, cracks, porosity, segregation or
injurious inclusions as referred to in ASTM-381.The inclusion rating is evaluated in
accordance with Plate III of ASTM E-45,The tubes are spheroidized and annealed
to ensure that the microstructure consists of spheroidized commentate in a ferrite
matrix with carbide size conforming to Plates 2 to 4 as per IS 4398-1972 and CG
2.1 - 2.3 as per SEP 1520-78.Spherodise annealing and normalising improves the
machinability of the annealed hypereutectoid steel and improves its microstructure.
To accomplish spherodise annealing and ormalising,temperature controlled energy
efficient electrically heated furnace with a capacity of 6,000kg and oil fired
furnaces with capacities of 3,500kg to 4,000kg are being proposed for SME sector
. The spherodise annealing and normalising process provides improved ductility,
removal of residual stresses, improved machinability and grain refinement.

Race Turning :

Auto lathes (Ace Machines) /CNC Machines/ SLC-100G/Machines for Ring

Turning CNC Turing centers of HMT, GD Weiler and other reputed makes,
capable of components upto 100mm diameter are being proposed for SME sector.
Though some units in MSME sector have already installed f Auto Turning Lines for
Small DGBB from Tubes - Production capacity 120,000 per day, One of them M/s
Supersonic Turners Pvt. Ltd , Jaipur is performing well in this sector.

Benefits :
These machines are built on the Modular concept for Productive, trouble free
Running with minimal operator Intervention. They are ideally suited & developed
for small to medium sized disk type components that are made in large volumes
like bearing rings, water pump rings, sleeves, brake pistons etc. These machine
offers many high productive features that enhances productivity significantly
1.High rate of production
2. Cost effective
3. Less wastage

4. Better and consistent quality

5.Less power consumption

The CNC, SPM and convectional turning machines for centreless, cylindrical and
round operations. SPM type convectional turning machines for proof turning and
some other special operations. PLC and hydraulic type convectional machining
centres for various operations are being used in SME sector as advance
technology .

HEAT TREATMENT : Following Plant & equipment for Heat Treatment are
being proposed in SME Sector

Liquid carburising processes

Gas carburising processes
Continue hardening processes
Natural salt bath processes
Mar quenching processes
quenching ( Cryogenic or Nitrogen Mathanol system ): To eliminate retained
Austenite,the quench temperature has to be lowered

Forging : Manufacturers of closed die Forgins for Bearing Race equipped with
Following Equipments in SME Sector.

Induction Heating Furnace for

Forging 300 kw, 3 KHz - For all
Well equipped furnace
300 tone power press
200 tone power press
100 tone power press
50 tone power press
Hydraulic ring rolling machine capacity to roll up to 300 mm. diameter
Screw press having capacity : 350 tone
Special die sinking machine- EDM
Bar shearing machine
Hardness testing machine equipments
Full equipped laboratory for testing of final products of forging with chemical
composition and micro examination

Hot & Cold Automatic Forming plant operates at an average speed of 110 ppm
providing the utmost production efficiency when compared to the conventional
forging process. The Hotmatic AMP 30 S/AMP-50S three-station hotformer is
ideally suited to the production of parts for the automotive, fittings and bearing
industries are being suggested for large scale units .
Benefits :
Simple operation and conversion
High production output (up to 140 parts/minute)
Accurate transfer
Broad range of parts (e.g. cams for passenger vehicles)
Fully developed and proven machine design

Note : M/s Agrasen Engineering Industries Limited is equipped with

HotmaticAMP-30S, propelling towards future with an outstanding growth rate.

The outstanding features of the forging shop include:

Automatic bar loading

Induction heating
Laser sensor assisted ESA technology for precise bar feed control and auto
Bar End Ejection
On line control & monitoring of forging temperature
Highly sensitive press load monitoring system
High speed forging process eliminating risk of cracks due to temperature
Auto monitoring system for yield & tool life.

Ring Rolling Process :. The raw material is heated in an induction bar heater and
in precisely temperature-controlled furnaces, which provide scale free heating. The
plant is equipped with gas cutting and hacksaw machines and modern shearing
machines for raw material cutting. The plant uses pneumatic, mechanical and
hydraulic power presses for forging. Sun Forge C-1/285, G.I.D.C.,Phase II, Aji Ind.
Estate,Rajkot - 360 003, Gujarat have equipped with such technology .

Cold Rolling Plant : Ring Rolling Machin- D51A, D51B, D52 and D53K series ,
D51A & D51B series of vertical type Ring Rolling (Zhucheng Shengyang
Machinery Co., Ltd ) and Hatebur Coldmatic coldformers (AKP 3-5 | AKP 4-5 |
AKP 4-6 S | AKP 5-5 ) produce precision and complex parts formed directly from

wire. The parts produced this way are characterized by precision tolerances,
quality surface finish and overall strength, are being also used in Bearing sector.

Benefits :
Machine have advantages of small volume and compact structure and saving
material and power and so on, which also widely used for hot rolling of ring like
blank in bearing forging and auto gear and flange manufacture industry. D52 &
D53K series of CNC horizontal type Ring Rolling Machine have the following
advantages: advanced structure, numerical programme control, high automation
degree and productivity and saving material and power and so on. Especially
D53K CNC Ring Rolling Machine, it can roll rings simultaneously in radial and axial
direction and is the ideal equipment of processing large scale seamless rings,
which has been widely used in spaceflight, aviation, ship, petrochemical industry
and power industry and so on.

Manufacturing of Bearing Cage & Shields : The following plant & Machineries
are being suggested for SME Sector
AIDA Transmax TMX Transfer Press or Straight Side 2-point Transfer

softwares provided by Forming Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd

Transfer Press 50 (Aida, Asahi Seiko, Kyori, Chin Fong Machine

Industrial Co., Ltd.186 Chang Shui Road, Chang Hua, Taiwan

Rivet Insertion Machines 43 (Toa Seiko, Shimizu Seiko)

Press Section (Blanking Transfer Press

The main process in the production of a bearing cage. At first stage, in a process
called blanking, a round ring is being cut out of a steel coil. Then, in a process
called transfer pressing, a proper cage is formed by pressing out from a blank.

BLANK Pre-forming Forming Piercing


Rivet insertion
Rivet, which is a part of bearing-cage, is manufactured from a steel wire. . The process of
rivet insertion is implemented by specialized machines. The cage set is made of two
identical cages joined by a rivet.

Rivet Insertion Machines 43 (Toa Seiko, Shimizu Seiko)


Advanced Flow Chart to manufacturer Bearing Cages

Benefits :

Convenient to integrate with the 2D/3D transfer unit to increase production

Minimal overall clearance derived from high-precision components

Low noise and low vibration which contribute to extended die life

Note: Manu Yantralaya has adopted transfer presses & consistently marching
ahead to furnish the needs of customers belonging to ball bearing industry..

Assembly Section : Automatic Line from R& S Machine China are being proposed for
large scale

Quality control : Some advance Machine & equipments are being used as mentioned

TALYROND - Roundness , squarness, concentricity and coaxiality of

bearing and components ,Testing instrument, FORM TALYSURF
Profile and surface finish testing instrument etc. from - Taylor Hobson,
Bearing Eccentricity stand, Dial Calibration Instrument and Gauss Meter
(Residual Magnetism Tester) etc.

Form and surface finish measuring instrument is being used for checking the micro
geometry, it evaluate parameters like Form geometry and surface finish of components
Roller Sorting Machine
Bearing Noise Level & Vibration Tester

ADVANCE TESTING EQUIPMENTS : The following testing equipment s are being used

Carl ZEISS Microscope

model No. AXIOVERT 100 A Germany
Taper Roller Head Radius Measuring Instrument
Talyrond 262- U.K.
Dial Calibrator
Talysurf FTS- U.K.
Intra 2 System with Ultra Comprising
Profile Projector
Surface Roughness Tester
ATC Calibrator

Chapter 5

Product : Forged Bearing Races

NIC Product Code : 356601005

Product Code ( ASICC ) : 71243


Plant Capacity per annum : 7200MT ( Two Shift )

Job work per annum : Rs, 9,36,00,000

Month & Year of Preparation : March, 2011

: Prepared By : -

Micro Small and Medium Enterprises Development Institute,

Government of India
Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises
Bais Godam, Jaipur 302 006 (Raj.)
Ph. 0141-2212098, 2213099, Fax. 2210553
e mail-

Forged Bearing Races

1.0 INTRODUCTION : The profile envisage to set up Automatic Hot &

Cold Forming Forging Plant to manufacturer Bearing Races .The
operation of Drilling, parting, and trepanning are not required while
using Forging Method. The Metallic closed Dies are used in Hot
Forging Method. This method is more suitable and economical for
outer Dia of 30 mm and above size.. The Forged Bearing Races are
turned /finished on turning Lines.

2.0 MARKET & DEMAND ASPECT : The demand for bearing industry is
derived from demand in two key user segments - automobile and
industrial sector growth. The automobile industry is the largest growth

driver for OEM market as it accounts for almost 45% of total bearing
Engineering sector, which accounts for 28% of total share, holds the
second growth driver. Considering the high reliance of bearing industry
on automobile sector, the fate of bearing industry is largely dependent
on production of vehicles.
The demand of bearing is also linked to heavy-duty industrial
application in rolling stock, rolling mills, heavy earth moving
equipments and other heavy machinery, accounting for 21% of total
bearing market. However demand in the latter category is met through
imports and therefore does not have significant impact on domestic
growth .
Up Swing in Automobile Sector ,The Indian Automobile sector has
grown 16.5% in FY03 contributed by export growth of 65.3% and
domestic growth of 14.8%. The automobile industry comprising of
commercial vehicles, passenger cars, multi-utility vehicles, two/three
wheelers and tractors has performed extremely well in FY03. The
sharp growth of this sector has been partly driven by the impact of
lower interest rate on demand, intermediated by a competitive financial
sector, which has steadily cut prices of automobile loans as interest
rates went down.
Infrastructure has received a fillip in last 2 years through N-S-E-W
corridor and Golden Quadrilateral projects. The transformation of road
transport industry through these initiatives will lead to higher demand
for commercial vehicle industry. Passenger cars continue to grow in
double digit driven by rising aspiration levels and easy availability of
cheap finance. Within two wheelers, we expect motorcycle industry
growth to continue on its growth path.
After two bad years, the tractor industry is also likely to witness a
revival with completion of inventory correction phase and good
monsoons likely to drive demand. The positive outlook for auto sector
augur well for bearings demand and we expect all segment of
automobile industry to report strong growth in the coming year.

Export Potential
Exports of bearings companies has increased at a CAGR of 13% in
last seven years from 1995-96 to 2001-02 at Rs2.5bn.Big players in
Indian ball and roller bearing have been already exporting a part of
their production to developed countries like US, Europe etc. Domestic
players are already sensing the outsourcing opportunity and have
initiated the process of manufacturing a range of bearings for meeting
the requirements of global customers.
The Indian bearing industry, especially the companies having
technical/ financial collaboration with global players like SKF Bearings,

FAG Bearings, Timken India, ABC Bearings and NRB Bearings are
expected to garner higher price in export market.
The OEM and replacement market control the market dynamics of
Bearing. The OEM and replacement market both account for 40% of
total demand of Bearing Industry individually. The Bearing
Manufacturer are only supplying to replacement market. There is vast
market of OEM Sector The SSI Bearing Manufacturing units of cluster
are mainly supplying to the replacement market of Bearing. On the
other hand a number of SSI Races Manufacturing Units are supplying
the Soft turned Bearing Races to the following large scale units. In the
Bearing & Bearing component manufacturers cluster Jaipur Approx.
10% of Bearing Races are produced by using Forging Method.

Name of Large Scale Unit : No. of Vendor in Jaipur

(i) NBC : 30 No.
(ii) SKF : 05 No.
(iii) ABC : 02 No.
(iv) FAG : 04 No.
(v) TATA :02 No.
(vi) TIMKEN : 01 No.
The Bearing Manufacturing SSI Units are only supplying to
replacement market. There is very vast scope to supply OEM & Other
sector if they produce standard quality of Bearing.

3.0 RAW MATERIALS : The raw material used in the Manufacturing of

bearing Races is SAE 52100 high Carbon Chrome bearing steel, which
has composition similar to EN-31 (100 CR 6 As per BIS specification).
The raw material for Bearing Races is in the form of Rods The Project
profile envisage to perform job work of large scale Bearing


Manufacturing process begins by sending hot rolled bar material
through Induction Heaters to achieve the proper temperature needed
for forming the part. The material then proceeds into Hatebur 3 station
or 4 station hot former. Depending on the job specifications, these
machines pancake the part, then form and punch the inside diameter
through the product. Both machines possess the added feature of
combination forging, which produces two parts at the same time thus
reducing material waste.
At this point, depending on the application, the product can go
through forge normalizing or spheroidize annealing furnaces, cold ring
rolling process, shot blasting or visual inspection areas prior to the
shipping area.

4.1 Quality System :

The tests are conducted as per I.S. & A.S.T.M. standards. In the Laboratory, tests
such as Chemical Composition, Including rating, carbide Bending, Grain Size and
other tests are conducted. Once the material s approves after spherodized
Annealing, it is send for turning process where Inspection of pre-turned races is
done, continuous dimension inspection during turning process,100% Crack
Detection testing,100% Visual Inspection for dent, forging spots, rust & Burr of
turned races is done. After getting approval material is transferred for dispatch.

5.0 BASIS OF PROJECT SELECTION : The spurt in prices of the import

raw material-steel tubes, has compelled the industry to look for an
alternative form of material, which has been seen in forged/formed
rings.The proposed . Hatebur machines are impressive not only for
their precision and flexibility, but also because of their ability to
produce large volumes of parts at a high production rate which in turn
yields good production efficiency. In anticipating future demand &
keeping view of global trend only such a plant may be a approved
vendor of large scale bearing manufacturers.The proposed proven
technology has already adopted by M/S Agrasen Engineering
Industries Limited , Jaipur this technology , running very well , Hence it
justified the project selection.

(1) To improve the energy efficiency of the plant, it has to run
The scheme is based on two shift of 75% efficiency 25 days/month
and 300
days per annum
(ii) Labour wages has been taken as per market rate. It is likely to vary
depending upon the location of the project .
(iii) Rate of interest has been taken 12% on an average on fixed and
working capital. It is likely to vary due to financial outlay and the
location of the unit.
(iv) The operative period of the project is estimated to be about 8 years
considering technology obsolescence.
(v) Value of machinery & equipment is estimated on the basis
Quotations received & prevailing cost of the local mkt.
(vi) As the cost of raw Material is major part of working Capital and is
very high and as per the mrket trend the working capital is being taken
for 1.5 months only.



The proposed ATEBUR-HOTMATIC AMP 30 S work with one shearing

and three forming stations for the production of forging parts up to
67 mm diameter and 0.7 kg input weight & 84- 140 strokes per minute.
In keeping view plant capacity and presumptions made over capacity
calculated as under :

8.0 Plant Capacity per annum : 10533.6 MT ( Two Shift )

Value per annum : Rs, 79,10,73,360/-
Hot Forming Plant
- Power supply (start and production) 120 kVA
Compressed air:
- Pressure 5,5-10 bar
- Consumption (non compressed state) 3 Nm3/h
Cooling water:
- Pressure 4 bar
- Max. flow rate (depending on part) 30 m3/h

S.No. Activities Period in
1 Preparation of project report and selection of site 1
2 Registration 1
3 Application for Electricity Connection 1
4 Availability of finance& Procurement of machinery 6
6 Electrification & installation 2
7 Recruitment of staff 1
8 Trial run 1
Total 13

i) Land : The requirement of land for the proposed unit would be 3000 Sq. Mtr.
purchased @ 2500 3000 2500 7500000
Shed & Building Constriction 1000 5000 5000000
TOTAL 12500000

S.No. Description of machine Qty. Price Amount


1 HATEBUR HOTMATIC AMP 30 1 133879000 133879000

S with one shearing and three
forming stations for the production of
forging parts up to 67 mm diameter
and 0.7 kg input weight. With 6 inline
Induction heater and cold ring rolling
machine & Shot Blasting
2 Noise abatement cabin. 1 7964550 7964550
3 Adaptation to tropical conditions. 1 653,400 653400
For ambient temperature higher than
40 C and for relative humidity higher
than 90 %, it is necessary to install a
larger cooler and a heater to keep
condensation from forming inside the
cubicle during machine standstill. The
heater is controlled by temperature
controller and hygrostat and allows a
temperature difference of max. 15 C.
4 CNC Lathe 200 mm 1 2000000 2000000
5 Cylindrical Grinder 1 400000 400000
6 Internal Grinder 1 300000 300000
7 Vertical milling Machine 1 450000 450000
8 Spare Parts 1 5440050 5440050
9 Changeover Aids 1 2393820 2393820
Other Conventional M/c Tools like 1 200000 200000
drill, weld bench vice , portable
grinder etc
10 Accessories 1 10032660 10032660
Total 163786480
vat, Taxes, Installation & Electrification @ 10% 16378648
TOTAL 180165128
9 Office Equipment, Dies & Tools LS 7614585 7614585
Total Investment In Plant & 187779713
Pre operation Charges i.e. for Getting 3755594.26
Electricity Connection etc.
c Total Investment In fixed assets 204035307.3

i Personnel
S.NO. DESIGNATION No. Salary Total (Rs.)
1 Workshop in charge 1 30000 30000
2 Supervisor cum clerk 2 1200 2400
3 Skilled Worker 8 8000 64000
4 Semi skilled worker/ Helper 4 4500 18000
5 Peon / Watchman 3 3000 9000
Total 18 123400
Additional Perquisites @ 15% 18510
Total Expenditure in Salary & Wages 141910

ii Raw Material

S.No. Particular (Indigenous) Qty Rate Value (Rs.)

1 Bearing steel Sheets 924 60000 55440000
2 Die Blocks & Consumables 200000 1 200000
3 others L.S. 10000
TOTAL 55650000

iii Utilities Value (Rs.)

1 Power ( 8000 unit per day) 1100000 1100000
2 Water & Compressed Air LS 5000
TOTAL 1105000
iv Other Contingent Expenses

1 Postage and stationary 3500

2 Office Consumable stores 3500
3 Transport charges 10000
4 Telephone charges 5500
5 Publicity Expenses 5000
6 Traveling expenses 1500
7 Repair & Maint. 10000
8 Miscellaneous expenses 2500
9 Insurance 15648.30942
TOTAL 57148.30942

v Total Recurring Expenditure :

S.No. Description Cost
1 Personnel 141910
2 Raw material 55650000
3 Utilities 1105000
4 Other Contingent Expenses 57148.30942
TOTAL 56954058.31
vi Total working capital for 1.5months : Rs. 85431088

e Total Capital Investment :

i Fixed Capital 204035307.3
ii Working Capital for 1.5 Months 85431088
Total Capital Investment : 289466395.3
Total Capital Investment Say 289.8 Cr
Finance Detail % Contribution
i Self Contribution 25 72366599
iii Banks Contribution 75 217099796.3

1 Cost of Production (Per year) :

i Total recurring cost : 683448699.7
ii Depreciation of machinery and equipment @ 10% 18016512.8
iii Interest on total Capital investment @ 12% 34735968
iv Depreciation of tools and office equipment / furniture @ 20% 1522917
v Depreciation of Building @ 5% 625000
Total : 738349097.5

2 Total Sales (Per annum)

Products Qty. Rate Value (Rs.)
Bearing Races 10533.6 74000 779486400
Sale of Scrap (5%) 527 22000 11586960
TOTAL : 791073360

3 Net Profit (Per yr.) (Before tax)

Total turnover per yr. -cost of production per yr.
(in Rs.) = 791073360 - 52724262.49
4 Net profit ratio :
Net profit 100 = 52724262.49 x100 = 7%
Turn Over 791073360
5 Rate of return :
Net profit 100 = 52724262.49 x100 = 18%
Total Investment 289466395.3
1 40% salary & wages 681168
2 Depreciation on machinery & 18016512.8
Equipments @ 10%
3 Depreciation of tools and office 1522917
equipment @ 15%
4 Depreciation of Building @ 5% 625000
5 Interest on capital investment @ 12% 34735968
6 40% of other contingent expenses 199200
7 Insurance 187779.713
TOTAL 55968545.51
Net Profit (Per yr.) (Before tax) 52724262.49
Fixed Cost 100 = 51%
Fixed Cost + Profit


12.1 Plant & Machinery :

A Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG
Postfach 916
General Guisan-Strasse 21
CH-4153 Reinach
Tel.: +41 61 716 21 11
Fax: +41 61 716 21 31
103 Winner's Court, Lulla Nagar

Pune 411040
Maharastra, India
Mobile: +91 (0) 9892249582

B Zhucheng Shengyang Machinery Co., Ltd


12.2 Raw Materials & Consumables

1. Local Market

Lunkad Towers, Viman Nagar,
Pune - 411014, India.
Tel: +9120 41434100/01
+9120 66024901/02
Fax: +9120 26630779
Mr. S Mallya
Executive Vice President Marketing

3. Mahindra Ugine Steel Co. Ltd

Jagdish Nagar, Khopoli 410216
District Raigad
Maharashtra State, INDIA
Ph.:+91 02192 - 263318 / 263347 / 262487 / 262488 / 263589
Fax: 91 02192 - 263073 / 263076 / 268502
For Steel Procurement Contact
Mr.Ramchandra Rane
Ph.: 91-2192-263781
Telefax - 91-2192-268502
PABX - 91-2192-262488 / 263070(ext)640.

13 Resource centre of Technology : Plant & Machine Suppliers

13.1 R & S Machinery Equipment Ltd.
Xiaowu No. 2 Industrial Zone, Yuwotou, Dongchong Town, Panyu Dist.,
Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 511475

TEL: +86 20 8490 5870(3 lines)

FAX: +86 20 8490 5880
13.2 Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG
Postfach 916
General Guisan-Strasse 21, CH-4153 Reinach, Switzerland
Tel.: +41 61 716 21 11, Fax: +41 61 716 21 31

14 List of the units set up by using this project Profile :

A. Agrasen Engineering Industries Limited
F-198/199, Road No, 9F
Vishwakarma Industrial Area,
Contact Person : Mr. Vinod Agarwal
Phone :+91-141-2330614
E-mail ,


Annexure -a

Technology / Plant Providers All the manufacturers in the organised sector have
entered into collaboration agreements for supply of complete process know how as well
as supply of major manufacturing machinery tool design, production control techniques
etc from them,

SKF India SKF Sweden
FAG, Germany
FAG Bearing India NEI
NRB Nadella, France
ABC Bearing Ltd. NSK Japan
Bimetal Bearing Ltd Clevite Corporation USA
Kansara Engineering Pvt. Ltd., NTN Japan, Nadella France
Technology Providers/ Machine & Area Concerned
equipment Providers
BRENCO Incorporated , U.S.A. Cartridge Tapered Roller Bearings for Railway wagons and

NTN Corporation , Japan For Ball Bearings, Cylindrical & (c) Spherical Roller Bearings,
Tapered Roller Bearings.
Izumi Kinzoku Kogyo Co. Ltd., Japan For re-manufacturing, retrofitting
and overhauling of grinding and
super finishing machines for
bearing races.

Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG) Hatebur Hotmatic hotformers ,a

CHRYSTEC MACHINE TOOLS PVT LTD, fully-automated Forging &Hatebur
103 Winner's Court, Lulla Nagar Coldmatic coldformers produce
Pune 411040 Maharastra, India precision and complex parts
00912030527484 formed directly from wire.
Mobile: +91 (0) 9892249582

Hatebur Umformmaschinen AG
Postfach 916
General Guisan-Strasse 21, CH-4153 Reinach
Tel.: +41 61 716 21 11
Fax: +41 61 716 21 31

Shimoumezawa 526, Namerikawa, 936-0852 Bearing Cage

Toyama (Manu Yantralaya, Jaipur
Toyama plant: Mizuhashi-Iseya, Toyama-city, 939- Has set up Ball Bearing Cage
3524Toyama production line(Transfer Press) in
Technical Collaboration with M/s
Toho Industrial Co. Ltd., Japan )
186 Chang Shui Road, Chang Hua, Taiwan 500 Jaipur , Installed Transfer
R.O.C. Presses for manufacturing Dust
TEL:+886-4-7524131, FAX:+886-4-7611920 shield (Z-shield,) .
R & S Industrial Automation Equipment Automatic Lines
(Shanghai) Ltd. (NEI has placed order for
1F/BLG 6,No.67, LANE 1768,LIYUE Automatic lines from
RD.,MINHANG DIST. R & S Machinery Equipment Ltd. )
TEL: +86 21 5190 5246 +86 21 5190 5247
FAX: +86-21 5190 5248
Zhucheng Shengyang Machinery Co., Ltd Ring Rolling Machine
Sales :+86-536-6510558 Vertical Ring Rolling Machine &f
Fax+86-536-6519018 Radial Ring Rolling Machine
Forging Manipulator
Purchasing+86-536-6330266 Charging-discharging Machine,
Production+86-536-6511668 Hydraulic press machine


Jinan King Rabbit Technology Development Machine (Laser Engraving Rabbit

Co., Ltd., 23 East Huayuanzhuang Road, Jinan,
Shandong, China ,
Postal Code: 250013
Telephone :: 86-531-86986670
Fax Number: 86-531-86970098
Contact Person: Mr. Guoqing Sun Showroom:

M/s GIANT RED-WOOD INTERNATION & CO., Riveting machine, eyeleting

Ltd. machine, snap fastening
CEO : Ming-Chang Chen machine, cutting machine, gluing
.290,WAN SHOU RD,SEC1, KUEI machine, press, eyelets, rivets,
SHANHSIANG,333,TAO YUAN HSIEN. aluminum tube forming machine
Phone : 886-2-82091151
Fax : 886-2-82003618
Email :
WMW Machinery Company, WMW machining capabilities
513 Acorn Street Unit B, Deer Park, New York include universal and heavy duty
11729 USA machining,
Phone: 631-940-9121 - Fax: 631-940-9125 heat treatment, material testing
Email: and quality control, dynamic balancing,
metal sheet working, sand
blasting, painting, packing
Stamping Presses

No.1 Bukit Batok Crescent

Singapore 658064
Tel (65) 6507 3555
Fax (65) 6507 3553 (Office)

Machine Tools Division, Beavar Road, Ajmer 305 003 Grinding M/C, & Machine Tools

Ph.: 91-145-244 0620 / 2684 200,Fax: 91-145-244 0082

P.C. Verma, General Manager

91-145-2684 300/91-145-244 0240/(+91) 99280 16143

N.K. Gokhroo, Joint General Manager (Sales)

91-145-2684 330, (+91) 99280 16129

Olympus Japan Metallurgical microscope

Distributor India Microscope from Olympus Japan
I.R.Technology Services Pvt. Ltd. or checking microstructure as..
B-8, Commerce Centre , 78, Tardeo Road, Spheroidize structure
Mumbai 400034 India Amount of perlite
Tel :(91) 22-2495-1085 Micro inclusions
Fax :(91) 22-2495-0584 Carbide network
Carbide streaks (bandings)

Hardening & Tempering

Talysurf FTS (Taylor Hobson Limited - U.K.) Form and surface finish measuring
instrument for checking the
AMETEK INSTRUMENTS INDIA PRIVATE Crowning Profile & Surface Finish of
LIMITED rollers.
Prestige Featherlite Tech Park, Profile Projector (100X) :
Plot No.148, 1st floor,EPIP 2nd Phase, Whitefield,
BANGALORE 560066 Optics Range PGI
Taylor Hobson offers a wide range of
Tel: 1860 266 2468 measuring instruments and software
FAX:+91 80 6782 3232 solutions for high value applications
Sales Bearing Range PGI to achieve
extremely tight tolerances
J.Gabriel Suresh Kumar required for their demanding
Sales Manager applications.
PGI Ultra Range Precision
Service Manager Precision inductive range of products is the main market
reference tool for surface finish,
Geetha Mohan shape and measure 3D contour.

Hand Held Range Surtronic

Mitutoyo make (Japan,) Profile projecter, Roundness Tester,

Mitutoyo South Asia Pvt. Ltd. & other Measuring Instruments
C-122, Okhla Industrial Area, Phase-I, New Delhi-
110 020, INDIA
TEL: (91) 11-26372090 FAX: (91) 11-26372636
WMW Machinery Company using: Tooll Room Precision Mmachines
with latest grinding technology.
Postal Address:
513 Acorn Street, Unit B
Deer Park, NY 11729

Telephone: 1-631-940-9121

Fax: 1-631-940-9125


BWF Kunststoffe GmbH & Co. KG he BWF Group is subdivided


Bahnhofstrae 20 internationally into four independent

Postfach 1120 sectors:
D-89362 Offingen Envirotec
Telephone +49-82 24-71-0 (Environmental
Telefax +49-82 24-71-21 45 Technology)
BWF-Profiles(at) Protec (Engineered Felts)
Feltec (Woolfelt)
Meccanica Nova S.p.A. Internal and external grinding
Via Roma, 54/A
40069 - Zola Predosa - Bologna - Italy
Tel. +39 0512980211
Fax +39 0512980293

MARPOSS Italy Inprocess gagues of for better size

MARPOSS ITALIA S.p.A. control.


Via Saliceto, 13
Tel. +39 051 899111
Fax +39 051 899870

P. IVA: 01510581208

Head Office:



147, Sector 7
Distt. Gurgaon
Tel. +91 124 4735700
Fax +91 124 4735701

THIELINHAUS- German wuper finishing machines(for

improving the surface finish of
raceways )
Supfina-Germany ,. Super finishing machines for
super finishing rollers & along
with cambered profile - a unique

feature with supfina machines

Kudale Dial Calibrator
M/S Micromatic Machine Tools Pvt. Ltd., SLC-100G
Marketing office Machines for Ring Turning
301-302, Vikas Deep Building
District Centre, Laxminagar, New Delhi-110 092
Tel: 011-22025846, Fax: 011-22026761
Contact: Mr. Amit Goel, Mobile: 9871091058
Plot No. 550-E, Sector - 37-II,
Pace city, Gurgaon - 122 001
Tel: 0124-4745500, Fax: 0124-4030832
5D/8D, NIT, Railway Road, Faridabad-121050
Tel: 0129-4033050
M/SJyoti CNC Automation PVt. Ltd. CNC Turing & Milling
G-506, Lodhika, G.I.D.C., Vill. Metoda,
Dist : Rajkot - 360 021 (INDIA)
Phone+91-2827-287081, 287082,
+91-2827-287412, Fax +91-2827-287480
Jyoti CNC Automation Pvt. Ltd.
S - 24, Dwarika Tower, Central Spine,
Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan)- 302023
E-mail :
Mr. Vikas Soni : 97833 07603

GEDEE WEILER (P) LTD, CNC Turning & software

Technical Centre,
Vellalore Road, Podanur Post,
Coimbatore - 641 023.
Email :
Ph : +91-422-2413908 / 2413804
Fax : +91-422-2413528
871, Second Floor,
Sector 10A,
Gurgaon 122 001
Contact Person : Mr. MANMOHAN SINGH -
Mob : 09312092204

871, Second Floor,
Sector 10A,
Gurgaon 122 001

Contact Person : Mr.R.Mohankumar (Service

Mob : 093120 92205

ISTM, Corporate Office Bearing Steel

Lunkad Towers, Viman Nagar, ISMT supplies bearing tubes to
Pune - 411014, India. the major bearing manufacturers
Tel: +9120 41434100/01, +9120 66024901/02 throughout the world.
Fax: +9120 26630779 Oxygen Content Oxygen content < 15ppm. On
Contact: Mr. S Mallya specific request oxygen content <
Executive Vice President Marketing 10 ppm can be offered

Mahindra Ugine Steel Co. Ltd Bearing Steel

Jagdish Nagar, Khopoli 410216 For Steel Procurement Contact
District Raigad Mr.Ramchandra Rane
Maharashtra State, INDIA G.M.(Marketing)
Ph.:+91 02192 - 263318 / 263347 / 262487 / e-mail --
262488 / 263589
Fax: 91 02192 - 263073 / 263076 / 268502 Ph.: 91-2192-263781 Telefax - 91-2192-268502
PABX - 91-2192-262488 /

Mr. Davinder Pal Singh Bearing Race Grinding Machine

Smithson Machine Tools,
E-49, Industrial Area, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
144004, Phone +91-181-2290218, Fax +91-181-
Bhavya Machine Tools Workshop machine
Address : A-601, 6th Floor, Sapath-4, Opp.
Karnavati Club,
S.G. Highway Road, Ahmedabad-51.
Gujarat. (India). Phone : +91-79-4024 2800, +91 -
79 - 3007 4560 FAX : +91-79-4024 2877 Mobile :
+91 9428450980 , + 91 9375208872 E-mail :

Sheet Metal Forming Software

Forming Technologies (I) Pvt. Ltd. and Training solution
107, Supreme Icon, Baner Road,
Pune -(Maharashtra) 411007 India
Phone(s) : 20 25663201
Zhucheng Shengyang Machinery Co., Ltd D51A, D51B, D52 and D53K

Sales+86-536-6510558 series of Ring Rolling Machine

which include more than 40
Fax+86-536-6519018 specifications. D51A & D51B
Purchasing+86-536-6330266 series of vertical type Ring Rolling

Schuler India Private Limited Metal Forming.
401403 Keshava , Bandra-Kurla Complex, Bandra
(East), Mumbai 400 051 India
Tel.: +91 (22) 66 80 03 00
Fax.: +91 (22) 66 80 03 99

Annexure - b

Quality Standards (BIS)

The quality is of paramount importance for bearing. The organized sector units are
following global standards and use front line technology for inspection & quality control.
The unit in unorganized sector have substantial level of awareness and learning to start
defining the processes for measurement of efficiency and effectiveness.

Bureau of Indian standards laid down following standards for Bearings:

S.No. Standard No. Year Title

1 IS 25 1979 Specification for antifriction bearing alloys
2 Specification for antifriction bearing grease
IS 719 1990
(superseding IS : 1276 : 1958)
3 Methods of chemical analysis of antifriction bearing
IS 1409 1959
4 IS 2398 1967 Identification Code for Rolling Bearings
5 IS 2399 1988 Rolling bearings - Vocabulary
6 Boundary dimensions for rolling bearings for general
IS 2513 1963
engineering purposes
7 IS 2720 : Part Methods of test for soils: Part 31 Field determination of
31 California Bearing Ratio
8 Specification for non-load bearing gypsum partition
IS 2849 1983
blocks (solid and hollow types)
9 IS 2898 1976 Specification for Steel Balls for Rolling Bearings
10 Code of practice for installation and maintenance of
IS 3090 1965
rolling bearings
11 Specification for load bearing lightweight concrete
IS 3590 1966
12 Construction of Non-load Bearing Gypsum Block
IS 3630 1992
Partitions - Code of Practice
13 IS 3697 1966 Boundary dimensions for taper roller bearings
14 IS 3823 1988 Rolling bearings - Static load ratings
15 Rolling Bearings - Dynamic Load Ratings and Rating
IS 3824 2002
16 Methods of evaluating dynamic load ratings of rolling
IS 3824 : Part 1 1983
bearings Part 1 Radial ball bearings
17 Methods of evaluating dynamic load ratings of rolling
IS 3824 : Part 2 1983
bearings Part 2 Radial roller bearings
18 Methods of evaluating dynamic load ratings of rolling
IS 3824 : Part 3 1983
bearings Part 3 Thrust ball bearings

19 Methods of evaluating dynamic load ratings of rolling

IS 3824 : Part 4 1983
bearings Part 4 Thrust roller bearings
20 Specification for Porous Metal Powder Oil-Impregnated
IS 3980 1982
21 IS 4025 2006 Rolling bearings -Gauging practice
22 IS 4215 1983 Specification for Ring Type Needle Bearings
23 Cold-rolled Carbon Steel Strips for Ball and Roller
IS 4397 1999
Bearing Cages/Retainers - Specification
24 Carbon-chromium Steel for the Manufacture of Balls,
IS 4398 1994
Rollers and Bearing Races - Specification
25 Rolling Bearings -- Plummer Blocks Housings --
IS 4773 2002
Boundary Dimensions
26 Specification for Thin-walled Half Bearing - Part I :
IS 4774 : Part 1 1982
Plain Bearing
27 Specification for Thin-walled Half Bearings - Part II :
IS 4774 : Part 2 1982
Flanged Bearing
28 Specification for Low Carbon Steel Wire for Rivets for
IS 4882 1979
Use in Bearing Industry
29 IS 5489 1975 Carburizing steels for use in bearing industry
30 General plan of boundary dimensions for radial rolling
IS 5669 1987
31 IS 5692 1988 Tolerances for radial rolling bearings
32 Boundary Dimensions for Thrust Ball Bearings with
IS 5932 1970
Flat Seats
33 IS 5933 2002 Rolling Bearings - Thrust Bearings - Tolerances
34 Rolling Bearings - Chamfer Dimensions - Maximum
IS 5934 1999
Values - Specification
35 Radial internal clearances in unloaded radial rolling
IS 5935 1992
36 Code of practice for determination of bearing capacity
IS 6403 1981
of shallow foundations
37 IS 6453 1984 Technical supply conditions for rolling bearings
38 IS 6454 1972 Specification for Self-Aligning Roller Bearings
39 IS 6455 1972 Specification for Single Row Radial Ball Bearings
40 IS 6456 1972 Specification for Double Row Radial Ball Bearings
41 IS 6457 1972 Specification for Single Row Cylindrical Roller Bearings
42 Specification for Double Row Cylindrical Roller
IS 6458 1972
43 Hydraulic Fluid Power - Cylinders - Piston Seal
IS/ISO 6547 1981 Housings Incorporating Bearing Rings - Dimensions
and Tolerances
44 IS 6548 1992 Rolling bearings - Instrument precision bearings

45 Specification for Locknuts, Narrow Series and

IS 6731 1977 Lockwashers with Straight Inner Tab for Rolling
46 Specification for Aluminium Alloy Castings and Strips
IS 6751 1972
for Bearings
47 IS 6754 1972 Specification for Aluminium Alloy Ingots for Bearings
48 IS 6774 2004 Classification of essential oil-bearing aromatic plants
49 Anaesthetic and respiratory equipment - Conical
IS 7409 : Part 2 1994 connectors Part 2: Screw threaded weight bearing
50 IS 7460 1988 Tolerances for tapered roller bearings
51 General plan of boundary dimensions for tapered roller
IS 7461 : Part 1 1993
bearings Part 1 Single row bearings
52 General plan of boundary dimensions for tapered roller
IS 7461 : Part 2 1992
bearings Part 2 Double row bearings
53 General plan of boundary dimensions for tapered roller
IS 7461 : Part 3 1992
bearings Part 3 Flanged cups
54 Specification for Flexible Load Bearing Polyurethane
IS 8255 1976
Foam Components for Vehicles
55 Lead based antifriction bearing alloy for heavy duty
IS 8475 1977
56 IS 8619 1977 Specification for Bearing Collars for Milling Arbors
57 Specification for Tapered Adapter Sleeves for Rolling
IS 8656 1977
58 Specification for Tapered Withdrawal Sleeves for
IS 8657 1977
Rolling Bearings
59 IS 9193 1988 Specification for Bearing Pullers
60 Specification for Friction Rollers for Mine Haulage
IS 9203 : Part 4 1979 Tracks - Part IV : Rollers with Non-metallic Rope
Bearing Surfaces
61 Tolerances for radial rolling bearings with shields or
IS 9247 1979
62 Identification code for shell type needle bearings
IS 9619 1980
(including sealed bearings)
63 Plain bearings - Washers for plain bearings and
IS 9764 : Part 1 1992 wrapped bushes - Specification Part 1 Ring type thrust
64 Plain bearings - Washers for plain bearings and
IS 9764 : Part 2 1994 wrapped bushes -Specification Part 2 Half thrust
65 Technical supply conditions for thin walled plain
IS 10203 1982
66 Specification for Bearing Spools for Tractor-operated
IS 10225 1982
Disc Harrows

67 IS 10260 : Part Terms, definitions and classification of plain bearings

1 Part I Construction
68 IS 10260 : Part Terms, definitions and classification of plain bearings
2 Part II Friction and wear
69 IS 10260 : Part Terms, definitions and classification of plain bearings
3 Part III Lubrication
70 IS 10285 1982 Guide for tannin bearing plants
71 Method for determination of radial crushing strength of
IS 10385 1982
sintered metal powder bearings
72 IS 10647 1985 Specification for Wheel Bearing Grease
73 Code for identification of ring type needle bearings
IS 10648 1983
(including sealed bearings)
74 IS 11027 1984 Definitions of tolerances for rolling bearings
75 Plain Bearings -- Thin Walled Half-Bearings --
IS 11145 2002
Checking of Peripheral Length
76 General classification of lubricants, industrial oils and
IS 11159 : Part
1989 related products (Part 3) Family F (Spindle bearings,
bearings and associated clutches)
77 Rotary tube test for iron bearing materials for the
IS 11284 1985
manufacture of sponge iron/direct reduced iron(DRI )
78 Code of practice for the packaging of ball and roller
IS 11430 1985
79 Rolling bearings with locating Radial bearings snap
IS 11904 1999
ring - Dimensions and tolerances Specification
80 IS 12102 1987 Specification for Tapered Roller Bearings
81 Micrographic method for assessing the distribution of
IS 12211 1987 carbides in tool steel and bearing steels using
82 Implants for Surgery - Partial and Total Hip Joint
IS 12375 : Part
1993 Prostheses - Part 2 : Bearing Surfaces Made of
Metallic and Plastic Materials
83 Water Well Drilling and Blast Hole Drilling - Rock Roller
IS 12635 2000 Bit with Non-sealed Ball and Roller Bearing
Arrangement - Technical Supply Conditions
84 Hot Rolled Parallel Flange Steel Sections for Beams,
IS 12778 2004 Columns and Bearing Piles - Dimensions and Section
85 High carbon chromium (bearing) steel tubes for the
IS 12791 1989
manufacture of bearing races
86 Rolling Bearings - Cylindrical Roller Bearings,
IS 13405 1999 Separate Thrust Collars - Boundary Dimensions -
87 Radial ball bearings with flanged outer ring - Flange
IS 13406 1992
88 Trailers - Mounting of ball bearing turn table -
IS 13544 1992

89 IS 13637 : Part Technical Drawings - Rolling Bearings - Part 1 :

1 General Simplified Representation
90 IS 13637 : Part Technical Drawings - Rolling Bearings - Part 2 :
2 Detailed Simplified Representation
91 Rolling bearings - Metric tapered roller bearings -
IS 13962 1994
Designation system
92 Plain Bearings - Thick-walled dushes, Plain and Flange
IS 14478 1997 Type, Full Round (Without Any Joint or Slit) -
93 Rolling Bearings - Taper Rolling Bearings - Tapered
IS 14691 1999
Roller - Metric Series - Specification
94 IS 14802 : Part Plain Bearings - Hardness Testing of Bearing Metals -
1 Part 1 : Compound Materials
95 IS 14802 : Part Plain Bearings - Hardness Testing of Bearing Metals -
2 Part 2 : Solid Materials
96 IS 14803 : Part
2000 Plain Bearings - Part 1 : Fits
97 Plain Bearings - Part 2 : Tolerances on Form and
IS 14803 : Part
2000 Position and Surface Roughness for Shafts, Flanges
and Thrust Collars
98 Plain bearings - multilayer materials for thin-walled
IS 15620 2005
plain bearings
99 Thermoplastic polymers for plain bearings -
IS 15624 2005
classification and designation
100 Plain bearings - Lublication holes, grooves and pockets
IS 15625 2005 - Dimensions, types designation and their application
to bearing bushes

Annexure - c

Chemical Composition of Through-Hardening Bearing Steels Composition (%)

Grade C Mn Si Cr Mo

ASTMb-A295 (52100) min. 0.98 0.25 0.15 1.30

ISOc Grade 1, 683/XVII max. 1.10 0.45 0.35 1.60 0.10

ASTM-A295 (51100) min. 0.98 0.25 0.15 0.90

DINd 105 Cr4 max. 1.10 0.45 0.35 1.15 0.10

ASTM-A295 (50100) min. 0.98 0.25 0.15 0.40

DIN 105 Cr2 max. 1.10 0.45 0.35 0.60 0.10

ASTM-A295 (5195) min. 0.90 0.75 0.15 0.70

max. 1.03 1.00 0.35 0.90 0.10

ASTM-A295 (K19526) min. 0.89 0.50 0.15 0.40

max. 1.01 0.80 0.35 0.60 0.10

ASTM-A295 (1570) min. 0.65 0.80 0.15

max. 0.75 1.10 0.35 0.10

ASTM-A295 (1560) min. 0.56 0.75 0.15 0.70

max. 0.64 1.00 0.35 0.90 0.10

ASTM-A485 grade 1 min. 0.95 0.95 0.45 0.90

ISO Grade 2, 683/XVII max. 1.05 1.25 0.75 1.20 0.10

ASTM-A485 grade 2 min. 0.85 1.40 0.50 1.40

max. 1.00 1.70 0.80 1.80 0.10

ASTM-A485 grade 3 min. 0.95 0.65 0.15 1.10 0.20

max. 1.10 0.90 0.35 1.50 0.30

ASTM-A485 grade 4 min. 0.95 1.05 0.15 1.10 0.45

max. 1.10 1.35 0.35 1.50 0.60

DIN 100 CrMo6 min. 0.92 0.25 0.25 1.65 0.30

ISO Grade 4, 683/XVII max. 1.02 0.40 0.40 1.95 0.40